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1

Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

2011-12-01

2

Understanding Earth: Coal Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplementary material from Understanding Earth (4th ed.), this short animation guides viewers through the formation of coal and its pathway through different grades. The animation is annotated with labels.

W.H. Freeman & amp; Co. Publishing

3

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

4

Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more straightforward through common interfaces and standardization of time-stepping, model domains and model parameters. At the same time major steps forward require an interdisciplinary approach, wherein the source to sink system contains ecological feedbacks and human actors.

Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

2013-12-01

5

Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

1999-01-01

6

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)  

E-print Network

following rifting between Australia and New Zealand 85­100 Ma before present. We focus on this escarpmentEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1764 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE

Heimsath, Arjun M.

2009-01-01

7

Distributed processing for speech understanding  

SciTech Connect

Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

1983-01-01

8

Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

Soffen, Gerald

1990-01-01

9

Understanding Ionospheric Connections to Sun and Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's ionosphere is the dense plasma environment that dominates the boundary between our atmosphere and space. In contrast with long-standing understanding of the ionosphere as a phenomenon influenced by changes in solar radiation and solar wind, observations over the past decade have shown us that its large day-to-day variability likely originates with forcing from the lower atmosphere. This realization came with a combination of key observations utilizing pioneering measurement techniques, the emergence of sophisticated whole-atmosphere modeling approaches, and the development and application of innovative analysis techniques. The large and unexpected signatures in the ionosphere drove real ingenuity in the development of modeling and analysis techniques, in part for the lack of needed measurements of key aspects of Earth's space environment. Still, the causal links are incomplete and a significant effort is now being mounted to make these necessary measurements and build a more complete view of the coupled space-atmosphere system. Here we will review these efforts, including the upcoming NASA missions ICON and GOLD, and discuss recent results that offer further promise for future ground-breaking observations and discovery.

Immel, Thomas J.; Rowland, Doug; England, Scott; Talaat, Elsayed; Jones, Sarah

2015-04-01

10

Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

1989-01-01

11

Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

2013-04-01

12

Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

Genio, Anthony Del

2013-01-01

13

Progress in Understanding Fluvial Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two of the major research trends that are broadening the understanding of fluvial processes and changing the approach to investigations of stream behavior. These trends include research on rivers that do not flow in alluvial channels and detailed field studies on the mechanics of fluvial processes. (JN)

Prestegaard, Karen L.

1984-01-01

14

Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

1992-01-01

15

The Poles of Mars: A Key to Understanding Earth's  

E-print Network

on Mars ' because the planet is so cold. Mars is half again as far away from the sun as Earth, and becauseThe Poles of Mars: A Key to Understanding Earth's by Bruce C. Murray ANYTHING HAVING TO DO / MARCH 1987 gram together. I think that this purpose will likely be human travel to Mars in the next

Faraon, Andrei

16

Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see http://www.cs.clark.edu/mac/physlets/GlobalPollution/maintrace.htm for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

Mackay, R. M.

2002-12-01

17

Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

2012-01-01

18

AGU and Earth Science Women's Network sign memorandum of understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In furtherance of our strategic goal to be a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science, AGU signed a memorandum of understanding with the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) in spring 2012. Under the agreement, AGU will provide ESWN with an online platform through which to better connect its members. The agreement will allow AGU to further its strategic goal and help ESWN enhance cooperation and collaboration among women in Earth and space science. ESWN is a community of scientists dedicated to supporting collaborations and providing mentorship for its members, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. The new online platform should help ESWN to connect with more individuals and create a stronger network of dedicated women pursuing research in Earth and space science.

McEntee, Chris

2012-06-01

19

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 11081120 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1108­1120 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1801 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

20

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 15071521 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1507­1521 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1836 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

Heimsath, Arjun M.

21

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 12551269 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1255­1269 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1813 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

Johnson, Edward A.

22

Improved understanding of aerosol processes using satellite observations of aerosol optical properties   

E-print Network

Atmospheric aerosols are the largest remaining uncertainty in the Earth’s radiative budget and it is important that we improve our knowledge of aerosol processes if we are to understand current radiative forcing and ...

Bulgin, Claire Elizabeth

2010-01-01

23

Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation has precluded determination of sufficient theoretical development. Understanding the land-surface response and feedback to climate change requires a mechanistic understanding of the coupling of ecological and hydrological processes and an expansion of theory from the life sciences to appropriately contribute to the broader Earth system science goal.

Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

2012-12-01

24

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78101 (2010)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78­101 (2010) Copyright future research are identified: (1) co-evolution of landforms and biological communities; and (2) humans

Cardinale, Bradley J.

25

Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

Righter, Kevin

2007-01-01

26

Language processing for speech understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

Woods, W. A.

1983-07-01

27

Science data processing in the Mission to Planet Earth era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data-processing systems developed to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) are described in an overview of the system architectures. The MPE program is discussed in terms of flight segments and data types to examine the required elements of the information systems. The data-processing segments are described for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the Earth Observing System, and the Geostationary Earth Observatory. The data and information systems for the separate segments provide some redundant processing services. Distributed active archive centers are employed for each segment composed of three subelements: (1) a product-generation system, (2) a data archive and distribution system, and (3) an information management system. The data processing design for the MPE is expected to facilitate the understanding of the entire earth system on a global scale.

Goodman, H. M.

1992-01-01

28

Destinations Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are  

E-print Network

Destinations ­ Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences #12;#12;An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are to sustainably manage Earth's energy, water, mineral, soil, coastal and biological resources.The Earth and Ocean Sciences are also the key to predicting and managing natural hazards

Waikato, University of

29

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.

30

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-print Network

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

31

Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings  

SciTech Connect

The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

Robeck, Edward C. [American Geological Institute; Coulson, Doug [PS International

2010-01-05

32

Understanding near-Earth asteroids: Is it in the details?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important to our understanding of meteorites, impact probabilities for terrestrial planets, dynamics of the main belt, and asteroid surface processes. Crucial to these investigations is knowledge of the NEA size and albedo distributions and regolith properties; however, as we sample ever-smaller NEAs, we see an increasing variation in these physical properties. A notable diversity of shapes, surface features, and rotation states have been revealed by radar observations, whereas infrared observations have shown a range of spectral types and thermal characteristics. Although spacecraft missions will yield details for a few objects, and space-based surveys will result in important overviews, only ground-based observations can provide an overall understanding of the NEA population as a whole owing to the range of observing conditions (e.g., wavelength coverage, phase angle, heliocentric distance) they provide. Radiometry is commonly used to infer both size and thermal properties, but necessary assumptions about the regolith, which controls thermal and (often) radar reflectance properties, can be especially dangerous for small NEAs because surface properties change as a function of size and irregular shapes play an increasingly important role. Our investigation combines thermal measurements with radar delay-Doppler imaging to better understand the regolith properties of different types of NEAs through detailed thermophysical modeling. Over the past five years, we have measured the spectra of 53 NEAs at different phase angles and rotation phases to see how the inferred thermal properties depend on the detailed shape. The observations were carried out with SpeX at the NASA IRTF (0.8--4 microns) [1], which allows us to measure both the reflected and thermal contributions to the overall spectrum, thereby providing for a greater degree of self- consistency in the thermal modeling than infrared observations alone. The observed objects span a variety of spectral types: S-complex, C-complex, and X-complex, including two high-albedo (Tholen E-type) and two low-albedo (Tholen P-type) asteroids. Most of these objects were also observed with the Arecibo planetary radar. Although the quality of the radar data varies, for many of the objects we can determine the pole, spin state, and surface features from shape modeling without assuming a convex surface [e.g., 2,3]. These radar objects span a gamut of types, from nearly spherical to elongated or irregular shapes, single bodies to contact binaries to multiple-body systems, slow to fast rotators, and sizes from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. To study the properties of these NEAs, we have developed a thermophysical model, ''SHERMAN'', that uses the detailed shape to simulate multiple observations of an NEA at different viewing geometries, which we then compare to the actual infrared observations to infer the regolith properties. SHERMAN computes the local surface temperature for each facet on the asteroid at the time of observation, including self-shadowing, multiple scattering, and sub-scale roughness [modeled as small hemispherical craters following the methods of 4,5]. We will present an overview of our dataset as well as specific examples comparing our thermal modeling results to those from simple models such as NEATM [6] to illustrate some of the effects shape, observing geometry, and asteroid composition can have on the derived properties.

Vervack, R.; Howell, E.; Magri, C.; Fernández, Y.; Nolan, M.; Taylor, P.; Marshall, S.; Jones, J.; Rivkin, A.

2014-07-01

33

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)  

E-print Network

and western Alaska, and particularly on the Arctic North Slope of Alaska. We could not directly examine.2044 Remote sensing analysis of physical complexity of North Pacific Rim rivers to assist wild salmon) were measured. We processed 1509 catchments in the North Pacific Rim including the Kamchatka Peninsula

Montana, University of

34

Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon upconversion in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.  

PubMed

Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results. PMID:25286989

Liu, Guokui

2015-03-10

35

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 284293 (2010)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 284­293 (2010) Copyright the general evolution of intertidal landforms. In muddy coastlines, the morphology of tidal channels terrestrial and intertidal landforms. As a result, salt marshes and chenier plains are the shoreline main

Fagherazzi, Sergio

36

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 19701984 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1970­1984 (2009) Copyright of environmental and human factors on gully incision. The effect of flow accumulation, slope, unpaved roads density areas, there is relationship between the topographic threshold coefficients a (multiplier) and b

2009-01-01

37

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

2007-01-01

38

Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

2003-01-01

39

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

40

Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 11 UnderstandingGlobalClimateChange 2  

E-print Network

Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 11 #12;UnderstandingGlobalClimateChange 2 A Systems Approach to Look at Earth 1.1 AdifferentwayofunderstandingEarth Notes1.1.1 If we are going to look at Earth and the house would end up either being too hot or too cold. #12;Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 13 Notes1

Howat, Ian M.

41

Scientific objectives and derived system requirements of the European Space Agency's Earth Explorer Land-Surface Processes and Interactions Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Explorer Missions are research\\/demonstration missions for Earth Observation that are planned for implementation in the frame of the European Space Agency's 'Living Planet' Programme. The program focuses on advancing understanding of different processes that contribute to govern the Earth Systems. One of the four Earth Explorer Missions which was the subject of a Phase A study is the

Michael Rast; Michael Berger; Pierluigi Silvestrin; Umberto Del Bello

1999-01-01

42

Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

1992-01-01

43

Dual Cone Scanning earth sensor processing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dual Cone Scanner (DCS) a single-head earth horizon sensor which provides altitude and two-axis attitude information with minimal sun or moon error, will fly on the USAF Phillips Laboratory TAOS mission as part of an autonomous spacecraft navigation demonstration in 1993. These sensors also include an optional sun\\/moon visible light optical channel and employ a 1750 CPU-based signal processing

Todd J. Bednarek

1992-01-01

44

Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

Rickman, Doug

2010-01-01

45

EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the  

E-print Network

EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused this understanding to read the record of earth history written in rocks and sediments, and on developing models by humans. Opportunities for Students Sigma Gamma Epsilon: The Omega Chapter of the national honorary earth

Krylov, Anna I.

46

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-08

47

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

48

are exploring planet Earth is the part of earth science dealing with the physical processes and  

E-print Network

GeoKids are exploring planet Earth Geophysics is the part of earth science dealing of the children provides a good basis for effective learning. The reflection on selected themes of earth sciences with the physical processes and characteristics of the Earth and its environment. Volcanism, earthquakes

Brückl, Ewald

49

The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

Fladeland, Matthew M.

2009-01-01

50

Biological Modulation of Deep Earth Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth became habitable once CO2 could be subducted into the deep mantle. It is likely that the Earth's surface became clement or even frigid within a few million years after it cooled to habitable temperatures (less than 120°C). Early life obtained its energy from chemical disequilibrium produced by internal processes within the Earth and photolysis in the air and water. The global productivity was tiny and life did not leave a useful record. By the time of the first good geological record at 3.8 billion years, life had evolved anoxygenic (sulfide and ferrous iron) photosynthesis on both water and land. By then, the effects of life were so pervasive that it is not straightforward to infer the prebiotic environment; serpentine existed and catalysts including Ni3Fe and Pt-group minerals were present in trace amounts. On land by 3.8 billion years ago, life had bountiful energy to enhance chemical weathering to liberate Fe(II). Microbial crusts covered available landscape. Life modulates crustal tectonics by producing sandstones, shales, and carbonates that form fold mountains. Melted shales became granitic rocks with quartz. The process is a climatic buffer as it replaced (black daisy) fresh basalts with (white daisy) sand deserts and granites. The subducted produces of photosynthesis control the sulfur content and oxidation state of arc lavas. Even the mantle is strongly affected by photosynthesis. Biology determines the mantle abundances of N and C. Kimberlites (in the general sense) return CO2-rich subducted shallow oceanic crust and sediments to the surface. The chemistry of these rocks provides a record of surface conditions. It is likely that the mantle in general and kimberlites in particular sequester information on the earliest Earth that is no longer preserved in the crust.

Sleep, Norm

2011-01-01

51

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2010-01-01

52

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2011-01-01

53

How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification or falsification and conclusions that must be well grounded and argued. The intelligibility of theories is improved by the combination of these two types of understanding. This is also attested by the fact that both theoretical and embodied skills are considered essential for the training of university students at all levels. However, from surprised and confounded reactions of the public to natural disasters it appears that just showing scientific results is not enough to convey the scientific understanding to the public. By using the tools used by earth scientists to develop explanations and achieve understanding, laymen could achieve understanding as well without rigorous theoretical training. We are presently investigating in science musea whether engaging the public in scientific activities based on embodied skills leads to understanding of earth-scientific phenomena by laymen.

Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

2010-12-01

54

Exercise -> Interpret algebraic expression of Earth process  

E-print Network

calculations use a spreadsheet to graph results of analysis Use plots to understand processes plot dependent translate, rotate objects analyze trends in 3-D Identify characteristics of a generic wave use wavelength of error in calculations Perform unit conversions identify the logical system of units for a problem Use

West, Michael

55

Chemists Celebrate Earth Day: Resources on Understanding Weather:  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse page provides links to web-based resources about weather, in keeping with the American Chemical Society's celebration of Earth Day 2005. The links are arranged by topic (water in the air, air masses and fronts, severe weather, forecasting); each link is accompanied by a brief description of its content and a grade level ranking. There is also a link to a separate list of print resources on the same topics.

56

Future Earth: Advancing Civic Understanding of the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anthropocene, a term first coined in the 1980s by biologist Eugene Stoermer, is a word that encapsulates a powerful idea—that the world is now in the throes of a novel geological epoch, a period of time in which human activity, not natural cycles, dominates many of Earth's chemical, geological, and biological systems. The growing realization of our importance has caused a reanalysis, both scientifically and ethically, of our relationship with the natural world.

Schultz, Colin

2014-08-01

57

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 11261135 (2009)  

E-print Network

Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & SonsResearch ArticlesCopyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.2006 Geospatial analysis of controls glacier activity. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: geospatial analysis; subglacial

Briner, Jason P.

2009-01-01

58

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 10391059 (2009)  

E-print Network

Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons 2008 * Correspondence to: Carl J. Legleiter, USGS Geomorphology and Sediment Transport Laboratory, 4620 algorithm, called optimal band ratio analysis (OBRA), for identifying pairs of wavelengths for which

Lawrence, Rick L.

2009-01-01

59

Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in global circulation models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision-making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth system models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for upscaling from the local to global scale. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of teleconnections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global-scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.

Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.

2014-02-01

60

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We have found that the candidate submissions that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (3) A defacto standard already widely used; or a (4) Technical Note We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss a potential defacto standard (NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF)) that is currently being reviewed. This past year, the SPG has modified its Standards Process to provide a comprehensive but not redundant review of the submitted RFC. The end result of the process tailoring is that the reviews will be completed faster. At each RFC submission, the SPG will decide which reviews will be performed. These reviews are conducted simultaneously and can include these three types: (1) A Technical review to review the technical specification and associated implementations; (2) An Operational Readiness review to evaluate whether the proposed standard works in a NASA environment with NASA Earth science data with the volume of users; (3) Usefulness review to determine whether the candidate standard is useful or helpful or fits the purpose for the users. Some submissions, particularly the defacto standards or standards already approved by other standards organizations, will not need all three types of reviews. As an internal advisory group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

2008-12-01

61

Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

Ronney, Paul D.

1998-01-01

62

The history of Earth climate In order to understand the history of the  

E-print Network

The history of Earth climate In order to understand the history of the Earth's climate, we must physicist Lord Rutherford described the structure of the atom and suggested radioactive decay for measuring of a radioactive element at the current time to determine the age. After a time t has elapsed, N atoms

McCready, Mark J.

63

ERIPS: Earth Resource Interactive Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ERIPS is an interactive computer system used in the analysis of remotely sensed data. It consists of a set of software programs which are executed on an IBM System/360 Model 75J computer under the direction of a trained analyst. The software was a derivative of the Purdue LARSYS program and has evolved to include an extensive pattern recognition system and a number of manipulative, preprocessing routines which prepare the imagery for the pattern recognition application. The original purpose of the system was to analyze remotely sensed data, to develop and perfect techniques to process the data, and to determine the feasibility of applying the data to significant earth resources problems. The System developed into a production system. Error recovery and multi-jobbing capabilities were added to the system.

Quinn, M. J.

1975-01-01

64

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

Not Available

1994-02-01

65

Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

Ozsoy, Sibel

2012-01-01

66

Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

Thesenga, David; Town, James

2014-05-01

67

Understanding Interior Dynamics in Earth and Terrestrial Planets: The Essential role of Analytical and Computational Mathematics (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread acceptance that slow convection of the solid, rocky mantle drives continental drift caused a revolution in our understanding of solid Earth and planetary dynamics. Mathematical approaches, both analytical and computational, have been essential for research progress in this area, and have facilititated the understanding of many aspects of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Even so, some fundamental questions - particularly "why does Earth have plate tectonics?" - still remain. This understanding gap is troubling, particularly given the current interest in applying our knowledge of solar system planets such as Earth, Venus and Mars to newly-discovered terrestrial planets around other stars, including so-called super-Earths. A major reason for this understanding gap is the complexity of rock rheology: viscous, elastic, brittle, plastic, nonlinear, grainsize- history- and composition-dependent - which makes the appropriate mathematical description uncertain, as well as implying the impossibility of a full numerical solution of the resulting multi-timescale (seconds to billions of years), multi-lengthscale (mm to 1000s km) processes. This presentation reviews the historical development of the field, the current state of the art, and possible ways forward.

Tackley, P. J.

2013-12-01

68

Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-06-01

69

What similar physical processes occur on both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Module investigation compares and contrasts physical processes that occur on Both Earth and Mars. Students are given unidentified images of Earth and Mars. Their task is to arrange the images into pairs that show evidence of similar physical processes. Then they identify each image as one of Earth or of Mars by comparing and contrasting physical features that they observe in the image pairs. It includes teacher background materials and an answer key where appropriate.

2002-05-26

70

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Using Satellite Images to Understand Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images. TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Use ImageJ to create an animation showing the change in monthly concentration of aerosols over the course of a year and compare it to a similar animation showing change in carbon monoxide concentration. Then use NEO ICE to create histograms and scatter plots, investigating the relationship between aerosol concentration and carbon monoxide concentration.

71

North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

Turner, G. M.

2010-12-01

72

Timing And Processes Of Earth's Core Differentiation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small 182W abundance excess of terrestrial W relative to W in bulk chondrites has been recently established (Yin et al. 2002, Kleine et al. 2002, Schoenberg et al. 2002). Rapid terrestrial accretion and early core formation, with completion of the bulk metal-silicate separation within less than 30 Myr have been proposed on this basis. These studies underline how much this 182W/182Hf time scale agrees with dynamic accretion models (Wetherill, 1986) that predict a ˜10 Myr interval for the main growth stage of Earth's formation. This W model time scale for terrestrial accretion is shorter than current estimates based on Pb isotope systematics of mantle-derived basalts and terrestrial Xe isotope systematics. The end of metal-silicate differentiation and large scale mantle degassing has been defined ˜100 My after beginning of the accretion. These studies also indicate agreement of this time scale with dynamic accretion models that predict 100 My for the end of Earth's accretion. The Hf-W time scale for accretion and core formation assumes total equilibration of incoming metal and silicate of impactors with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) during planet's growth. Recently, the assumption of incomplete equilibration of metal and silicate components with BSE has been investigated (Halliday, 2004). It is proposed that impacting core material has not always efficiently mixed with the silicate portions of the Earth before being added to the Earth's core Our approach also considers that equilibration between metal and silicate has not been complete in BSE during Earth's growth, and we argue that early part of the Earth's core has segregated through unmelted silicate material. When the baby Earth was large enough, the increase of the temperature induced Fe-FeS eutectic melting. The liquid metal segregated through the crystalline silicate matrix and formed the early part of the Earth's core. Experimental study (Yoshino et al. 2003) indicates the percolation threshold for molten iron-sulphur compounds of 5 vol% solid olivine, through channel on triple junction between minerals. This study allows us to reconsider the precedent proposition (Stevenson, 1990) based on experimental and theoretical considerations suggesting that percolation of metallic iron rich liquid through a mostly solid silicate matrix is largely prevented because of the high surface tension of iron. During formation and segregation of the Fe-FeS eutectic, W isotopic equilibration is limited by the diffusion through the solid silicate matrix. During the further Earth's growth, impact melting increased and has induced a progressive melting of BSE up to the formation of magma ocean at the end of the planet's accretion. Before the occurrence of the magma ocean, W equilibration between impactors and BSE has not been complete This incomplete isotopic exchange between terrestrial metal and metal originating from impactors with solid part of BSE during early accretion of the Earth leads to the observed excess of 182W of present BSE. It occurs when the 182W production in BSE is most significant, due to the short half-life of 182Hf. The change of segregation mechanisms of Earth's core during planet's growth and short-sightedness of Hf-W chronometer focused to the early segregation of Earth's core make the divergence with the U-Pb and I-Xe terrestrial records. Yin et al. 2002, Nature 418, 949-952. Kleine et al. 2002, Nature 418, 952-955. Schoenberg et al. 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3151-3160. Wetherill 1986, in Origin of the Moon, eds Hartmann et al., LPI, 519-550. Yoshino et al. 2003, Nature 422, 154-157. Stevenson 1990, in Origin of the Earth, eds Newson et al., LPI, 231-249.

Allegre, C. J.; Manhes, G.; Gopel, C.

2004-12-01

73

Understanding the Military Medical Evaluation Process  

MedlinePLUS

... Military Child. Alcohol and Its Effects Military Extension Internship Program Understanding Commissaries and Exchanges Grief Counseling Options ... on this month's focus Featured Podcast Military Extension Internship Listen Transcript Social Media Hub dropdown menu The ...

74

Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalogen losses in the melting step.

Gschneidner, K. A.

1998-10-01

75

Understanding Consulting as an Adult Education Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets the process of consulting as an adult education process. Identifies four core adult education activities: encouraging self-directedness; honoring and analyzing experience; engaging in critical conversation; fostering critical reflection. (Author)

Brookfield, Stephen D.

1993-01-01

76

Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly better performance than the local machine. Much of the difference was due to newer equipment in the Nebula than the legacy computer, which is suggestive of a potential economic advantage beyond elastic power, i.e., access to up-to-date hardware vs. legacy hardware that must be maintained past its prime to amortize the cost. In addition to a trade study of advantages and challenges of porting complex processing to the cloud, a tutorial was developed to enable further progress in utilizing the Nebula for Earth Science applications and understanding better the potential for Cloud Computing in further data- and computing-intensive Earth Science research. In particular, highly bursty computing such as that experienced in the user-demand-driven Giovanni system may become more tractable in a Cloud environment. Our future work will continue to focus on migrating more GES DISC's applications/instances, e.g. Giovanni instances, to the Nebula platform and making matured migrated applications to be in operation on the Nebula.

Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

2011-12-01

77

Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

2007-01-01

78

Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative

Azalie Cecile Pulling

2001-01-01

79

ICESat Contributions to Understanding Coastal Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) has been obtaining global elevation measurements of the Earth since 2003. These data have shed new light in unprecedented detail over ice, land and ocean surfaces. In particular, coastal altimetry including transitions from land to water and back benefit from ICESat's small footprint (~70 m diameter), high resolution (40 Hz and 170 m spot separation), and high precision (3 cm over non-vegetated surfaces). ICESat data support a wide variety of interdisciplinary investigations incorporating other data such as GRACE, GPS, SRTM, InSAR, Landsat, radar altimetry (TOPEX/Jason/Envisat), airborne LIDAR, and tide gauges. This paper provides an introduction to the potential capabilities of using ICESat coastal data in cooperative efforts. Several examples of coastal topography and change detection are shown, including the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast and the Mississippi Delta.

Urban, T. J.; Schutz, B. E.; Neuenschwander, A. L.

2006-12-01

80

Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle  

E-print Network

al. 1995). The mantle is characterized by major seismic velocity discontinuities at 410 and 660 kmSome recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle BY THOMAS S. DUFFY mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only

Duffy, Thomas S.

81

Author's personal copy Tungsten geochemistry and implications for understanding the Earth's interior  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Tungsten geochemistry and implications for understanding the Earth Keywords: tungsten uranium basalt core mantle concentration ratio The concentration of tungsten (W of tungsten (W) was sequestered into the core (Jagoutz et al., 1979; Sun, 1982; Newsom and Palme, 1984

Mcdonough, William F.

82

Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2009-01-01

83

Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-01-01

84

Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

2006-01-01

85

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

2009-01-01

86

From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record  

E-print Network

From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record and on rigorous observation and modeling of Earth's present state, our activities cut across traditional disciplines

Anderson, Richard

87

Understanding the Foreign Language Teacher Education Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help foreign language department chairs, this article discusses the dynamic environment of elementary and secondary foreign language teaching, the departments' role in developing successful foreign language teachers, and the teacher licensure process. (Contains 29 references.) (LB)

Schrier, Leslie L.

1994-01-01

88

The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. It will increase understanding of crustal movement and strain and provide insights into the causes and mechanisms of geodetic activity associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. PBO equipment includes global positioning systems; seismometers; and borehole strainmeters, which detect compression and extension of the earth's crust with a sensitivity of up to a millimeter per thousand kilometer. The deployment of a PBO strainmeters will lead to greater understanding of crustal and volcanic deformation processes at frequencies not normally recorded by the seismic or geodetic instruments. Deploying a PBO strainmeter is a four-step process: The first step is finding a suitable site for the installations of the borehole strainmeter at depths of between 500 and 800 feet below the surface. The process involves understanding the geology of a target area and once a potential site is identified a field visit is required to determine the presence of suitable access and infrastructure. The final and most difficult part of the first step is obtaining a permit from a landowner, which can take several visits and/or phone calls to work through the paperwork. Drilling the borehole is the second step. A standard water well drilling rig is normally used and the drilling process can take between 7-20 days depending on the geology and weather. The drillers must follow strict requirements for the borehole such as hole diameter, angular deviation from vertical, depth, and type of drill bits used. Variables while drilling include lithology changes, competency of rock, and amount of water being produced. The third step is identifying an optimal zone to install the instruments in the borehole. A zone of hard unfractured borehole, about 10 to 15 feet in length, with minimal water production is required for the placement of the strainmeter. Drilling and geophysical logs and a borehole camera are the primary tools used to identify the installation zone. The minimum geophysical logging tools used are full waveform sonic, acoustic televiewer, calipers, and an various electrical tool. The final step is the installation of the equipment. This takes 7-10 days depending on weather, infrastructure and borehole conditions. During the installation a Gladwin tensor strainmeter, a 3 component borehole geophone seismometer, and pore pressure sensors are installed at a minimum and at some locations GPS monuments are installed. Power and communications equipment are also installed at each site as well as an enclosure to house the equipment. If A/C power is nearby, we run power to the, but we have also used solar and Thermal Electric Generators to power equipment. At volcanic sites, tilt meters will be installed.. Post installation, data are transmitted via satellite to UNAVCO where it is processed and forward on to the NCEDC and IRIS DMC for archiving. The data are made publicly available once a station comes online and the data are in the archive. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO strainmeter network.

Johnson, W. C.; Venator, S.; Dittmann, T.; Stair, J.; Tiedeman, A.; Gottlieb, M.; Stroeve, A.; Hasting, M.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.

2006-12-01

89

Understanding the Process of Medical Referral  

PubMed Central

In this, the concluding article of a six-part series on a longitudinal study of 50 referrals from family physicians in Ontario and Manitoba, the end of the referral process and responsibility for it are examined. Referral seemed to function as a process that, sometimes inappropriately, restored faith or held out hope that medical solutions could be found for difficult, chronic problems. Outcomes were linked to patient agendas and expectations.

Muzzin, Linda J.

1992-01-01

90

Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth's interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature

G. B. Glesener; J. M. Aurnou

2010-01-01

91

Super Star Meets the Plucky Planet... Or, how Earth and Sun come to mutual understanding and respect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an animated and narrated storybook about the Sun and its effects on Earth. Learners will read or hear about characteristics of the Sun and Earth that influence their interaction. Topics touched upon include star sizes, star life cycle, stellar core nuclear processes, plasma, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar wind, electromagnetic spectrum, Earth’s magnetosphere, and electromagnetic energy.

92

Manned Earth Observatory - Possible contributions towards enhanced understanding of the marine environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Manned Earth Observatory (MEO) study being conducted by TRW under the management of NASA/MSFC will establish the conceptual design of and the mission requirements for an Earth Observation Laboratory that will be flown on Shuttle missions beginning in 1980. MEO offers a variety of unique inroads to improving our understanding of the marine environment. The Shuttle-MEO is a valuable addition to a multi-level multi-disciplinary remote sensing program. The unique attributes of MEO are its experimental flexibility due to man-instrument interaction, its complimentary orbit (intermediate between nonorbital and high-orbital platforms), its high weight and volume capacity, and short duration missions.

Gerding, R. B.; Johnson, G. F.; Weidner, D. K.

1973-01-01

93

From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

1987-01-01

94

Writing for PublicationUnderstanding the Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of the editors of the Journal of Holistic Nursing was to enhance the link between the professional literature and holistic nursing practice. To accomplish this goal, strategies were developed\\/refined that would increase the journal's acceptance into the clinical\\/academic marketplace. The purpose of this article is to produce a concise document that describes the publication process. The following

Henry M. Plawecki; Judith A. Plawecki

1998-01-01

95

Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that

J. A. Baross; J. R. Delaney

2001-01-01

96

The Rare Earth Peak : An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic  

E-print Network

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high entropy r-process (S>100k_B) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

M. Mumpower; G. McLaughlin; R. Surman

2012-02-08

97

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09

98

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1992-01-01

99

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1994-01-01

100

Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

101

Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

Black, Alice A. (Jill)

102

Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and research results to facilitate teaching about the deep earth across the geoscience curriculum. Another goal of the workshop was to experiment with, and evaluate the effectiveness of, the virtual format. Although there are advantages to face-to-face workshops, the virtual format was remarkably effective. The interactive discussions during synchronous presentations were vibrant, and the virtual format allowed participants to introduce references, images and ideas in real-time. The virtual nature of the workshop allowed participation by those who are not able to attend a traditional workshop, with an added benefit that participants had direct access to all their research and teaching materials to share with the workshop. Some participants broadcast the workshop ‘live’ to their classes and many brought discussions directly from the presentation to the classroom. The workshop webpage includes the workshop program with links to recordings of all presentations, discussion summaries, a collection of recommended resources about deep Earth research, and collections of peer-reviewed instructional activities. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/deepearth/index.html

Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

2010-12-01

103

Understanding Gaussian Process Regression Using the Equivalent Kernel  

E-print Network

Silverman [1] called the idealized weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structureUnderstanding Gaussian Process Regression Using the Equivalent Kernel Peter Sollich1.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract. The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian process regression works

Sollich, Peter

104

Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

2005-01-01

105

Understanding what the public know and value about geoheritage sites in order to advance Earth science literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its impressive geology and rich cultural history, Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is ideally suited for Earth science education and geotourism initiatives, such as a Geopark. Geologic events that have shaped this region can be interpreted in such a way as to engage learners, not only through an intellectual connection to Earth science subject matter, but also through an emotional connection via culture, history, and sense of place. The notion that landscape is special because it is the sum total of all the interacting earth systems, including people as part of the biosphere, can be used to drive these initiatives as they affect one personally. It is speculated that most people in the Keweenaw have a basic understanding of the local cultural history and some understanding of geology. Advanced awareness and understanding of the geological significance of the Keweenaw stands to greatly enrich our community's sense of place and desire to advance further education and geotourism initiatives. It is anticipated that these initiatives will ultimately lead to increased Earth science literacy and understanding and recognition of one's own environs. This will aid in the further development of publications, teaching media, trails info, on-site museums, etc. Although the community has embraced geo-outreach thus far, it is germane to know what people value, what they know of the geology and how they connect to place. Results from semi-structured interviews administered with the aim and focus of determining what places are special to people, why they are special and how they formed will be presented in this paper. The results from this research will be used to direct the creation and continued development of geologic interpretation of our region. It is hoped that this understanding will reveal common misconceptions that can be used to improve interpretive material that not only addresses misconceptions but also connects the immediate past with the deep geologic past of the Keweenaw. Perhaps the most important outcome hoped for this study is that we as Earth scientists will be afforded an opportunity to uphold our responsibility of communicating the fascinating things we have come to learn about our planet's dynamic processes in a dialect that resonates with everyone.

Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.

2013-12-01

106

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

107

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Erin Bardar

108

Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwel

Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

2008-09-01

109

Recent advances in improvement of forecast skill and understanding climate processes using AIRS Version-5 products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) generates products derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations, starting from September 2002 when the AIRS instrument became stable, using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. This paper shows results of some of our research using Version-5 products from the points of view of improving forecast skill as well as aiding in the understanding of climate processes.

Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

2012-10-01

110

Internal wave coupling processes in Earth's atmosphere  

E-print Network

This paper presents a contemporary review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere and ionosphere system induced by internal waves of lower atmospheric origin. Atmospheric waves are primarily generated by meteorological processes, possess a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and can propagate to the upper atmosphere. A brief summary of internal wave theory is given, focusing on gravity waves, solar tides, planetary Rossby and Kelvin waves. Observations of wave signatures in the upper atmosphere, their relationship with the direct propagation of waves into the upper atmosphere, dynamical and thermal impacts as well as concepts, approaches, and numerical modeling techniques are outlined. Recent progress in studies of sudden stratospheric warming and upper atmospheric variability are discussed in the context of wave-induced vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere.

Yi?it, Erdal

2014-01-01

111

Internal wave coupling processes in Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a contemporary review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere and ionosphere system induced by internal waves of lower atmospheric origin. Atmospheric waves are primarily generated by meteorological processes, possess a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and can propagate to the upper atmosphere. A brief summary of internal wave theory is given, focusing on gravity waves, solar tides, planetary Rossby and Kelvin waves. Observations of wave signatures in the upper atmosphere, their relationship with the direct propagation of waves into the upper atmosphere, dynamical and thermal impacts as well as concepts, approaches, and numerical modeling techniques are outlined. Recent progress in studies of sudden stratospheric warming and upper atmospheric variability are discussed in the context of wave-induced vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere.

Yi?it, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.

2015-02-01

112

Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

O'Mara, Joanne

2002-01-01

113

Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dancing glow of the aurorae, the long tendrils of light that seem to reach up into space, has mesmerized scientists for centuries. More than a beautiful display, the aurorae tell us about the Earth—about its atmosphere, its magnetic field, and its relationship with the Sun. As technology developed, researchers looking beyond Earth's borders discovered an array of auroral processes on planets throughout the solar system. In the AGU monograph Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets, editors Andreas Keiling, Eric Donovan, Fran Bagenal, and Tomas Karlsson explore the many open questions that permeate the science of auroral physics and the relatively recent field of extraterrestrial aurorae. In this interview, Eos talks to Karlsson about extraterrestrial aurorae, Alfvén waves, and the sounds of the northern lights.

Schultz, Colin

2013-07-01

114

Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression  

E-print Network

] called the idealized weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structure of the remainderUsing the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro- cess regression works

Sollich, Peter

115

Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression  

E-print Network

weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structure of the remainder of the paper is as followsUsing the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro­ cess regression works

Sollich, Peter

116

Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

2007-01-01

117

Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study...

Henry, Linda Mary

2011-05-31

118

INTRODUCTION Understanding the aging process is central to preventing  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Understanding the aging process is central to preventing age-related disease burden and premature mortality. Many different measures have been suggested as having prognostic value for mortality. Cellular aging may offer insights into organismic aging relevant

Derisi, Joseph

119

Terrestrial manganese-53 --A new monitor of Earth surface processes  

E-print Network

Terrestrial manganese-53 -- A new monitor of Earth surface processes Joerg M. Schaefer a,, Thomas of the terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide manganese-53 (T1/2 =3.7 Ma) measured in thirteen samples from nine dolerite surfaces in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The terrestrial manganese-53 concentrations correlate

Winckler, Gisela

120

Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and

Ralph Bernstein

1976-01-01

121

Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication  

E-print Network

research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

McNeal, Karen Sue

2009-05-15

122

Resources and Strategies for Building Understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun System in Students of all Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses a variety of resources and strategies used in UT Dallas education and outreach programs to help learners build understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun system including topics of scale, lunar phases, and seasons.

Urquhart, M. L.

2011-03-01

123

Understanding Arctic Ocean Processes Under Changing Ice Cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Arctic sea ice declines, heat transport into and through the upper ocean plays an increasing role in the highly coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean system. The processes by which the ocean affects sea ice are, however, poorly understood. Understanding processes controlling delivery, storage, and release of heat by the Arctic Ocean is an urgent task.

Polyakov, Igor; Padman, Laurence; Hutchings, Jennifer

2014-09-01

124

Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

Ott, C. Mark

2014-01-01

125

Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing  

SciTech Connect

The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S. [Vanderbilt University: 2301 Vanderbilt Place/PMB 351831, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

2013-07-01

126

Using relaxation spectra to understand molecular processes in ring polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rheological characterization of polymeric systems can be used to investigate molecular processes. Some processes, such as entanglement and reptation, cannot be easily seen in the complex modulus or other conventional representations of rheological data. Instead, presenting data as relaxation spectra enhances the understanding of such processes. This will be shown on the example of ring and linear polystyrene polymers and ring/linear-blends, recently published by Kapnistos et al. (Nature Materials, 2008).

Stadler, Florian J.

2012-09-01

127

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

128

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

1995-01-01

129

The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2010-01-01

130

Bioimage informatics for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular processes.  

PubMed

The inner environment of the cell is highly dynamic and heterogeneous yet exquisitely organized. Successful completion of cellular processes within this environment depends on the right molecules or molecular complexes to function at the right place at the right time. Understanding spatiotemporal behaviors of cellular processes is therefore essential to understanding their molecular mechanisms at the systems level. These behaviors are usually visualized and recorded using imaging techniques. However, to infer from them systems-level molecular mechanisms, computational analysis and understanding of recorded image data is crucial, not only for acquiring quantitative behavior measurements but also for comprehending complex interactions among the molecules or molecular complexes involved. The technology of computational analysis and understanding of biological images is often referred to simply as bioimage informatics. This article introduces fundamentals of bioimage informatics for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular processes and reviews recent advances on this topic. Basic bioimage informatics concepts and techniques for characterizing spatiotemporal cell dynamics are introduced first. Studies on specific cellular processes such as cell migration and signal transduction are then used as examples to analyze and summarize recent advances, with the focus on transforming quantitative measurements of spatiotemporal cellular behaviors into knowledge of underlying molecular mechanisms. Despite the advances made, substantial technological challenges remain, especially in representation of spatiotemporal cellular behaviors and inference of systems-level molecular mechanisms. These challenges are briefly discussed. Overall, understanding spatiotemporal cell dynamics will provide critical insights into how specific cellular processes as well as the entire inner cellular environment are dynamically organized and regulated. PMID:23408597

Yang, Ge

2013-01-01

131

Editorial 917 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 917921 (2005)  

E-print Network

Editorial 917 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 917­921 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 917­921 (2005) Published Processes and Landforms we highlight new applications of geochemical, field and modelling methods applied

Heimsath, Arjun M.

132

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291304 (2009)  

E-print Network

by advective overbank transport and deposition of sediment is operating. The results improve understanding to and sedimentation within a specific class of floodplain. The effects of floods in the Sacramento River basin were investigated by analyzing hydrograph characteristics, estimating event-based sediment discharges and reach

California at Santa Barbara, University of

2009-01-01

133

Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.  

PubMed

This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research. PMID:19100995

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-09-01

134

Understanding control flow transfer and its predictability in java processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth look and understanding of control flow transfer and its predictability can guide architects to adapt control flow prediction hardware in Java processing or finely tune the performance of JVM software on general purpose machines. To our knowledge, this paper provides the first insight of branch behavior on a standard Java Virtual Machine with real workloads. Employing a complete

Tao Li; Lizy Kurian John

2001-01-01

135

Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study explored a segment of this growing population to give researchers and practitioners a deeper…

Henry, Linda M.

2012-01-01

136

Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions  

E-print Network

in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express to automatically infer social signals from nonverbal behavioral cues detected through sensors? · Is it possiblSocial Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

137

Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn  

E-print Network

Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn Overview The hydraulic and connecting channel hydraulics models for use in Great Lakes water resource studies. 2000 Plans Niagara River Hydraulic Studies: Detailed analysis of the impact of hydraulic regime changes in the Niagara River

138

UNDERSTANDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY PROCESS The Policy Cycle  

E-print Network

jurisdiction over environmental policy In the Senate 70 comm's and subcomm's have jurisdiction over water leg solution to climate change #12;REPEAT AT THE STATE AND LOCAL LEVELS #12;Rulings "TheUNDERSTANDING THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY PROCESS week 3 #12;The Policy Cycle Agenda Formulation

Callender, Craig

139

Dynamic Noise and its Role in Understanding Epidemiological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of dynamic noise in understanding epidemiological systems, such as influenza or dengue fever by deriving stochastic ordinary differential equations from markov processes for discrete populations. This approach allows for an easy analysis of dynamical noise transitions between co-existing attractors.

Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maíra

2010-09-01

140

Understanding Soil Acidification Process Using Animation and Text: An Empirical  

E-print Network

Understanding Soil Acidification Process Using Animation and Text: An Empirical User Evaluation of presenting information: animation and text. The stimuli contain equivalent information, but use fundamentally the animation or the text in an ``open book'' setting. The tested media have been assessed through the classical

�öltekin, Arzu

141

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 1197­1205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION of permeability estimates is illustrated. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth surf. process. landforms, 22, 1197

Chappell, Nick A

142

Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

1975-01-01

143

What SImilar Physical Processes Occur on Both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Similar features exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars. This investigation includes satellite images of five Earth features and five Martian features, none of which are labeled. Students must compare and contrast those images to produce five matching pairs, list the similarities and differences, and speculate about the processes that formed each feature. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is Investigation 3 of four found in the Grades 5-8 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

2013-02-13

144

Prospects for understanding the astrophysical r-process  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses several recent advances toward a deeper understanding of the still unknown astrophysical site for rapid (r-process) neutron capture nucleosynthesis. The physical constraints on the r-process from the input nuclear data are highlighted and the particular importance of the recent measurements of beta-decay lifetimes along the r-process path is discussed. Astronomical observations of s- and r-process elemental abundances on metal poor halo stars are also discussed, in the context of models for the galactic chemical evolution of heavy-element abundances, as a constraint on the nature of the r-process. On the basis of these constraints it is suggested that the most likely source for the r-process may be from the ejection of core material from low-mass type II supernovae. 27 refs., 1 fig.

Mathews, G.J.; Cowan, J.J.

1988-07-01

145

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 27, 667672 (2002)  

E-print Network

creates a geographical bias in study site selection, which may in turn bias geomorphic theory. Water-based research (fluvial processes and landforms, riparian, drainage basin) dominates well-cited papers

Dorn, Ron

146

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

147

Understanding the earth systems of Malawi: Ecological sustainability, culture, and place-based education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of nature-knowledge-culture systems from local, place-based perspectives. Specifically, we were interested in learning more about eco-justice issues that are related to environmental degradation in Malawi and the potential role of inquiry-oriented pedagogies in addressing these issues. In a science methods course, the African educators' views on deforestation and teaching about ecological sustainability were explored within the context of the local environment and culture. Teachers participated in inquiry pedagogies designed to promote the sharing of perspectives related to the connections between culture and ecological degradation. Strategies encouraging dialogue and reflection included role-playing, class discussions, curriculum development activities, teaching experiences with children, and field trips to a nature preserve. Data were analyzed from postcolonial and critical pedagogy of place theoretical perspectives to better understand the hybridization of viewpoints influenced by both Western and indigenous science and the political hegemonies that impact sustainable living in Malawi. Findings suggested that the colonial legacy of Malawi continues to impact the ecological sustainability issue of deforestation. Inquiry-oriented pedagogies and connections to indigenous science were embraced by the Malawian educators as a means to involve children in investigation, decision making, and ownership of critical environmental issues.

Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

2006-07-01

148

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

Saltzman, Barry

1993-01-01

149

Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components in the form of PAS instruments of processes of geophysical and man-triggered nature; to predict the presence of the features of geophysical nature in the electromagnetic field of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to study dynamics the analyzed signals coming from the geophysical and man-triggered sources in the electrical and magnetic fields of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to expose changes of the investigated time series in the periods preceding the appearance of the predicted phenomena; to form clusters of the time series being the features of the predicted events. On the base of the exposed clusters of the time series there have been built the predicting rules allowing to coordinate the probability of appearing the groups of the occurred events. The work is carried out with supporting of Program FPP #14.B37.210668, FPP #5.2071.2011, RFBR #11-05-97518.

Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay

2013-04-01

150

Understanding How Astronauts Adapt to Space and to Earth: Anatomical Studies of Central Vestibular Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant changes take place in the nervous systems of astronauts during and following exposure to microgravity. These changes, particularly in the part of the brain that controls balance, the vestibular system, can cause sensations of rotation, dizziness, and vertigo, as well as space adaptation syndrome. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several days is often required upon return to Earth. In order to realize long-term spaceflight, effective countermeasures for these symptoms must be developed. The structural changes that take place in one of the vestibular regions of the brain (the cerebellar cortex) during the process of adaptation to Earth's gravity remain unclear and are the subject of an experiment being conducted on STS-107 by Dr. Gay Holstein of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Using the rat as a model, Dr. Holstein and her team will seek to identify the cellular changes underlying the vestibular changes experienced by astronauts.

Holstein, Gay; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

151

Stacking of blocks by chimpanzees: developmental processes and physical understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stacking-block task has been used to assess cognitive development in both humans and chimpanzees. The present study reports\\u000a three aspects of stacking behavior in chimpanzees: spontaneous development, acquisition process following training, and physical\\u000a understanding assessed through a cylindrical-block task. Over 3 years of longitudinal observation of block manipulation, one\\u000a of three infant chimpanzees spontaneously started to stack up cubic

Misato Hayashi

2007-01-01

152

To advance understanding of the Earth system, describe the consequences of  

E-print Network

)...............................................................8 Ultra High-Resolution Global Modeling Simulation.....................................................27 Scaling the Earth System Grid to the Petascale Data

153

NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, the netCDF Classic Model, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format). The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. As an internal working group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

2009-05-01

154

Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ?1 min.

Gladysheva, O. G.

2013-09-01

155

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

1991-01-01

156

Improving our understanding of clouds in the Earth's climate using polarimetry (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and ice clouds play a fundamental role in the radiative balance (and therefore climate) of the Earth, so understanding their distribution and optical properties is crucial. Recently, new data products from the ground-based NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been created. These products expand the scope of AERONET to provide data about clouds in addition to atmospheric aerosols for which the network was originally designed. The main AERONET cloud data product is the Cloud Optical Depth (COD), which describes the amount of light extinction due to clouds in a vertical atmospheric column. AERONET measurements of COD must rely, however, on assumptions about the cloud thermodynamic phase. If the thermodynamic phase can be identified, AERONET COD errors can be significantly reduced. AERONET sun photometers determine aerosol and cloud optical properties by observing both the direct solar beam and sky scattered radiation at a variety of wavelengths. Newer instruments are also sensitive to light polarization, which we show can be used to determine cloud thermodynamic phase and therefore improve AERONET cloud data products. This work has two components. First, we performed atmospheric radiative transfer simulations to verify that polarization does contain information about cloud phase, and how to best exploit this in an algorithm. Observations were then compared to theoretical simulations. The second component of this research is to build our own polarization sensitive radiometer that is optimized for cloud observations. Initial results from both of these efforts will be presented.

Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Dunagan, S.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

157

Developing improved MD codes for understanding processive cellulases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose.

Crowley, M. F.; Uberbacher, E. C.; Brooks, C. L., Iii; Walker, R. C.; Nimlos, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.

2008-07-01

158

Probing Earth's Middle Atmosphere: Non­lte Processes And Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, A Preliminary Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of chemical and physical phenomena in the Earth's troposphere, strato- sphere and mesosphere is important to understand the coupling between these regions of the atmosphere. Information on the thermal structure, non-LTE processes, pres- sures, trace species abundances, and local dynamics is contained in emitted and ab- sorbed line spectra of molecular constituents in these atmospheric regions. Access to this information is optimized by spectroscopic resolution sufficient to resolve the molecular line shapes. We will describe a direct approach for such a study using true shapes of measured lines from mid-atmospheric constituents. We will present model calculations of the Earth's limb monochromatic radiances in the 9­12 µm spectral re- gion within spectral lines of a number of atmospheric trace gases (CO2, O3, N2O, OH, and others). The calculations account for non­LTE effects and simulate both emission and solar/lunar occultation observations from Earth orbit. These results will be com- pared to measurements expected from infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, which pro- vides the necessary spectral resolution (/ 106) to measure the line shapes and their accurate frequencies. The required instrumental parameters and the sensitivity for various observing geometries will be determined for retrieval of information on species abundance, kinetic temperature, non-LTE effects, and local winds. The feasi- bility and specific scientific return of such an investigation from Earth orbit will be discussed, in the context of many similar previous investigations of other planetary atmospheres in our solar system.

Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Gusev, O. A.; Kostiuk, Th.; Maguire, W.; Livengood, T. A.

159

Geomorphology: Were Earth-like river processes ever present on Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laurel Goodell, Summary Students compare rivers on Earth to channel-like features on Mars, and consider whether Earth-like river processes were ever present on Mars. Context Type and level of course Entry level ...

Laurel Goodell

160

A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

Ashmann, Scott

2012-01-01

161

Use of Rare Earth Elements in Investigations of Aeolian Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian movement of surface sediments is a natural geomorphic process that has shaped landscapes and contributes to atmospheric dust loading. Even on seemingly uniform surfaces, aeolian activity is highly variable in space and time. Tagging individual particles with Rare Earth Elements (REE) that are present in only trace amounts in the native surface soils allows the study of aeolian transport from source to sink. Rare Earth Oxides are dissolved in nitric acid and diluted to provide a several order of magnitude increase in soil REE concentration when sprayed on the source soil and allowed to infiltrate to a shallow depth. A single REE may be applied to a small area of the surface or multiple REEs may be applied to discrete micro-sites on the surface. The sediments trapped by standard aeolian samplers record the relative contributions of the tagged areas and the dispersal from a point source. We have successfully used REEs to investigate preferential micro-sites for post-fire aeolian activity in a heterogeneous environment and to investigate single season aeolian dispersal from a point source. We are also collaborating with others on the use of REEs to quantify the development of nutrient islands in desert shrublands.

Van Pelt, R. S.; Barnes, M. A.; Zobeck, T. M.

2012-12-01

162

Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth  

SciTech Connect

AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

2009-05-15

163

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

164

Earth Science: It's All about the Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

King, Chris

2013-01-01

165

Chapter 8: Understanding How the Earth Works: A Geodynamic Revolution Based on Linux Computing INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Planet Earth is an extremely complex system, partly because of the existence of plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is an expression of slow convection of the Earth's mantle over geological timesEarthlosesitsinternalheat(seeglossarypagexx).Onageologicaltimescale(i.e.millions of years), plate tectonics exerts major controls on global sea-level changes and geochemical cycles. We

Müller, Dietmar

166

Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-01-01

167

Early Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The formative processes that shaped our planet offer up several exciting areas for teaching. How did the earth's solid crust evolve? What processes formed the initial atmosphere? How and where did life emerge? Each of these areas is interesting in its own right, but the formation and evolution of the earth as an integrated system is a concept that also has direct applications for teaching. This website offers a growing collection of teaching materials and research results that will aid in the understanding of and teaching about the early earth.

168

Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus [Medioambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)

2007-07-01

169

Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: understanding trials using the normalization process model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Normalization Process Model is a conceptual tool intended to assist in understanding the factors that affect implementation processes in clinical trials and other evaluations of complex interventions. It focuses on the ways that the implementation of complex interventions is shaped by problems of workability and integration. METHOD: In this paper the model is applied to two different complex

Carl R May; Frances S Mair; Christopher F Dowrick; Tracy L Finch

2007-01-01

170

Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

1973-01-01

171

Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with 20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

2013-04-01

172

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

173

Understanding and supporting families in the process of divorce.  

PubMed

The current U.S. divorce rate of 40 percent, involving a total of 12 million children under the age of 18, is a compelling factor for family health care providers. In working with families in the process of divorce, it is important to understand divorce as a series of events involving a period of transition. The process is complex and multifaceted, requiring the disintegration of one family structure and the reorganization of another. Children and adolescents will respond to the divorce of their parents contingent on their developmental levels, their temperaments and the amount and quality of their environmental supports. Parents are expected to provide stability for their children at a time when their own lives may be falling apart. How parents handle the situational crisis and accomplish the reorganization of the family in the post-divorce period is a significant variable in long-term individual and family adjustment. Through awareness and sensitivity to the issues involved, the nurse practitioner can be a positive and stable influence during this critical period. PMID:3446213

Rhyne, M C

1986-12-01

174

Observing geologic processes and landforms using Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the assignment, the students are given a series of placemarks in Google Earth. Using Google Earth, the students 'fly' to various areas around the world. They examine the landforms at each placemark and answer questions regarding the formation of these features. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Amy L Brock

175

Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x ? 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

Chubb, Scott R.

2006-02-01

176

Understand assumptions and know uncertainties: Boscovich and the motion of the Earth  

E-print Network

The general prohibition of books advocating heliocentric theory put many progressive Jesuits in a difficult position. One of the most prominent Jesuit scientists of the 18th century, Rogerius Boscovich, was in particularly affected by conflicts between a beautifully simple theory of gravity by Newton, his Jesuit peripatetic education, Church doctrine and the lack of crucial experimental evidence for the motion of the Earth. I present the development of Boscovich's ideas prior to the lifting of the ban, and his retrospective considerations in later writings. These show that Boscovich's acceptance of the motion of the Earth was primarily driven by the existence of a working physical theory that also explained the motion of the Earth, and the lack of a consistent theory that supported any variation of a geocentric system.

Krajnovic, Davor

2015-01-01

177

Why Earth Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

Michael J. Smith

2004-05-01

178

Caries process on occlusal surfaces: evolving evidence and understanding.  

PubMed

Management of the caries process on occlusal surfaces of permanent molars has proven a major challenge. The onset of caries on these surfaces takes place soon after their eruption, and the permanent first molars, followed by the second molars, remain the sites in the dentition which show the highest caries prevalence. This paper is structured in the form of questions and answers in which traditional concepts of caries susceptibility of occlusal surfaces are appraised and confronted with the current evidence. Then, research studies examining the role of biological determinants on the development and arrest of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are discussed. Finally, the contribution of these studies in terms of developing the available scientific evidence and our understanding of the caries process on occlusal surfaces is analyzed. The current evidence does not support the concept that the early onset and high prevalence of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are due to a particularly low inherent resistance of the occlusal surface or due to the presence of inaccessible fissure-like structures on these surfaces. Evidence is provided to show that the most influential biological determinants of the development and arrest of occlusal caries are thick plaque accumulation on the groove-fossa system and the stage of tooth eruption limiting mechanical oral function. Consequently, active occlusal lesions are significantly more prevalent in erupting than in fully erupted teeth. The major contribution of this review is to provide updated knowledge about the biological principles determining the development and arrest of caries on occlusal surfaces of erupting teeth. PMID:24577073

Carvalho, J C

2014-01-01

179

Improved Understanding of ice and dust processes using Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the DART Data Assimilation (DA) framework to ingest radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) into the PlanetWRF Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) and measure the skill of the model in reproducing the observations, and hence to test and improve understanding of the aerosol processes at the heart of Martian climate. The DA framework is used to constrain the surface ice properties in the model using the TES radiance observations and lander pressure measurements as independent constraints on the ice properties. We compare the skill of two ice models in reproducing the TES radiance observations while simultaneously matching lander pressure observations. In one model the effect of subsurface ice is contained within the surface albedo and emissivity parameterization, in the second model subsurface ice is parameterized based on Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data. Both models reproduce the pressure cycle observed by the Viking Lander instruments, but the model with subsurface ice performs significantly better at reproducing the TES radiance observations over the ice-covered poles. We also use the DA framework to investigate the model skill using the Conrath vertical dust profile (with a near surface maximum dust abundance) and a modified dust profile with high altitude maximum that has been inferred from limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The GCM using the modified dust profile produces an atmosphere with thermal lapse rate closer to that measured using nadir observations from TES.

Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

2013-12-01

180

Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: Implications for resource utilization  

E-print Network

Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: Implications for resource utilization, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ ABSTRACT Crucial questions for possible utilization of Near Earth Asteroids include how to break asteroid materials down to particle sizes that can be processed. This remained

Arizona, University of

181

Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion 1.The engineering theory of slide processes, existing practice (slides that have occurred on constructed earth dams), and also the existing standards and recommendations are unanimous in that for earth dams having a soft ground foundation, rotational slip along a cylindrical surface of sliding is the potentially most dangerous. Furthermore, the theory of slide processes and existing practice note that

N. A. Krasil'nikov

1987-01-01

182

Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

Gavin Nobes; D. G. Moore; A. E. Martin; B. R. Clifford; George Butterworth; Georgia Panagiotaki; Michael Siegal

2003-01-01

183

A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

2012-01-01

184

To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for  

E-print Network

Objective To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for understanding real-world decision making and behavioral decision theory. Background & Motivation Research on cognitive decision theory is directed

Dougherty, Michael

185

As "Process" As It Can Get: Students' Understanding of Biological Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes students' understanding of biological phenomena via the ontological categories of processes and matter. Analysis is based on tenth-grade students' explanations of biological phenomena such as photosynthesis, energy resources, temperature regulation, and the interrelationships between living and nonliving things. (Author/WRM)

Barak, Judith; Gorodetsky, Malka

1999-01-01

186

From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

Rosen, Paul A.

2012-01-01

187

Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United States. Essential elements of this curriculum include a scaffolded series of lessons on nature of science, making observations and inferences of fossils and development of an increased understanding of essential earth science topics including the Law of Uniformitarianism and the principle of superposition . Through these hands-on lessons, students begin to understand evolutionary theory and nature of science. The rewards of implementing this curriculum can be observed with student excitement as they engage in authentic research; they become student paleontologists as they scour bags of rocks for the fossils that may be unearthed. The rocks had been collected during a field study, by the teachers and are well known to contain a multitude of Devonian era fossils. Students become researchers as they examine, identify, measure and quantify all fossils found in these rocks. As the children contribute their own data to an online database of an actual paleontological study, they become self driven to examine that compiled data in order to construct explanations of past life in that collection area. This presentation will focus on personal experiences of two teachers, as they engaged their students in authentic research in earth science It will focus on using inquiry-based strategies that can be transferred to a multitude of classrooms and how to use this basic format to engage, excite and develop understanding of earth science. Teachers will learn about effective inquiry-based lessons that incorporate aspects nature of science. Additionally, this presentation may inform curriculum designers and geologists of how similar geologic educational curriculum might be designed, using an authentic investigation. Measuring and identifying a Devonian era fossil.

Pella-Donnelly, M. A.; Daley, B.; Crawford, B.

2010-12-01

188

Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image quality, one of these methods will perform better than the others. Because our software requires minimal user input in the form of command line arguments and has no graphical user interface (GUI), it is uniquely adept for clustering computer environments as well as normal workstations. Users can run multiple stereo sessions simultaneously to process a large number of stereo pairs. We also provide a tool called ';parallel_stereo' which utilizes GNU's parallel command to split a single stereo pair session across multiple nodes that have a shared file system. This greatly reduces the processing time of a single stereo pair. Our primary system of testing was NASA's Pleiades super computer that is freely available to NASA sponsored scientists and engineers via the High End Computing Capability (HECC) project. ASP is freely available for download from our website at irg.arc.nasa.gov/ngt/stereo. Source code for all releases and current development code is available from our Github account at github.com/NeoGeographyToolkit/StereoPipeline. In addition to being free, ASP is Apache 2 licensed which offers free license to copy, redistribute, and sell the software and results pending the license of the input imagery. It is our goal that this software will make DEMs and the processing of satellite imagery more accessible to scientists of all fields.

Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

2013-12-01

189

Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion picture industry relied upon establishing an accepted second space within the minds of their audiences. By the end of the study period, the universe accepted by most Americans was a "California Universe". It was not a discovery of pure science, but rather a cultural-scientific product of the Mount Wilson astronomers, the Pasadena community and the landscape and culture of Southern California.

Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

190

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

191

A fundamental goal of Earth science is to understand the remarkable instability of late  

E-print Network

. Understanding the causes of this instability is crucial given developing concerns about global warming, yet in Antarctica, 2004], these latter cores primar- ily provide information about high-latitude conditions at much

192

Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

1972-01-01

193

Using Statistical Thinking and Designed Experiments to Understand Process Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a series of four case studies, this article illustrates the integration of statistical process control and designed experiments. For such an integration to be effective, this article points out the need to use statistical process control (SPC) as a tool for active process study, rather than simply as a method for maintaining and controlling processes. The use of SPC

Mary G. Leitnaker; Antony Cooper

2005-01-01

194

The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

2012-01-01

195

Geomaterials under extreme conditions: Recent advances and implications for modeling deep Earth processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under these extreme pressure-temperature conditions remain challenging, and many fundamental properties are poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Recent years have witnessed a number of new developments in experiment and theory, with prospects for substantial future improvements. An overview of these recent developments and their implications for modeling deep Earth geochemical and geophysical processes is presented here. Advances in x-ray methods at synchrotron facilities have expanded the P-T range accessible to direct measurements all the way up to 200 GPa and 3000 K, while at the same time leading to improved resolution that has resulted in dramatically better ability to recover physical and chemical properties. As one example, the properties of silicate liquids are essential for understanding a wide range of geochemical phenomena related to the deep Earth and its origin and evolution. Synchrotron-based experimental methods for studying silicate liquids and glasses are advancing along several fronts and yielding new insights into compression curves, liquid structure, melting behavior, and transport properties, albeit mostly at restricted P-T conditions. Shock wave methods also provide key insights, and a new generation of laser-based capabilities is emerging in this area. Theoretical studies using either first principles techniques or model potentials will also be discussed. Ab initio theoretical studies have made major strides in the scope of problems that can be addressed. Our recent results from first principles molecular dynamics simulations on MgSiO3 liquid at 90-135 GPa and 3500-5000 K provide a good example of the capabilities of first-principles theory (Wan et al., 2007). We find that MgSiO3 liquid remains less dense than the corresponding solid at core-mantle boundary conditions. We also determine the diffusivity from the mean square displacements of the atoms as a function of time and estimate the liquid viscosity under these conditions. In comparison with studies at lower P and T, our results indicate there is a significant increase in viscosity due to compression to the core-mantle boundary. Our current ability to model and understand complex geomaterials at deep Earth conditions requires careful integration of experimental, ab initio , and potential model studies, all of which have complementary strengths and limitations.

Duffy, T. S.

2009-12-01

196

SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2011-01-01

197

Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

2014-01-01

198

or more than 50 years, NOAA has operated earth-observing satellites and collected, processed, and  

E-print Network

F or more than 50 years, NOAA has operated earth- observing satellites and collected, processed in public awareness and preparedness. NOAA satellites scan the globe day and night, sending back an endless orbiting the Earth: geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites. Geostationary Operational Environmental

199

Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding  

PubMed Central

Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

2015-01-01

200

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

2009-12-01

201

Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

1992-01-01

202

Earth  

E-print Network

As in his original cosmology proposal 1,2 and in subsequent writings in its defence, 3,4 so also in New vistas of space-time rebut the critics, 5 Dr Humphreys makes sweeping physical claims without backing them up with the simple mathematical calculations which would demonstrate their truth or falsity. It is straightforward, using only undergraduate-level differential calculus, to show that Humphreys’ claim of a ‘timeless zone ’ in the Klein metric is false. In order for a ‘timeless zone ’ to exist, there must be a region of spacetime within which there are no spacetime trajectories which have the property ds 2> 0. However, it is easy to verify that every comoving clock in Humphreys ’ bounded matter sphere cosmology traverses a timelike trajectory (ds 2> 0), even in the region of (?,?) space which Humphreys alleges is ‘timeless. ’ Consider, for example, the trajectory of the Earth, which Humphreys hypothesizes is at the center of the matter sphere. The Earth’s spatial trajectory in Schwarzschild coordinates is given by d?

unknown authors

203

An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual…

Dal, Burckin

2009-01-01

204

UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS  

E-print Network

, JEFFREY BASARA5, AND JOHN K. WILLIAMS6 Abstract. Major severe weather events can cause a significant loss the formation of tornadoes near strong frontal boundaries, and understanding the translation of drought across. For example, a thunderstorm evolves over time and may eventually produce a tornado through the spatiotemporal

McGovern, Amy

205

Understanding implicit models that guide the coaching process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to provide readers with a better understanding of four theory models that inform coaching practice, and to reflect on how the theoretical approach that one adopts is likely to shape one's coaching practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This article is based on the authors' combined 30 years of experience as internal and external executive coaches. Organizational examples

Robert Barner; Julie Higgins

2007-01-01

206

Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR's) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate

Scott R. Chubb

207

Oxygen vacancies in transition metal and rare earth oxides: Current state of understanding and remaining challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defects at transition metal (TM) and rare earth (RE) oxide surfaces, neutral oxygen vacancies in particular, play a major role in a variety of technological applications. This is the motivation of numerous studies of partially reduced oxide surfaces. We review, discuss, and compare theoretical data for structural and electronic properties and energetic quantities related to the formation of oxygen defects at TM and RE oxide surfaces using TiO 2, ZrO 2, V 2O 5, and CeO 2 as examples. Bulk defects, as far as relevant for comparison with the properties of reduced surfaces, are briefly reviewed. Special attention is given to the fate of the electrons left in the system upon vacancy formation and the ability of state-of-the-art quantum-mechanical methods to provide reliable energies and an accurate description of the electronic structure of the partially reduced oxide systems.

Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Verónica; Hofmann, Alexander; Sauer, Joachim

2007-06-01

208

Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

209

Linking the Wilson Cycle to deep Earth processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century description of the movement and deformation of the Earth's outer layer has evolved from the hypothesis of Continental Drift into Sea-Floor Spreading and thence to the theory of Plate Tectonics. This theory is as fundamentally unifying to the Earth Sciences as Darwin's Evolution Theory is to Life Science. By 1968 Tuzo Wilson had identified three basic elements of geodynamics: plate tectonics, mantle plumes of deep origin and the Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing, which provides evidence of plate tectonic behavior in times before quantifiable plate rotations. We have recently shown that deep-seated plumes of the past have risen only from narrow plume generation zones (PGZs) at the Core Mantle Boundary and mostly on the edges of two Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) that have been stable, antipodal and equatorial in their present positions for hundreds of millions of years and perhaps for much longer. Even though links between mantle activity and plate tectonics are becoming more evident, notably through subsurface tomographic images, advances in mineral physics and much improved absolute plate motion reference frames, a need now is to generate a new Earth model embodying plate tectonics, shallow and deep mantle convection, including such elements as deeply subducted slabs and stable LLSVPs with plumes that rise only from PGZs on the CMB.

Torsvik, T. H.; Burke, K. C.

2010-12-01

210

Rock fragment embedding 443 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 443460 (2005)  

E-print Network

Rock fragment embedding 443 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 443­460 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 443 as well as on depositional landforms (Poesen and Lavee, 1994a), may partly or completely cover

Ahmad, Sajjad

211

1424 M. Stoffel et al. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 14241437 (2006)  

E-print Network

1424 M. Stoffel et al. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 1424­1437 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms in mountain regions, where their repeated occurrence may result in characteristic landforms, such as cone

Stoffel, Markus

212

1692 L. A. James Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 16921706 (2006)  

E-print Network

aggradation or floodplain burial. In some cases, such as the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, this is an ongoing1692 L. A. James Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 1692­1706 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 1692

James, L. Allan

2006-01-01

213

Simulated effect of forest road 1 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press)  

E-print Network

Simulated effect of forest road 1 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms the importance of convergent subsurface flow (e.g. greater pore-water pressures in the hollow of the catchment

Wemple, Beverley

214

Weathering processes and landforms The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth,  

E-print Network

ForReview Only Weathering processes and landforms Journal: The International Encyclopedia Keywords: Abstract: The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment illustrate how the appearance of bare-rock landforms relates to rock decay. The last section details

Dorn, Ron

215

Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and

Scott R. Chubb

2006-01-01

216

Understanding the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesion studies have demonstrated impairments of specific types of phonological processes. However, results from neuropsychological studies of speech sound processing have been inconclusive as to the role of specific brain regions because of a lack of a one-to-one correspondence between behavioural patterns and lesion location. Functional…

Burton, Martha W.

2009-01-01

217

A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

2006-01-01

218

Understanding tourism processes: a gender-aware framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gender-aware framework for the analysis of tourism development processes and tourismrelated activity is offered. The paper focuses on three crucial issues in the pursuit of such a framework. It is argued that, (1) tourism development processes and tourism-related activities are constructed out of gendered societies; (2) gender relations both inform, and are informed by the practices of all societies;

Derek Hall

1996-01-01

219

Understanding the Special Education Process. Alliance Action Information Sheets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chart presented in this paper offers an overview of the special education process. It is not designed to show all steps or the specific details. It shows what happens from the time a child is referred for evaluation and is identified as having a disability, through the development of an individualized education program (IEP). The process

Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

2006-01-01

220

Hot plasma and energetic particles in the earth's outer magnetosphere: new understandings during the IMS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we review the major accomplishments made during the IMS period in clarifying magnetospheric particle variations in the region from roughly geostationary orbit altitudes into the deep magnetotail. We divide our review into three topic areas: (1) acceleration processes; (2) transport processes; and (3) loss processes. Many of the changes in hot plasmas and energetic particle populations are often found to be related intimately to geomagnetic storm and magnetospheric substorm effects and, therefore, substantial emphasis is given to these aspects of particle variations in this review. The IMS data, taken as a body, allow a reasonably unified view as one traces magnetospheric particles from their acceleration source through the plasma sheet and outer trapping regions and, finally, to their loss via ionospheric precipitation and ring current formation processes. It is this underlying, unifying theme which is pursued here. 52 references, 19 figures.

Baker, D.N.; Fritz, T.A.

1984-01-01

221

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

222

Suffering transaction: a process of reflecting and understanding   

E-print Network

This study examines the transaction of the lived experience of ‘suffering’ in the process of psychotherapy. ‘Suffering’ is conceptualised as having its weight and value transacted between a psychotherapist and his or her ...

Wong, Shyh-Heng

2011-11-25

223

Manure to Energy: Understanding Processes, Principles and Jargon  

E-print Network

The increasing demand for energy and the high costs of oil and natural gas have emphasized the need for consumers to seek alternative energy resources. This publication explains the processes for converting manure to energy....

Mukhtar, Saqib

2006-11-30

224

Understanding Local Structure Globally in Earth Science Remote Sensing Data Sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical probability distributions derived from the data are the signatures of physical processes generating the data. Distributions defined on different space-time windows can be compared and differences or changes can be attributed to physical processes. This presentation discusses on ways to reduce remote sensing data in a way that preserves information, focusing on the rate-distortion theory and using the entropy-constrained vector quantization algorithm.

Braverman, Amy; Fetzer, Eric

2007-01-01

225

On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's intrinsic magnetic field shields the upper atmosphere from direct interaction with the solar wind, and the direct escape of neutral oxygen through thermal and non-thermal processes, which is important for unmagnetized planets such as Venus and Mars, is small compared to the ion loss through magnetospheric processes. The intrinsic magnetic field facilitates a number of different plasma acceleration mechanisms at high latitudes. These acceleration mechanisms result in an observed outflow rate of ~7.2x1025 O+ ions/s with speeds above gravitational escape velocity averaged over the solar cycle [Yau et al., 1988]. However, the same global magnetic field that facilitates the ion acceleration processes may also mitigate this loss by trapping the ions and returning them to the atmosphere. In this paper, we examine loss rate of terrestrial atmospheric oxygen through magnetospheric processes by examining loss rates of four escape routes with high-altitude spacecraft observations. The estimated O+ loss rate is almost one order of magnitude smaller than the polar O+ outflow rate. This disagreement suggests that there is either a significant return flux from the magnetosphere to the low-latitude ionosphere or unknown loss process(es) of oxygen ions. In the former case, the gap in the O+ escape rates may indicate that the existence of a substantial intrinsic magnetic field can help a planet to keep its atmosphere. Alternatively in the latter case, a candidate of the unknown loss mechanism(s) may be escape of cold O+ ions at energies below 50 eV either to the magnetosheath or through the plasma sheet, which are difficult to observe in the magnetosphere without spacecraft potential control. Another candidate is the charge exchange loss of ring current ions that become dominated by O+ during magnetic storm periods. For further understanding, systematic ion-composition measurements in the magnetosheath and the plasma sheet as well as quantitative investigation of ring current loss mechanisms are needed.

Seki, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hirahara, M.; Terasawa, T.; Mukai, T.

2001-05-01

226

Earth as a System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short video uses animated imagery from satellite remote sensing systems to illustrate that Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. Adapted from NASA, this visualization helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education.

WGBH/Boston

227

Steppool formation models and associated step spacing 1611 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 16111627 (2007)  

E-print Network

. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1611­1627 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1611­1627 (2007) Published online 18 September 2007 in Wiley

Curran, Joanna C.

228

Dust Emission from Wet and Dry Playas in the Mojave Desert, USA 1811 Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 18111827 (2007)  

E-print Network

Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1811­1827 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1811­1827 (2007) Published online 19 April 2007

229

Review of Understanding of Earth's Hydrological Cycle: Observations, Theory and Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is our most precious and arguably most undervalued natural resource. It is essential for life on our planet, for food production and economic development. Moreover, water plays a fundamental role in shaping weather and climate. However, with the growing global population, the planet's water resources are constantly under threat from overuse and pollution. In addition, the effects of a changing climate are thought to be leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather causing floods, landslides and drought. The need to understand and monitor our environment and its resources, including advancing our knowledge of the hydrological cycle, has never been more important and apparent. The best approach to do so on a global scale is from space. This paper provides an overview of the major components of the hydrological cycle, the status of their observations from space and related data products and models for hydrological variable retrievals. It also lists the current and planned satellite missions contributing to advancing our understanding of the hydrological cycle on a global scale. Further details of the hydrological cycle are substantiated in several of the other papers in this Special Issue.

Rast, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Mauser, Wolfram

2014-05-01

230

Grazing Impacts Upon Earth's Surface: Towards an Understanding of the Rio Cuarto Crater Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the Rio Cuarto crater field, Argentina has been widely debated since the early 1990s when it was first brought to public attention. In a binary on-off sense, however, the craters are either of a terrestrial origin or they formed via a large asteroid impact. While there are distinct arguments in favour of the former option being the correct interpretation, it is the latter possibility that is principally investigated here, and five distinct impact formation models are described. Of the impact scenarios it is found that the most workable model, although based upon a set of fine-tuned initial conditions, is that in which a large, 100-150-m initial diameter asteroid, entered Earth's atmosphere on a shallow angle path that resulted in temporary capture. In this specific situation a multiple-thousand kilometer long flight path enables the asteroid to survive atmospheric passage, without suffering significant fragmentation, and to impact the ground as a largely coherent mass. Although the odds against such an impact occurring are extremely small, the crater field may nonetheless be interpreted as having potentially formed via a very low-angle, smaller than 5° to the horizon, impact with a ground contact speed of order 5 km/s. Under this scenario, as originally suggested by Schultz and Lianza (Nature 355:234, 1992), the largest of the craters (crater A) in the Rio Cuarto structure was produced in the initial ground impact, and the additional, smaller craters are interpreted as being formed through the down-range transport of decapitated impactor material and crater A ejecta.

Beech, Martin

2014-08-01

231

Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of

James Anderson Lacefield

1998-01-01

232

Understanding VAS valuations: qualitative data on the cognitive process.  

PubMed

Eliciting people's value is a central pursuit in health economics. We explored approaches to valuing a health state on a visual analog scale (VAS). Additionally, we examined whether dual processing (an interaction between automatic and controlled information processing) occurred during VAS valuation. In the first experiment, respondents were probed for their approach after valuation on a VAS. After inductive generalization, we grouped the approaches: (1) 'Sort-of ' (automatic processing), (2) 'Bisection of line first', (3) 'Numerical expression', and (4) 'Dividing into smaller segments'. In the second experiment, a short questionnaire followed the VAS in which these approaches were systematically assessed, as was awareness of the approach used, intention to re-use the approach the next time (confidence), and basis of the approach. Data showed that the 'Sort-of' approach was used most often, followed by the 'Bisection-first' approach. We argue that dual processing occurs during performance on the VAS. Awareness of the approach used was lower when an intuitive approach was used. A reasoned approach had a higher correlation with confidence. Thus, awareness of approach may improve reliability. Reducing the number of health states to be valued concurrently diminishes the complexity of the task; this may enhance the validity of the VAS. PMID:16328897

van Osch, Sylvie M C; Stiggelbout, Anne M

2005-12-01

233

Understanding the Writing Process through Brain Hemisphere Neurology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledging that ordering, spatial orientation, and synthesis are important properties in achieving clarity in writing, a study investigated the biological influences on students' writing processes and ways to help writers produce more coherent written products. Subjects, two males and four females ranging in age from 19 to 40, were tested using…

Hogge, Joan Ellet

234

Toward an Intersectional Understanding of Process Causality and Social Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maxwell and Donmoyer both argue in this issue of "Qualitative Inquiry" that narrow definitions of causality in educational research tend to disqualify qualitative research from influence (and funding) among policy makers. They propose a process view of causality that would allow qualitative researchers to make causal claims more grounded in the…

Anderson, Gary L.; Scott, Janelle

2012-01-01

235

Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished…

Peterson, Mark

2014-01-01

236

Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

2013-01-01

237

Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

2013-01-01

238

Demonstrations of Geophysical Principles Applicable to the Properties and Processes of the Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These demonstrations are designed to help students develop a conceptual understanding of geophysical principles. The concepts covered in these demonstrations include rheology, seismic waves, reflection, standing waves, velocity, earthquakes, Earth density, magnetic field, resonance, precession, the shadow zone, and Curie temperature. Each demonstration provides background information and a complete explanation of how to use and discuss the demo in class.

Jeffrey Barker

239

Understanding the impact of upscaling THM processes on performance assessment  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of Benchmark Test 2 (BMT2) is to quantitatively examine the reliability of estimates of repository host rock performance, using large-scale performance assessment (PA) models that are developed by upscaling small-scale parameters and processes. These small-scale properties and processes can be investigated based on either discrete-fracture-network (DFN) models or heterogeneous-porous-medium (HPM) models. While most research teams use DFN, we employ fractal-based HPM for upscaling purposes. Comparison of results based on fundamentally different approaches is useful for evaluating and bounding the uncertainties in estimating repository host rock performance. HPM has both advantages and limitations when compared with DFN. DFM is conceptually more appealing because it explicitly describes fractures and the flow and transport processes that occur within them. However, HPM is more consistent with approaches used to derive field measurements of hydraulic properties (such as permeability). These properties are generally determined based on assumptions related to the continuum approach. HPM is also more straightforward in describing spatial-correlation structures of measured hydraulic properties. For example, potential flow features in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) were found to show marked spatial clustering (Nirex, 1997), which is expected to result in a long range correlation in measured permeability distributions. This important behavior may not be captured with conventional DFNs, in which random distribution (or similar distributions) of individual fractures is assumed. The usefulness of HPM will be partially demonstrated in this report by a satisfactory description of the short interval testing data using Levy-stable fractals. (Recently, Jackson et al. (2000) also showed that equivalent HPMs could approximately describe flow processes within subgrid fracture networks.) We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine flow and transport parameters at different scales. Since we have used a fractal-based approach supported by field measurements, effective properties will be scale-dependent. Effects of mechanical processes on flow and transport properties will be also considered in the upscaling procedure. Then, large-scale thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) and transport processes will be modeled.

Liu, H.H.; Zhou, Q.; Rutqvist, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

2002-06-10

240

Towards a better understanding of nuclear processes based on proteomics.  

PubMed

The complex structural and functional organisation of the brain warrants the application of high-throughput approaches to study its functional alterations in physiological and pathological conditions. Such approaches have greatly benefited from advances in proteomics and genomics, and from their combination with computational modelling. They have been particularly instrumental for the analysis of processes such as the post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins, a critical biological process in the nervous system that remains not well studied. Protein PTMs are dynamic covalent marks that can be induced by activity and allow the maintenance of a trace of this activity. In the nucleus, they can modulate histone proteins and the components of the transcriptional machinery, and thereby contribute to regulating gene expression. PTMs do however need to be tightly controlled for proper chromatin functions. This review provides a synopsis of methods available to study PTMs and protein expression based on high-throughput mass spectrometry (MS), and covers basic concepts of traditional 'shot-gun'-based MS. It describes classical and emerging proteomic approaches such as multiple reaction monitoring and electron transfer dissociation, and their application to the analyses of nuclear processes in the brain. PMID:20730591

Tweedie-Cullen, Ry Y; Mansuy, Isabelle M

2010-11-01

241

Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

2012-06-01

242

Google Earth in the middle school geography classroom: Its impact on spatial literacy and place geography understanding of students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success in today's globalized, multi-dimensional, and connected world requires individuals to have a variety of skill sets -- i.e. oracy, numeracy, literacy, as well as the ability to think spatially. Student's spatial literacy, based on various national and international assessment results, indicates that even though there have been gains in U.S. scores over the past decade, overall performance, including those specific to spatial skills, are still below proficiency. Existing studies focused on the potential of virtual learning environment technology to reach students in a variety of academic areas, but a need still exists to study specifically the phenomenon of using Google Earth as a potentially more useful pedagogical tool to develop spatial literacy than the currently employed methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which graphicacy achievement scores of students who were immersed in a Google Earth environment were different from students who were provided with only two-dimensional instruction for developing spatial skills. Situated learning theory and the work of Piaget and Inhelder's Child's Conception of Space provided the theoretical grounding from which this study evolved. The National Research Council's call to develop spatial literacy, as seen in Learning to Think Spatially , provided the impetus to begin research. The target population (N = 84) for this study consisted of eighth grade geography students at an upper Midwest Jr. High School during the 2009-2010 academic year. Students were assigned to the control or experimental group based on when they had geography class. Control group students ( n = 44) used two-dimensional PowerPoint images to complete activities, while experimental group students (n = 40) were immersed in the three-dimensional Google Earth world for activity completion. Research data was then compiled and statistically analyzed to answer five research questions developed for this study. One-way ANOVAs were run on data collected and no statistically significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. However, two of the five research questions yielded practically significant data that indicates students who used Google Earth outperformed their counterparts who used PowerPoint on pattern prediction and spatial relationship understanding.

Westgard, Kerri S. W.

243

Photoneutron cross sections for neodymium isotopes: Toward a unified understanding of (? ,n ) and (n ,? ) reactions in the rare earth region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for five stable Nd isotopes, 143 ,144 ,145 ,146 ,148Nd , near neutron threshold with highly monochromatic laser-Compton scattering ? rays. The photoneutron data were compared with the calculations performed with the talys reaction code with inputs of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) plus quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) model and the axially symmetric deformed Gogny HFB plus QRPA model of E 1 ? -ray strength. Using the ? -ray strength function constrained by the present photoneutron data, a thorough analysis of the reverse (n ,? ) cross sections is made. Radiative neutron capture cross sections for an s-process branching-point nucleus in the rare earth region, 147Nd with the half-life 10.98 d, are deduced with the ? -ray strength function method. The impact of the newly evaluated 147Nd(n,? ) 148Nd cross section on s-process nucleosynthesis is discussed.

Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrøm, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Filipescu, D. M.; Gheorghe, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Glodariu, T.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Péru, S.; Martini, M.; Siess, L.; Koning, A. J.

2015-01-01

244

Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

2001-12-01

245

Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

1978-01-01

246

Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition, because precipitation patterns in this semi-arid region tend to be temporally distributed, storage and global climate change issues are significant.

Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

2004-12-01

247

Professor Donald L Sparks and Drs Anthony Aufdenkampe and Lou Kaplan reveal the progress their cutting-edge project is making on understanding the complex interactions within the Earth's critical zone  

E-print Network

and soils interact and shape the Earth's surface. The critical zone is the Earth's porous near-surface layer their cutting-edge project is making on understanding the complex interactions within the Earth's critical zone geological force on the Earth's surface. The CRB-CZO is the only CZO with an explicit focus on anthropogenic

Sparks, Donald L.

248

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

1990-01-01

249

Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades.  

PubMed

Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web-varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic 'top-down' cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled 'bottom-up' cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H

2014-01-01

250

Understand two-phase flow in process piping  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase flow often presents design and operational problems not associated with liquid or gas flow. For example, several different flow patterns may exist along the pipeline. Frictional pressure losses are more difficult to estimate, and, in the case of a cross-country pipeline, a terrain profile is necessary to predict pressure drops due to elevation changes. The downstream end of the pipeline often requires a separator to separate the liquid and vapor phases, and a slug catcher may be required to remove liquid slugs. Static pressure losses in gas-liquid flow differ from those in single-phase flow because an interface can be either smooth or rough, depending on the flow pattern. Two-phase pressure losses may be up to a factor of 10 higher than those in single-phases flow; in the former, the two phases tend to separate and the liquid lags behind. Most correlations for two-phase pressure drop are empirical and, thus, limited by the range of data for which they were derived. Mathematical models for predicting the flow regime and a procedure for calculating pressure drop in process pipelines are presented.

Coker, A.K. (H and G Engineering (US))

1990-11-01

251

Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades  

PubMed Central

Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades–that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web–varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic ‘top-down’ cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled ‘bottom-up’ cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H; Lafferty, Kevin

2014-01-01

252

Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

Chubb, Scott

2005-03-01

253

Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

Blau, Gary

2007-01-01

254

Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

DEROSA, D.C.

2000-01-13

255

SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

256

EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

257

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D in the early solar system and the processes that have led to the formation of the terrestrial planets. Stable an effective approach for unravelling the complex chemistry of the early solar system as recorded in meteorites

Henderson, Gideon

258

Inverse modelling of surface subsidence to better understand the Earth's subsurface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface subsidence can have major repercussions. A classic example is the seabed above the Ekofisk oil field, offshore Norway, where excessive subsidence made it necessary to raise the production platform by 6 m in the 1980s. On land, subsidence may significantly increase the risk of damage to buildings and infrastructure. But, observations of subsidence can also give us a better handle on the subsurface processes like compaction behaviour of a reservoir, (un)drained compartments, or the strength of the aquifer. However, to get this information from subsidence data, you have to carefully follow an inversion procedure. This inversion exercise is a big challenge in which all the available knowledge has to be used to the fullest possible extent. Without the use of this prior knowledge the solution will be non-unique or very ill-conditioned. In our method we distinguish and quantify shallow and deep causes of subsidence in a time-resolved procedure. We take full advantage of all the available knowledge in the form of a prior model, the prior model covariance matrix, and the data covariance matrix. The covariances quantify the expected spatial and temporal relationships between the model points and the data points. As an example, the incorporation of the model covariance implicitly guarantees smoothness of the model estimate, while maintaining specific geological features like sharp boundaries. In two examples we demonstrate the strength of the method. The first example shows that prior knowledge in the form of a correct model parameterization (deep and shallow compaction) is crucial for a reliable result. The second example demonstrates the significant added value of fully accounting for the geology and the reservoir engineering information. Probabilistic information is entered using Monte Carlo simulations with a standard reservoir simulator, with several driving parameters being uncertain. The Monte Carlo runs deliver the prior model estimate and its covariance matrix. The inversion results in a good approximation of the driving parameters, even while their effects in terms of subsidence are highly correlated.

Bos, A. G.; Fokker, P. A.; Kroon, I. C.; de Lange, G.

2007-12-01

259

Integrating high-precision U-Pb geochronologic data with dynamic models of earth processes  

E-print Network

Radioisotopic dating can provide critical constraints for understanding the rates of tectonic, dynamic and biologic processes operating on our planet. Improving the interpretation and implementation of geochronologic data ...

Blackburn, Terrence (Terrence Joseph)

2012-01-01

260

Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current can be significantly reduced due to diffusional limitation of the transport of gaseous reactants through inerts such as water vapor and nitrogen gas. A non-uniform current distribution across the membrane electrode assembly can cause pinhole formation and ultimately, fuel cell failure.

Cheah, May Jean

261

Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process  

DOEpatents

A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

262

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

2009-12-01

263

Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

Kleidon, Axel

2014-05-01

264

Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically- changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. In our presentation, we will demonstrate how new software tools like Uniview can be used to dramatically enhance and accelerate public comprehension of complex, multi-scale geospatial phenomena.

Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

2008-12-01

265

Student Project Teams: Understanding Team Process through an Examination of Leadership Practices and Team Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student projects teams are widely-used by agricultural education faculty; but do we really understand the process that students experience as a result of participation on a student-led team? This study sought to develop understanding related to the team process by examining leadership practices exhibited by assigned leaders and team culture that evolved during the process of a semester-long team project.

Penny Pennington; Kathleen D. Kelsey

266

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

2004-01-01

267

Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils  

PubMed Central

Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

2008-01-01

268

Near-surface hydrologic response and slope stability 325 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 325338 (2005)  

E-print Network

. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 325­338 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 325­338 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www in the forest road problem; for example, a special issue of Earth Surface Processes and Landforms was devoted

Wemple, Beverley

269

Parallel architecture for labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing in speech understanding  

SciTech Connect

Speech understanding is a complex task which requires extensive computation. To increase the processing speed, a speech understanding system is decomposed into tasks which can be performed by a series of distributed processing subsystems. An architecture to perform labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing is described. Using a parametric characterization of the speech signal, this system divides an utterance into labeled homogeneous regions. The system then performs dictionary lookups based on all probable labelings and segmentations in order to generate a complete set of word hypotheses. Using realistic assumptions from existing speech understanding systems, a statistical model of speech input, and simulations of the speech processing algorithms, the attributes of the parallel system to perform labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing for real-time speech understanding are derived. 36 references.

Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.J.

1983-01-01

270

The earth as a living planet: Human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process  

E-print Network

The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic feat...

Contoyiannis, Y F; Eftaxias, K

2013-01-01

271

Sediment production from unpaved roads 1283 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 12831304 (2005)  

E-print Network

(Grayson et al., 1993), New Zealand (Fahey and Coker, 1989; *Correspondence to: L. H. MacDonald, Department. Process. Landforms 30, 1283­1304 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 1283­1304 (2005) Published online 1 September 2005 in Wiley InterScience (www

MacDonald, Lee

2005-01-01

272

Integrated planning and scheduling for Earth science data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several current NASA programs such as the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) have data processing and data management requirements that call for an integrated planning and scheduling capability. In this paper, we describe the experience of applying advanced scheduling technology operationally, in terms of what was accomplished, lessons learned, and what remains to be done in order to achieve similar successes in ECS and other programs. We discuss the importance and benefits of advanced scheduling tools, and our progress toward realizing them, through examples and illustrations based on ECS requirements. The first part of the paper focuses on the Data Archive and Distribution (DADS) V0 Scheduler. We then discuss system integration issues ranging from communication with the scheduler to the monitoring of system events and re-scheduling in response to them. The challenge of adapting the scheduler to domain-specific features and scheduling policies is also considered. Extrapolation to the ECS domain raises issues of integrating scheduling with a product-generation planner (such as PlaSTiC), and implementing conditional planning in an operational system. We conclude by briefly noting ongoing technology development and deployment projects being undertaken by HTC and the ISTB.

Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

1995-01-01

273

Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth.

Carruthers, George R.; Lee, Robert B., III

1989-01-01

274

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. ``Geoscience Data Puzzles\\

M. J. Passow; K. A. Kastens; A. M. Goodwillie; C. Brenner

2009-01-01

275

Learning to Read: Developing Processes for Recognizing, Understanding and Pronouncing Written Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Major theories of how skilled readers recognize, understand and pronounce written words include processes for phonological recoding (i.e., translating segments of print to their corresponding segments of sound) and processes by which direct access is achieved from printed words to their meanings. If these are the processes employed in skilled…

Stuart, Morag

2006-01-01

276

This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the processes that influence the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this  

E-print Network

the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this understanding to read the record of earth history: Crises of a Planet -- Impact of civilization on planet earth, and impact of earth's natural evolution Introductory Course Requirement (select one)* GEOL 105: Planet Earth GEOL 107: Oceanography GEOL 108: Crises

Rohs, Remo

277

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface  

E-print Network

of the Global Environment Plate Tectonics: Unifying ConceptPlate Tectonics: Unifying Concept Ground shaking's surface as plates · Plates and Plate Boundaries · Concept and justification of plate divisions · Types of plate boundaries and processes · History of the Earth' Surface · Reconstructing the ancient face

Polly, David

278

Evaluating and improving CLM hydrologic processes for integrated earth system modeling at regional scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being

M. Huang; L. Leung; M. S. Wigmosta; A. M. Coleman; Y. Ke; T. K. Tesfa; H. Li

2010-01-01

279

At the Earth's surface,a complex suite of chemical,biological,and physical processes  

E-print Network

At the Earth's surface,a complex suite of chemical,biological,and physical processes combines nutrients to nourish ecosystems and human society,mediates the transport of toxic components within the biosphere,creates water flow paths that carve and weaken bedrock, and contributes to the evolution

Chorover, Jon

280

Visualization of Earth and Space Science Data at JPL's Science Data Processing Systems Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will provide an overview of systems in use at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing data returned by space exploration and earth observations spacecraft. Graphical and visualization techniques used to query and retrieve data from large scientific data bases will be described.

Green, William B.

1996-01-01

281

Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

2012-12-01

282

Establishment and Implementation of a Close Approach Evaluation and Avoidance Process for Earth Observing System Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the fall of 2004, the Earth Science Mission Operations Project tasked the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSPC) Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch with establishment of a process to protect the high-value Earth Observing System (EOS) missions (Terra, Aqua, and Aura) from close approaches with space debris and other orbiting objects. An agreement between GSFC and the United States Strategic Command was put in place so that close approach predictions would be routinely generated. This paper describes the ESMO conjunction assessment process for the EOS satellites. Process details, including tools and algorithms developed, are discussed. Particular details for a predicted close approach between Terra and a piece of space debris that resulted in the execution of a debris avoidance maneuver are included. This close approach example is described in detail fiom the first screening identification through execution of the mitigation maneuver to illustrate both the process and lessons learned fiom its implementation.

Newman, Lauri; Duncan, Matthew

2006-01-01

283

Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

2012-01-01

284

The Earth Science Vision: Space Technology to Meet Human Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Earth Sciences Vision seeks to define a new paradigm in which the understanding of the Earth's climate--including short and long term climate, severe weather, the biosphere and ecosystems, and the Earth surface processes--is sufficiently accurate that we can accurately predict climate changes and the effects of climate changes on human habitability of Earth. Science issues include long term

Granville Paules; Jack Kaye

2002-01-01

285

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth like planets  

E-print Network

Because the solar luminosity increases over geological timescales, Earth climate is expected to warm, increasing water evaporation which, in turn, enhances the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can "runaway" until all the oceans are evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause oceans to escape to space before the runaway greenhouse occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated with unidimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of Earth's climate. Here we use a 3D global climate model to show that the threshold for the runaway greenhouse is about 375 W/m$^2$, significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmo...

Leconte, Jérémy; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-01-01

286

Reconsidering the Role of Artifacts in Reasoning: Children's Understanding of the Globe as a Model of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the effect of the presentation of a globe--the culturally accepted artifact representing the earth--on children's reasoning in elementary astronomy. Forty-four children from grades 1 and 3 were interviewed individually. First, the children were asked to make their own representations of the earth (i.e., drawings and…

Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini; Ikospentaki, Kalliopi

2005-01-01

287

User guide: Earth resources observation and science (EROS) center science processing architecture (ESPA) on demand interface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Landsat data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1972. Scientists and users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change, but shoulder the burden of post-production processing to create applications-ready data sets. In compliance with guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, USGS has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change study. Terrestrial variables such as surface reflectance and land surface temperature will be offered as Climate Data Records (CDR). Derivations of spectral indices from surface reflectance are also produced, to further ease user application in land remote sensing science. Higher level products, such as leaf area index, burned area extent, snow covered area, and surface water extent representing Essential Climate Variables (ECV) will be available soon. These products are provided in order to build a framework for producing long-term Landsat data sets suited for monitoring, characterizing and understanding land surface change over time. Their distribution includes basic processing services to provide applications-ready data products to the user community. These services include: Reprojection Spatial subsetting Pixel resizing Products and services are provided by the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On Demand Interface (https://espa.cr.usgs.gov/). It is composed of the following key elements: Bulk Ordering Bulk Ordering Application Programming Interface (API)* Land Product Validation System (LPVS)* This guide focuses on the Bulk Ordering component, which is the primary mechanism for access to USGS provisional and prototype data products. *The API and LPVS features are currently in development and not yet released. The API will enable end-users to write their own clients to interact with all Bulk Ordering capabilities. It is being implemented as a Representational State Transfer (REST) service using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Java Script Object Notation (JSON) and will therefore be compatible with most programming languages. *LPVS is a collaboration between the USGS and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and will provide a way to perform statistical comparisons between data sets acquired from multiple sensors. It will initially support Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat surface reflectance and vegetation index products only, but further development will expand the offerings.

Jenkerson, Calli

2013-01-01

288

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

289

Understanding Folding Process of Origami Drill Books Based on Graphic Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an approach for recognizing illus- trations of origami drill books with a view to understanding folding process of origami. For this purpose, comparing and matching two kinds of graphic forms are required. One is a graph generated from an origami illustration image by ap- plying image processing techniques to it. The other is that obtained from an

Takashi Terashima; Hiroshi Shimanuki; Jien Kato; Toyohide Watanabe

2005-01-01

290

Understanding the early stages of the innovation diffusion process: awareness, influence and communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The themes of awareness and influence within the innovation diffusion process are addressed. The innovation diffusion process is typically represented as stages, yet awareness and influence are somewhat under-represented in the literature. Awareness and influence are situated within the contextual setting of individual actors but also within the broader institutional forces. Understanding how actors become aware of an innovation and

Graeme D. Larsen

2011-01-01

291

Pass the car in front of you: a simulation of cognitive processes for understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to simulate human mental processes of understanding in the problem of driving a car. The processes work on a network memory defined by four types of elements: Entity, Event, Attributé and Modality; and three types of relations: syntagmatic, paradigmatic, and metalingual. Subnetworks associated with the concept of modality are used effectively to make possible the representation

Teiji Furugori

1974-01-01

292

Epistemological Understanding as a Metacognitive Process: Thinking Aloud during Online Searching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal epistemology has typically been conceptualized in one of two primary ways: as a cognitive developmental process or as a system of beliefs. The approach that is elaborated here is to conceive of epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process that activates epistemic theories, a multidimensional set of interrelated beliefs about…

Hofer, Barbara K.

2004-01-01

293

Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2012-01-01

294

PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

2009-02-01

295

Earth Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities give students a hands-on feeling for the relationships between the Earth's structural layers and aid them in understanding the world around them. They will be able to identify (by modeling) the Earth's structure (core, mantle and crust) and also (by experiment and demonstration) the forces within the Earth that cause constant changes on the surface (earthquakes).

1998-01-01

296

Disfluency and Out-Of-Vocabulary Word Processing in Arabic Speech Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disfluencies inherent in spontaneous speaking and out-of-vocabulary words omnipresent in any transcribed oral utterance by speech recognition, are a real challenge for speech understanding systems. Thus, we propose in this paper, a method for processing disfluencies and out-of- vocabulary words in the context of automatic Arabic speech understanding. Our method based on a robust and partial analysis of Arabic

Younès Bahou; Lamia Hadrich Belguith; Abdelmajid Ben Hamadou

2008-01-01

297

Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

McCurdy, K. M.

2005-12-01

298

Understanding process-induced microstructures in RBa2Cu3O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the processing of rare earth (R)-barium-copper-oxygen superconductors, a variety of microstructures can be induced. Many processes are designed to avoid forming some structures, but these same processes can result in other structures which degrade the superconducting properties. Because liquid phases can be detrimental, for example, low-temperature calcination is often employed. But the CO2 gas evolved during calcination leads to the formation of a nanoc-rystalline microstructure which may affect superconducting properties. Textures and defects can be induced by high-temperature and high-pressure deformation. For commercial dreams to become reality, these processing-induced microstructures, and their effects on properties, will have to be understood and controlled.

McCallum, R. W.; Kramer, M. J.

1990-06-01

299

Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

1978-01-01

300

Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was also collected from a larger bank of test questions. Discrimination indices across the full bank showed variation and additional work is underway to refine and field test in other settings these questions in the absence of InTeGrate curricula. When complete, faculty will be able to assemble sets of questions to track progress toward meeting literacy goals. In addition to covering geoscience content knowledge and understanding, a complementary attitudinal pre/post survey was also developed with the intent to probe InTeGrate students' ability and motivation to use their geoscience expertise to address problems of environmental sustainability. The final instruments will be made available to the geoscience education community as an assessment to be used in conjunction with InTeGrate teaching materials or as a stand-alone tool for departments to measure student learning and attitudinal gains across the major.

Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

2013-12-01

301

Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet  

PubMed Central

The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

2011-01-01

302

Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies.  

PubMed

This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological studies of face processing and discusses hypotheses for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. Based on results of behavioral studies, this study demonstrates that individuals with autism have impaired face discrimination and recognition and use atypical strategies for processing faces characterized by reduced attention to the eyes and piecemeal rather than configural strategies. Based on results of electrophysiological studies, this article concludes that face processing impairments are present early in autism, by 3 years of age. Such studies have detected abnormalities in both early (N170 reflecting structural encoding) and late (NC reflecting recognition memory) stages of face processing. Event-related potential studies of young children and adults with autism have found slower speed of processing of faces, a failure to show the expected speed advantage of processing faces versus nonface stimuli, and atypical scalp topography suggesting abnormal cortical specialization for face processing. Other electrophysiological studies have suggested that autism is associated with early and late stage processing impairments of facial expressions of emotion (fear) and decreased perceptual binding as reflected in reduced gamma during face processing. This article describes two types of hypotheses-cognitive/perceptual and motivational/affective--that offer frameworks for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. This article discusses implications for intervention. PMID:15843104

Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara Jane; McPartland, James

2005-01-01

303

The family system grief process as a communicated process: Understanding grief through Virginia Satir's growth model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis argues that the family system grief process can be understood as a communicated process. Through using Virginia Satir's communication stance theory, and applying it to a case study, this thesis found that when a family member dies, the family system enters a period of chaos. During the chaos time family members may rely on incongruent communication stances to

Glenn Vincent Breen

1996-01-01

304

The Earth's core formation and development: evidence from evolution of tectonomagmatic processes and paleomagnetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many geologists confident that the core provides modern tectonic and magmatic activity on the Earth, which explains our interest in this topic, and vice versa we can use evolution of tectonomagmatic processes throughout the Earth's (and other terrestrial planetary bodies) history for reconstruction of the core formation and evolution. Most researchers, follow to V. Safronov (1972) and A. Ringwood (1979), confident that the Earth has occurred due to accumulation of hypothetical chemically homogeneous planetesimals, composed by chondrite material, ie, as a result of homogeneous accretion. However, this single-stage chondrite model of accretion is inconsistent with fact of cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes on the terrestrial planets in the middle stages of their development. For example, the critical irreversible change of the Earth's tectonomagmatic evolution occurred in range 2.35-2.0 Ga, when geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts firstly appeared in large quantities and first geological evidence of plate tectonics showed up (Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2010). We suggest that these changes were linked with ascending of mantle superplumes of the second generation (thermochemical), originated at the the boundary of liquid iron core and silicate mantle, in similar way as the modern plumes. All terrestrial planetary bodies (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, and the Moon) have a similar structure, consist of iron core and silicate envelope, and developed at the same scenario, which provide for drastic irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes at the middle stages of their evolution (Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2009). Such a situation can be realized only in case: (1) the terrestrial planetary bodies originally had heterogeneous structure, and (2) their heating occurred from the top down accompanied by cooling of outer shells. As a result, material of the primordial cores, where enriched material survived, were remained a long time untouched. It assumes the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) occurred by heterogeneous accretion from the material that existed in the early Solar system with primordial iron cores as embryos. Material of this core can be activated only as a result of its melting which fit with paleomagnetic data on the Earth, where magnetic field strength culminated practically simultaneously with beginning of the tectonomagmatic activity change. However, magnetic field on the Earth was existed at least from 3.5 Ga (Tardino et al., 2010) evidence about liquid iron in its deep interior, considered with separation of low-temperature Fe+FeS eutectic from the chondritic primordial mantle. It sank through silicate matrix and accumulated on surface of still cool primordial core. However, it was not affected on tectonomagmatic processes, which occurred essential later. So, the modern (secondary) Earth's core is formed by mixture of the iron of chondrite origin and material of the primordial core which were intermixed by convection after melting of the latter. It agrees with Walker (2010) data that part of material of the terrestrial planets cores was not related to chondrite.

Sharkov, E. V.

2011-12-01

305

NASA Remote Sensing Data in Earth Sciences: Processing, Archiving, Distribution, Applications at the GES DISC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) archiving and distributing remote sensing data from the NASA's Earth Observing System. In addition to providing just data, the GES DISC/DAAC has developed various value-adding processing services. A particularly useful service is data processing a t the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data). The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from data subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. Shifting processing and data management burden from users to the GES DISC, allows scientists to concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the data management and data processing at a lower cost. Several examples of successful partnerships with scientists in the area of data processing and mining are presented.

Leptoukh, Gregory G.

2005-01-01

306

Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers’ performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological measures of emotion control. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers. Results indicated that the three approaches of measuring emotion control were unrelated. Regardless of the measurement method, a four-factor solution differentiating emotion control and understanding and cognitive control and understanding fit the data better than did either of two 2-factor models, one based on domains of emotion and cognition across processes, and one based on processes of control and understanding across domains. Results of this research replicate those of Leerkes et al. (2008) in describing a differentiated underlying structure of emotion and cognition processes in early childhood while also extending these conclusions across samples and across measurement approaches for assessing emotion control. PMID:22328805

Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2011-01-01

307

Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

1989-01-01

308

Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

2007-12-01

309

A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model  

SciTech Connect

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

2014-05-20

310

The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

2013-01-01

311

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based  

E-print Network

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

Prentiss, Mara

312

Introduction to Biological Data Analysis and Statistics Steps in the process of understanding data  

E-print Network

Introduction to Biological Data Analysis and Statistics Steps in the process of understanding data in determining the efficacy of a new drug, how to many different levels of growth medium with what nutrient "descriptive statistics" in which the objective is to abstract out certain properties of the data in order

Gross, Louis J.

313

Understanding the Software Development Process by Analysis of Changed Lines Ranjith Purushothaman  

E-print Network

[1]. The typical software development life cycle consists of requirements analysis, high/low level are less critical and less expensive to fix than errors in analysis or design and are hence given lowUnderstanding the Software Development Process by Analysis of Changed Lines Ranjith Purushothaman

Perry, Dewayne E.

314

The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

2006-01-01

315

Networking from the Inside Out: Understanding Learners' Processes, Activities, and Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research to date has demonstrated that networking can be an effective strategy for supporting meaningful learning. However, studies have shown that learners encounter difficulties using it. In an attempt to understand and thus reduce these difficulties, this study examined learners' underlying cognitive processes and activities while networking.…

De Simone, Christina; Schmid, Richard F.

2004-01-01

316

Understanding the Student-Faculty Mentoring Process: Its Effects on At-Risk University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to understand the student-faculty mentoring process and how mentoring relationships facilitate at-risk students' adjustment to college. The sample consisted of 65 college students who were involved in a Faculty Mentoring Program (FMP) at a four-year institution. A conceptual model was tested relating ethnic…

Santos, Silvia J.; Reigadas, Elena T.

2004-01-01

317

Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

2014-01-01

318

Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

2012-01-01

319

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

320

Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

Irwin, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

321

The process of soot formation in a DI Diesel engine is very challenging to understand and  

E-print Network

Background The process of soot formation in a DI Diesel engine is very challenging to understand and describe. But with respect to the demand for much lower particulate emissions (Tab.1) of Diesel engines emissi- ons of a medium duty DI Diesel engine which is certified for the TIER 3 norm should be evaluated

Sandoghdar, Vahid

322

Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

Zheng, Chunxian

2012-01-01

323

Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

2007-01-01

324

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

PubMed Central

Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

2013-01-01

325

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

PubMed

Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant-microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

2013-07-01

326

Crystal Chemistry and Ceramic Processing of Rare Earth Chalcogenide Optical and Electronic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thesis is concerned with the development of new IR transmitting materials for the 8-14 micrometer atomspheric window. The strategy was to investigate, in detail, the synthesis, crystal chemistry, processing, optical, and electronic properties of the rare earth sulfide as candidate materials. The rare earths crystallize in five known structures. Study of their temperature stabilities during long reaction times showed that alpha (orthorhombic, Pnma) exists as the low temperature form, and gamma (cubic, I| 43d) exists as the high temperature form in the large rare earths. Delta (monoclinic, P2/m) exists in the smaller rare earths from Ho through Tm over all temperature ranges, and episilon (trigonal, R| 3c) forms from Yb and Lu. Beta (tetragonal, I4/acd), which is reported in literature as a mid temperature range, oxygen stabilized rare earth sulfide, appears to be an oxysulfide and is an intermediate step between the oxide and sulfide from La through Nd. Extremely fine-grained precursor oxides were synthesized by evaporative decomposition of solution. An ultrasonic dispersion of aqueous nitrate salts is misted into a hot walled furnace. The 2-5 micrometer resulting oxides were predominantly well-crystallized spherical particles. The sesquisulfides could be readily synthesized by direct reaction of the oxides with flowing H_2S in the presence of graphite. These reactive, fine-grained, EDS-derived sulfides could be sintered into ceramic compacts that achieved 92 -98 percent of theoretical density. Sintering temperatures from 1200^circ-1400 ^circC and time of 80-120 minutes in flowing H_2S produced the best ceramics. This method of preparation is superior to the method using stock 25-35 micrometer starting materials which only received 70-78 percent of theoretical density. The measurement of the electronic absorption edge yielded band gaps of 1.6-2.6 eV. The first-order transverse and longitudinal phonon frequencies obtained by specular reflectance FTIR spectroscopy occurred in the range of 200 cm^{-1} and 300 cm ^{-1}, respectively. The evaluation of the rare earth sesquisulfide shows, from the stability, processing electronic and optical properties, these materials have the characteristics required for IR window materials.

Vaughan, Cheryl Marie

1990-01-01

327

Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

2013-01-01

328

Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

2004-01-01

329

Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

Abbot, D. S.

2012-12-01

330

The optic tectum of birds: mapping our way to understanding visual processing.  

PubMed

Over the past few decades there has been a massive amount of research on the geniculo-striate visual system in primates. However, studies of the avian visual system have provided a rich source of data contributing to our understanding of visual processing. In this paper we review the connectivity and function of the optic tectum (homolog of the superior colliculus) in birds. We highlight the retinotopic projections that the optic tectum has with the isthmal nuclei, and the functional topographic projections that the optic tectum has with the nucleus rotundus and entopallium (homologs of the pulvinar and extrastriate cortex, respectively) where retinotopy has been sacrificed. This work has been critical in our understanding of basic visual processes including attention, parallel processing, and the binding problem. PMID:20025392

Wylie, Douglas R W; Gutierrez-Ibanez, Cristian; Pakan, Janelle M P; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

2009-12-01

331

Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2013-01-01

332

Role of bedrock landslides in erosion of a glaciated basin 1111 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 11111125 (2005)  

E-print Network

, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 1111­1125 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 1111­1125 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www/or deposited in landforms (Figure 1). Sediment volumes are typically measured as fluvially transported

Kurapov, Alexander

333

Using isotopes to understand linked hydrological, biological, and biogeochemical processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopes have many applications for understanding linked processes in ecosystems. Stable isotopes in particular are powerful tools because of their sensitivity to particular sources, transformations, and flow processes. Although less commonly used in an ecohydrological context, radioactive isotopes can also be valuable especially when questions related to groundwater or catchment residence times are involved. In this presentation, we will illustrate how isotopes can improve understanding of linked processes in ecosystems. For example, investigations of linked vadose zone/plant/atmosphere systems using deuterium and oxygen-18 show that both vertical and horizontal spatial variability of isotope values can provide important clues to understand how evaporation and transpiration partitioning varies across the landscape and how these processes impact water flow and pore water chemistry. The links to pore water chemistry are important because they show how strongly coupled vadose zone flow and transport, plant water use, and biogeochemical processes can be. Over the last few decades the use of isotopes has transformed understanding of linked hydrological, biological, and biogeochemical processes from both conceptual and quantitative viewpoints. In addition, recent advances in laboratory- and field-analysis methods for stable isotopes using laser absorption based methods have already had large impacts on scientific research and such impacts will almost certainly grow in the next few years. However, there are still important research questions and deficiencies in our sampling and analytical capabilities remain. These issues significantly hamper efforts to make better quantitative estimates of important fluxes (evaporation being one example). We conclude by discussing some of the key areas that require further development including issues related to the use of isotopes to quantify evaporation and evaporation/transpiration partitioning.

Newman, B. D.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Groening, M.; Poeltenstein, L.; Tanweer, A.

2010-12-01

334

Project EARTH-12-GMH2: Cadmium and barium isotopes as tracers of modern and past ocean processes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-12-GMH2: Cadmium and barium isotopes as tracers of modern and past ocean processes Supervisor: Professor Gideon Henderson Cadmium and barium both show surface depletion in the oceans, are both

Henderson, Gideon

335

Before the 20th century there were few seismometers. So Earth's dynamic geophysical processes were poorly un-  

E-print Network

Before the 20th century there were few seismometers. So Earth's dynamic geophysical processes were seismometer locations and a model for P-wave velocities, one can find the source. One gets even more reliable

336

An image-processing system applied to earth-resource imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Harwell Image Processing System (HIPS) has been adapted for processing earth-resource imagery in either film or tape format. Data from film are obtained using a computer-controlled flying-spot scanner. Local rapid interactive processing is based on a PDP 11/20 minicomputer which has suitable display facilities for immediate visual appraisal of results and also a fast data link to an IBM 370/168 computer complex. An extensive subroutine library is being assembled for data preprocessing and feature extraction. This chapter includes a discussion of the basic principles of image analysis, a description of the HIPS system, and finally, for illustrative purposes, a description of several simple software routines.

Carter, P.; Gardner, W. E.

1977-01-01

337

Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

Grundstrom, Erika

2013-01-01

338

The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event

J. J. Roush; R. A. Hansen

2003-01-01

339

New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements  

E-print Network

Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110 earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r-nuclei with A > 140.

S. Goriely; J. -L. Sida; J. -F. Lemaitre; S. Panebianco; N. Dubray; S. Hilaire; A. Bauswein; H. -Thomas Janka

2013-11-22

340

Image processing in a science classroom: The role of students' understanding of the technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is an exploratory cognitive study of high school science students when they use computer image processing as a tool for visual data analysis. The core findings are that students readily generate a large variety of interpretive methods and that the quality of their interpretations often depends upon the ways they understand the image processing technology itself The dissertation study seeks to identify the ways students understand and misunderstand the technology and how their understandings support or hinder accurate interpretations of image displays in terms of the underlying data. The data corpus consists of videotapes of pairs of high school students analyzing digital images of astronomical objects. The study identifies the many visual attributes of image displays that students notice and the various understandings of the technology that they apply when interpreting these visual attributes. The study also identifies the ways students apply generalizations from their perceptual experiences and conventions that they may have learned from interpreting maps and other representational displays of spatially distributed data. The study analyzes the ways these generalizations support or hinder accurate interpretations. The study also identifies characteristics of the image-processing activities themselves that may support hinder, or challenge students' capabilities for interpreting image displays. Major results include a specification of knowledge of the technology that students would find most helpful when using image processing as a toot for visual data analysis. The results also include a set of heuristics for designing image-processing-based data analytic activities that will support and challenge students. Although the study uses only astronomical data, the results should apply to any remotely sensed data or, more generally, spatially distributed data. Also, the results should apply to other technology-based representational devices, including Geographic Information Systems and other scientific visualization tools.

Friedman, Jeffrey S.

1999-11-01

341

In service teachers' understanding of salt dissolution process through representational animations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are repeatedly applied to support student comprehension in the theoretical ideas of chemistry. However, students' understanding the dynamics of the phenomena is directly related to the understanding of teachers as instructors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how the features of three different molecular level animations are viewed and understood by the teachers who had more than 2 years experience. Participants (n=10) are in-service science teachers, mostly high school, grouped into three groups with four participants in the first group and three people in the other two. Each group viewed short different animations and one common animation demonstrating the salt dissolution process. Teachers were asked to take pre and post-tests to measure the influence of the animations in their understandings of the content in addition to a group discussion and an interview. The study suggests that the animations improved the content knowledge of the teachers slightly.

Malkoc, Ummuhan

342

Bacteria and Archaea have an essential role in earth system processes. They are  

E-print Network

as ecological theory arose from natural his- tory to draw generalized conclusions from specific observations, understanding the factors that control these processes is crucial. In our view, this can best be achieved. The importance of theory Theory is used to classify, interpret and predict the world around us. Without it

Bruns, Tom

343

A multi-faceted approach to characterize acid-sulfate alteration processes in volcanic hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-sulfate alteration is a dominant weathering process in high temperature, low pH, sulfur-rich volcanic environments. Additionally, hydrothermal environments have been proposed as locations where life could have originated on Earth. Based on the extensive evidence of flowing surface water and persistent volcanism, similar locations and processes could have existed on early Mars. Globally observed alteration mineral assemblages likely represent relic Martian hydrothermal settings. Yet the limited understanding of environmental controls, limits the confidence of interpreting the paleoconditions of these hydrothermal systems and assessing their habitability to support microbial life. This thesis presents a series of laboratory experiments, geochemical models, analog fieldwork, and Martian remote sensing to characterize distinguishing features and controls of acid-sulfate alteration. The experiments and models were designed to replicate alteration is a highly acidic, sulfurous, and hot field sites. The basaltic minerals were individually reacted in both experimental and model simulations with varying initial parameters to infer the geochemical pathways of acid-sulfate alteration on Earth and Mars. It was found that for a specific starting material, secondary mineralogies were consistent. Variations in pH, temperature and duration affected the abundance, shape, and size of mineral products. Additionally evaporation played a key role in secondary deposits; therefore, both alteration and evaporitic processes need to be taken into consideration. Analog volcanic sites in Nicaragua were used to supplement this work and highlight differences between natural and simulated alteration. In situ visible near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that primary lithology and gas chemistry were dominant controls of alteration, with secondary effects from environmental controls, such as temperature and pH. The spectroscopic research from the field was directly related to Mars observations in Noctis Labyrinthus, Terra Sirenum, Syrtis Major, and Mawrth Vallis to help interpret ancient conditions in those settings. To further apply the results from experiments, models, and fieldwork, Coprates Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris was studied using mineralogical and morphological data. Emplacement of alteration minerals indicated both pre- and post-rifting hydrothermal activity. Smaller southern grabens appeared to have experienced a unique alteration. In summary, this dissertation presents research that contributes to the understanding of the geological evolution of Mars and potentially habitability.

Marcucci, Emma Cordts

344

Development of Remote Laboratory for Understanding the Processes from Design to Manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faculties at the Department of Production, Information and Systems Engineering at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology faces a problem how they can motivate their students who lack in substantial hands on experience of design and manufacture and let them understand the processes from design to manufacture. To overcome this difficulty, a Remote Laboratory system was developed using a Stirling engine by noting its simple structure and principle, with the aim of providing a student hands on experience. A student designs a connecting rod, and it is machined by a milling machine in the lab at a distance. The on-site lab attendant installs the connecting rod on the engine and conducts a trial run, which is viewed by the student via internet video at the remote location. Experiments demonstrated that the Remote Lab system will facilitate a student to understand the processes from design to manufacture.

Hayashi, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Shuichi

345

Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

346

Understanding the Nature of the Kinetic Process in a VO2 Metal-Insulator Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the kinetics during the metal-insulator transition process is crucial to sort out the underlying physical nature of electron-lattice interactions in correlated materials. Here, based on the temperature-dependent in situ x-ray absorption fine structure measurement and density-functional theory calculations, we have revealed that the monoclinic-to-tetragonal phase transition of VO2 near the critical temperature is characterized by a sharp decrease of

Tao Yao; Xiaodong Zhang; Zhihu Sun; Shoujie Liu; Yuanyuan Huang; Yi Xie; Changzheng Wu; Xun Yuan; Wenqing Zhang; Ziyu Wu; Guoqiang Pan; Fengchun Hu; Lihui Wu; Qinghua Liu; Shiqiang Wei

2010-01-01

347

Why geography? Geographers study the earth's landscapes,  

E-print Network

Why geography? Geographers study the earth's landscapes, people and environment and the interactions between them. Geography bridges the social sciences (human geography) and natural sciences (physical geography). It is concerned with understanding the interactions between natural processes

Sussex, University of

348

Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.  

PubMed

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. PMID:23416180

Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

2013-05-01

349

Strategies to Observe and Understand Processes and Drivers in the Biogeosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chapman conferences are intended for deeper discussions of specific topical areas of scientific interest. This Chapman conference was organized to review and discuss new strategies to observe and understand processes and drivers in the biogeosphere, particularly those related to coupled biogeochemical and hydrological processes in terrestrial systems. The topics presented at the meeting included transport and exchange processes of organic and gaseous compounds across the soil-water and soil-plant interfaces, monitoring strategies of soil-mediated processes and drivers from the local to the catchment scale, and the impact of soil formation and functions on ecosystem services. These topics were addressed and intensively discussed by participants covering the fields of soil systems sciences, hydrology, and biogeosciences.

Vereecken, Harry; Young, Michael; Troch, Peter; Bertsch, Paul

2014-01-01

350

ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

2012-12-01

351

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

2013-01-01

352

Approximating the r-Process on Earth with Thermonuclear Explosions: Lessons Learned and Unanswered Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the astrophysical r-process, multiple neutron captures occur so rapidly on target nuclei that their daughter nuclei generally do not have time to undergo radioactive decay before another neutron is captured. The r-process can be approximately simulated on Earth in certain types of thermonuclear explosions through an analogous process of rapid neutron captures known as the "prompt capture" process. Between 1952 and 1969, 23 nuclear tests were fielded by the US which were involved (at least partially) with the "prompt capture" process. Of these tests, 15 were at least partially successful. Some of these tests were conducted under the Plowshare Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Program as scientific research experiments. It is now known that the USSR conducted similar nuclear tests during 1966 to 1979. The elements einsteinium and fermium were first discovered by this process. The most successful tests achieved 19 successive neutron captures on the initial target nuclei. A review of the US program, target nuclei used, heavy element yields, scientific achievements of the program, and how some of the results have been used by the astrophysical community is given. Finally, some unanswered questions concerning very neutron-rich nuclei that could potentially have been answered with additional nuclear experiments is presented.

Becker, S. A.

353

Spectrophotometric determination of Rare Earth Elements in aqueous nitric acid solutions for process control.  

PubMed

Noninvasive analytical control is of special interest for the complicated and hazardous production processes. On-line monitoring provides a unique opportunity to determine critical concentrations rapidly and without serious risks to operating personnel and the environment. Models for quantitative determination of concentrations of Rare Earth Elements in complex mixtures in nitric acid serve for these purposes. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous determination of cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium using the whole UV-vis spectroscopic range, together with chemometric data processing, is studied. The predictability of two chemometric techniques, partial least squares regression and correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares are compared. Models' performances are analyzed in out-of-control cases. PMID:25818140

Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Tikhomirova, Tatyana I; Pomerantsev, Alexey L

2015-04-15

354

A subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in Earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchanges. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models may lead to inadequate representation of subgrid heterogeneity and lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Here a subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented in each subbasin on a pseudo-grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART). The framework is implemented in two topographically and climatically contrasting regions of the US: the Pacific Northwest and the Midwest. The relative merits of this modeling framework, with greater emphasis on scalability (i.e., ability to perform consistently across spatial resolutions) in streamflow simulation compared to the grid-based modeling framework are investigated by performing simulations at 0.125°, 0.25°, 0.5°, and 1° spatial resolutions. Comparison of the two frameworks at the finest spatial resolution showed that a small difference between the averaged forcing could lead to a larger difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear processes. More systematic comparisons conducted using statistical metrics calculated between each coarse resolution and the corresponding 0.125°-resolution simulations showed superior scalability in simulating both peak and mean streamflow for the subbasin based over the grid-based modeling framework. Scalability advantages are driven by a combination of improved consistency in runoff generation and the routing processes across spatial resolutions.

Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.; Huang, M.; Ke, Y.; Sun, Y.; Liu, Y.

2014-05-01

355

[Runoff and sediment processes and anti-erosion effects of grass-covered earth road in loess hilly region].  

PubMed

A laboratory simulation test with slope-adjustable steel tank and artificial rainfall was conducted to study the runoff and sediment processes of uncovered and Poa pratensis L.-planted earth roads, and the anti-erosion effects of P. pratensis-planted earth road. At the same rainfall intensity and slope, the runoff coefficient of P. pratensis-planted earth road was larger than that of uncovered earth road. For the two kinds of earth roads, their runoff coefficients all increased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope. At the same slope but different rainfall intensity, the runoff coefficient had a logarithmic relationship with rainfall duration, and a quadratic relationship with slope or rainfall intensity. Soil erosion rate increased with increasing rainfall intensity or slope, and was smaller on the P. pratensis-planted earth road at the same rainfall intensity. The average antierosion efficacy of P. pratensis-planted earth road was 47.22% at different rainfall intensity, and was 26.24% at different slope. Because of its higher roughness and higher road surface resistance coefficient, P. pratensis-planted earth road had a lower sediment yield and a decreased sediment transport. PMID:20879538

Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shi-qing; Tian, Feng-xia; Ma, Chun-yan

2010-07-01

356

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

SciTech Connect

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

2009-07-01

357

Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring Processes Using Reactive Transport Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to oil reservoir souring. Souring typically occurs when (sea)water is injected into the oil reservoir to maintain pressure and sweep remnant oil through the reservoir. Because biogenesis of hydrogen sulfide has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems, we strive to develop predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recent laboratory sediment column experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. In this study, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that is based on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics revealed through the column experimental data. The model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes. The growth and inhibition dynamics of the sulfate reducing bacterial population are explicitly simulated and constrained by energetics. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results show that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Ongoing research is focusing on extending the reactive transport model to mechanistically understand, quantify, and predict souring and desouring processes within heterogeneous reservoirs as a step toward optimizing field scale souring control strategies.

Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Surasani, V.

2013-12-01

358

Using process monitor wafers to understand directed self-assembly defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As directed self-assembly (DSA) has gained momentum over the past few years, questions about its application to high volume manufacturing have arisen. One of the major concerns is about the fundamental limits of defectivity that can be attained with the technology. If DSA applications demonstrate defectivity that rivals of traditional lithographic technologies, the pathway to the cost benefits of the technology creates a very compelling case for its large scale implementation. To address this critical question, our team at IMEC has established a process monitor flow to track the defectivity behaviors of an exemplary chemo-epitaxy application for printing line/space patterns. Through establishing this baseline, we have been able to understand both traditional lithographic defect sources in new materials as well as new classes of assembly defects associated with DSA technology. Moreover, we have explored new materials and processing to lower the level of the defectivity baseline. The robustness of the material sets and process is investigated as well. In this paper, we will report the understandings learned from the IMEC DSA process monitor flow.

Cao, Yi; Her, YoungJun; Delgadillo, Paulina R.; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Gronheid, Roel; Chan, Boon Teik; Hashimoto, Yukio; Romo, Ainhoa; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

2013-03-01

359

Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

deGroh, Henry C., III

1999-01-01

360

The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.  

PubMed

The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150?h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

2012-05-01

361

Microstructure in the extreme environment: understanding and predicting dynamic damage processes  

SciTech Connect

The future of materials science: strategic application for functionally controlled materials properties is emphasized by the need to control material performance in extreme environments. To this end, this study examines the separate effects of kinetics (in the form of dynamic loading rate and shock wave shape) from that of length-scale effects (in the form of microstructural defect distributions). Recently available mesoscale modeling techniques are being used to capture a physical link between kinetic and length-scale influences on dynamic loading. This work contributes innovative new tools in the form of shock-wave shaping techniques in dynamic experimentation, materials characterization, lending insight into 3D damage field analysis at micron resolution, and the physics necessary to provide predictive capabilities for dynamic damage evolution. Experimental results tailored for the discreet understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects during dynamic loading are obtained to provide the basis for the development of process-aware material performance models. The understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects in extreme environments of dynamic loading advances the understanding of current emerging issues relevant to phenomena such as inclusion related failure in metals, grain size dependence on ejecta, and benefits of interfaces in mitigating defect development specifically driven by the need to tailor material response. Finally, the coupling of experimental techniques with theory and simulation is aimed at advancing process-aware damage modeling as well as transitioning materials science from observation to property control.

Dennis-koller, Darcie L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo-diaz, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-21

362

Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet? - Duration: 2:36.  

NASA Video Gallery

Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

363

Prospects for projecting the impact of Earth system processes on Integrated Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the prospects for advancing the quantitative exploration of climate mitigation strategies using the integrated Earth System Model (iESM). The iESM leverages existing investments by DOE in community simulation capabilities including the Community Earth System Model (CESM) together with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) and the Global Land-use Model (GLM). GCAM and GLM are the foundation for one of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) evaluated in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The distinguishing features of iESM are the incorporation of integrated assessment capabilities into a full ESM and the provision for two-way interactions between the energy sector and climate change. Initial experiments using this new modeling system have demonstrated the need to revisit the conceptual design of the RCP scenarios [Moss, et al., 2010]. The iESM team has shown that feedbacks from climate change to the energy sector, an important class of interactions omitted from the current IPCC scenarios, can significantly alter the future allocation of land for energy and food production. Because human and biogeophysical Earth systems are closely coupled in the iESM, it is now possible to rapidly explore climate implications of new scenarios for future assessments and likewise to quantify the effects of improved treatments of major climatic processes on those scenarios. We discuss the progress towards significantly enhanced treatments of aerosols, carbon cycles, and methane feedbacks in CESM. We conclude with the potential applications of these capabilities in integrated assessment on decadal to centennial timescales using iESM.

Collins, W.; Edmonds, J. A.; Thornton, P. E.; Craig, A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Truesdale, J.

2012-12-01

364

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

365

Prospective faculty developing understanding of teaching and learning processes in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, teaching has been considered a burden by many academics at institutions of higher education, particularly research scientists. Furthermore, university faculty and prospective faculty often have limited exposure to issues associated with effective teaching and learning. As a result, a series of ineffective teaching and learning strategies are pervasive in university classrooms. This exploratory case study focuses on four biology graduate teaching fellows (BGF) who participated in a National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 Program. Such programs were introduced by NSF to enhance the preparation of prospective faculty for their future professional responsibilities. In this particular program, BGF were paired with high school biology teachers (pedagogical mentors) for at least one year. During this yearlong partnership, BGF were involved in a series of activities related to teaching and learning ranging from classroom teaching, tutoring, lesson planning, grading, to participating in professional development conferences and reflecting upon their practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in BGF understanding of teaching and learning processes in science as a function of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In addition, the potential transfer of this knowledge between high school and higher education contexts was investigated. The findings of this study suggest that understanding of teaching and learning processes in science by the BGF changed. Specific aspects of the BGF involvement in the program (such as classroom observations, practice teaching, communicating with mentors, and reflecting upon one's practice) contributed to PCK development. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that constant reflection is critical in the process of change. Concurrently, BGFs enhanced understanding of science teaching and learning processes may be transferable from the high school context to the university context. Future research studies should be designed to explore explicitly this transfer phenomenon.

Pareja, Jose I.

366

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

1997-01-01

367

The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

2006-11-01

368

The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Predictions of Extreme Rainfall Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across the rest of Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations. Particularly during the summer a large proportion of the precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. Given the deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall by climate models, even in the current generation of high-resolution RCMs, the CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed that brings together observations, basic understanding and models. This should go hand in hand with a change from a focus on traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes of model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales. It is particularly true for localised intense summer convection. CONVEX therefore aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. This includes the running of new RCM simulations undertaken by the UK Meteorological Office at 50km and 12km resolutions (parameterised convection) and comparing these with new 1.5km resolution (convection-permitting) model simulations for the southern UK. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales to provide improved understanding of the strengths and limitations of climate models and uncertainty estimates derived from model ensembles. It is also believed that this could also lead to an improved estimation of changes to local scale convective rainfall and thus flash floods. Current results from the simulation of a "baseline" climate and future work undertaken by CONVEX will allow us to understand which extreme rainfall situations benefit from higher resolution. It is envisaged that this will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. Further, as well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change predictions.

Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel; Stephenson, David; Jones, Richard; Sessford, Pat

2013-04-01

369

Effects of the Earth’s atmosphere and human neural processing of light on the apparent colors of stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical algorithm for quantifying the perceived colors of stars as viewed from the surface of the Earth across a wide range of possible atmospheric conditions. These results are then used to generate color-corrected stellar images. As a first step, optics corrections are calculated to adjust for the CCD bias and the transmission curves of any filters used during image collection. Next, corrections for atmospheric scattering and absorption are determined for the atmospheric conditions during imaging by utilizing the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). These two sets of corrections are then applied to a series of reference spectra, which are then weighted against the CIE 1931 XYZ color matching functions before being mapped onto the sRGB color space, in order to determine a series of reference colors against which the original image will be compared. Each pixel of the image is then re-colored based upon its closest corresponding reference spectrum so that the final image output closely matches, in color, what would be seen by the human eye above the Earth's atmosphere. By comparing against the reference spectrum, the stellar classification for each star in the image can also be determined. An observational experiment is underway to test the accuracy of these calculations.

Savino, Michael; Comins, Neil Francis

2015-01-01

370

John Lubbock's early contribution to the understanding of river terraces and their importance to Geography, Archaeology and Earth Science  

PubMed Central

In his writings John Lubbock expounded views on the understanding of past climates, prehistoric faunas, early humans, and the evolution of landscape and river systems. His contributions on some of these related topics are scarcely remembered, despite comparison with modern thinking showing them frequently to have been prescient. He visited the Somme valley, observing river terrace gravels and Palaeolithic artefacts in the company of the leading geologists and archaeologists of his day, visits that furnished knowledge of the early archaeological record and were also formative in terms of his understanding of river-valley and landscape evolution. He noted that terraces represented former valley-floor levels and that rivers had deepened their valleys in response to uplift of the land, something that is often not fully grasped at the present time. He was also an early believer in interglacial–glacial climatic fluctuation, an idea not widely accepted in Britain until after his death.

Bridgland, David R.

2014-01-01

371

Bigger Eyes in a Wider Universe: The American Understanding of Earth in Outer Space, 1893-1941.  

E-print Network

IV UNDERSTANDING ONE?S PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE (1917-1941)... 104 Raymond Chandler and the Californian Image of Independence............ 108 Harlow Shapley... regions to which they belong. Biographies of key astronomers, such as Helen Wright?s Explorer of the Universe: A Biography of George Ellery Hale (1966), Harlow Shapley?s autobiography, Through Rugged Ways to the Stars (1969), and Gale E. Christianson...

Prosser, Jodicus W.

2010-07-14

372

Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

Peters, N.E.

2008-01-01

373

A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.  

PubMed

Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay. PMID:20556650

Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

2011-04-01

374

Forest landscape models, a tool for understanding the effect of the large-scale and long-term landscape processes  

E-print Network

Editorial Forest landscape models, a tool for understanding the effect of the large-scale and long-term landscape processes Forest landscape models have become important tools for understanding large-scale and long-term landscape (spatial) processes such as climate change, fire, windthrow, seed dispersal, insect

He, Hong S.

375

Student Understanding Of The Physics And Mathematics Of Process Variables In P-V Diagrams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students in an upper-level thermal physics course were asked to compare quantities related to the First Law of Thermodynamics along with similar mathematical questions devoid of all physical context. We report on a comparison of student responses to physics questions involving interpretation of ideal gas processes on P-V diagrams and to analogous mathematical qualitative questions about the signs of and comparisons between the magnitudes of various integrals. Student performance on individual questions combined with performance on the paired questions shows evidence of isolated understanding of physics and mathematics. Some difficulties are addressed by instruction.

Pollock, Evan B.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

2007-11-01

376

[10-386] Assessing and Improving the Scale Dependence of Ecosystem Processes in Earth System Models  

E-print Network

. Goodale Cornell U. *Overall Project Lead *Lead Institution Intellectual Merit: Earth system models include policies. Our research assesses and improves Earth system model simulations of the carbon cycle, ecosystem of the Community Climate System Model/Community Earth System Model, which includes statistical meteorological

377

Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

Balter, B. M.

1979-01-01

378

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

379

The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Projections of Extreme Rainfall Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations and do not capture the properties of sub-daily events that may lead to flooding in urban areas. In the UK and Europe, particularly during the summer, a large proportion of precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. The CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed to provide improvements in estimates of change in extreme rainfall, particularly for summer convective events. As usable predictions require the synthesis of observations, understanding of atmospheric processes and models, a change in focus from traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes for model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales is needed. By adopting this new focus CONVEX aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change on timescales from days to decades. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. Under the project the UK Meteorological Office has run new RCM simulations at 50km and 12km resolutions and compared these with new 1.5km-resolution model simulations for the southern UK. At this fine resolution convection may be explicitly represented in the model rather than parameterised as at coarser resolutions. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales and in particular has investigated the links between temperature and extreme rainfall. A further key part of the project has been the simulation of a high-resolution climate change experiment using "baseline" climate and future simulations which are being compared with coarser model projections. It is thus envisaged that CONVEX will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. As well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change projections. Recommendations to the user community will also be provided by the project, including qualitative guidance for the use of projections from coarser resolution models.

Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Chris; Roberts, Nigel; Sessford, Pat

2014-05-01

380

Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

1984-01-01

381

Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

2003-01-01

382

Understanding children's emotional processes and behavioral strategies in the context of marital conflict.  

PubMed

Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N = 207, mean age = 8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy) and behavioral strategies to regulate conflict exposure during resolved, unresolved, escalating, and child-rearing marital conflict vignettes. Children's cortisol levels were assessed in relation to child-rearing and resolved conflict vignettes. Anger and sadness were associated with escalating and child-rearing conflicts, fearfulness was related to escalating and unresolved conflicts, and happiness was associated with resolution. Anger was associated with children's strategies to stop conflict, whereas sadness was associated with monitoring and avoidant strategies. Cortisol recovery moderated the link between fearfulness and behavioral regulation. These results highlight the importance of children's emotions and regulatory processes in understanding the impact of marital conflict. PMID:21397249

Koss, Kalsea J; George, Melissa R W; Bergman, Kathleen N; Cummings, E M; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

2011-07-01

383

Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design  

E-print Network

Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools to understand the extreme complexity of the aging process. The generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological, social networks and ecosystems, which may give novel concepts to cure age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs which aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of p...

Simko, Gabor I; Veres, Daniel V; Nanasi, Tibor; Csermely, Peter

2009-01-01

384

Measuring Student Understanding of the Process of Scientific Research through Three Modes of Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have continued to develop "Research-Based Science Education" (RBSE) curriculum and assessment for a semester-long program in which undergraduate non-science majors participate in authentic research. The instruction is mainly astronomy-based, but can be used in any introductory science course. Currently, the curriculum is being used by five universities over an assortment of introductory science and astronomy classrooms. The primary goal of the RBSE curriculum is to develop a student's understanding of the nature and process of scientific research. We will present trends and misconceptions discovered based upon our analysis of Fall 2011 semester student responses to several types of assessments including weekly assigned reflective journal questions on the nature of science and pre/post semester concept maps. Additionally, gains observed from a pre/post semester survey of participatory students’ confidence on their science process skills abilities will be discussed.

Krok, Michelle; Rector, T.; Young, M. J.

2012-01-01

385

Improved understanding of hillslope-scale hydrological processes using high-resolution soil moisture measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is a key variable that controls e.g. matter and energy fluxes, slope stability, occurence of flood events and soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. Deriving detailed process understanding at the hillslope scale is not trivial, because of the non-linearity of hillslope response to rainfall due to local soil moisture dynamics. Characterizing this variability is one of the major challenges in hillslope hydrology. Long-term monitoring of surface and subsurfce soil moisture at various depths can provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal pattern of soil moisture dynamics, and facilitate understanding the controlling factors of underlying hydrological processes. In the Schäfertal catchment (located in the Harz Mountains, in Central Germany) a 2.5 ha hillslope area was permanently instrumented with a wireless soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring network. Ground-based electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements and topographic data were included into a geostatistical sampling strategy in order to optimize the placement of the network nodes. In total, 240 sensors were distributed to create 40 pairs of instrumented soil profiles, providing hourly measurements of soil water content and soil temperature at 5, 25 and 50 cm depth. The soil spatial variability was mapped and the soil texture was determined for each node location and each soil horizon. For the selected monitoring period of 14 months, the soil moisture pattern and its variability through time were analyzed. Seasonal and event-based analysis shows the varying relevance of topography and soil properties in determining several near-surface processes such as preferential flow, subsurface lateral flow and dynamics of the groundwater table.

Martini, Edoardo; Kögler, Simon; Wollschläger, Ute; Werban, Ulrike; Behrens, Thorsten; Schmidt, Karsten; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

2014-05-01

386

Correlation of non-uniformly scaled dynamic processes of the Earth with tropical cyclogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analysed the occurrence conditions, influencing factors, regional and seasonal activity of tropical cyclogenesis, existential variability of intensity of process in 1988 - 2005. It have been also considered non-uniformly scaled regional and seasonal geodynamical processes as the catalyzing factor of occurrence of dynamic instability in atmosphere. It has been established, that tropical cyclogenesis is impossible without subtropical anticyclogenesis, intensity of occurrence of tropical hurricanes is directly proportional intensity of subtropical anticyclogenesis. Global latitudinal distribution of an areal of tropical cyclogenesis is caused by presence of critical parallels of geoid. Global annual variability of intensity of tropical cyclogenesis correlates with annual variability of speed of rotation of the Earth about the axis. Seasonal variability of activization of tropical cyclogenesis of hemispheres coincides with a new global geodynamic fashion. Regional activization of different parts of an areal of occurrence of tropical cyclones has correlation connection throughout a year. One centres correlate directly proportionally, the others - inversely proportional. For the considered period (1988 - 2005) with the greatest activization of tropical cyclogenesis are allocated 1992 and 1996, where especially active were the southeast of Indian and the northwest of Pacific oceans. The year 2005 was allocated with abnormal increase in quantity of tropical cyclones in northern Atlantic and a northwest part of Pacific ocean. In brightly expressed the El-Nino (1997-1998) the centres of tropical cyclogenesis had various intensity. Geodynamical processes and tropical cyclogenesis have accurate existential connection.

Kapochkin, B. B.; Kucherenko, N. V.; Dolia, V. D.; Baadzhy, A. B.

2009-04-01

387

X-ray crystallography and its impact on understanding bacterial cell wall remodeling processes.  

PubMed

The molecular structure of matter defines its properties and function. This is especially true for biological macromolecules such as proteins, which participate in virtually all biochemical processes. A three dimensional structural model of a protein is thus essential for the detailed understanding of its physiological function and the characterization of essential properties such as ligand binding and reaction mechanism. X-ray crystallography is a well-established technique that has been used for many years, but it is still by far the most widely used method for structure determination. A particular strength of this technique is the elucidation of atomic details of molecular interactions, thus providing an invaluable tool for a multitude of scientific projects ranging from the structural classification of macromolecules over the validation of enzymatic mechanisms or the understanding of host-pathogen interactions to structure-guided drug design. In the first part of this review, we describe essential methodological and practical aspects of X-ray crystallography. We provide some pointers that should allow researchers without a background in structural biology to assess the overall quality and reliability of a crystal structure. To highlight its potential, we then survey the impact X-ray crystallography has had on advancing an understanding of a class of enzymes that modify the bacterial cell wall. A substantial number of different bacterial amidase structures have been solved, mostly by X-ray crystallography. Comparison of these structures highlights conserved as well as divergent features. In combination with functional analyses, structural information on these enzymes has therefore proven to be a valuable template not only for understanding their mechanism of catalysis, but also for targeted interference with substrate binding. PMID:25604506

Büttner, Felix Michael; Renner-Schneck, Michaela; Stehle, Thilo

2015-02-01

388

Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are 1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, 2) subcritical crack processes, 3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and 4) modeling.

Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

2014-01-16

389

Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2008-01-01

390

Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool for watershed process understanding.

Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

2011-12-01

391

An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

Lopez, Ramon E.

1996-01-01

392

Using computer simulation to understand the Martian valley network formation and modification processes and resulting basin morphometric characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the Martian valley networks has been debated since their discovery Two main alternative hypotheses exist 1 they were eroded by emerging groundwater or groundwater sapping which could form under cold climate 2 they were formed by erosion from rainfall and runoff process similar to what happens on Earth Evidences for both hypotheses have been observed These two

W. Luo; A. D. Howard

2006-01-01

393

Relating Major Surface Processes to the Deep Earth — The Importance of the Miocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many global scale tectonic, oceanic and climate changes began in the Tertiary with global tectonics as the underlying driving force and changed the world. In full flower by the beginning of the Middle Miocene around 16 Ma, these changes continued through the Late Miocene into the present so we can firmly say that most of our modern world, continental glaciations excepted, began in the Middle and Late Miocene. We summarize in a flow diagram how the major earth surface processes active in the Miocene are related to the Deep Earth as understood by recent advances in seismic tomography. This 11 Ma interval had two global orogenic zones, the Alpine-Tethyan orogen from Gibraltar across southern Asia into Vietnam and around the Pacific Rim, both crustal expressions of downwellings taking place, especially in the upper mantle. These downwellings are balanced by upwellings in the lower mantle in and on the rim of the African and Pacific superplumes, which are large, low-shear velocity provinces; part of the rising plumes originated from the most extensively melted regions of the core-mantle boundary layer, D", where heat flow from the outer core is highest. Together these up-and downwellings indicate that mantle convection extended, at least periodically, through the whole mantle and reflected lateral variations in convection and heat flow in the cooling and slowly crystallizing outer core. Correlation of mantle convection with surface features is most evident in the uppermost mantle whose dynamic topography is readily reflected by the subsidence and tilting of continents moving toward the downwelling zones. Because they are closely synchronous, these two orogenic belts had enormous consequences for the earth's surface, and because they are close to us in time, they are easy to study and sample. Thus the Miocene is ideal to study for both its many global intra connections and for their link to the Deep Earth. As these two orogenies developed, they changed a global warm water ocean into our present cooler, more fragmented system with a cooler atmosphere. Higher plateaus and uplifted mountains deflected jet streams, expanded rain shadows promoting desertification, favored initial mountain glaciation, and helped cool air temperatures. Upwelling was enhanced on both sides of the Pacific basin, silica production shifted from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, more mud and sand were brought to the ocean causing many passive margins to prograde, and hemipelagic mud became more abundant off continental margins. At the very end of the Miocene even the Mediterranean dried up, as it was isolated by the Alpine orogeny at Gibraltar. Onshore, epeirogenic uplift was widespread both in the interiors of the continents and along many of their margins. Active convergent margins changed continental tilts, completely altered some rivers, and formed new ones with new deltas, some on the other side of a continent. The above changes greatly altered the surface environment and induced many significant changes in flora and fauna and their distribution and have great economic importance. Many of the major geochemical cycles of the ocean and atmosphere also experienced major changes at this time. We posit that the generalizations ultimately emerging from the Miocene will apply to all the Phanerozoic and far back into the Precambrian and that are all tied to Deep Earth.

Potter, P. E.; Szatmari, P.

2012-12-01

394

NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS  

SciTech Connect

We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 {<=} Z {<=} 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)], E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: iii@ociw.edu

2009-05-15

395

New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars  

E-print Network

We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

2009-01-01

396

The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbon’s role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

2009-12-01

397

Developing a General Understanding of the Decomposition Process: Results From a Network Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although leaf and fine root litter undergo many changes during the process of decomposition, there is relatively little long-term data to develop a general, global level understanding of this process. The LIDET (Long-term Intersite Decomposition Experiment Team) study, conducted at 27 sites in North and Central America using a wide range of litter types, created a database suitable for this purpose. Analysis of the long-term pattern of mass loss indicated that while a slower, later phase of decomposition occurred in most cases for a substantial fraction (30%) it did not. These results imply that average long-term decomposition rates may be overestimated by up to a factor of 2 if based on short-term (1 year) decomposition losses. The relationship between wooden dowel decomposition and climatic indices indicated limits on the ability to predict decomposition rates for sites more favorable for decomposition, with a maximum coefficient of determination of 70%. Regression analysis of the relationship between climatic and substrate quality indices and decomposition rates indicated controls on decomposition processes changed from the early to late stages, with early-stage processes controlled by climate and initial litter chemistry, but late-stage processes more likely controlled by other factors such as the soil environment. Development of a mechanistic model based on AIC analysis indicates at least 3 litter fractions need to be considered and that a climatic index that combines the effects of temperature and moisture explains the most variation (70%). Analysis of the relationship between nitrogen release and mass loss indicated a global relationship exists that is largely dependent on the initial nitrogen content with 77% of the variation explained by this simple model. Overall the LIDET study indicated that there are general global patterns to long- term decomposition dynamics, however, current models indicate limits to our ability to predict global patterns of this important process.

Harmon, M. E.

2007-12-01

398

Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9) discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer retrievals under light dust loadings. These results provide insights into boundary layer and dust processes in the SHL region - a region of substantial global climatic importance.

Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estellés, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Rosenberg, P.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Woolley, A.

2015-01-01

399

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

400

Improving understanding of volcanic processes and hazards with near-surface geophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-surface geophysical techniques have become integral tools for addressing a variety of volcanological problems, in particular for better understanding of processes and hazards associated with explosive volcanism. Processes with near-surface signatures can be examined with an array of high-resolution methods that offer imaging capabilities dramatically beyond traditional larger-scale gravity, magnetic, and seismic studies. Recent high-resolution surveys with self-potential (SP) and electromagnetic (EM) methods shed light on fluid flow and degassing processes. Time-domain EM surveys yield remarkable constraints on near-vent water table depths and associated hydrogeologic processes, in terrains where drilling would be prohibitively expensive. Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic methods have been used to image near-vent fracture systems, and in some cases to image magmas in the shallow subsurface directly. Resistivity methods, useful in geothermal exploration, are less well-suited to mapping the highly resistive near-surface of young volcanoes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveying, on the other hand, works best in resistive strata and can offer high-resolution 2- and 3-D stratigraphic images in otherwise inaccessible settings. GPR studies can provide constraints on tephra fall and surge deposit volumes and internal structure, the nature of paleosols separating individual eruption deposits, and volcanic block distributions. Microgravity studies illuminate near- surface density changes. Electromagnetic and magnetic instruments in particular can be deployed from helicopters for rapid, high-resolution, and repeated surveying. Finally, the application and cross-correlation of multiple methods is emerging as an essential way to characterize active volcanoes and volcanic processes.

Kruse, S.

2006-05-01

401

Understanding and Prediction : An Evolving Paradigm for Modeling Hydrologic Process Feedbacks at Multiple Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface water, plant water, soil and groundwater, and the atmosphere are all linked components of the hydrologic continuum. Understanding and prediction of the interaction between these components requires an integrated approach. Here we present a framework to couple physics, numerics, data and computation, with the goal to simulate coupled hydrologic processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The framework is unique in its use of adaptive decomposition strategies, flexibility to use different approximations and number of processes, use of multi-processor clusters, and seamless flow of data between data-management systems and hydrologic models. The framework has been applied from hill-slope (10-100m) to catchment (100-1000m) to synoptic scales (>100km), to answer fundamental questions such as: a) What kind of process feedbacks exist between groundwater, soil moisture, overland flow and vegetation, b) What are the spatial and temporal scales of these feedbacks, and c) How are they altered by land use/cover, hydrogeology, topography and antecedent conditions. The results underscore the need for synergistic observation and modeling of hydrologic cycle to address mass, momentum and energy closure at multiple scales.

Kumar, M.; Duffy, C.; Bhatt, G.

2010-12-01

402

Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.  

SciTech Connect

A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

Goussis, Dimitris A. (Ploutonos 7, Palaio Faliro, Greece); Najm, Habib N.

2006-01-01

403

Preparation and Support of Patients through the Transplant Process: Understanding the Recipients' Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Preparation for heart transplant commonly includes booklets, instructional videos, personalized teaching sessions, and mentorship. This paper explores heart transplant recipients' thoughts on their preparation and support through the transplant process. Twenty-five interviews were audio-/videotaped capturing voice and body language and transcribed verbatim. Coding addressed language, bodily gesture, volume, and tone in keeping with our visual methodology. Recipients reported that only someone who had a transplant truly understands the experience. As participants face illness and life-altering experiences, maintaining a positive attitude and hope is essential to coping well. Healthcare professionals provide ongoing care and reassurance about recipients' medical status. Mentors, family members, and close friends play vital roles in supporting recipients. Participants reported that only heart transplant recipients understood the experience, the hope, and ultimately the suffering associated with living with another persons' heart. Attention needs to be focused not solely on the use of teaching modalities, but also on the development of innovative support networks. This will promote patient and caregiver engagement in self-management. Enhancing clinicians' knowledge of the existential aspects of transplantation will provide them with a nuanced understanding of the patients' experience, which will ultimately enhance their ability to better prepare and support patients and their caregivers. PMID:23125923

Mauthner, Oliver; De Luca, Enza; Poole, Jennifer; Gewarges, Mena; Abbey, Susan E.; Shildrick, Margrit; Ross, Heather

2012-01-01

404

Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01

405

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-09-01

406

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH  

E-print Network

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

Pringle, James "Jamie"

407

Art Therapy and the Brain: An Attempt to Understand the Underlying Processes of Art Expression in Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of new techniques in brain imaging has expanded the understanding of the different functions and structures of the brain involved in information processing. This paper presents the main areas and functions activated in emotional states, the formation of memories, and the processing of motor, visual, and somatosensory information. The relationship between the processes of art expressions and brain

Vija B. Lusebrink

2004-01-01

408

The following flow chart is meant to assist applicants with understanding the application process at Harvard Kennedy  

E-print Network

The following flow chart is meant to assist applicants with understanding the application process of your admission decision. We encourage applicants to reference this chart both before and after will be accepted. Application Processing The admissions office will begin processing applications immediately after

409

Fluid flow in the earth's crust plays an important role in a number of geologic processes. In carbonate reservoirs, fluid  

E-print Network

Fluid flow in the earth's crust plays an important role in a number of geologic processes. In carbonate reservoirs, fluid flow is thought to be controlled by open macrofractures. The movement of fluids of fluids is accompanied by substantial change in the pore pressure field. As fluids drain, pore pressure

410

Turbulent flow over a dune 289 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 289304 (2005)  

E-print Network

Turbulent flow over a dune 289 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Turbulent flow over a dune: Green River, Colorado Jeremy G. Venditti1 * and Bernard O. Bauer2 1 Department of turbulent flow over a mobile dune in a wide, low- gradient, alluvial reach of the Green River. Based

Venditti, Jeremy G.

2005-01-01

411

Breaking up the Writing Process: How Wikis Can Support Understanding the Composition and Revision Strategies of Young Writers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how best to support immature writers in the development of their understanding of the writing process is an important concern for researchers and teachers. Social technologies have become key features of leisure and work place writing, yet knowledge about how to design educational settings that take full advantage of the affordances…

Pifarre, Manoli; Fisher, Ros

2011-01-01

412

Understanding space weather to shield society  

E-print Network

Understanding space weather to shield society Improving understanding and forecasts of space weather requires addressing scientific challenges within the network of physical processes that connect the Sun to society. The roadmap team identified the highest-priority areas within the Sun-Earth space-weather

Schrijver, Karel

413

Project EARTH-11-SPH1: Impact ejecta blankets characteristics, origins and processes  

E-print Network

: Professor SP Hesselbo, Dr K Amor Continuous ejecta blankets surrounding impact craters on Earth are poorly that impact craters on Earth are most likely to resemble Martian impact craters e.g. Kenkmann and Schönian in determining the physical properties of ejecta blankets. Martian impact crater and continuous ejecta blankets

Henderson, Gideon

414

Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.  

PubMed

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

415

Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

416

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information for both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values may be present in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thus, thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. In this report, calorimetric studies of lactate protonation equilibrium illustrate a distinct influence of nitrate, perchlorate, methylsulfonate and triflate on the thermodynamic parameters associated with TALSPEAK aqueous chemistry. Triflate is identified a closer non-complexing representative of lactate solution chemistry. The reported initial two stability constants for the complexation of americium and neodymium by lactate in triflate medium suggest that the identified medium effects do not significantly affect the speciation.

Zalupski, P. R.; Nash, K. L.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Martin, L. R.

2010-03-01

417

Contributions of TRMM to Our Understanding of Precipitation Processes and Climate Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan effort, has completed seven and a half years in orbit. This successful research mission studying precipitation processes and climatology has also become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first rain radar and microwave radiometer combination in space, continues to function perfectly, and the satellite has the capability to operate for a number of additional years, providing a unique, long-term record of global tropical precipitation characteristics. A summary of research highlights will be presented covering topics ranging over climate analysis, improving forecasts, and storm and precipitation processes. A focus of the talk will be the important role of TRMM data in multi-satellite precipitation analyses at fine time scales and in improving our understanding of the validity of climate-scale variations through comparison with, and eventual improvement of, the GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 25-year data set.

Adler, Robert F.

2005-01-01

418

Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

2011-01-01

419

Temporal discounting and criminal thinking: understanding cognitive processes to align services.  

PubMed

Temporal discounting is an indicator of impulsivity that has consistently been found to be associated with risky behaviors such as substance abuse and compulsive gambling. Yet, although criminal acts are clearly risky choice behaviors, no study has examined temporal discounting in the criminal attitudes and behaviors of adult offenders. Yet, such investigations have potential to understand the cognitive processes that underlie various criminal patterns of thinking and may help distinguish between high and low risk offenders. Therefore, the current study endeavored to fill this gap in the literature using 146 male inmates within 5 months of release. Results found that temporal discounting is correlated with reactive criminal thinking but was not correlated with proactive criminal thinking. In addition, inmates with higher rates of incarceration were also more likely to have higher rates of temporal discounting. Results shed light on the different cognitive processes that may underlie different styles of criminal thinking as well as potential differences in the discounting rates depending on history of incarcerations. This finding has implications for service delivery in criminal justice settings as those with reactive criminal thinking may benefit from specialized treatments for temporal discounting. PMID:24635040

Varghese, Femina P; Charlton, Shawn R; Wood, Mara; Trower, Emily

2014-05-01

420

Using process drama to enhance pre-service teachers' understanding of science and religion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a course, Philosophy of Science, taught by the researcher in Semester A, academic year 2007. Process drama is the teaching strategy employed. The students were fully engaged in the process drama; doing research, producing, distributing, and criticizing the drama. Focus group, student journal, and observation were used to gather the data and the data was analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. The focus groups revealed that the drama could help students reflect on the complexity and sensitivity of the issue. They found there was no inherent conflict between science and religion since they answered different questions and used different methods to achieve their results. However, the conflicts occurred when people were not aware of the basic differences between the two so they justified one on the basis of purpose and method of one another. The pre-service teachers also found consistency between science and Buddhism. They thought that the teachers of science should respond to the conflicts in a respectful, compromising, and neutral manner.[InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

Pongsophon, Pongprapan

2010-03-01

421

Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: implications for resource utilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crucial questions for possible utilization of Near Earth Asteroids include how to break asteroid materials down to particle sizes that can be processed. This remained difficult to answer because of the limited number and resolutions of images previous obtained through asteroid missions. Recently, the Hayabusa spacecraft obtained unprecedentedly high-resolution images of a ~300m-sized asteroid, Itokawa, which gives unique opportunity to discuss the nature of surface materials on a small asteroid. Hayabusa reveals that the asteroid is covered by fine- and coarse-grained materials, including granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders up to tens of meters. Gravels on this small asteroid appear to be loosely deposited along the gravitational equipotential surfaces. The existence of smooth areas as well as boulder-rich rough areas indicate that gravels should have experienced migrations and segregations. Thus, the issue regarding the breaking of asteroid materials appears to have been resolved naturally, at least for this asteroid, which has important implications for future robotic missions dedicated to resource exploration and utilization.

Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Fink, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Roberto

2008-04-01

422

Rock Cycle in the Lab: Earth Products and the Processes That Link Them  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will become familier with the rock cycle. During the first part of the lesson, students work in small groups, each group having a copy of the rock cycle on a sheet of paper and a selection of small-scale samples and photographs that represent the products of the rock cycle. The students lay out their samples and photographs next to what they consider to be the correct boxes on their copy of the rock cycle. In the second part, the teacher constructs a large scale rock cycle throughout the room while the students check their efforts. Students discover that all the parts of the rock cycle are linked together into a sort of global machine and that this machine is driven by energy from the sun and from inside the Earth. They will also realize that the rock cycle involves physical, chemical and biological processes. Copies of both the large scale and student size rock cycles are available at this site.

423

The Deepest Asteroid Survey Ever: Collisional Processes and the Source of Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sky motions of main belt asteroids blur their images on exposures longer than two minutes. Increasing exposure beyond this does not allow the detection of fainter asteroids. This limit prevents even 8m telescopes such as Subaru from discovering new asteroids with apparent magnitudes fainter than R ~ 24. Digital tracking is a proven yet little-used method to defeat the exposure limit and allow very long integrations for the discovery of faint asteroids by summing many shorter exposures. We propose to use all-night digital tracking integrations on a 4m telescope to discover asteroids down to R ~ 26, a factor of 5 fainter than Subaru's single-exposure limit. Our observations will measure positions, motions, and fluxes for hundreds of main belt asteroids too faint to be detected by any previous survey, and thus will probe main belt asteroid populations in a size regime that is currently completely unexplored. Such very small main belt asteroids are of great interest as products of collisional processes in the asteroid belt and as a source population for near-earth asteroids and meteorites. No existing archival data meets the requirements for sensitive digital tracking observations (e.g. wide- field imager, 6-hour single band integration, ecliptic field, <=2 minute individual exposures). New observations such as those we propose herein are essential for the detection of new, extremely faint asteroids.

Heinze, Aren; Metchev, Stanimir

2014-02-01

424

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

2007-05-01

425

Geophysical signatures of disseminated iron minerals: A proxy for understanding subsurface biophysicochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have linked biogeophysical signatures to the presence of iron minerals resulting from distinct biophysicochemical processes. Utilizing geophysical methods as a proxy of such biophysicochemical processes requires an understanding of the geophysical signature of the different iron minerals. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility signatures of five iron minerals disseminated in saturated porous media under variable iron mineral content and grain size. Both pyrite and magnetite show high quadrature and inphase conductivities compared to hematite, goethite, and siderite, whereas magnetite was the highly magnetic mineral dominating the magnetic susceptibility measurements. The quadrature conductivity spectra of both pyrite and magnetite exhibit a well-defined characteristic relaxation peak below 10 kHz, not observed with the other iron minerals. The quadrature conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of individual and a mixture of iron minerals are dominated and linearly proportional to the mass fraction of the highly conductive (pyrite and magnetite) and magnetic (magnetite) iron minerals, respectively. The quadrature conductivity magnitude increased with decreasing grain size diameter of magnetite and pyrite with a progressive shift of the characteristic relaxation peak toward higher frequencies. The quadrature conductivity response of a mixture of different grain sizes of iron minerals is shown to be additive, whereas magnetic susceptibility measurements were insensitive to the variation in grain size diameters (1-0.075 mm). The integration of complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements can therefore provide a complimentary tool for the successful investigation of in situ biophysicochemical processes resulting in biotransformation or secondary iron mineral precipitation.

Abdel Aal, Gamal Z.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Revil, A.

2014-09-01

426

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

427

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2012-01-01

428

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2013-01-01

429

Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northwest, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. Since 1) and 3) are 10-minute intervals and 2) is hourly data, we are developing hourly gridded data and using 1-3) to verify and quantify the rain rate observed by the Fukushima University X-band data.

Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

2012-04-01

430

Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk addresses the policy structure in California for developing and approving carbon offset protocols, which rely on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities. In addition to providing an overview of the legal requirements of carbon offsets, we describe a series of case studies of how scientists can engage with policymakers. Based on those experiences, we suggest ways for the earth sciences community to become more involved in climate policy development. California's climate law, known as AB 32, requires that major sectors of the state's economy reduce their emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. As part of AB 32, the California Air Resources Board created a cap-and-trade market to ensure compliance with the statutory target. Under this system, regulated companies have to acquire tradable emissions permits (called 'compliance instruments') for the greenhouse gas emissions they release. The State allocates a certain number of allowances to regulated entities through a mixture of auctions and free transfers, with the total number equal to the overall emissions target; these allowances, along with approved offsets credits, are the compliance instruments that regulated entities are required to obtain by law. One of the key policy design issues in California's cap-and-trade market concerns the use of carbon offsets. Under AB 32, the Air Resources Board can issue offset credits to project developers who reduce emissions outside of the capped sectors (electricity, industry, and transportation)--or even outside of California--pursuant to approved offset protocols. Project developers then sell the credits to regulated companies in California. Essentially, offsets allow regulated entities in California to earn credit for emissions reductions that take place outside the scope of AB 32. Many regulated entities and economists are in favor of offsets because they view them as a source of low-cost compliance instruments. On the other hand, critics argue that some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

2013-12-01

431

A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth at 20°W; and 3) a latitude vs. longitude at 4,000 m depth in the entire ocean. Students do this work at home, and come to class prepared with hypotheses that explain variations of their variable observed in their figures. Nutrients, for example, are typically depleted in the surface ocean, increase at intermediate depths, and then typically decrease in deep water. How do oceanic processes drive these variations? In the context of the other variables, and with the help of other group members, they typically develop an understanding of surface productivity, respiration of organic matter in deeper waters, upwelling of deeper water, ocean circulation, insolation, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature dependence of gas solubility. Students then prepare a written explanation to accompany the plots. Cartoon-like depictions of nutrient profiles typically presented in introductory texts have their place, but they lack the complexity inherent in real data. The objective is to mimic the excitement of discovery and the challenge of developing a hypothesis to explain existing data. The ability to develop viable hypotheses to explain real data with real variability are what motivate and inspire many scientists. How can we expect to motivate and inspire students with lackluster descriptions of ocean processes?

Hastings, D. W.

2012-12-01

432

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

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