Science.gov

Sample records for understanding earth processes

  1. Understanding the knowledge acquisition process about Earth and Space concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappart, Soren

    There exist two main theoretical views concerning the knowledge acquisition process in science. Those views are still in debate in the literature. On the one hand, knowledge is considered to be organized into coherent wholes (mental models). On the other hand knowledge is described as fragmented sets with no link between the fragments. Mental models have a predictive and explicative power and are constrained by universal presuppositions. They follow a universal gradual development in three steps from initial, synthetic to scientific models. On the contrary, the fragments are not organised and development is seen as a situated process where cultural transmission plays a fundamental role. After a presentation of those two theoretical positions, we will illustrate them with examples of studies related to the Earth Shape and gravity performed in different cultural contexts in order to enhance both the differences and the invariant cultural elements. We will show how those problematic are important to take into account and to question for space concepts, like gravity, orbits, weightlessness for instance. Indeed capturing the processes of acquisition and development of knowledge concerning specific space concepts can give us important information to develop relevant and adapted strategies for instruction. If the process of knowledge acquisition for Space concepts is fragmented then we have to think of how we could identify those fragments and help the learner organise links between them. If the knowledge is organised into coherent mental models, we have to think of how to destabilize a non relevant model and to prevent from the development of initial and synthetic models. Moreover the question of what is universal versus what is culture dependant in this acquisition process need to be explored. We will also present some main misconceptions that appeared about Space concepts. Indeed, additionally to the previous theoretical consideration, the collection and awareness of

  2. Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

  3. Geomorphological experiments for understanding cross-scale complexity of earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The shape of the earth's surface is the result of a complex interaction of different processes at different spatial and temporal scales. The challenging problem is, that process observation is rarely possible due to this different scales. In addition, the resulting landform often does not match the scale of process observation. But it is indispensable for the development of concepts of formation of landforms to identify and understand the involved processes and their interaction. To develop models it is even necessary to quantify them and their relevant parameters. Experiments are able to bridge the constraints of process observation mentioned above: it is possible to observe and quantify individual processes as well as complex process combinations up to the development of geomorphological units. The contribution aims at showing, based on soil erosion research, the possibilities of experimental methods for contributing to th understanding of geomorphological processes. A special emphasis is put on the linkage of conceptual understanding of processes, their measurement and the following development of models. The development of experiments to quantify relevant parameters will be shown, as well as the steps undertaken to bring them into the field taking into account the resulting increase of uncertainty in system parameters and results. It will be shown that experiments are even so able to produce precise measurements on individual processes as well as of complex combinations of parameters and processes and to identify their influence on the overall geomorphological dynamics. Experiments are therefore a methodological package able to check complex soil erosion processes at different levels of conceptualization and to generate data for their quantification. And thus, also a methodological concept to take more into account and to further develop in geomorphological science.

  4. Impact Craters on Earth: Lessons for Understanding Martian Geological Materials and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Impact cratering is one of the most ubiquitous geological processes in the Solar System and has had a significant influence on the geological evolution of Mars. Unlike the Moon and Mercury, the Martian impact cratering record is notably diverse, which is interpreted to reflect interactions during the impact process with target volatiles and/or the atmosphere. The Earth also possesses a volatile-rich crust and an atmosphere and so is one of the best analogues for understanding the effects of impact cratering on Mars. Furthermore, fieldwork at terrestrial craters and analysis of samples is critical to ground-truth observations made based on remote sensing data from Martian orbiters, landers, and rovers. In recent years, the effect of target lithology on various aspects of the impact cratering process has emerged as a major research topic. On Mars, volatiles have been invoked to be the primary factor influencing the morphology of ejecta deposits - e.g., the formation of single-, double- and multiple-layered ejecta deposits - and central uplifts - e.g., the formation of so-called "central pit" craters. Studies of craters on Earth have also shown that volatiles complicate the identification of impactites - i.e., rocks produced and/or affected by impact cratering. Identifying impactites on Earth is challenging, often requiring intensive and multi-technique laboratory analysis of hand specimens. As such, it is even more challenging to recognize such materials in remote datasets. Here, observations from the Haughton (d = 23 km; Canada), Ries (d = 24 km; Germany), Mistastin (d = 28 km; Canada), Tunnunik, (d = 28 km; Canada), and West Clearwater Lake (d = 36 km; Canada) impact structures are presented. First, it is shown that some impactites mimic intrusive, volcanic, volcanoclastic and in some cases sedimentary clastic rocks. Care should, therefore, be taken in the identification of seemingly unusual igneous rocks at rover landing sites as they may represent impact melt

  5. Do Young Children's Ideas about the Earth's Structure and Processes Reveal Underlying Patterns of Descriptive and Causal Understanding in Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its "geological" aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earths structure and processes held by individual children from…

  6. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  7. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  8. Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more

  9. Satellite soil moisture for advancing our understanding of earth system processes and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Soil moisture products obtained from active and passive microwave satellites have reached maturity during the last decade (De Jeu and Dorigo, 2016): On the one hand, research algorithms that were initially applied to sensors designed for other purposes, e.g., for measuring wind speed (e.g. the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)), sea ice, or atmospheric parameters (e.g. the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System AMSR-E), have developed into fully operational products. On the other hand, dedicated soil moisture satellite missions were designed and launched by ESA (the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission) and NASA (the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission).

  10. Understanding the Earth. A new synthesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G.; Hawkesworth, C.; Wilson, C.

    Some of the foremost authorities in contemporary Earth sciences have contributed to "Understanding the Earth" to provide a highly accessible and stimulating account of the recent rapid evolution of knowledge about the processes that drive and shape the Earth. Well-illustrated and extremely readable accounts cover many aspects of the Earth sciences that are at the forefront of research and often confined to the more esoteric literature. This book reflects the increasingly integrated and multi-disciplinary research that has fed our understanding of the Earth's origin and its internal and surface processes. Starting with the exploration of the solar system and the study of planet formation, the reader will then find novel contributions on the Earth's interior and its dynamic evolution. Synthesis of the related topics of magma generation, plate tectonics, volcanic, hydrothermal and mineralisation process, and crustal evolution leads the reader to a new understanding of lithospheric tectonics. Data from seismic reflection studies, earthquake focal plane solutions and from metamorphic belts are shown to underpin these new discoveries. Finally, the evolution of the biosphere and its interactions with the atmosphere and hydrosphere are discussed, together with the natural and human-driven perturbations to the environment.

  11. Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling Earth surface processes and landforms: A review of foundation concepts and current understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corenblit, Dov; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Bornette, Gudrun; Darrozes, José; Delmotte, Sébastien; Francis, Robert A.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Julien, Frédéric; Naiman, Robert J.; Steiger, Johannes

    2011-06-01

    This review article presents recent advances in the field of biogeomorphology related to the reciprocal coupling between Earth surface processes and landforms, and ecological and evolutionary processes. The aim is to present to the Earth Science community ecological and evolutionary concepts and associated recent conceptual developments for linking geomorphology and biota. The novelty of the proposed perspective is that (1) in the presence of geomorphologic-engineer species, which modify sediment and landform dynamics, natural selection operating at the scale of organisms may have consequences for the physical components of ecosystems, and particularly Earth surface processes and landforms; and (2) in return, these modifications of geomorphologic processes and landforms often feed back to the ecological characteristics of the ecosystem (structure and function) and thus to biological characteristics of engineer species and/or other species (adaptation and speciation). The main foundation concepts from ecology and evolutionary biology which have led only recently to an improved conception of landform dynamics in geomorphology are reviewed and discussed. The biogeomorphologic macroevolutionary insights proposed explicitly integrate geomorphologic niche-dimensions and processes within an ecosystem framework and reflect current theories of eco-evolutionary and ecological processes. Collectively, these lead to the definition of an integrated model describing the overall functioning of biogeomorphologic systems over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

  12. Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

  13. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  14. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft

  15. Linking deep earth to surface processes in the Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea; a framework for understanding (U)HP exhumation globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Moucha, R.; Miller, S. R.; Catalano, J. P.; Zirakparvar, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Cenozoic the leading edge of the AUS plate was subducted northwards beneath the forearc of oceanic island arc(s), during its north-northeast passage over a complexly structured mantle. Sediments and basalts were metamorphosed under (U)HP conditions to form blueschists and eclogites, and lower-grade metamorphic rocks that are now exposed throughout New Guinea, primarily south of, and structurally beneath, obducted ophiolites. In the Woodlark Rift the youngest (2-8 Ma) (U)HP rocks on Earth were exhumed from mantle depths (>90 km) at plate tectonic rates (1-4 cm yr-1) west of the active Woodlark Basin seafloor spreading center rift tip. How these (U)HP rocks were exhumed is the focus of an ongoing collaborative multidisciplinary project which aims to understand linkages between deep earth, plate tectonic, and surface processes in the Woodlark Rift. Since the Late Miocene, a regionally extensive subduction complex was exhumed on the southern-rifted margin of the Woodlark Basin (Pocklington Rise), and in the lower plates of the D'Entrecasteaux, Misima, and Dayman dome metamorphic core complexes. Late Miocene-to-Pliocene metamorphism of sediments and basalts preceded diachronous exhumation from east to west, in the same direction as rift propagation. In contrast the northern-rifted margin (Woodlark Rise) comprises mid-Miocene to Pliocene volcanic flows and pyroclastic material ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, with capping limestone. The age of volcanic rocks on the northern-rifted margin also youngs from east to west. Pliocene to active syn-rift volcanism on the Woodlark Rise and in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands is synchronous with (U)HP exhumation, and results from decompression melting of a relict mantle wedge. As lithospheric extension proceeds, volcanic compositions evolve from subduction zone geochemical signatures (i.e., negative HFSE anomalies) toward E-MORB. Preliminary mantle convection models investigate large-scale background mantle

  16. Distributed processing for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

  17. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  18. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

  19. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  20. Standardization: Understanding the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, William

    1992-01-01

    Describes the key features that distinguish standards development organizations (SDOs) and analyzes these features in light of recent work in political economy. It is concluded that many of the features that lead to a slower process may be interpreted as an efficient institutional response to problems posed by industry standardization. (24…

  1. Helping Students Understand Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Roger

    To force students--at the very beginning of the writing process--to be aware of audience and to gain insight into their own writing, in-class writing and sharing exercises can be invaluable. For example, students can present to the class their subject for an upcoming paper, with the class responding on paper to such questions as: (1) What do you…

  2. The Understanding Process: Problem Isomorphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.; Hayes, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A formal theory of human understanding was developed and embodied in a computer program, UNDERSTAND, which simulates the understanding processes. Due to the number of alternative processing choices, some assumptions were made which are analyzed based on their validity. (Author/DEP)

  3. Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Steven W.; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    The National Science Education Standards (NSES) emphasize the use of models in science instruction by making it one of the five unifying concepts of science, applicable to all grade levels. The NSES recommend that models be a focus of instruction--helping students understand the use of evidence in science, make and test predictions, use logic, and…

  4. A history of the global understanding of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deparis, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    The author contributes to the development of a history of the global understanding of the Earth. He summarizes the main steps in the knowledge of the Earth's interior from antiquity to the present time and draws some lessons from this history.

  5. Understanding the interplays between Earth's shallow- and deep- rooted processes through global, quantitative model of the coupled brittle-lithosphere/viscous mantle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, Ingo; Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Rhodri Davies, D.

    2016-04-01

    The volume of geophysical datasets has grown substantially, over recent decades. Our knowledge of continental evolution has increased due to advances in interpreting the records of orogeny and sedimentation. Ocean-floor observations now allow one to resolve past plate motions (e.g. in the North Atlantic and Indian Ocean over the past 20 Myr) at temporal resolutions of about 1 Myr. Altogether, these ever-growing datasets permit reconstructing the past evolution of Earth's lithospheric plates in greater detail. This is key to unravelling the dynamics of geological processes, because plate motions and their temporal changes are a powerful probe into the evolving force balance between shallow- and deep-rooted processes. However, such a progress is not yet matched by the ability to quantitatively model past plate-motion changes and, therefore, to test hypotheses on the dominant controls. The main technical challenge is simulating the rheological behaviour of the lithosphere/mantle system, which varies significantly from viscous to brittle. Traditionally computer models for viscous mantle flow and on the one hand, and for the motions of the brittle lithosphere on the other hand, have been developed separately. Coupling of these two independent classes of models has been accomplished only for neo-tectonic scenarios and with some limitations as to accounting for the impact of time-evolving mantle-flow and lithospheric slabs. Here we present results in this direction that permit simulating the coupled plates/mantle system through geological time. We build on previous work aimed at coupling two sophisticated codes for mantle flow and lithosphere dynamics: TERRA and SHELLS. TERRA is a global spherical finite-element code for mantle convection. It has been developed by Baumgardner (1985) and Bunge et al. (1996), and further advanced by Yang (1997; 2000) and Davies et al. (2013), among others. SHELLS is a thin-sheet finite-element code for lithosphere dynamics, developed by

  6. Activites to Support and Assess Student Understanding of Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Regev, J.

    2004-12-01

    In order to use data effectively, learners must construct a mental model that allows them to understand and express spatial relationships in data, relationships between different data types, and relationships between the data and a theoretical model. Another important skill is the ability to identify gross patterns and distinguish them from details that may require increasingly sophisticated models. Students must also be able to express their understanding, both to help them frame their understanding for themselves, and for assessment purposes. Research in learning unequivocally shows that writing about a subject increases understanding of that subject. In UCSB's general education oceanography class, a series of increasingly demanding activities culminates in two science papers that use earth data. These activities are: 1) homework problems, 2) in-class short writing activities, 3) lab section exploration activities and presentations, and 4) the science paper. The subjects of the two papers are: Plate Tectonics and Ocean and Climate. Each student is a member of a group that adopts a country and must relate their paper to the environment of their country. Data are accessed using the "Our Dynamic Planet" and "Global Ocean Data Viewer" (GLODV) CD's. These are integrated into EarthEd Online, a software package which supports online writing, review, commenting, and return to the student. It also supports auto-graded homework assignments, grade calculation, and other class management functions. The writing assignments emphasize the construction of a scientific argument. This process is explained explicitly, requiring statements that: 1) include an observation or description of an observation (e.g. elevation profiles, quakes), 2) name features based on the observation (e.g. trench, ridge), 3) describe of features (e.g. trends NW, xxxkm long), 4) describe relationships between features (e.g. quakes are parallel to trench), 5) describe a model or theory (e.g. cartoon type

  7. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  8. Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2002-08-01

    This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

  9. Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

  10. Understanding the shape of the Earth and measuring its size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltatzis, Evangelos; Galanaki, Angeliki

    2016-04-01

    Most elementary students have problems and misconceptions regarding the shape of the Earth. Teachers often contribute to this confusion telling the students that the Earth is almost spherical, but not explaining to them, how the Earth can be spherical while it appears. It would be helpful for students to understand how humanity came with the idea of the spherical Earth (to be precise the Earth is ellipsoid). Historically, most cultures describe the Earth as flat. That changes with the ancient Greek culture. We don't know exactly how the Greeks first understood the spherical shape of the Earth, but some Greek philosophers give some arguments why the Earth must be a sphere. We can discuss these arguments and observations with the students. First, if someone travels in the south, he can see the southern constellations rise higher above the horizon. We can give students pictures of the night sky in southern regions and compare them with observations of ''their'' night sky. Second, in the lunar eclipse we can see the round shadow of the Earth. Third, whenever a ship is on the horizon, his low part is invisible . This is known as "hull-down". Moreover, the low part of mountains is invisible from the sea, due to the curvature of the Earth. It is always better to make these observations in real life but it can also be done via videos and pictures. The realization of the spherical shape of the Earth was sine qua non for the first good measurement of its size. In the second part of the project, following the ancient mathematician Eratosthenes's steps, students can measure the size of the Earth, , find pleasure in doing experimental work and realize how important mathematics is in everyday life. Two sticks, situated a long distance away from each other, can give us approximately the circumference , the radius and the diameter of the Earth. Eratosthenes used geometry combined to the knowledge of ancient Greek culture that the Earth is spherical (360°). He knew the distance

  11. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes.

  12. More details...
  13. Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, Edward C.; Coulson, Doug

    2010-01-05

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

  14. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  15. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  16. Facilitating Students Understanding Change in the Earth System on Multiple Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Libarkin, J.; McNeal, K.; Ellins, K.; Barstow, D.; Bardar, E.; Comer, C.

    2008-12-01

    With the current urgency to develop a climatically literate society there is an increasing need for today's students to sufficiently understand how the Earth system changes. It is also vital that they understand the processes that cause those changes so they will be prepared to address the environmental challenges of the future. However, grasping change over time, especially on multiple time scales ranging from daily to ice age variations, is a challenge. In this presentation we will describe 1) the sequence of scaffolded activities and investigations we are developing that will help students more fully understand how the cryosphere changes on multiple time scales, and how the cryosphere impacts and is impacted by the other components of the Earth system; and 2) the study we are conducting to investigate the effectiveness of these activities and investigations in helping students understand how and why a component of the Earth system varies over time. The results of this effort will serve as a foundation for the development of a full scale capstone high-school course that will reside within the structure of EarthLabs, an online set of inquiry-based modules on a range of Earth system science topics that will more completely address the issues of climate literacy.

  17. Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2007-05-01

    Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the changes in geosphere. The historical records talk of changes of the water level in wells, of strange weather, of ground-hugging fog, of unusual behaviour of animals (due to change in magnetic field of the earth) that seem to feel the approach of a major earthquake. With the advent of modern science and technology the understanding of these pre-earthquake signals has become stronger enough to develop a methodology of earthquake prediction. A correlation of earth directed coronal mass ejection (CME) from the active sunspots has been possible to develop as a precursor of the earthquake. Occasional local magnetic field and planetary indices (Kp values) changes in the lower atmosphere that is accompanied by the formation of haze and a reduction of moisture in the air. Large patches, often tens to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size, seen in night-time infrared satellite images where the land surface temperature seems to fluctuate rapidly. Perturbations in the ionosphere at 90 - 120 km altitude have been observed before the occurrence of earthquakes. These changes affect the transmission of radio waves and a radio black out has been observed due to CME. Another heliophysical parameter Electron flux (Eflux) has been monitored before the occurrence of the earthquakes. More than hundreds of case studies show that before the occurrence of the earthquakes the atmospheric temperature increases and suddenly drops before the occurrence of the earthquakes. These changes are being monitored by using Sun Observatory Heliospheric observatory

  18. Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

    2003-01-01

    NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

  19. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, François

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be…

  20. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  21. Adsorption processing - Optimization through understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Adsorption processes used in the natural gas industry for dehydration, sweetening and liquids recovery are batch systems, very similar to laboratory chromatographs. For continuous processing a plant must contain multiple adsorbers, so that while one column adsorbs, another or others can be desorbed and prepared for their next turn at adsorption. Variations in the cycle, the number of adsorbers and the way multiple towers may be sequenced; in series, in parallel, etc. are so numerous that an entire presentation could be devoted to the reasons and results of the various arrangements. For a consideration of the process fundamentals and the way they can be manipulated, this discussion concentrates on a simple two tower system typical of what is frequently used to dehydrate gas ahead of a cryogenic plant; a turboexpander unit or a peak shaving LNG facility.

  1. Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon upconversion in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guokui

    2015-03-21

    Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results. PMID:25286989

  2. Understanding the emergence of life on Earth and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Gaudio, R.

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the emergence of Life on Earth it has been showed that in suitable environments, components typical of both extraterrestrial (iperstenic chondrites and siderites) [1] and terrestrial minerals and rocks containing iron (magnetite and olivine), in spite of extreme sterilization procedures, may catalyze inorganic and organic reactions leading to self-assembly metallorganic entities having a complex and composite chemical structure able to perform several catalytic activities typical of modern biology [2], [3]. In light of evidence accumulated during several years on viable microorganisms - including bacteria, archaea and fungi - found in mineral-associated environments, such as different kind of sediments and rocks (among which evaporites) as well as deep drillings and space vacuum exposure experiments, the aim of this work is to present and discuss the results of past [4] recent [1], [2], [5], and ongoing (molecular and catalytic) studies supporting the multiple root genesis hypothesis (MuRoGe) already proposed [4] in order to approach the problem of the origin of life. According to this hyphothesis, taking into account energetic, evolutionary, pre-biometabolic and environmental aspects, emergence of life on Earth accomplished through multiple origins, in different times, environments and selective contexts in whichusing terrestrial and extraterrestrial materialcooperative/ competitive, synergistic, interactive processes, life may be appeared or will emerge and survived or will survive to possible "mass extintion" due to cosmic impacts.

  3. Career management: understanding the process.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-02-01

    This article is the first of a three-part series on career management for hospital pharmacists. Work attitudes, life cycles, needs, and career trends are discussed. Three basic work attitudes exist. Some see work as punishment. Others believe work in itself is good, i.e., they have a strong work ethic. Some view work as a means to satisfy, at least partially, a range of needs. Attitudinal transition points are likely to occur at specific times in the adult life cycle. The stages of the life cycle can be labeled as leaving, reaching out, questioning, midlife crisis, settling down, and mellowing. A progression through each of these stages is required for normal adult psychological development. Every individual exhibits a blend of needs that changes throughout life. Jobs can fulfill existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Relatedness needs include the need for love, affiliation, social esteem, and power, and growth needs include the need for self-esteem, competence, achievement, and autonomy. Three important career trends are the changing opportunities for advancement, women in careers, and dual-career couples. The number of women pharmacists is increasing as is the number of two-career couples. Tips for managing two-career relationships are presented. Pharmacists can manage their careers more effectively by understanding their needs, identifying their basic attitude toward work, and being aware of the trends occurring in pharmacy. PMID:3976674

  4. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  5. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  6. Biological Modulation of Deep Earth Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norm

    2011-01-01

    The Earth became habitable once CO2 could be subducted into the deep mantle. It is likely that the Earth's surface became clement or even frigid within a few million years after it cooled to habitable temperatures (less than 120°C). Early life obtained its energy from chemical disequilibrium produced by internal processes within the Earth and photolysis in the air and water. The global productivity was tiny and life did not leave a useful record. By the time of the first good geological record at 3.8 billion years, life had evolved anoxygenic (sulfide and ferrous iron) photosynthesis on both water and land. By then, the effects of life were so pervasive that it is not straightforward to infer the prebiotic environment; serpentine existed and catalysts including Ni3Fe and Pt-group minerals were present in trace amounts. On land by 3.8 billion years ago, life had bountiful energy to enhance chemical weathering to liberate Fe(II). Microbial crusts covered available landscape. Life modulates crustal tectonics by producing sandstones, shales, and carbonates that form fold mountains. Melted shales became granitic rocks with quartz. The process is a climatic buffer as it replaced (black daisy) fresh basalts with (white daisy) sand deserts and granites. The subducted produces of photosynthesis control the sulfur content and oxidation state of arc lavas. Even the mantle is strongly affected by photosynthesis. Biology determines the mantle abundances of N and C. Kimberlites (in the general sense) return CO2-rich subducted shallow oceanic crust and sediments to the surface. The chemistry of these rocks provides a record of surface conditions. It is likely that the mantle in general and kimberlites in particular sequester information on the earliest Earth that is no longer preserved in the crust.

  7. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  8. Understanding and quantifying foliar temperature acclimation for Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration on land are the two largest carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and Earth's surface. The parameterization of these processes represent major uncertainties in the terrestrial component of the Earth System Models used to project future climate change. Research has shown that much of this uncertainty is due to the parameterization of the temperature responses of leaf photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration, which are typically based on short-term empirical responses. Here, we show that including longer-term responses to temperature, such as temperature acclimation, can help to reduce this uncertainty and improve model performance, leading to drastic changes in future land-atmosphere carbon feedbacks across multiple models. However, these acclimation formulations have many flaws, including an underrepresentation of many important global flora. In addition, these parameterizations were done using multiple studies that employed differing methodology. As such, we used a consistent methodology to quantify the short- and long-term temperature responses of maximum Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), maximum rate of Ribulos-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and dark respiration (Rd) in multiple species representing each of the plant functional types used in global-scale land surface models. Short-term temperature responses of each process were measured in individuals acclimated for 7 days at one of 5 temperatures (15-35°C). The comparison of short-term curves in plants acclimated to different temperatures were used to evaluate long-term responses. Our analyses indicated that the instantaneous response of each parameter was highly sensitive to the temperature at which they were acclimated. However, we found that this sensitivity was larger in species whose leaves typically experience a greater range of temperatures over the course of their lifespan. These data indicate that models using previous acclimation formulations are likely incorrectly

  9. Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

  10. The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

  11. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We have found that the candidate submissions that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (3) A defacto standard already widely used; or a (4) Technical Note We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss a potential defacto standard (NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF)) that is currently being reviewed. This past year, the SPG has modified its Standards Process to provide a comprehensive but not redundant review of the submitted RFC. The end result of the process tailoring is that the reviews will be completed faster. At each RFC submission, the SPG will decide which reviews will be performed. These reviews are conducted simultaneously and can include these three types: (1) A Technical review to review the technical specification and associated implementations; (2) An Operational Readiness review to evaluate whether the proposed standard works in a NASA environment with NASA Earth

  12. Fractals in petroleum geology and earth processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; La Pointe, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The editors of this book chose a diverse spectrum of papers written by pioneers in the field of fractals and their application to the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The geology of the Earth`s crust is complex, chaotic, and unpredictable. Fractal geometry can quantify the spatial heterogeneity of the different geologic patterns and ultimately help improve the results of both production and exploration. To this goal the book has accomplished such an objective with diverse, well-chosen contributions from a variety of experts in the field. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basics, with a short historical foot-note by Benoit Mandelbrot, who is considered the {open_quotes}father of fractals.{close_quotes} Mandelbrot emphasized that geologic processes not only exhibit fractal properties but also are strongly connected to the economic system. This paved the way for the next three chapters that deal with the size and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and their importance in economic evaluations. The following four chapters deal with the fractal processes as related to sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic systems. Chapter five is an interesting one that deals with stratigraphic models and how their fractal processes can be tied with the inter-well correlation and reconstruct depositional environments. The next three chapters are concerned with porous and fractured rocks and how they affect the flow of fluids. The last two chapters (chapters 13 and 14) are of particular interest. Chapter 13 deals with the vertical vs. horizontal well-log variability and application to fractal reservoir modeling. Chapter 14 illustrates how fractal geometry brings mathematical order to geological and geophysical disorder. This is evident when dealing with geophysical modeling and inversion.

  13. Assessing biosphere feedbacks on Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    The evolution and ecology of plant life has been shaped by the direct and indirect influence of plate tectonics. Climatic change and environmental upheaval associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces have triggered biosphere level ecological change, physiological modification and pulses of both extinction and origination. This talk will investigate the influence of large scale changes in atmospheric composition on plant ecophysiology at key intervals of the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, I will assess the extent to which plant ecophysiological response can in turn feedback on earth system processes such as the global hydrological cycle and biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Palaeo-atmosphere simulation experiments, palaeobotanical data and recent historical (last 50 years) data-model comparison will be used to address the extent to which plant physiological responses to atmospheric CO2 can modulate global climate change via biosphere level feedback.

  14. ERIPS: Earth Resource Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The ERIPS is an interactive computer system used in the analysis of remotely sensed data. It consists of a set of software programs which are executed on an IBM System/360 Model 75J computer under the direction of a trained analyst. The software was a derivative of the Purdue LARSYS program and has evolved to include an extensive pattern recognition system and a number of manipulative, preprocessing routines which prepare the imagery for the pattern recognition application. The original purpose of the system was to analyze remotely sensed data, to develop and perfect techniques to process the data, and to determine the feasibility of applying the data to significant earth resources problems. The System developed into a production system. Error recovery and multi-jobbing capabilities were added to the system.

  15. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in a section…

  16. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  17. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  18. How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

    2010-12-01

    A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification

  19. Tungsten geochemistry and implications for understanding the Earth's interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arevalo, Ricardo; McDonough, William F.

    2008-08-01

    The concentration of tungsten (W) in basaltic melts provides a window into the behavior of this element during core-mantle separation, crust formation, silicate differentiation, and potentially core-mantle interaction. We have analyzed an extensive suite of modern basalts ( n = 86) for their trace element chemistry via laser ablation ICP-MS, with barium (Ba), thorium (Th), uranium (U), and W concentrations typically determined to ≤ 5% (2 σ) uncertainty. We find that the partitioning behavior of U mirrors that of W during basalt genesis, whereas Ba and Th both behave more incompatibly. The W/U ratio of our complete sample suite (0.65 ± 0.45, 2 σ) is representative of the mean modern mantle, and is indistinguishable from that of mid-ocean ridge basalts (W/U MORB = 0.65 ± 0.41, n = 52), ocean island basalts (W/U OIB = 0.63 ± 0.07, n = 10), and back-arc basin basalts (W/U BABB = 0.62 ± 0.09, n = 12). This ratio is also consistent with the W/U ratio of the continental crust, and thus represents the W/U ratio of the entire silicate portion of the Earth. Assuming a concentration of 20 ± 8 (2 σ) ng/g U in the bulk silicate Earth, the abundance of W in the silicate Earth is 13 ± 10 ng/g. Following mass balance, this implies a mean modern mantle and core composition of 8.3 ± 7.1 ng/g W and 500 ± 120 ng/g W, respectively. Additionally, the MORB source is modeled to contain approximately 3.0 ± 2.3 ng/g W, indicating a four-fold depletion of the highly incompatible elements in the MORB source relative to the silicate Earth. Although both the isotopic composition of W and the constancy of the silicate Earth W/U ratio allow for potential insight into core-mantle exchange, both of these proxies are extremely dependent on the chemical composition of the source. A case study of three Hawaiian picrites with enrichments in 186Os- 187Os but terrestrial ɛ182W can be explained by: i) a lack of a core component in the Hawaiian "plume," ii) crustal contamination, or iii) a

  20. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  1. Future Earth: Advancing Civic Understanding of the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-08-01

    The Anthropocene, a term first coined in the 1980s by biologist Eugene Stoermer, is a word that encapsulates a powerful idea—that the world is now in the throes of a novel geological epoch, a period of time in which human activity, not natural cycles, dominates many of Earth's chemical, geological, and biological systems. The growing realization of our importance has caused a reanalysis, both scientifically and ethically, of our relationship with the natural world.

  2. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-01

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale land models (as a component of Earth System Models, or ESMs) do not yet reflect the best hydrologic process understanding or utilize the large amount of hydrologic observations for model testing. This paper discusses the opportunities and key challenges to improve hydrologic process representations and benchmarking in ESM land models, suggesting that (1) land model development can benefit from recent advances in hydrology, both through incorporating key processes (e.g., groundwater-surface water interactions) and new approaches to describe multiscale spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; (2) accelerating model advances requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking in order to systematically evaluate competing alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs, and (3) stronger collaboration is needed between the hydrology and ESM modeling communities, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM land model development, and through rigorous evaluation of ESM hydrology performance in research watersheds or Critical Zone Observatories. Such coordinated efforts in advancing hydrology in ESMs have the potential to substantially impact energy, carbon, and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role hydrologic processes play in regulating these cycles.

  3. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  4. Climate Variability Recorded in Earth System History: Contributions to our Understanding of a Changing Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2001-12-01

    The study of Earth System History is characterized by substantial innovation and excitement directed toward addressing the critical issue of understanding a changing planet and promoting new insights into the evolution of the Earth and its resources. Much of this innovation reflects the considerable expansion in the availability and quality of observations, particularly from the oceans, and the development and application of numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere-land-ice system. The key challenge within the Earth sciences is to develop a robust understanding of this coupled earth system and then to develop a predictive capability for natural variability and global change. Our capabilities are limited, among other things, by the fact that the instrumented record is too short to provide a strong sense of the character of change and the sensitivity of the Earth system. For this reason, modern observations are inadequate to demonstrate the capability of climate models to simulate conditions very different from the present day. The importance of Earth system history, and the ocean record in particular, stems from unique capabilities to: (1) assess the temporal and spatial characteristics of system variability, (2) define the nature of Earth sensitivity to a large number of forcing factors, including changes in ocean circulation and in greenhouse gases, (3) examine the integrated climatic, chemical and biologic response of the Earth system to a variety of spatial and temporal perturbations, (4) validate the predictions of numerical models for conditions very different from the present day, and (5) assess the rates of change associated with the evolution of the Earth and its components. Earth system history provides a great diversity of examples yielding a remarkable opportunity to develop insights into a broad range of issues and problems associated with the evolution of our planet. Three examples provide a focus for discussion. First, a careful analysis of climate

  5. The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

  6. Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özsoy, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

  7. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  8. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  9. Using Earth Observations to Understand and Predict Infectious Diseases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Kiang, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses the processes from data collection and processing to analysis involved in unraveling patterns between disease outbreaks and the surrounding environment and meteorological conditions. We used these patterns to estimate when and where disease outbreaks will occur. As a case study, we will present our work on assessing the relationship between meteorological conditions and influenza in Central America. Our work represents the discovery, prescriptive and predictive aspects of data analytics.

  10. Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalcogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalcogen losses in the melting step.

  11. Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Asish; Hart, Stan

    Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close—2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer—3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest—4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

  12. Understanding the origin of the solar cyclic activity for an improved earth climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Lambert, Pascal

    This review is dedicated to the processes which could explain the origin of the great extrema of the solar activity. We would like to reach a more suitable estimate and prediction of the temporal solar variability and its real impact on the Earth climatic models. The development of this new field is stimulated by the SoHO helioseismic measurements and by some recent solar modelling improvement which aims to describe the dynamical processes from the core to the surface. We first recall assumptions on the potential different solar variabilities. Then, we introduce stellar seismology and summarize the main SOHO results which are relevant for this field. Finally we mention the dynamical processes which are presently introduced in new solar models. We believe that the knowledge of two important elements: (1) the magnetic field interplay between the radiative zone and the convective zone and (2) the role of the gravity waves, would allow to understand the origin of the grand minima and maxima observed during the last millennium. Complementary observables like acoustic and gravity modes, radius and spectral irradiance from far UV to visible in parallel to the development of 1D-2D-3D simulations will improve this field. PICARD, SDO, DynaMICCS are key projects for a prediction of the next century variability. Some helioseismic indicators constitute the first necessary information to properly describe the Sun-Earth climatic connection.

  13. Early Earth rock analogues for Martian subsurface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Grosch, E. G.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-surface mafic-ultramafic crustal and hydrothermal environments on early Earth and Mars may have been very similar [1]. Hydrogen production from low-temperature alteration of ultramafic and basaltic rocks has been proposed to support early microbial life in Earth's earliest subsurface environments [1]. Similarly, evidence for microbial sulphate reduction has been reported from early Archean metabasaltic pillow lavas [2]. As such, Archean terrestrial rock environments preserved in greenstone belts may play an important role in understanding early Martian subsurface environments, which in turn may have led to preservation of early traces of life. In this context, the rock sequences of the Paleoarchean Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa provide unique Martian analogues as these rocks are exceptionally well preserved and record early Earth (and perhaps Martian-type) subsurface processes. In-situ exploration by rovers, remote sensing studies, and meteorite evidence has indicated the presence of altered gabbros, olivine-/pyroxene-bearing basalts and possible felsic porphyries on Mars. In this study we present a range of relevant 3.5 billion year old Archean greenstone belt analogue samples that include altered tholeiitic basalts, basaltic komatiites, serpentinized ultramafic komatiites and a felsic tonalite. The petrography and mineralogy of the samples are presented in terms of relic igneous phases and clay mineral alteration. We are acquiring visible/near-infrared reflectance and mid-IR emission spectra on these early Archean samples with the aim of using the hyperspectral data for ground truthing remote sensing data and mineral identification/environments on Mars.[1]. Grosch et al. (2014). Microscale mapping of alteration conditions and potential biosignatures in basaltic-ultramafic rocks on early Earth and beyond, Astrobiology 14 (3), 216-228. [2]. McLoughlin et al. (2012) Sulfur isotope evidence for a Paleoarchean subseafloor biosphere, Barberton, South

  14. Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katerina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Matthew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Microbes influence soil organic matter decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) will make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models, we suggest the following: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  15. Explicitly Representing Soil Microbial Processes In Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katrina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Mathew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-26

    Microbes influence soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) may make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here, we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models we suggest: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  16. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for

  17. The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules

  18. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water

  19. Developing a Greater Understanding of Rocky Intertidal Ecosystems using NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, J.; Lakshmi, V.; Menge, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Rocky intertidal ecosystems along the pacific north coast are sensitive to the changing climate because they are strongly affected by anthropogenic, biotic, and abiotic processes. While there are several methods to measure, monitor, and model different properties and functions of these important ecosystems, many of those methods are spatially and temporally limited. Utilizing remotely sensed satellite observations in conjunction with in situ observations can offer a greater understanding of the spatial variation of certain biotic and abiotic properties. The purpose of this research was to utilize NASA Earth Observations and in situ observations to better understand the temporal and spatial variation of several ecosystems properties (i.e. sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a concentration (chl-a), and oceanic surface currents), to predict physiological responses (i.e. body temperature and body growth) of the ecosystem engineer, the California mussel (Mytilus californianus). Using decision trees and other modeling methods, we determined important predictor variables for mussel growth. Furthermore, while remotely sensed satellite observations were not able to capture the fine scale resolution of many of the variables, they were able to explain the spatial variation much better than the in situ observations. Satellite observations coupled with in situ observations further enhanced our understanding of the temporal and spatial variation in biological and physical processes along the pacific north coast.

  20. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  1. Processes Understanding of Decadal Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prömmel, Kerstin; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The realistic representation of decadal climate variability in the models is essential for the quality of decadal climate predictions. Therefore, the understanding of those processes leading to decadal climate variability needs to be improved. Several of these processes are already included in climate models but their importance has not yet completely been clarified. The simulation of other processes requires sometimes a higher resolution of the model or an extension by additional subsystems. This is addressed within one module of the German research program "MiKlip II - Decadal Climate Predictions" (http://www.fona-miklip.de/en/) with a focus on the following processes. Stratospheric processes and their impact on the troposphere are analysed regarding the climate response to aerosol perturbations caused by volcanic eruptions and the stratospheric decadal variability due to solar forcing, climate change and ozone recovery. To account for the interaction between changing ozone concentrations and climate a computationally efficient ozone chemistry module is developed and implemented in the MiKlip prediction system. The ocean variability and air-sea interaction are analysed with a special focus on the reduction of the North Atlantic cold bias. In addition, the predictability of the oceanic carbon uptake with a special emphasis on the underlying mechanism is investigated. This addresses a combination of physical, biological and chemical processes.

  2. Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

  3. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  4. Understanding the Cause-Effect Chain from Sun to Earth of Geo-Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    A new 5-year (2014-2018) SCOSTEP program Variability of the Sun and Its Terrestrial Impact (VarSITI) focuses on the current period of low solar activity and its consequences at Earth. ISEST (International Study of Earth-affecting Solar Transients) is the VarSITI project whose goal is to understand the origin, evolution and propagation of solar transients (CMEs, flares, CIRs) through the space between the Sun and Earth, with the goal of improving the prediction capability for space weather. ISEST provides textbook cases to the community, and its Working Group 4 on Campaign Events is studying less well understood events, such as so-called stealth and problem CMEs. We highlight several case studies of recent Sun-Earth events for which there was a problem in forecasting the geoactivity, but we now understand what happened.

  5. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    better performance than the local machine. Much of the difference was due to newer equipment in the Nebula than the legacy computer, which is suggestive of a potential economic advantage beyond elastic power, i.e., access to up-to-date hardware vs. legacy hardware that must be maintained past its prime to amortize the cost. In addition to a trade study of advantages and challenges of porting complex processing to the cloud, a tutorial was developed to enable further progress in utilizing the Nebula for Earth Science applications and understanding better the potential for Cloud Computing in further data- and computing-intensive Earth Science research. In particular, highly bursty computing such as that experienced in the user-demand-driven Giovanni system may become more tractable in a Cloud environment. Our future work will continue to focus on migrating more GES DISC's applications/instances, e.g. Giovanni instances, to the Nebula platform and making matured migrated applications to be in operation on the Nebula.

  6. Exposing earth surface process model simulations to a large audience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kettner, A. J.; Borkowski, L.; Russell, E. L.; Peddicord, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) represents a diverse group of >1300 scientists who develop and apply numerical models to better understand the Earth's surface. CSDMS has a mandate to make the public more aware of model capabilities and therefore started sharing state-of-the-art surface process modeling results with large audiences. One platform to reach audiences outside the science community is through museum displays on 'Science on a Sphere' (SOS). Developed by NOAA, SOS is a giant globe, linked with computers and multiple projectors and can display data and animations on a sphere. CSDMS has developed and contributed model simulation datasets for the SOS system since 2014, including hydrological processes, coastal processes, and human interactions with the environment. Model simulations of a hydrological and sediment transport model (WBM-SED) illustrate global river discharge patterns. WAVEWATCH III simulations have been specifically processed to show the impacts of hurricanes on ocean waves, with focus on hurricane Katrina and super storm Sandy. A large world dataset of dams built over the last two centuries gives an impression of the profound influence of humans on water management. Given the exposure of SOS, CSDMS aims to contribute at least 2 model datasets a year, and will soon provide displays of global river sediment fluxes and changes of the sea ice free season along the Arctic coast. Over 100 facilities worldwide show these numerical model displays to an estimated 33 million people every year. Datasets storyboards, and teacher follow-up materials associated with the simulations, are developed to address common core science K-12 standards. CSDMS dataset documentation aims to make people aware of the fact that they look at numerical model results, that underlying models have inherent assumptions and simplifications, and that limitations are known. CSDMS contributions aim to familiarize large audiences with the use of numerical

  7. Collective Mathematical Understanding as an Improvisational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of mathematical understanding, and offers a response to the question raised by Martin (2001) at PME-NA about the possibility for and nature of collective mathematical understanding. In referring to collective mathematical understanding we point to the kinds of learning and understanding we may see occurring when…

  8. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variables—Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.

  9. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  10. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  11. THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, Rebecca E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu

    2012-06-20

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  12. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P.; Johnson, Terry R.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  13. The Moon: Keystone To Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an interna- tional array of automated spacecraft provides data on geology, geochemistry, miner- alogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure unequaled except for Earth. This level of detail has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for under- standing of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include- Impact cratering: New information on the nature of the process, depth of excavation, role of oblique impact, nature of the modification stage, production of impact melt, ejecta emplacement dynamics, the role of volatile emplacement and fate, particularly at the poles, and the establishment of crater size-frequency distribution chronology. Magmatic activity: New insight into plutonism (intrusion) and volcanism (extrusion), and their role as major crustal building and resurfacing processes throughout history, as well as the distribution of mantle melting processes in space and time. The nature of magmatic activity during heavy bombardment (intrusion, extrusion, cryptomaria) and in later lunar history, in terms of the mare stratigraphic record, the distribution of basalt types, the distribution of melting in space and time, volume and flux informa- tion, and the full range of eruption styles and their petrogenetic significance. Tectonic activity: The Moon is the type location for tectonics on a one-plate planet which can be understood in the context of the complete lunar data set and extended to other planetary bodies. Issues include distinguishing magmatic and tectonic graben, estab- lishing the three-dimensional structure and chronology of wrinkle ridges and arches, determining the internal

  14. Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

  15. Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

  16. Understanding of the Earth in the Presence of a Satellite Photo: A Threefold Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlen, Karin

    2009-01-01

    To acknowledge both conceptual and situational factors, children's understanding of the Earth was considered from three angles: 1. the perspective as the physical point or direction from which something is seen or depicted; 2. conceptual frameworks; 3. the relevance of explanations in a situation. Fourteen children were interviewed individually in…

  17. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  18. Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

  19. A Decade of Progress in Earth's Internal Properties and Processes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O L

    1981-07-01

    A major component of the Inter-Union Commission on Geodynamics Project, labeled "Internal Properties and Processes," included certain experimental and theoretical research in tectonophysics, seismology, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology, and planetology. This review focuses on a few research areas in which there have been surprises and reversals. In particular, attention is given to the attempts to quantify the thermal profile in the earth's interior and the material properties of the earth's interior. PMID:17741172

  20. The relation between drawing three-dimensional forms and understanding earth motions diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Jutta Siefert

    Visual-spatial abilities have been associated with the rendering of drawings and the comprehension of three-dimensional fields in science. The possibility of a relation between the ability to comprehend illustrations of earth motions and the ability to draw in three-dimensional perspective led to a study to determine the degree of correlation between them. Also considered were the relations of art and earth science achievements with the Otis-Lennon School Abilities Test, and three subtests from the Differential Aptitude Tests battery: mechanical reasoning, spatial relations and abstract reasoning. The study was conducted with ninth grade students taking art and earth science. Two instruments were created to measure three-dimensional perspective rendering and earth motions understanding--an art rubric and an earth motions test. The art rubric rated the elements of three-dimensionality in student-drawn compositions of solid, geometric forms. The earth motions test consisted of illustrations in two or three-dimensional perspective. Both instruments were tested for reliability and validity. Correlation between the earth motions test scores and the art exercise ratings was +0.47 and statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Modest but significant correlations were found between earth science achievement and the standardized test scores. Art achievement correlated significantly with the standardized test scores, except spatial relations. Stepwise multiple regression analyses found that 26% of the variability in the earth motions test results could be accounted for by art and spatial relations, and when art was removed, mechanical reasoning and scholastic aptitude contributed a total of 24%. Mechanical reasoning and scholastic aptitude also accounted for 19% of the variation in art achievement. The findings indicate that the abilities to imagine relative motion and to visualize from different points of view within a three-dimensional field are important components in

  1. Nonadiabatic processes in the Earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    The challenge of the assumption of an adiabatic equation of state for the plasma sheet made in several studies of quiet time convection and expansive phase activity is addressed. The observed plasma pressures at distances of approximately 10 RE are less than that predicted by adiabatic convection by over an order of magnitude. Studies of the local plasma properties for individual events as well as an ensemble of all quiet time plasma sheet samples during two years of ISEE coverage show that the polytropic index is below 5/3, and on occasion may be less than unity. During substorm activity the main effect of the plasma sheet is an increase in plasma temperature. This is seen both in statistical and case studies of individual substorms. The nature of the heating process is nonadiabatic, as evidenced by the anticorrelation between changes in plasma density and temperature. These recent observations of nonadiabatic behavior emphasize thermodynamic processes in the magnetosphere, an area which has been largely ignored.

  2. Metadata for numerical models of deep Earth and Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, A.; Peckham, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Model metadata aims to provide an unambiguous and complete description of a numerical model that would allow an end user scientist an immediate snapshot of the pertinent physical laws, assumptions, and numerical approximations. A rigorous metadata format that allows machine parsing of this information also makes it possible for model coupling frameworks to provide automatic and reliable semantic matching of input and output variables when models are coupled. Model metadata hinges in part on a controlled vocabulary that consists of human- and machine-readable terms that are unambiguously defined across modeling domains. The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) Standard Names are a set of generic naming conventions that have been used to generate a self-consistent controlled vocabulary for surface dynamics processes. As part of the NSF's EarthCube "Earth System Bridge" project, we extend the rich controlled vocabulary of CSDMS standard names to solid Earth modeling domains, including geodynamics, seismology, magnetotellurics, and petrology. We proceed to create a standard for Model Coupling Metadata (MCM) that is flexible enough to serve both the surface dynamics modeling community, and the deep Earth process modelers, thus bridging CSDMS and the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) communities with a common semantic network. Here, we focus on our progress towards establishing an MCM standard for numerical models of solid Earth and Earth surface processes, and on the tools that facilitate creation and maintenance of such metadata. In development of the MCM standard, we leverage the Common Information Model (CIM) of the climate modeling community, as well as the NSF-funded EarthCube GeoSoft project.

  3. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  4. Aeolian Slipface Processes on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwall, Carin; Jackson, Derek; Bourke, Mary; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The surface of Mars is dominated by aeolian features and many locations show ripple and dune migration over the past decade with some sediment fluxes comparable to terrestrial dunes. One of the leading goals in investigating aeolian processes on Mars is to explore the boundary conditions of sediment transport, accumulation, and dune mor-phology in relation to wind regime as well as to quantify migration rates and sediment flux. We combine terrestrial field observations, 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and remote sensing data to investigate com-plex, small scale wind patterns and grainflow processes on terrestrial and martian dunes. We aim to constrain grain flow magnitudes and frequencies that occur on slipface slopes of dunes in order to improve estimates of martian dune field migration and sediment flux related to wind velocity and flow patterns. A series of ground-based, high resolution laser scans have been collected in the Maspalomas dune field in Gran Canaria, Spain to investigate grainflow frequency, morphology and slipface advancement. Analysis of these laser scans and simultaneous video recordings have revealed a variety of slipface activity. We identify 6 different grain-flow morphologies including, hourglass shape (classic alcove formation with deposit fan below), superficial flow (thin lenses), narrow trough (vertical lines cm in width), sheet, column (vertical alcove walls), and complex (combi-nation of morphologies triggered simultaneously in the same location). Hourglass grainflow morphologies were the most common and occurred regularly. The superficial and narrow trough morphologies were the second most com-mon and frequently occurred in between large grain flows. Sheet grainflows were rare and unpredictable. These flows involved large portions of the slipface (metres across) and mobilized a substantial amount of sediment in one event. We have compared these grainflow morphologies from Maspalomas to those in martian dune fields and

  5. The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Venator, S.; Dittmann, T.; Stair, J.; Tiedeman, A.; Gottlieb, M.; Stroeve, A.; Hasting, M.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.

    2006-12-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. It will increase understanding of crustal movement and strain and provide insights into the causes and mechanisms of geodetic activity associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. PBO equipment includes global positioning systems; seismometers; and borehole strainmeters, which detect compression and extension of the earth's crust with a sensitivity of up to a millimeter per thousand kilometer. The deployment of a PBO strainmeters will lead to greater understanding of crustal and volcanic deformation processes at frequencies not normally recorded by the seismic or geodetic instruments. Deploying a PBO strainmeter is a four-step process: The first step is finding a suitable site for the installations of the borehole strainmeter at depths of between 500 and 800 feet below the surface. The process involves understanding the geology of a target area and once a potential site is identified a field visit is required to determine the presence of suitable access and infrastructure. The final and most difficult part of the first step is obtaining a permit from a landowner, which can take several visits and/or phone calls to work through the paperwork. Drilling the borehole is the second step. A standard water well drilling rig is normally used and the drilling process can take between 7-20 days depending on the geology and weather. The drillers must follow strict requirements for the borehole such as hole diameter, angular deviation from vertical, depth, and type of drill bits used. Variables while drilling include lithology changes, competency

  6. Looking Down on the Earth: How Satellites Have Revolutionized Our Understanding of Our Home Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freilich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Earth is a complex, dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, comprises diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. This presentation will highlight how satellite observations are revolutionizing our understanding of and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. Bio: MICHAEL H. FREILICH, Director of the Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters. Prior to NASA, he was a Professor and Associate Dean in the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University. He received Ph.D. in Oceanography from Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Univ. of CA., San Diego) in 1982. Dr. Freilich's research focuses on the determination, validation, and geophysical analysis of ocean surface wind velocity measured by satellite-borne microwave radar and radiometer instruments. He has developed scatterometer and altimeter wind model functions, as well as innovative validation techniques for accurately quantifying the accuracy of spaceborne environmental measurements. Dr. Freilich has served on many NASA, National Research Council (NRC), and research community advisory and steering groups, including the WOCE Science Steering Committee, the NASA EOS Science Executive Committee, the NRC Ocean Studies Board, and several NASA data system review committees. Freilich's non-scientific passions include nature photography and soccer refereeing at the youth, high school, and adult levels.

  7. Manned Earth Observatory - Possible contributions towards enhanced understanding of the marine environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerding, R. B.; Johnson, G. F.; Weidner, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    The Manned Earth Observatory (MEO) study being conducted by TRW under the management of NASA/MSFC will establish the conceptual design of and the mission requirements for an Earth Observation Laboratory that will be flown on Shuttle missions beginning in 1980. MEO offers a variety of unique inroads to improving our understanding of the marine environment. The Shuttle-MEO is a valuable addition to a multi-level multi-disciplinary remote sensing program. The unique attributes of MEO are its experimental flexibility due to man-instrument interaction, its complimentary orbit (intermediate between nonorbital and high-orbital platforms), its high weight and volume capacity, and short duration missions.

  8. Volcanoes and the environment: Lessons for understanding Earth's past and future from studies of present-day volcanic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanism has affected the environment of our planet over a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (< 1 yr to 100s Myr) scales and will continue to do so. As well as examining the Earth's geological record and using computer modelling to understand these effects, much of our knowledge of these processes comes from studying volcanism on the present-day planet. Understanding the full spectrum of possible routes and mechanisms by which volcanism can affect the environment is key to developing a realistic appreciation of possible past and potential future volcanic impact scenarios. This review paper seeks to give a synoptic overview of these potential mechanisms, focussing on those that we can seek to understand over human timescales by studying current volcanic activity. These effects are wide ranging from well-documented planetary-scale impacts (e.g., cooling by stratospheric aerosol veils) to more subtle or localised processes like ash fertilisation of ocean biota and impacts on cloud properties, atmospheric oxidant levels and terrestrial ecosystems. There is still much to be gained by studying present-day volcanic emissions. This review highlights the need for further work in three example areas. Firstly, to understand regional and arc-scale volcanic emissions, especially cycling of elements through subduction zones, more volatile measurements are needed to contribute to a fundamental and systematic understanding of these processes throughout geological time. Secondly, there is still uncertainty surrounding whether stratospheric ozone depletion following volcanic eruptions results solely from activation of anthropogenic halogen species. We should be poised to study future eruptions into the stratosphere with regard to their impacts and halogen load and work to improve our models and understanding of the relevant underlying processes within the Earth and the atmosphere. Thirdly, we lack a systematic understanding of trace metal volatility from magmas

  9. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  10. Flexible Description and Adaptive Processing of Earth Observation Data through the BigEarth Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Cosmin; Mihon, Danut

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Observation data repositories extending periodically by several terabytes become a critical issue for organizations. The management of the storage capacity of such big datasets, accessing policy, data protection, searching, and complex processing require high costs that impose efficient solutions to balance the cost and value of data. Data can create value only when it is used, and the data protection has to be oriented toward allowing innovation that sometimes depends on creative people, which achieve unexpected valuable results through a flexible and adaptive manner. The users need to describe and experiment themselves different complex algorithms through analytics in order to valorize data. The analytics uses descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge and information from data analysis. Possible solutions for advanced processing of big Earth Observation data are given by the HPC platforms such as cloud. With platforms becoming more complex and heterogeneous, the developing of applications is even harder and the efficient mapping of these applications to a suitable and optimum platform, working on huge distributed data repositories, is challenging and complex as well, even by using specialized software services. From the user point of view, an optimum environment gives acceptable execution times, offers a high level of usability by hiding the complexity of computing infrastructure, and supports an open accessibility and control to application entities and functionality. The BigEarth platform [1] supports the entire flow of flexible description of processing by basic operators and adaptive execution over cloud infrastructure [2]. The basic modules of the pipeline such as the KEOPS [3] set of basic operators, the WorDeL language [4], the Planner for sequential and parallel processing, and the Executor through virtual machines, are detailed as the main components of the BigEarth platform [5]. The presentation exemplifies the development

  11. Catalytic processes in the atmospheres of Earth and venus.

    PubMed

    Demore, W B; Yung, Y L

    1982-09-24

    Photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres are strongly influenced by catalytic effects of minor constituents. Catalytic cycles in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus are closely related. For example, chlorine oxides (CIOx) act as catalysts in the two atmospheres. On Earth, they serve to convert odd oxygen (atomic oxygen and ozone) to molecular oxygen. On Venus they have a similar effect, but in addition they accelerate the reactions of atomic and molecular oxygen with carbon monoxide. The latter process occurs by a unique combination of CIOx catalysis and sulfur dioxide photosensitization. The mechanism provides an explanation for the very low extent of carbon dioxide decomposition by sunlight in the Venus atmosphere. PMID:17837628

  12. Defining Earth Data Batch Processing Tasks by Means of a Flexible Workflowdescription Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandra, Constantin; Gorgan, Dorian

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to present some of the main features of the Workflow Description Language (WorDeL) and demonstrate their usage in defining Earth Data processing tasks. This description language is based on the flexible description of processing tasks as workflows, composed of basic processing operators. This approach allows the language to offer an intuitive way of representing processing tasks, without requiring programming expertise from its users. It also allows its users to employ and integrate existing functionality into their design, thereby reducing the design complexity and development effort of newly defined processing workflows. WorDeL supports the transparent adaptive parallelization of the processing tasks over high performance computation architectures, such as cloud-based solutions. Throughout the paper, we will exemplify this language's use in creating flexible, reusable and easy-to-understand earth data processing descriptions, with an emphasis on satellite image processing.

  13. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34

  14. Understanding the Elderly and the Aging Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Two areas of concern for elderly persons - maintaining ties with family and friends and preserving physical health and vigor - suggest courses on aging that home economists might teach. Understanding these problems and interpreting them for the community is a responsibility that home economists are well equipped to handle. (Author/AJ)

  15. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  16. Implementing high-latitude biogeochemical processes into Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovkin, Victor; Kleinen, Thomas; Cresto-Aleina, Fabio; Kloster, Silvia; Ilyina, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Projections of future climate changes suggest that air temperatures in the Arctic could rise to the levels unprecedented in the last million years. Sensitivity of carbon storages on land and shelves to climate change of that scale is highly uncertain. Earth System models (ESMs), consisting of atmosphere, ocean, land, and cryosphere components are the main tools to understand interactions between carbon cycle and climate. However, ESM representation of ecological and biogeochemical processes in the Arctic is extremely simplistic. For example, all ESMs agree that tree cover in the future warming scenarios will move northwards to the Arctic coast, but they ignore interactions between vegetation, permafrost, and disturbances such as fires, which are critical for vegetation dynamics in this region. Improving modeling of interactions between model components and their evaluation against growing observational evidence is a promising research area. The first attempts to account for the permafrost carbon dynamics in the ESM framework suggest that CO2 and CH4 emissions from high-latitude regions in the 21st century are relatively small, but they become much more significant afterwards due to committed climate changes. Therefore, extension of ESM simulations beyond 2100 is essential to estimate a proper scale of frozen carbon pool response to human-induced climate change. Additionally, inclusion of sub-sea permafrost component into ESMs is an active research area that brings together terrestrial and marine biogeochemical communities, as well as geologists analyzing climate proxies on glacial timescales. Another challenging aspect of biogeochemical interactions in Arctic is an extreme land surface heterogeneity. A mixture of wetlands, lakes, and vegetation-covered surfaces on fine local scale is not properly reflected in the model structure. A promising approach of dealing with scaling gaps in modeling high-latitude biogeochemical processes in ESMs will be presented.

  17. On the access to an earth resources data processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. L.; Schwingendorf, S. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Purdue/LARS earth resources data processing system is briefly described. The considerations to which an organization would want to give attention before obtaining a remote terminal to this system are discussed. The support of such a terminal which Purdue/LARS is willing to propose is described.

  18. North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of

  19. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T S

    2008-12-09

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} in the CaIrO{sub 3}-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

  20. The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  1. Science Graduates' Understanding of Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the nature of science has not been emphasized effectively in the professional training of scientists in Pakistan. Describes how the development of science-process skills, an inquiry approach, and constructive learning is delayed. (DDR)

  2. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  3. Understanding what the public know and value about geoheritage sites in order to advance Earth science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.

    2013-12-01

    With its impressive geology and rich cultural history, Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is ideally suited for Earth science education and geotourism initiatives, such as a Geopark. Geologic events that have shaped this region can be interpreted in such a way as to engage learners, not only through an intellectual connection to Earth science subject matter, but also through an emotional connection via culture, history, and sense of place. The notion that landscape is special because it is the sum total of all the interacting earth systems, including people as part of the biosphere, can be used to drive these initiatives as they affect one personally. It is speculated that most people in the Keweenaw have a basic understanding of the local cultural history and some understanding of geology. Advanced awareness and understanding of the geological significance of the Keweenaw stands to greatly enrich our community's sense of place and desire to advance further education and geotourism initiatives. It is anticipated that these initiatives will ultimately lead to increased Earth science literacy and understanding and recognition of one's own environs. This will aid in the further development of publications, teaching media, trails info, on-site museums, etc. Although the community has embraced geo-outreach thus far, it is germane to know what people value, what they know of the geology and how they connect to place. Results from semi-structured interviews administered with the aim and focus of determining what places are special to people, why they are special and how they formed will be presented in this paper. The results from this research will be used to direct the creation and continued development of geologic interpretation of our region. It is hoped that this understanding will reveal common misconceptions that can be used to improve interpretive material that not only addresses misconceptions but also connects the immediate past with the deep geologic past of the

  4. Understanding the Process of Medical Referral

    PubMed Central

    Muzzin, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Fifty referrals from family physicians in Ontario were examined by interviewing the patients, referring physicians, consultants, and others involved at various points in the process. This, the second in a series of six articles, introduces the participants and describes how grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the approximately 3000 pages of field notes. PMID:21229052

  5. Expanding Our Understanding of the Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish; Stemple, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    School librarians know the importance of collaboration. They cannot run effective school library programs unless they work closely with classroom teachers. They have learned that deep collaboration is a fluid process that evolves over time. Only as connections are made and relationships are forged can real instructional progress occur. Yet it…

  6. Understanding the Process of Medical Referral

    PubMed Central

    Muzzin, Linda J.

    1991-01-01

    In a critique of the existing literature, the author found that most studies simply calculate referral rates and count letters between referring physicians and specialists. Longitudinal studies that consider all participants' views and place referral in a broader context could reveal more about this complex process. This article is the first of a six-part series reporting on a longitudinal study of 50 referrals in Ontario and Manitoba. PMID:21229088

  7. Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and

  8. Quantifying Atmospheric Moist Processes from Earth Observations. Really?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's atmosphere is tiny compared to all other sources of water on our planet, fresh or otherwise. However, this tiny amount of water is fundamental to most aspects of human life. The tiny amount of water that cycles from the Earth's surface, through condensation into clouds in the atmosphere returning as precipitation falling is not only natures way of delivering fresh water to land-locked human societies but it also exerts a fundamental control on our climate system producing the most important feedbacks in the system. The representation of these processes in Earth system models contain many errors that produce well now biases in the hydrological cycle. Surprisingly the parameterizations of these important processes are not well validated with observations. Part of the reason for this situation stems from the fact that process evaluation is difficult to achieve on the global scale since it has commonly been assumed that the static observations available from snap-shots of individual parameters contain little information on processes. One of the successes of the A-Train has been the development of multi-parameter analysis based on the multi-sensor data produced by the satellite constellation. This has led to new insights on how water cycles through the Earth's atmosphere. Examples of these insights will be highlighted. It will be described how the rain formation process has been observed and how this has been used to constrain this process in models, with a huge impact. How these observations are beginning to reveal insights on deep convection and examples of the use these observations applied to models will also be highlighted as will the effects of aerosol on clouds on radiation.

  9. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  10. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S.

    2013-07-01

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

  11. Understanding the Process of Fascial Unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Minasny, Budiman

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapist’s touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a client’s body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as “mystical.” Purpose: This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. Hypothetical Model: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Conclusions: Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory. PMID:21589734

  12. A novel process for recovering rare earth from weathered black earth

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, R.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2000-02-01

    A novel process for recovering rare-earth (RE) elements from weathered-black-earth slime is developed. This process involves the initial removal of Mn by reduction leaching using SO{sub 2} followed by ammonium chloride roasting of the residual solids from the leaching process. The controlled roasting selectively converts RE oxides to water-soluble RE chlorides. The roasted materials are then dispersed in warm water (75 C) to extract RE, while water-insoluble iron oxides remain in gangue sludge, minimizing iron impurities in final RE products and hence simplifying the purification process. Lead chloride precipitates are obtained by cooling the leachate to {minus}10 C, and RE is recovered using oxalic acid precipitation. With this new process, a product of 92 pct purity at a RE recovery greater than 65 pct is obtained. In addition, Mn and Pb are recovered as by-products, with a recovery of 64 and 54 pct, respectively. The effect of operating variables on RE recovery is examined and the process chemistry described.

  13. Catalytic processes in the atmospheres of earth and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demore, W. B.; Yung, Y. L.

    1982-09-01

    Photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres are strongly influenced by catalytic effects of minor constituents. Catalytic cycles in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus are closely related. For example, chlorine oxides (ClOx) act as catalysts in the two atmospheres. On earth, they serve to convert odd oxygen (atomic oxygen and ozone) to molecular oxygen. On Venus they have a similar effect, but in addition they accelerate the reactions of atomic and molecular oxygen with carbon monoxide. The latter process occurs by a unique combination of ClOx catalysis and sulful dioxide photosensitization. The mechanism provides an explanation for the very low extent of carbon dioxide decomposition by sunlight in the Venus atmosphere.

  14. Catalytic processes in the atmospheres of earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Yung, Y. L.

    1982-01-01

    Photochemical processes in planetary atmospheres are strongly influenced by catalytic effects of minor constituents. Catalytic cycles in the atmospheres of Earth and Venus are closely related. For example, chlorine oxides (ClOx) act as catalysts in the two atmospheres. On earth, they serve to convert odd oxygen (atomic oxygen and ozone) to molecular oxygen. On Venus they have a similar effect, but in addition they accelerate the reactions of atomic and molecular oxygen with carbon monoxide. The latter process occurs by a unique combination of ClOx catalysis and sulful dioxide photosensitization. The mechanism provides an explanation for the very low extent of carbon dioxide decomposition by sunlight in the Venus atmosphere.

  15. Space Shuttle earth observations photography - Data listing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh

    1992-01-01

    The data listing process of the electronic data base of the Catalogs of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Photography is described. Similar data are recorded for each frame in each role from the mission. At the end of each roll, a computer printout is checked for mistakes, glitches, and typographical errors. After the roll and frames have been corrected, the data listings are ready for transfer to the data base and for development of the catalog.

  16. Digital image processing of earth observation sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and extracting information are also illustrated.

  17. Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  19. Microbial Communities: Tracing Growth Processes from Antarctic Lakes to Early Earth to Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Life in the Universe is dominated by microbes: they are numerically the most abundant cells in our bodies and in Earth's biosphere, and they are the only life that might be present elsewhere in our solar system. Life beyond our solar system could include macroscopic organisms, but everything we understand about the origin of life suggests it must start with microbes. Thus, understanding microbial ecosystems, in the absence of macroscopic organisms, is critical to understanding early life on Earth and life elsewhere in the Universe - if it exists. But what are the general principles of microbial ecology in the absence of predation? What happens when each cell is a chemical factory that can swap among metabolic processes in response to environmental and emergent cues? Geobiologists and astrobiologists are addressing these questions in diverse ways using both Earth's modern biosphere and its fossil record. Modern microbial communities in shallow, ice-covered lakes, Antarctica (Fig.), provide a model for high productivity microbial ecosystems with no to low predation. In these lakes, photosynthetic communities create macroscopic pinnacles and domes, sometime lithified into stromatolites. They provide an ecological, geochemical and morphological model for Precambrian microbial communities in low sedimentation, low current environments. Insights from these communities include new growth processes for ancient mats, especially some that grew prior to the oxidation of Earth's atmosphere. The diversity of biosignatures created in these communities also provides context for models of life under ice elsewhere in our solar system such as paleolakes on Mars and on icy moons. Results from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team document formerly habitable fluvial and lacustrine environments. Lacustrine environments, in particular, are favorable for preserving biosignatures, and continued investigations by MSL will provide a deeper understanding of the duration of habitable

  20. Precambrian paleointensity as a proxy for the deep Earth's processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    Data on the behavior of the geomagnetic field are crucial for understanding the origin and nature of Earth's early geodynamo. Identification of long-term trends in geomagnetic field intensity may also provide the insight necessary for determining the timing of important transitions within the Earth's interior, and for investigating potential causative links between the long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field and the evolution of atmosphere and biosphere. However, our current knowledge of the field history in the Precambrian remains very limited. Most notably, the paleointensity database contains only a handful of reliable data points. Notwithstanding the database limitations, some far-reaching conclusions about characteristics of the Precambrian field have been proposed. However, a great caution should be exercised when using the database to infer on the long-term behavior of Precambrian field and its implications for the Earth system evolution. Instead, our efforts should be focused on obtaining robust paleointensity determinations using modern paleointensity techniques that have shown great promise for obtaining reliable paleointensity determinations even from the oldest rocks. The new paleointensity data from several collections of Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean rocks will be presented and discussed in the context of current models of the long-term geomagnetic and themal evolution of our planet.

  1. Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t

  2. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

  3. Quasi-static MHD processes in earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Gerd-Hannes

    1988-01-01

    An attempt is made to use the MHD equilibrium theory to describe the global magnetic field configuration of earth's magnetosphere and its time evolution under the influence of magnetospheric convection. To circumvent the difficulties inherent in today's MHD codes, use is made of a restriction to slowly time-dependent convection processes with convective velocities well below the typical Alfven speed. This restriction leads to a quasi-static MHD theory. The two-dimensional theory is outlined, and it is shown how sequences of two-dimensional equilibria evolve into a steady state configuration that is likely to become tearing mode unstable. It is then concluded that magnetospheric substorms occur periodically in earth's magnetosphere, thus being an integral part of the entire convection cycle.

  4. Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

  5. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  6. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1993-01-01

    During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

  7. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  8. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  9. NASA's Standards Process For Earth Science Data Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA’s Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP’s Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, Global Change Master Directory’s Directory Interchange Format, NetCDF Classic, CF Metadata). We will discuss real examples of the different types of best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented and endorsed as Technical Notes (i.e. Interoperability between OGC CS/W and WCS Protocols, Lessons Learned Regarding WCS Server Design and Implementation, Mapping HDF5 to DAP2, Creating File Format Guidelines - The Aura Experience, ECHO Metadata) The NASA Earth science community benefits by having a repository of endorsed Earth science data systems standards that have been successfully implemented and used within the NASA environment. NASA’s Earth science data providers can rely on these endorsed standards for demonstrated readiness for mission use and science investigators are assured that standards contribute to science success in their discipline. The SPG is working with NASA’s Decadal Survey Missions (e.g. SMAP, CLARREO, ICESat II and DESDynI) to facilitate the use of NASA’s endorsed standards in these future mission data systems. We have also observed that the Standards process itself can encourage the development consensus within a community through the RFC development and review experience. An RFC can grow the use of common practices among related activities, then once the standard is endorsed, other discipline communities can learn from the successful

  10. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  11. Using the Earth as a guide to martian mass movement processes: From form to process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, N.; Newsom, H. E.; Osterloo, M. M.; Okubo, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of gully features on Mars has led to renewed interest in hillslope processes on that planet, in particular mass movement and the morphologies that it produces. Mass movement is a collection of gravity-driven processes that act to move materials down a hillslope. Here, we examine how mass movements on hillslopes may be expected to differ on Earth and Mars as the result of gravity differences between these planets. Downslope movement of unconsolidated materials is generally controlled by the bulk shear strength of these materials. Although the relationship between gravity and shear strength is largely dependent on variables that are independent of gravity, the lower gravity on Mars is expected to produce some systematic changes in mass movement behaviors that may in turn create morphological features that are observably different from their terrestrial counterparts. After scaling for gravity and modifying empirically derived relationships, we may expect the following differences on martian hillslopes when compared to their terrestrial counterparts: ==On Mars, hillslopes may have steeper angles of repose in fine grained (< ~2 mm) materials, even when dry. No change in angle of repose is expected for larger particles; ==An increase in soil moisture content (e.g., excess pore pressure) is expected to weaken unconsolidated slope materials more on Mars for a particular regolith type, which in turn may produce --An increase in creep rates for a given pore pressure, and --An increase in effectiveness of frost heave to transport materials downslope; ==Processes triggered by saturation may occur at lower pore pressures on Mars; --A smaller amount of fluid is needed to achieve failure; ==Shorter runout lengths are expected for rapid mass movements; ==On Mars, overland flow will exert a proportionally lower shear stress on slope materials; --In cohesive materials, the same volume of water will detach sediments of smaller sizes. On Earth, mass movement processes

  12. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. 1998 Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight Center.

    This document describes NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a comprehensive program to study the earth as an environmental system. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of earth-observing satellites; (2) an advanced data system; and (3) teams of scientists who will study the data. Contents include: (1) "The Earth…

  13. Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research. PMID:19100995

  14. NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, the netCDF Classic Model, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format). The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. As an internal working group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards

  15. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  16. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  17. Public Understanding of Science: From Contents to Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Robin; Wynne, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Argues that the conventional view of public understanding of science may be an unhelpful guide to improved science education practice. Suggests that the public understanding of the "processes," instead of "contents," of science may be more useful to interpret and cope with science, technology, and society issues. (Author/YP)

  18. Understanding the Manuscript Review Process: Increasing the Participation of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; And Others

    For the process leading to the publication of one's professional work to be equitable, all authors must understand why and how publication decisions are made. Psychologists must understand how editors and reviewers look at manuscripts, and how the author's own attitudes and skills may affect the acceptance of manuscripts. These four papers are…

  19. Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

  20. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  1. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, II, Charles,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  2. Understanding the earth systems of Malawi: Ecological sustainability, culture, and place-based education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of nature-knowledge-culture systems from local, place-based perspectives. Specifically, we were interested in learning more about eco-justice issues that are related to environmental degradation in Malawi and the potential role of inquiry-oriented pedagogies in addressing these issues. In a science methods course, the African educators' views on deforestation and teaching about ecological sustainability were explored within the context of the local environment and culture. Teachers participated in inquiry pedagogies designed to promote the sharing of perspectives related to the connections between culture and ecological degradation. Strategies encouraging dialogue and reflection included role-playing, class discussions, curriculum development activities, teaching experiences with children, and field trips to a nature preserve. Data were analyzed from postcolonial and critical pedagogy of place theoretical perspectives to better understand the hybridization of viewpoints influenced by both Western and indigenous science and the political hegemonies that impact sustainable living in Malawi. Findings suggested that the colonial legacy of Malawi continues to impact the ecological sustainability issue of deforestation. Inquiry-oriented pedagogies and connections to indigenous science were embraced by the Malawian educators as a means to involve children in investigation, decision making, and ownership of critical environmental issues.

  3. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  4. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

  5. Understanding How Astronauts Adapt to Space and to Earth: Anatomical Studies of Central Vestibular Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Significant changes take place in the nervous systems of astronauts during and following exposure to microgravity. These changes, particularly in the part of the brain that controls balance, the vestibular system, can cause sensations of rotation, dizziness, and vertigo, as well as space adaptation syndrome. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several days is often required upon return to Earth. In order to realize long-term spaceflight, effective countermeasures for these symptoms must be developed. The structural changes that take place in one of the vestibular regions of the brain (the cerebellar cortex) during the process of adaptation to Earth's gravity remain unclear and are the subject of an experiment being conducted on STS-107 by Dr. Gay Holstein of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Using the rat as a model, Dr. Holstein and her team will seek to identify the cellular changes underlying the vestibular changes experienced by astronauts.

  6. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  7. Distributed Application Framework for Earth Science Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R.; Michaelis, A.; Neuschwander, A.; Coughlan, J.; Bowker, C.

    2002-12-01

    One of the characteristics of earth science data is their diversity, which results in a large number of similar algorithms tailored to a specific data set. This approach is not very cost-effective, yet it is often used not only at a small-scale university level, but also on large government projects. Additionally, it is often hard to integrate dependent algorithms in which output of one of the algorithms is input of the next, especially if these were not developed by the same team. Our system addresses these issues by providing a framework for easy integration of dependent earth science data processing algorithms and for their generalization. One of the important features of the system is the decoupling of the data from the algorithms. Since the input data come in all different formats we are developing a common set of FGDC-compliant metadata to provide a better description of the data content, including projection, data types, fill values, etc. We use XML to store this metadata information together with the data itself in HDF5 files. Rather than rewriting the data processing algorithms to fit the appropriate data set, we implement filters that preprocess the data to the format required by the algorithms. This is much simpler then rewriting the algorithms and encourages code re-use on the algorithm part. Because the data processing is often time-consuming, we are able to parallelize the processing by providing a Java RMI framework for distributed execution. With our framework we can easily build flexible and scalable processing "pipelines" that include preprocessing, processing and automated result analysis as independent modules. This system gives us the flexibility to add and remove modules on the fly, as well as re- use existing code, and thus enables us to concentrate more on the science itself rather than of system development. Finally, the system can run without user interventions for long periods of time, providing the scientists with an automated way to

  8. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  9. Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

  10. A novel sequential process for remediating rare-earth wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Kang, Kyounglim; Kim, Dukmin; Snyder, Shane A; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2016-02-01

    A novel and economic sequential process consisting of precipitation, adsorption, and oxidation was developed to remediate actual rare-earth (RE) wastewater containing various toxic pollutants, including radioactive species. In the precipitation step, porous air stones (PAS) containing waste oyster shell (WOS), PASWOS, was prepared and used to precipitate most heavy metals with >97% removal efficiencies. The SEM-EDS analysis revealed that PAS plays a key role in preventing the surface coating of precipitants on the surface of WOS and in releasing the dissolved species of WOS successively. For the adsorption step, a polyurethane (PU) impregnated by coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS), PUCMDS, was synthesized and applied to deplete fluoride (F), arsenic (As), uranium (U), and thorium (Th) that remained after precipitation. The continuous-mode sequential process using PAS(WOS), PU(CMDS), and ozone (O3) had 99.9-100% removal efficiencies of heavy metals, 99.3-99.9% of F and As, 95.8-99.4% of U and Th, and 92.4% of COD(Cr) for 100 days. The sequential process can treat RE wastewater economically and effectively without stirred-tank reactors, pH controller, continuous injection of chemicals, and significant sludge generation, as well as the quality of the outlet met the EPA recommended limits. PMID:26583290

  11. [Processes of earth road regolith erosion in loess area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-ming; Qin, Wei; Zuo, Chang-qing; Wang, Wen-long; Guo, Ming-ming; Ouyang, Chao-bo

    2015-05-01

    Based on field investigation, the processes of earth road regolith erosion were studied under indoor simulated rainfall. Results showed that the runoff initiation time for both regolith and earth road surface erosion decreased with the increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness. With the increase in regolith thickness, the initiation time for earth road surface erosion lagged for 2-5 min. When the regolith thickness was ≤ 0.5 cm, the runoff rate turned to be stable at 2 min after runoff generation, and the average runoff rate increased with the increasing rainfall intensity and decreased with the increasing slope steepness. When the regolith thickness was ≥ 1.0 cm, runoff rate turned to be stable at 3 min after runoff generation, and the average runoff rate increased linearly with the rainfall intensity but exhibited a gradually decreasing trend after the first increment with the increasing slope steepness. The critical point for regolith erosion decreased with the increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness. With the regolith thickness of ≤ 0.5 cm, the erosion rate increased with the increasing rainfall intensity, with the erosion rate ranging from 24.5% to 434.4%, and the erosion rates for 8° and 16° slopes were 2.4 times as those for 2° and 4° slopes. With the regolith thickness of 1.0 cm, the erosion rate turned to be stable about 9 min after runoff generation and increased with the increasing rainfall intensity and slope. With the increasing slope steepness, the erosion form changed from sheet erosion to rill erosion and then to headward erosion. The average erosion amount over 10 min single rainfall for the regolith thickness of ≥ 1.0 cm was 1.3 times as that for the regolith thickness of ≤ 0.5 cm, while it was 2.7 times as that at the stage of regolith erosion alone. With the regolith thickness of ≤ 0.5 cm, the erosion amount had a significant correlation with rainfall intensity, and runoff volume with slope steepness. With the

  12. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles, II,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http

  13. Improving our understanding of clouds in the Earth's climate using polarimetry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Dunagan, S.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Water and ice clouds play a fundamental role in the radiative balance (and therefore climate) of the Earth, so understanding their distribution and optical properties is crucial. Recently, new data products from the ground-based NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been created. These products expand the scope of AERONET to provide data about clouds in addition to atmospheric aerosols for which the network was originally designed. The main AERONET cloud data product is the Cloud Optical Depth (COD), which describes the amount of light extinction due to clouds in a vertical atmospheric column. AERONET measurements of COD must rely, however, on assumptions about the cloud thermodynamic phase. If the thermodynamic phase can be identified, AERONET COD errors can be significantly reduced. AERONET sun photometers determine aerosol and cloud optical properties by observing both the direct solar beam and sky scattered radiation at a variety of wavelengths. Newer instruments are also sensitive to light polarization, which we show can be used to determine cloud thermodynamic phase and therefore improve AERONET cloud data products. This work has two components. First, we performed atmospheric radiative transfer simulations to verify that polarization does contain information about cloud phase, and how to best exploit this in an algorithm. Observations were then compared to theoretical simulations. The second component of this research is to build our own polarization sensitive radiometer that is optimized for cloud observations. Initial results from both of these efforts will be presented.

  14. SALICYLATE PROCESS FOR THORIUM SEPARATION FROM RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, G.A.

    1959-08-25

    The separation of thorium from rare earths is accomplished by forming an aqueous solution of salts of thorium and rare earths and sufficient acetate buffer to provide a pH of between 2 and 5, adding an ammonium salicylate to the aqueous buffered solution, contacting the resultant solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent mixture of an ether and an ester, and separating the solvent extract phase containing thorium salicylate from the aqueous phase containing the rare earths.

  15. Elemental processes of transport and energy conversion in Earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    In the last 5 years observations from several missions and ground based observatories have honed in on the most elemental aspects of flux transport and energy conversion. Dipolarization fronts and their counterpart in the distant magnetotail "anti-dipolarization" fronts, which together are refered to herein as "reconnection fronts", usher the recently reconnected flux tubes from the near-Earth X-points and in the process convert magnetic energy to particle energy and wave radiation. On the tailward side they are responsible for plasmoid formation and acceleration. On the earthward side they result in elemental substorm current wedges or wedglets, which were initially postulated from ground observations alone. Recent observations have revealed how the interaction of wedgelets and the inner magnetosphere takes place. Questions remain with regards to the physics of the energy transfer process from global magnetic energy to local heating and waves, and with regards to the initiation of the X-point activations in space. Observations indicate that the latter may be induced by polar cap or dayside activity, suggesting a direct link between dayside reconnection and nightside phenomena. The likely causal sequence of events and open questions in light of these recent observations, and the field's outlook in anticipation of upcoming coordinated observations from the international Heliophysics System Observatory will be discussed.

  16. Understanding Thermal Behavior in Lens Processing of Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Nelson, D.V.; Robino, C.V.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.E.; Wert, M.J.

    1998-11-05

    In direct laser metal deposition technologies, such as the Laser (LENS) process, it is important to understand and control the Engineered Net Shaping thermal behavior during fabrication. With this control, components can be reliably fabricated with desired structural material properties. This talk will describe the use of contact and imaging techniques to monitor the thermal signature during LENS processing. Recent results show a direct correlation between thermal history and material properties, where the residual stress magnitude decreases as the laser power, and therefore thermal signature, increases. Development of an understanding of solidification behavior, residual stress, and microstructural evolution with respect to thermal behavior will be discussed.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic Oscillations in the Solar Corona and Earth's Magnetosphere: Towards Consolidated Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakariakov, V. M.; Pilipenko, V.; Heilig, B.; Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.; Klimushkin, D. Y.; Kolotkov, D. Y.; Lee, D.-H.; Nisticò, G.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Verth, G.; Zimovets, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillatory processes in different plasma systems, such as the corona of the Sun and the Earth's magnetosphere, show interesting similarities and differences, which so far received little attention and remain under-exploited. The successful commissioning within the past ten years of THEMIS, Hinode, STEREO and SDO spacecraft, in combination with matured analysis of data from earlier spacecraft (Wind, SOHO, ACE, Cluster, TRACE and RHESSI) makes it very timely to survey the breadth of observations giving evidence for MHD oscillatory processes in solar and space plasmas, and state-of-the-art theoretical modelling. The paper reviews several important topics, such as Alfvénic resonances and mode conversion; MHD waveguides, such as the magnetotail, coronal loops, coronal streamers; mechanisms for periodicities produced in energy releases during substorms and solar flares, possibility of Alfvénic resonators along open field lines; possible drivers of MHD waves; diagnostics of plasmas with MHD waves; interaction of MHD waves with partly-ionised boundaries (ionosphere and chromosphere). The review is mainly oriented to specialists in magnetospheric physics and solar physics, but not familiar with specifics of the adjacent research fields.

  18. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  19. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, 1995 Catalog of Education Programs and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is an integrated, sustainable environmental education program that focuses on the concept of Earth system science which integrates fields like meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric science, geology, and biology. The program has the following objectives: training the next generation of scientists to use an…

  20. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  1. A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

  2. Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study explored a segment of this growing population to give researchers and practitioners a deeper…

  3. Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensar, Ferhat; Sallabas, Muhammed Eyyüp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of…

  4. Understanding Metaphorical Expressions: Conventionality, Mappings, and Comparison Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions appear once every twenty words in everyday language, and play a central role in communication. Some cognitive linguistic theories propose that understanding metaphorical expressions requires mappings from one conceptual domain to the other. My research uses Event-Related Potentials to examine the processing, the…

  5. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  6. Dynamic Noise and its Role in Understanding Epidemiological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maíra

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the role of dynamic noise in understanding epidemiological systems, such as influenza or dengue fever by deriving stochastic ordinary differential equations from markov processes for discrete populations. This approach allows for an easy analysis of dynamical noise transitions between co-existing attractors.

  7. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Although we have an intuitive understanding of the behavior and functions of groundwater in the Earth's critical zone at the scales of a column (atmosphere-plant-soil-bedrock), along a toposequence (ridge to valley), and across a small catchment (up to third-order streams), this paper attempts to assess the relevance of groundwater to understanding large-scale patterns and processes such as represented in global climate and Earth system models. Through observation syntheses and conceptual models, evidence are presented that groundwater influence is globally prevalent, it forms an environmental gradient not fully captured by the climate, and it can profoundly shape critical zone evolution at continental to global scales. Four examples are used to illustrate these ideas: (1) groundwater as a water source for plants in rainless periods, (2) water table depth as a driver of plant rooting depth, (3) the accessibility of groundwater as an ecological niche separator, and (4) groundwater as the lower boundary of land drainage and a global driver of wetlands. The implications to understanding past and future global environmental change are briefly discussed, as well as critical discipline, scale, and data gaps that must be bridged in order for us to translate what we learn in the field at column, hillslope and catchment scales, to what we must predict at regional, continental, and global scales.

  8. Earth processes in wake of Gujarat earthquake reviewed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Ouzounov, Dimitar

    Two years after a devastating earthquake in Gujarat, India, scientists from many disciplines met at an international workshop to share the latest knowledge about Earth system processes related to this natural disaster. The meeting particularly focused on the use of spaceborne technology to study the effects of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere interaction prior to and following the earthquake. More than 80 of the participants were affiliated with research and academic institutions in India, and several scientists from the United States, Germany Russia, and China also participated.Soon after the earthquake on 26 January 2001, Indian scientists established a Global Positioning System (GPS) network to monitor crustal motion around the earthquake's epicenter in cooperation with scientists from Japan, Germany, and the United States. Observations made by routine GPS measurements in the past have shown that the Bhuj area has significantly shifted anti-clockwise. The leveling observations made by the Survey of India show that the Santal Pur Bhuj Block was uplifted up to 60 cm, while Bhuj, Bhachau, and Mundra subsided ˜60 cm. The need to establish a dense network of level lines and gravity stations in Kachchh was stressed at the meeting.

  9. Recent Advances in Understanding Radiation Belt Dynamics in the Earth's Inner Zone and Slot Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Comprehensive measurements of the inner belt protons from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of inner belt protons in terms of their spectrum distribution, spatial distribution, pitch angle distribution, and their different source populations. Concurrent measurements from the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile) on board Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, in a highly inclined low Earth orbit, and REPT demonstrated that there exist sub-MeV electrons in the inner belt and their flux level is orders of magnitude higher than the background associated with the inner belt protons, while higher energy electron (>1.6 MeV) measurements cannot be distinguished from the background. Analysis on sub-MeV electrons data in the inner belt and slot region from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) on board Van Allen Probes revealed rather complicated pitch angle distribution of these energetic electrons, with the 90 deg-minimum (butterfly) pitch angle distribution dominating near the magnetic equator. Furthermore, it is clearly shown from MagEIS measurements that 10s - 100s keV electrons are commonly seen penetrating into the inner belt region during geomagnetic active times while protons of similar energies are hardly seen there. These are part of a summary of the most recent measurements and understanding of the dynamics of energetic particles in the inner zone and slot region to be exhibited and discussed in this presentation.

  10. Anelasticity of the HCP Metal Zinc: a Key to Understanding the Dynamics of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, S. A.; Walker, A.; Lord, O. T.; Stackhouse, S.; Armstrong, L. S.; Parsons, A. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Whitaker, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The solid inner core is the most remote and inaccessible part of our planet but its structure and composition may provide a key record needed to reveal the timing and nature of the onset of Earth's protective magnetic field generated and even of long-term changes in the way the mantle convects driving surface dynamics. Key to developing our understanding of the inner core is our ability to use seismic observations to constrain its structure on all scales. Seismic wave velocities are mostly sensitive to the atomic scale crystal structure, temperature and composition. On a larger scale the microstructure of the inner core, reflecting its deformation and crystallization history, can be probed by seismic studies of elastic anisotropy and anelasticity [Makinen & Deuss (2013) Geophys. J. Int. 194:401]. The inner core is at temperatures in excess of ~0.95Tm and interpretation of the properties and history of the inner core must therefore include careful understanding of the anelastic properties of HCP iron and its alloys. The most recent study of the anelasticity of iron and iron alloys is now over a decade old [Jackson et al., (2000) J. Geophys. Res. 105:23605] and is limited to low pressure where iron adopts the body centered cubic (BCC) or face centered cubic (FCC) structure. It is now widely, although not universally, accepted that iron in the core adopts the hexagonally close packed (HCP) epsilon-iron structure stable above 10 GPa and there are currently no results that reveal the anelasticity of this core-forming phase. We have used Zinc as a low pressure analogue for HCP-iron and measured its anelastic response as a function of frequency (periods 10-300s), temperature and pressure (P<7GPa). Our experiments use the D-DIA to apply a sinusoidally varying strain to the sample and a corundum elastic standard. We image changes in length of the sample and standard in response to the driving strain X-radiographically. The amplitude and phase of sample length change

  11. Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus

    2007-07-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

  12. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  13. Understanding uncertainty in process-based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Slater, A. G.; Newman, A. J.; Marks, D. G.; Landry, C.; Lundquist, J. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Nijssen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Building an environmental model requires making a series of decisions regarding the appropriate representation of natural processes. While some of these decisions can already be based on well-established physical understanding, gaps in our current understanding of environmental dynamics, combined with incomplete knowledge of properties and boundary conditions of most environmental systems, make many important modeling decisions far more ambiguous. There is consequently little agreement regarding what a 'correct' model structure is, especially at relatively larger spatial scales such as catchments and beyond. In current practice, faced with such a range of decisions, different modelers will generally make different modeling decisions, often on an ad hoc basis, based on their balancing of process understanding, the data available to evaluate the model, the purpose of the modeling exercise, and their familiarity with or investment in an existing model infrastructure. This presentation describes development and application of multiple-hypothesis models to evaluate process-based hydrologic models. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including multiple options for model parameterizations (e.g., below-canopy wind speed, thermal conductivity, storage and transmission of liquid water through soil, etc.), as well as multiple options for model architecture, that is, the coupling and organization of different model components (e.g., representations of sub-grid variability and hydrologic connectivity, coupling with groundwater, etc.). Application of this modeling framework across a collection of different research basins demonstrates that differences among model parameterizations are often overwhelmed by differences among equally-plausible model parameter sets, while differences in model architecture lead

  14. Developing a Simple Unified Web API for Earth Science Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) Core System (ECS) has, for over a decade, provided a vast catalog of remote sensing data to the scientific community. This data is invaluable to increasing the understanding of our dynamic planet. Over time, technological advances and changes in user demands have brought about huge changes. While data was originally stored in huge tape silos, requiring complicated software and a sizeable lag time for delivery to end users, data is now available on network connected storage devices and can be downloaded in real time. The online access to ECS data opens the door to a wide array of possible applications which were not previously feasible. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, ECS set out to develop an API for accessing and processing Earth Science data in real time. This API was designed to provide the most common types of data processing in a simple and straightforward fashion. Many options, such as Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPenDAP), were considered as starting points to develop this API, but in the end, a mostly customized interface based on EOSDIS' Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) was chosen. The ECS implementation of the API was designed in such a way as to allow EOSDIS data centers to plug in their own desired processing tools in such a way that end users can get the most appropriate type of processing for each datatype without any need to know what specific tool is being used and via a single API. Thus, the focus is on the end result of processing, not the tools and processes used to get there. In the past, in order to have ECS data processed (e.g. subsetted or reprojected), users were required to download data and tools to their own systems and perform the processing there. This often required detailed knowledge of the specifics of the data involved and of Geospatial data concepts. Alternatively, users could submit processing requests

  15. Luminescent instabilities and nonradiative processes in rare earth systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, Shawn Michael

    This research is an outgrowth of earlier experiments that demonstrated bistable luminescence in heavy metal halide crystals doped with trivalent ytterbium ions. This type of instability has importance as a fundamentally new physical phenomenon with a potential application for fast all-optical switching as well as a limitation on compact solid state laser performance. In this thesis, the investigation of luminescent instabilities is extended to bistable energy transfer processes in crystals and to the observation of "bistable" blackbody emission in rare earth nanopowders. High resolution laser spectroscopy was used to study bistable luminescence and energy transfer in Yb,Er:CsCdBr3 crystals at cryogenic temperatures. For the first time, it was found that bistable behavior associated with Yb 3+ ions was transferred to Er3+ through resonant energy transfer. Bistability of the resulting sensitized luminescence caused sufficiently dramatic changes in the crystal dynamics so as to change the color of emission from yellow to green. This color changing phenomenon is fully explained in the present work and is referred to as "chromatic switching." Temperature is a critical variable that is known to govern luminescent instabilities in all current theories. Therefore, in a search for new systems with luminescent instabilities at high temperatures, materials with extreme thermal properties were investigated as part of this research. Yb,Er:Y 2O3 nanopowders were selected for this purpose. Nanopowders exhibit greatly reduced thermal conductivity and were verified during the course of this work to cause enhanced absorption as the result of multiple scattering. Significant spectral differences between Yb,Er:Y2O 3 nanopowders and single crystals also emerged. Measurements of erbium upconversion luminescence versus pump intensity in resonance with the ytterbium absorption transition revealed striking new optical phenomena: strong luminescent quenching, intense "bistable" blackbody

  16. Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Michael Thomas

    2013-05-01

    High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids. The ballistic formation and thermalization of the defect creation process occur rapidly, and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic annealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable postirradiation disorder in ion-beam-processing of semiconductors, and determines the “radiation tolerance” of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken.

  17. Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image

  18. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking Among University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-12-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics—dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking—focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The study's first part was quantitative. Its population consisted of a research group (223 students majoring in geology or physical geography) and a control group (312 students with no background in geology). The students were asked to rate their agreement with each statement on a Likert scale. Overall, the students in the research group expressed higher levels of dynamic thinking than those in the control group. The geology students showed relatively strong dynamic thinking toward the geosphere and hydrosphere, but not the biosphere. In cyclic thinking, their levels were significantly higher for all Earth systems, suggesting a connection between learning about different cycles in Earth systems, developing cyclic thinking and applying it to other Earth cycles. The second part was qualitative and administered only to the students who majored in geology. They were asked to freely explain their answers to the questionnaire's statements. Our aim was to identify recurring patterns in how these students express their dynamic and cyclic thinking. Their explanations were given to four experts in the field of Earth science, who then presented, in a semi-structured interview, the recurring characteristics of dynamic thinking that they found in the students' explanations.

  19. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new δ18O and δD measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from δ18O, δD, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  20. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (Principal Investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulling, Azalie Cecile

    The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time

  2. Bedrock Channels: Towards a Process-Based Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R. E.; Horn, C. A. P. T., III; Thy, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms in large rivers have focused on aggradational bedforms within alluvial sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. Detailed understanding of the processes within bedrock reaches of river channels is vital if an improved understanding of formation and evolution of bedrock scours and bedforms are to be elucidated. The paper presents high-resolution bathymetry and sidescan derived from multibeam sonar (MBES) and detailed flow mapping by acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) to illustrate, in intricate detail, relations between morphology, flow and sediment transport processes through a bedrock reach of the Mekong River (Cambodia) during a large flood event. A 2 by 5 km reach of the Mekong river near Sambor was surveyed with a RESON 7125 MBES system revealing incredible >40 m scour features within the bedrock substrate, with sidescan imagery also revealing the routing of alluvial sediment through the scours. A series of ADCP transects were obtained, both transverse and perpendicular to the primary downstream flow, that map the flows into, around and within these scour features. The paper will conclude by looking at how advances in measurement capability have permitted the detailed processes in such channels to be investigated for the first time at this scale.

  3. Understanding scale dependency of climatic processes with diarrheal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr Azadani, F.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    The issue of scales in linking climatic processes with diarrheal diseases is perhaps one of the most challenging aspect to develop any predictive algorithm for outbreaks and to understand impacts of changing climate. Majority of diarrheal diseases have shown to be strongly associated with climate modulated environmental processes where pathogens survive. Using cholera as an example of characteristic diarrheal diseases, this study will provide methodological insights on dominant scale variability in climatic processes that are linked with trigger and transmission of disease. Cholera based epidemiological models use human to human interaction as a main transmission mechanism, however, environmental conditions for creating seasonality in outbreaks is not explicitly modeled. For example, existing models cannot create seasonality, unless some of the model parameters are a-priori chosen to vary seasonally. A systems based feedback approach will be presented to understand role of climatic processes on trigger and transmission disease. In order to investigate effect of changing climate on cholera, a downscaling approach using support vector machine will be used. Our preliminary results using three climate models, ECHAM5, GFDL, and HADCM show that varying modalities in future cholera outbreaks.

  4. Earth Science (A Process Approach), Section 1: The Water Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, K. C.; And Others

    Included is a collection of earth science laboratory activities, which may provide the junior or senior high school science teacher with ideas for activities in his program. The included 48 experiments are grouped into these areas: properties of matter; evaporation; atmospheric moisture and condensation; precipitation; moving water, subsurface…

  5. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process. PMID:26357398

  6. Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB

  7. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2008-05-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to implement an interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems. These ideas have also proven useful in quantum state discrimination, where the state of a quantum system is unknown and is to be determined.

  8. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication. PMID:22908680

  9. From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

  10. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  11. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  12. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics--dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking--focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The…

  13. Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.

    Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

  14. Advancing the understanding of the Sun-Earth interaction—the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) II program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka; Shepherd, Marianna; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2015-12-01

    The Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) implemented an international collaborative program called Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES), which was active from 2004 to 2008; this was followed by the CAWSES II program during the period of 2009-2013. The CAWSES program was aimed at improving the understanding of the coupled solar-terrestrial system, with special emphasis placed on the short-term (weather) and long-term (climate) variability of solar activities and their effects on and responses of Geospace and Earth's environment. Following the successful implementation of CAWSES, the CAWSES II program pursued four fundamental questions addressing the way in which the coupled Sun-Earth system operates over time scales ranging from minutes to millennia, namely, (1) What are the solar influences on the Earth's climate? (2) How will Geospace respond to an altered climate? (3) How does short-term solar variability affect the Geospace environment? and (4) What is the Geospace response to variable inputs from the lower atmosphere? In addition to these four major tasks, the SCOSTEP and CAWSES promoted E-science and informatics activities including the creation of scientific databases and their effective utilization in solar-terrestrial physics research. Capacity building activities were also enhanced during CAWSES II, and this represented an important contribution of SCOSTEP to the world's solar-terrestrial physics community. This introductory paper provides an overview of CAWSES II activities and serves as a preface to the dedicated review papers summarizing the achievements of the program's four task groups (TGs) and the E-science component.

  15. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain. PMID:25884891

  16. Towards the understanding of network information processing in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay

    Living organisms perform incredibly well in detecting a signal present in the environment. This information processing is achieved near optimally and quite reliably, even though the sources of signals are highly variable and complex. The work in the last few decades has given us a fair understanding of how individual signal processing units like neurons and cell receptors process signals, but the principles of collective information processing on biological networks are far from clear. Information processing in biological networks, like the brain, metabolic circuits, cellular-signaling circuits, etc., involves complex interactions among a large number of units (neurons, receptors). The combinatorially large number of states such a system can exist in makes it impossible to study these systems from the first principles, starting from the interactions between the basic units. The principles of collective information processing on such complex networks can be identified using coarse graining approaches. This could provide insights into the organization and function of complex biological networks. Here I study models of biological networks using continuum dynamics, renormalization, maximum likelihood estimation and information theory. Such coarse graining approaches identify features that are essential for certain processes performed by underlying biological networks. We find that long-range connections in the brain allow for global scale feature detection in a signal. These also suppress the noise and remove any gaps present in the signal. Hierarchical organization with long-range connections leads to large-scale connectivity at low synapse numbers. Time delays can be utilized to separate a mixture of signals with temporal scales. Our observations indicate that the rules in multivariate signal processing are quite different from traditional single unit signal processing.

  17. Understanding the Dynamical Evolution of the Earth Radiation Belt and Ring Current Coupled System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shprits, Yuri; Usanova, Maria; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Modeling and understanding the ring current and radiation belt-coupled system has been a grand challenge since the beginning of the space age. In this study we show long-term simulations with a 3D Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code of modeling the radiation belts with boundary conditions derived from observations around geosynchronous orbit. Simulations can reproduce long term variations of the electron radiation belt fluxes and show the importance of local acceleration, radial diffusion, loss to the atmosphere and loss to the magnetopause. We also present 4D VERB simulations that include convective transport, radial diffusion, pitch angle scattering and local acceleration. VERB simulations show that the lower energy inward transport is dominated by the convection and higher energy transport is dominated by the diffusive radial transport. We also show that at energies of 100s of keV, a number of processes work simultaneously, including convective transport, radial diffusion, local acceleration, loss to the loss cone and loss to the magnetopause. The results of the simulation of the March 2013 storm are compared with Van Allen Probes observations.

  18. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  19. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  20. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility was investigated of an on-board earth resources data processor launched during the 1980-1990 time frame. Projected user applications were studied to define the data formats and the information extraction algorithms that the processor must execute. Based on these constraints, and the constraints imposed by the available technology, on-board processor systems were designed and their feasibility evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are given.

  1. Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Mason, George W.; Lewey, Sonia

    1977-04-05

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

  2. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes. PMID:22783175

  3. A synthetic biology approach to understanding cellular information processing

    PubMed Central

    Riccione, Katherine A; Smith, Robert P; Lee, Anna J; You, Lingchong

    2012-01-01

    The survival of cells and organisms requires proper responses to environmental signals. These responses are governed by cellular networks, which serve to process diverse environmental cues. Biological networks often contain recurring network topologies called ‘motifs’. It has been recognized that the study of such motifs allows one to predict the response of a biological network, and thus cellular behavior. However, studying a single motif in complete isolation of all other network motifs in a natural setting is difficult. Synthetic biology has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding the dynamic properties of network motifs. In addition to testing existing theoretical predictions, construction and analysis of synthetic gene circuits has led to the discovery of novel motif dynamics such as how the combination of simple motifs can lead to autonomous dynamics or how noise in transcription and translation can affect the dynamics of a motif. Here, we review developments in synthetic biology as they pertain to increasing our understanding of cellular information processing. We highlight several types of dynamic behaviors that diverse motifs can generate, including the control of input/output responses, the generation of autonomous spatial and temporal dynamics, as well as the influence of noise in motif dynamics and cellular behavior. PMID:23411668

  4. Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel; Condon, Steven; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio L.; Valett, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental approach was used to better understand the effort distribution of releases and build a predictive effort model for software maintenance releases. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC). This paper presents three main results: 1) a predictive effort model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process; 2) measurement-based lessons learned about the maintenance process in the FDD; and 3) a set of lessons learned about the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program. In addition, this study provides insights and guidelines for obtaining similar results in other maintenance organizations.

  5. Recent Observational Advances in our Understanding of Magnetic Reconnection in Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    The availability of multi-point observations through the ion diffusion region has provided a wealth of information on the workings of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and at the nightside plasma sheet. Ion inertia and finite gyroradius result in clear Hall effects on ion inertial length scales that have been observed by single and multi-point spacecraft resulting in a fairly detailed understanding of that physics. The role of Hall dynamics on establishing the reconnection rate, and the outflow conditions is well understood. Electron violation of the frozen-in condition is much more subtle and rarely observed at the X-point; indirect evidence has been more frequently observed in parallel electric fields. The waves responsible for this violation and for resultant energy conversion are at the forefront of observational studies. The contraction of islands centered at multiple O-points could provide for rapid energy conversion. However, observations of in vivo FTEs at the dayside and classical plasmoids at the nightside, are rare even near the expected most probable location of reconnection. Rather, asymmetric proto-plasmoids and dipolarization (a.k.a reconnection) fronts at the nightside signify distinctly different evolution of the reconnection geometry from that of X and O points. Operating within meso-scale (1-3Re) flows the inherently kinetic (at electron inertial scales embeded in ion inertial scale current systems) processes at such fronts play a significant role in the dynamics and drive global magnetospheric energy conversion and flux transport. Recent studies suggest that the entire magnetosphere is, in fact, connected front-to-back by reconnection pulses resulting in meso-scale flows. The upcoming Heliophysics System Observatory, motivated by the launch of MMS and the coordinated observations of THEMIS, ARTEMIS, Van Allen probes and other space and ground assets will answer key questions on this subject locally, regionally and globally.

  6. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  7. Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pella-Donnelly, M. A.; Daley, B.; Crawford, B.

    2010-12-01

    Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United States. Essential elements of this curriculum include a scaffolded series of lessons on nature of science, making observations and inferences of fossils and development of an increased understanding of essential earth science topics including the Law of Uniformitarianism and the principle of superposition . Through these hands-on lessons, students begin to understand evolutionary theory and nature of science. The rewards of implementing this curriculum can be observed with student excitement as they engage in authentic research; they become student paleontologists as they scour bags of rocks for the fossils that may be unearthed. The rocks had been collected during a field study, by the teachers and are well known to contain a multitude of Devonian era fossils. Students become researchers as they examine, identify, measure and quantify all fossils found in these rocks. As the children contribute their own data to an online database of an actual paleontological study, they become self driven to examine that compiled data in order to construct explanations of past life in that collection area. This presentation will focus on personal experiences of two teachers, as they engaged their students in authentic research in earth science It will focus on using inquiry-based strategies that can be transferred to a multitude of classrooms and how to use this basic format to engage, excite and develop understanding of earth science. Teachers will learn about effective inquiry-based lessons that incorporate aspects nature of science. Additionally

  8. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to determine the (unknown) state of a spatially distributed, multipartite quantum system. Illustrative examples of this entanglement-assisted local state discrimination are sets of orthogonal product states exhibiting what is known as ``non-locality without entanglement'', including unextendible product bases. These ideas have also proven useful in using entanglement to implement a unitary interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems.

  9. Image processing technique based on image understanding architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvychko, Igor

    2000-12-01

    Effectiveness of image applications is directly based on its abilities to resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the real images. That requires tight integration of low-level image processing with high-level knowledge-based reasoning, which is the solution of the image understanding problem. This article presents a generic computational framework necessary for the solution of image understanding problem -- Spatial Turing Machine. Instead of tape of symbols, it works with hierarchical networks dually represented as discrete and continuous structures. Dual representation provides natural transformation of the continuous image information into the discrete structures, making it available for analysis. Such structures are data and algorithms at the same time and able to perform graph and diagrammatic operations being the basis of intelligence. They can create derivative structures that play role of context, or 'measurement device,' giving the ability to analyze, and run top-bottom algorithms. Symbols naturally emerge there, and symbolic operations work in combination with new simplified methods of computational intelligence. That makes images and scenes self-describing, and provides flexible ways of resolving uncertainty. Classification of images truly invariant to any transformation could be done via matching their derivative structures. New proposed architecture does not require supercomputers, opening ways to the new image technologies.

  10. SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  11. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  12. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  13. Development of algorithms for understanding the temporal and spatial variability of the earth's radiation balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. R.; Harrison, E. F.; Minnis, P.; Suttles, J. T.; Kandel, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    A brief description is given of how temporal and spatial variability in the earth's radiative behavior influences the goals of satellite radiation monitoring systems and how some previous systems have addressed the existing problems. Then, results of some simulations of radiation budget monitoring missions are presented. These studies led to the design of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). A description is given of the temporal and spatial averaging algorithms developed for the ERBE data analysis. These algorithms are intended primarily to produce monthly averages of the net radiant exitance on regional, zonal, and global scales and to provide insight into the regional diurnal variability of radiative parameters such as albedo and long-wave radiant exitance. The algorithms are applied to scanner and nonscanner data for up to three satellites. Modeling of dialy shortwave albedo and radiant exitance with satellite samling that is insufficient to fully account for changing meteorology is discussed in detail. Studies performed during the ERBE mission and software design are reviewed. These studies provide quantitative estimates of the effects of temporally sparse and biased sampling on inferred diurnal and regional radiative parameters. Other topics covered include long-wave diurnal modeling, extraction of a regional monthly net clear-sky radiation budget, the statistical significance of observed diurnal variability, quality control of the analysis, and proposals for validating the results of ERBE time and space averaging.

  14. Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

    Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion

  15. Pack carburizing process for earth boring drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.; Scott, D.E.; Poland, J.R.

    1987-02-17

    A method is described of manufacturing an earth boring drill bit of the type having a bearing pin extending from a head section of the drill bit for rotatably mounting a cutter, comprising the steps of: providing a container having opposing end openings with sidewalls therebetween which define a container interior; placing the container over a portion of the head section so that the pin extends within the interior of the container; installing a spring spacer within the interior of the container about at least a portion of the circumference of the bearing pin at least one axial location; packing the container with a particulate treating medium; covering the container; and placing the pin and container into a furnace for a time and at a temperature to activate the treating medium.

  16. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with

  17. Tectonic and Aqueous Processes in the Formation of Mass-wasting Features on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental to the advancement of planetary geology is an understanding of the interaction between tectonic and aqueous processes on planetary surfaces. This dissertation examines this interaction within two geomorphologic processes: landslide emplacement, on Mars and on Earth, and the formation of seasonal slope features on Mars. Long-runout landsliding in equatorial Valles Marineris, Mars is among the most prominent geomorphic occurrences shaping the canyon. However, the mechanism of landslide long-distance transport, and the highly debated role of water therein, remains elusive. Through systematic mapping of high-resolution satellite images, integrated with spectral analysis, we show that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating landslide transport by lubricating the basal sliding zone. This conclusion implies that clay minerals, generated by ancient water-rock interactions, exert a long-lasting influence on Mars surface processes. The Eureka Valley (EV) landslide is an unexamined, well-preserved long-runout landslide in arid southeast Eureka Valley, California. The field, photogeologic, spectral, and luminescence dating investigation presented here support initiation as a result of fault-generated fracture during the mid to early Holocene at minimum, and transport lubricated by the presence of basal clays, characterized by 3-D internal deformation, as the most likely EV landslide emplacement mechanism. This geomorphological characterization may be applied to long-runout landslides on Earth and other planetary surfaces, suggesting that their emplacement likely does not require the participation of water. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are seasonal, narrow, low-albedo features extending down steep, equator-facing Mars slopes. RSL formation has been largely attributed to the seepage of near-surface water, though its source is not well understood. Through detailed analysis of high-resolution satellite images of RSL geologic contexts, we quantify the

  18. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

    2006-04-01

    AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter

  19. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

  20. An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burckin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual…

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  2. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  3. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

  4. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  5. Improved Understanding of ice and dust processes using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    We use the DART Data Assimilation (DA) framework to ingest radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) into the PlanetWRF Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) and measure the skill of the model in reproducing the observations, and hence to test and improve understanding of the aerosol processes at the heart of Martian climate. The DA framework is used to constrain the surface ice properties in the model using the TES radiance observations and lander pressure measurements as independent constraints on the ice properties. We compare the skill of two ice models in reproducing the TES radiance observations while simultaneously matching lander pressure observations. In one model the effect of subsurface ice is contained within the surface albedo and emissivity parameterization, in the second model subsurface ice is parameterized based on Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data. Both models reproduce the pressure cycle observed by the Viking Lander instruments, but the model with subsurface ice performs significantly better at reproducing the TES radiance observations over the ice-covered poles. We also use the DA framework to investigate the model skill using the Conrath vertical dust profile (with a near surface maximum dust abundance) and a modified dust profile with high altitude maximum that has been inferred from limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The GCM using the modified dust profile produces an atmosphere with thermal lapse rate closer to that measured using nadir observations from TES.

  6. Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

  7. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization

  8. Grazing Impacts Upon Earth's Surface: Towards an Understanding of the Rio Cuarto Crater Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The origin of the Rio Cuarto crater field, Argentina has been widely debated since the early 1990s when it was first brought to public attention. In a binary on-off sense, however, the craters are either of a terrestrial origin or they formed via a large asteroid impact. While there are distinct arguments in favour of the former option being the correct interpretation, it is the latter possibility that is principally investigated here, and five distinct impact formation models are described. Of the impact scenarios it is found that the most workable model, although based upon a set of fine-tuned initial conditions, is that in which a large, 100-150-m initial diameter asteroid, entered Earth's atmosphere on a shallow angle path that resulted in temporary capture. In this specific situation a multiple-thousand kilometer long flight path enables the asteroid to survive atmospheric passage, without suffering significant fragmentation, and to impact the ground as a largely coherent mass. Although the odds against such an impact occurring are extremely small, the crater field may nonetheless be interpreted as having potentially formed via a very low-angle, smaller than 5° to the horizon, impact with a ground contact speed of order 5 km/s. Under this scenario, as originally suggested by Schultz and Lianza (Nature 355:234, 1992), the largest of the craters (crater A) in the Rio Cuarto structure was produced in the initial ground impact, and the additional, smaller craters are interpreted as being formed through the down-range transport of decapitated impactor material and crater A ejecta.

  9. Understanding Other Worlds with Spitzer: From Hot Jupiters to Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Michael; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Queloz, Didier; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Pollacco, Don; Wheatley, Peter; Rostron, John; Smalley, Barry; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre; Mahtani, Deepak; Smith, Alexis; Bonfils, Xavier; Dragomir, Diana

    2012-09-01

    The intense study of transiting exoplanets over the past decade has begun to unveil the vast diversity of planetary systems in the Milky Way and to place our own solar system in perspective. Notably, ground-based Doppler and transit surveys are finding at an increasing pace planets suitable for detailed characterization. These planets around bright stars fall into two distinct families providing exciting new avenues at the frontiers of exoplanetary science. On one hand are the numerous highly irradiated gas giants whose atmospheres can be studied in great detail with a wide range of existing instruments from space and ground, notably their temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy transport efficiencies, and atmospheric circulation patterns. On the other hand are the small but growing list of `super-Earths' around bright stars for which the first detections of transits and atmospheric signatures are becoming available. The Spitzer space telescope has played a prominent role in both these areas through a plethora of ground-breaking results, many involving members of our team. Our proposed Exploration Science program with Spitzer aims to pursue major advancements in the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology with a two-pronged approach focused on these two exoplanet families. On the one hand, we will use Spitzer to thoroughly characterize a large and diverse sample of new giant exoplanets, chosen for their ability to place unprecedented constraints on the classification of irradiated giant planets, and stringent constraints on the planets' atmospheric thermal, chemical, and dynamical properties. On the other hand, we will search for the transits of 15 low-mass planets detected by our HARPS Doppler survey, both to constrain their compositions and to increase the small sample of low-mass planets amenable for atmospheric studies with future facilities like JWST. Together, these two complementary parts of our program will form a new major legacy of Spitzer

  10. Understanding Local Structure Globally in Earth Science Remote Sensing Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Fetzer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Empirical probability distributions derived from the data are the signatures of physical processes generating the data. Distributions defined on different space-time windows can be compared and differences or changes can be attributed to physical processes. This presentation discusses on ways to reduce remote sensing data in a way that preserves information, focusing on the rate-distortion theory and using the entropy-constrained vector quantization algorithm.

  11. Geological Mapping of Fortuna Tessera (V-2): Venus and Earth's Archean Process Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Hurwitz,D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2008-01-01

    The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new insight into the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Elsewhere we have addressed the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. Here we present the major goals of the Venus-Archean comparison and show how preliminary mapping of the geology of the V-2 Fortuna Tessera quadrangle is providing insight on these problems. We have identified five key themes and questions common to both the Archean and Venus, the assessment of which could provide important new insights into the history and processes of both planets.

  12. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING YTTRIUM FROM THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-11-12

    A process of isolating yttrium from other rare earths present together with it in aqueous solutions is presented. Yttrium and rare earths heavier than yttrium are first extracted with dialkyl phosphoric acid, after adjustment of the acidity to 2 N, and then back-extracted with 5-6 N mineral acid to form a strip solution. Thiocyanate is added to the strip solution and the rare earths heavier than yttrium are then selectively extracted with trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl phosphoric acid, alkyl phosphonate, or dialkyl aryl phosphonate, leaving the yttrium in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  13. Toward a Predictive Understanding of Earth's Microbiomes to Address 21st Century Challenges.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin J; Cardon, Zoe G; Cho, Mildred K; Dangl, Jeffrey L; Donohue, Timothy J; Green, Jessica L; Knight, Rob; Maxon, Mary E; Northen, Trent R; Pollard, Katherine S; Brodie, Eoin L

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms have shaped our planet and its inhabitants for over 3.5 billion years. Humankind has had a profound influence on the biosphere, manifested as global climate and land use changes, and extensive urbanization in response to a growing population. The challenges we face to supply food, energy, and clean water while maintaining and improving the health of our population and ecosystems are significant. Given the extensive influence of microorganisms across our biosphere, we propose that a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort is required to understand, predict, and harness microbiome function. From the parallelization of gene function testing to precision manipulation of genes, communities, and model ecosystems and development of novel analytical and simulation approaches, we outline strategies to move microbiome research into an era of causality. These efforts will improve prediction of ecosystem response and enable the development of new, responsible, microbiome-based solutions to significant challenges of our time. PMID:27178263

  14. Process for enhancing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.M.; Butler, J.R.

    1984-04-03

    A process is claimed for increasing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations wherein H/sub 2/S from sour wellhead gas is oxidized to SO/sub 3/ which in turn is reacted with a petroleum hydrocarbon mixture to produce a petroleum sulfonate. The petroleum sulfonate is incorporated into an oil recovery enhancing fluid and introduced through an injection well into an oil-bearing earth formation to displace oil toward a production well.

  15. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  16. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

  18. CATIONIC EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Choppin, G.R.; Thompson, S.G.; Harvey, B.G.

    1960-02-16

    A process for separating mixtures of elements in the lanthanum and actinium series of the periodic table is described. The mixture of elements is dissolved in 0.05 M HCI, wherein the elements exist as tripositive ions. The resulting solution is then transferred to a column of cationic exchange resin and the column eluted with 0.1 to 0.6 M aqueous ammonium alpha hydroxy isobutyrate solution of pH 3.8 to 5.0. The use of ammonium alpha hydroxy isobutyrate as an eluting agent results in sharper and more rapid separations than previously obtainable with eluants such as citric, tartaric, glycolic, and lactic acids.

  19. Irregular phenomena in the Earth pole oscillation process and temporal variations of geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, V.; Perepelkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    The observed irregular effects in the oscillatory process of the Earth Pole are of significant variability. They may be caused by the hydrosphere oscillations as well as the perturbations associated with the process of excitation and maintenance of the main oscillations components. Previously while carrying out the modeling of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) in short time intervals (interyear periods) the tidal coefficients correction procedure, which took into account high-frequency unstable fluctuations with small amplitudes, was considered alongside with the regular model components. Such a short-period variations caused by geophysical processes don't make a significant influence on the quasi-periodical Earth motion and can be presented in the model as the additional components - residuals. According to the modeling results and the processing of the high-precise series of the IERS observations in the oscillation process of the Earth Pole "irregular effects" can be defined, that are associated with intrayear variation of the main oscillation components. That sort of effects that are registered by IERS, are significantly different than the ones in earlier researches. They are presented as "anomalous" fluctuations of the Earth Pole coordinates, which have a negative impact on the interpolation and prognosis of the mathematical model.

  20. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  1. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  2. EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  3. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  4. Titanium stable isotope investigation of magmatic processes on the Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Marc-Alban; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greber, Nicolas D.; Burton, Kevin W.; Dale, Chris W.; Debret, Baptiste; Macpherson, Colin G.; Nowell, Geoffrey M.; Williams, Helen M.

    2016-09-01

    We present titanium stable isotope measurements of terrestrial magmatic samples and lunar mare basalts with the aims of constraining the composition of the lunar and terrestrial mantles and evaluating the potential of Ti stable isotopes for understanding magmatic processes. Relative to the OL-Ti isotope standard, the δ49Ti values of terrestrial samples vary from -0.05 to +0.55‰, whereas those of lunar mare basalts vary from -0.01 to +0.03‰ (the precisions of the double spike Ti isotope measurements are ca. ±0.02‰ at 95% confidence). The Ti stable isotope compositions of differentiated terrestrial magmas define a well-defined positive correlation with SiO2 content, which appears to result from the fractional crystallisation of Ti-bearing oxides with an inferred isotope fractionation factor of ΔTi49oxide-melt = - 0.23 ‰ ×106 /T2. Primitive terrestrial basalts show no resolvable Ti isotope variations and display similar values to mantle-derived samples (peridotite and serpentinites), indicating that partial melting does not fractionate Ti stable isotopes and that the Earth's mantle has a homogeneous δ49Ti composition of +0.005 ± 0.005 (95% c.i., n = 29). Eclogites also display similar Ti stable isotope compositions, suggesting that Ti is immobile during dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. Lunar basalts have variable δ49Ti values; low-Ti mare basalts have δ49Ti values similar to that of the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) while high-Ti lunar basalts display small enrichment in the heavy Ti isotopes. This is best interpreted in terms of source heterogeneity resulting from Ti stable isotope fractionation associated with ilmenite-melt equilibrium during the generation of the mantle source of high-Ti lunar mare basalts. The similarity in δ49Ti between terrestrial samples and low-Ti lunar basalts provides strong evidence that the Earth and Moon have identical stable Ti isotope compositions.

  5. Earth observing SAR data processing systems at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Seasat to EOS SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, David A.; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of SAR digital data processing and management ground systems developed at the JPL for earth science missions is discussed. Attention is given to the SAR ground data system requirements, the early data processing systems, the Seasat SAR system, and the SIR-B data processing system. Special consideration is given to two currently operational SAR data systems: the JPL aircraft SAR processing system that flies on the NASA DC-8 and the Alaska SAR Facility at Fairbanks.

  6. Integrated planning and scheduling for Earth science data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Several current NASA programs such as the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) have data processing and data management requirements that call for an integrated planning and scheduling capability. In this paper, we describe the experience of applying advanced scheduling technology operationally, in terms of what was accomplished, lessons learned, and what remains to be done in order to achieve similar successes in ECS and other programs. We discuss the importance and benefits of advanced scheduling tools, and our progress toward realizing them, through examples and illustrations based on ECS requirements. The first part of the paper focuses on the Data Archive and Distribution (DADS) V0 Scheduler. We then discuss system integration issues ranging from communication with the scheduler to the monitoring of system events and re-scheduling in response to them. The challenge of adapting the scheduler to domain-specific features and scheduling policies is also considered. Extrapolation to the ECS domain raises issues of integrating scheduling with a product-generation planner (such as PlaSTiC), and implementing conditional planning in an operational system. We conclude by briefly noting ongoing technology development and deployment projects being undertaken by HTC and the ISTB.

  7. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  8. Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature

  9. Inverse modelling of surface subsidence to better understand the Earth's subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, A. G.; Fokker, P. A.; Kroon, I. C.; de Lange, G.

    2007-12-01

    Surface subsidence can have major repercussions. A classic example is the seabed above the Ekofisk oil field, offshore Norway, where excessive subsidence made it necessary to raise the production platform by 6 m in the 1980s. On land, subsidence may significantly increase the risk of damage to buildings and infrastructure. But, observations of subsidence can also give us a better handle on the subsurface processes like compaction behaviour of a reservoir, (un)drained compartments, or the strength of the aquifer. However, to get this information from subsidence data, you have to carefully follow an inversion procedure. This inversion exercise is a big challenge in which all the available knowledge has to be used to the fullest possible extent. Without the use of this prior knowledge the solution will be non-unique or very ill-conditioned. In our method we distinguish and quantify shallow and deep causes of subsidence in a time-resolved procedure. We take full advantage of all the available knowledge in the form of a prior model, the prior model covariance matrix, and the data covariance matrix. The covariances quantify the expected spatial and temporal relationships between the model points and the data points. As an example, the incorporation of the model covariance implicitly guarantees smoothness of the model estimate, while maintaining specific geological features like sharp boundaries. In two examples we demonstrate the strength of the method. The first example shows that prior knowledge in the form of a correct model parameterization (deep and shallow compaction) is crucial for a reliable result. The second example demonstrates the significant added value of fully accounting for the geology and the reservoir engineering information. Probabilistic information is entered using Monte Carlo simulations with a standard reservoir simulator, with several driving parameters being uncertain. The Monte Carlo runs deliver the prior model estimate and its covariance

  10. Understanding the Process of Acculturation for Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, J. W.

    This paper reviews the concepts of acculturation and adaptation to provide a framework for understanding the highly variable relationship between acculturation and mental health in refugee populations. It begins with an extended definition and discussion of the concepts of acculturation and adaptation. The characteristics of acculturating groups…

  11. Deaf Children's Understanding of Other People's Thought Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the ability of deaf children to predict the behaviours of other people, based on an understanding of their beliefs. An unexpected transfer task and a deceptive box task were used with a group of 55 severely/profoundly deaf children. Results reiterate the findings of other studies that many deaf children are grossly delayed in…

  12. Developing a Better Understanding of the Process of Fat Absorption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    2001-01-01

    Performance on a multiple-choice item in a public examination indicates that most students do not understand how fat is absorbed through villi. A teaching strategy is suggested to overcome this problem by helping students review their own ideas critically. (Author/MM)

  13. The Process Communication Model: Understanding Ourselves and Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The Process Communication Model is based on personality types (reactors, persisters, workaholics, dreamers, rebels, and promoters) denoting different sets of behaviors, perceptions, and motivators that influence individual learning and teaching styles. The model is comprehensive and process-oriented, covering interaction styles, communication…

  14. A Novel Approach to Understanding the Process of Scientific Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the basic concepts involved in the process of scientific inquiry can be represented by analogy to a simple game called Battleships. The same processes used in this child's game demonstrate what role hypothesis generation and testing play in the search for truth in nature. The analogy can also be extended to demonstrate how scientists…

  15. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local

  16. [Skin aging: Molecular understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic processes].

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, E; Vogel, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Zouboulis, C C

    2015-10-01

    In an ever-aging society, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms accompanying skin aging has become essential. Most age-related morphological skin changes are triggered by a combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., genetics, hormones) and extrinsic ones (e.g., ultarviolet/infrared light exposure, smoking, pollution). In this article, new insights on the latest findings regarding the pathogenesis of skin aging are summarised, addressing the extent to which the aforementioned factorsmay influence the progress of skin aging and identifying the consequences on the morphology and physiology of skin. PMID:26385893

  17. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new

  18. Visualization of Earth and Space Science Data at JPL's Science Data Processing Systems Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William B.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of systems in use at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing data returned by space exploration and earth observations spacecraft. Graphical and visualization techniques used to query and retrieve data from large scientific data bases will be described.

  19. Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

  20. Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2008-12-01

    New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend

  1. Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished…

  2. Understanding the Writing Process through Brain Hemisphere Neurology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogge, Joan Ellet

    Acknowledging that ordering, spatial orientation, and synthesis are important properties in achieving clarity in writing, a study investigated the biological influences on students' writing processes and ways to help writers produce more coherent written products. Subjects, two males and four females ranging in age from 19 to 40, were tested using…

  3. Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

  4. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Judith F; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  5. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  6. Using Topographic Derivatives of High Resolution Data on Earth and Mars to Determine Active Processes on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S. J.; Balme, M. R.; Grindrod, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the severest problems in the field of martian geomorphology is that of convergence of form (i.e., that dissimilar processes can produce similar looking landforms). Since the discovery of recently formed km-scale gullies [1] on the martian surface, debate has raged about whether these features formed by dry mass wasting, fluidisation by CO2 gas, debris flow, unconcentrated water/brine flow, or by other, exotic processes. This is an important distinction, because if these gullies are found to be formed by water, which is currently unstable at the martian surface, then a mechanism has to be found to produce this water, and this has ramifications for our understanding of martian climate and hydrology. We approach this problem by studying newly available high resolution (~ 1 m/pix) elevation models derived from stereo HiRISE (High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) image pairs and comparing them to LiDAR datasets of analogous features on Earth. We have used hydrological topographic indices such as slope-area [e.g., 2], contributing area distribution [3] and the downslope index [4] to characterise slopes with known processes on Earth. We characterised slopes dominated by rockfall, debris flow and fluvial erosion. We then apply these same analysis techniques to gullied slopes on Mars and find that these slopes have a signal of both debris flow and fluvial processes. This suggests that Mars' recent climate has recently been more amenable to the existence of liquid water than has previously been assumed.

  7. Understanding the impact of upscaling THM processes on performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Zhou, Q.; Rutqvist, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-06-10

    The major objective of Benchmark Test 2 (BMT2) is to quantitatively examine the reliability of estimates of repository host rock performance, using large-scale performance assessment (PA) models that are developed by upscaling small-scale parameters and processes. These small-scale properties and processes can be investigated based on either discrete-fracture-network (DFN) models or heterogeneous-porous-medium (HPM) models. While most research teams use DFN, we employ fractal-based HPM for upscaling purposes. Comparison of results based on fundamentally different approaches is useful for evaluating and bounding the uncertainties in estimating repository host rock performance. HPM has both advantages and limitations when compared with DFN. DFM is conceptually more appealing because it explicitly describes fractures and the flow and transport processes that occur within them. However, HPM is more consistent with approaches used to derive field measurements of hydraulic properties (such as permeability). These properties are generally determined based on assumptions related to the continuum approach. HPM is also more straightforward in describing spatial-correlation structures of measured hydraulic properties. For example, potential flow features in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) were found to show marked spatial clustering (Nirex, 1997), which is expected to result in a long range correlation in measured permeability distributions. This important behavior may not be captured with conventional DFNs, in which random distribution (or similar distributions) of individual fractures is assumed. The usefulness of HPM will be partially demonstrated in this report by a satisfactory description of the short interval testing data using Levy-stable fractals. (Recently, Jackson et al. (2000) also showed that equivalent HPMs could approximately describe flow processes within subgrid fracture networks.) We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine flow and transport parameters

  8. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  9. Release of air toxics during coating operations -- Understanding the process

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, P.A.; Fultz, B.S.

    1997-12-31

    Air toxics emissions, specifically volatile organic compounds (VOC), occur during the mixing, application, and drying of coatings. However, the means by which these emissions are quantified are generally a gross exaggeration. Many times this over-estimation results in the placement of permit emission limits on facilities that restrict operations unnecessarily. This paper will present and discuss the coating application process giving special attention to the points in the process and time periods over which VOCs may be released to the atmosphere. Finally, the highly conservative nature of emission estimation techniques and the methods by which permit limits are developed will be discussed and an alternative approach suggested that more closely represents VOC releases that occur during coating operations; thereby, allowing facilities to realize their operational potential without compromising the potential health impacts to offsite receptors.

  10. Time variations of geopotential coefficients in the structure of the oscillatory process of the Earth's pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Yu. G.; Perepelkin, V. V.; Krylov, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical-analytical model of the oscillatory motion of the Earth's pole is proposed with allowance for effects of time variations in geopotential coefficients. The model is a natural refinement of the earlier developed main model of pole oscillations (of Chandler and annual components) by use of celestial mechanics methods and observation data of the gravitational field of the Earth. Based on amplitude-frequency analysis and numerical simulation of the pole motion, the model allows one to offer a qualitative explanation of observed irregular phenomena in the oscillatory process and improve the forecasting accuracy for the trajectory of the pole motion. The results of numerical simulation of oscillations of the pole coordinates are presented in comparison with observation and measurement data of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS).

  11. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  12. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  13. Understanding disease processes by partitioned dynamic Bayesian networks.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marcos L P; Hommersom, Arjen; Lucas, Peter J F; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Janzing, Joost G E

    2016-06-01

    For many clinical problems in patients the underlying pathophysiological process changes in the course of time as a result of medical interventions. In model building for such problems, the typical scarcity of data in a clinical setting has been often compensated by utilizing time homogeneous models, such as dynamic Bayesian networks. As a consequence, the specificities of the underlying process are lost in the obtained models. In the current work, we propose the new concept of partitioned dynamic Bayesian networks to capture distribution regime changes, i.e. time non-homogeneity, benefiting from an intuitive and compact representation with the solid theoretical foundation of Bayesian network models. In order to balance specificity and simplicity in real-world scenarios, we propose a heuristic algorithm to search and learn these non-homogeneous models taking into account a preference for less complex models. An extensive set of experiments were ran, in which simulating experiments show that the heuristic algorithm was capable of constructing well-suited solutions, in terms of goodness of fit and statistical distance to the original distributions, in consonance with the underlying processes that generated data, whether it was homogeneous or non-homogeneous. Finally, a study case on psychotic depression was conducted using non-homogeneous models learned by the heuristic, leading to insightful answers for clinically relevant questions concerning the dynamics of this mental disorder. PMID:27182055

  14. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    PubMed

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability. PMID:19046362

  15. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  16. Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

    2011-12-01

    A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient

  17. A survey of SAR image-formation processing for earth resources applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayma, R. W.; Jordan, R. L.; Manning, B. N.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in active microwave sensors for earth resources applications, such as the SEASAT-A radar. However, to obtain spatial resolutions comparable to optical sensors at radar frequencies, sophisticated image formation processing techniques must be applied to the raw data. Processing requirements for non-coherent optical and coherent radar imaging systems are compared. The image formation processing requirements for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are discussed. Both optical and digital techniques are addressed, and examples of hardware and imagery for each processing technique are presented.

  18. A survey of SAR image-formation processing for earth resources applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayma, R. W.; Jordan, R. L.; Manning, B. N.

    1977-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in active microwave sensors for earth resources applications. A particular example is the Seasat-A radar. However, to obtain spatial resolutions comparable to optical sensors at radar frequencies, sophisticated image formation processing techniques must be applied to the raw data. This paper briefly compares processing requirements for non-coherent optical and coherent radar imaging systems, and then discusses the image formation processing requirements for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. Both optical and digital techniques are addressed, and examples of hardware and imagery for each processing technique are presented.

  19. Simulation approach to understanding the processes that structure food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, H.I.; Gardner, R.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Post, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    A simulation model of food web dynamics, WEB, was constructed and used in Monte Carlo experiments to study the relationship between structure and function in food webs. Four main experiments were designed using WEB. The first tested the robustness of food web structures at equilibrium to variations in the functional response of predators in the food web to the densities of their prey. The second experiment clarified the roles of predation and resource limitation in the process of structuring food webs. A third experiment studied the influence of productivity on food web structure and function using simulated food webs. The final experiment was designed to study the differential successes of generalists and specialists. The main advantage gained by using a simulation approach in each of these experiments was the ability to assess the roles played by processes of predation and competition in structuring model food webs. This was accomplished by interpreting the order of extinction events that occurred in the simulations and relating these to the species configurations at equilibrium. 61 references, 23 figures.

  20. TOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S. A. P. L.; Ziegler, P. A.; Bogaard, P. J. F.; Andriessen, P. A. M.; Artemieva, I. M.; Bada, G.; van Balen, R. T.; Beekman, F.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Brun, J.-P.; Bunge, H. P.; Burov, E. B.; Carbonell, R.; Facenna, C.; Friedrich, A.; Gallart, J.; Green, A. G.; Heidbach, O.; Jones, A. G.; Matenco, L.; Mosar, J.; Oncken, O.; Pascal, C.; Peters, G.; Sliaupa, S.; Soesoo, A.; Spakman, W.; Stephenson, R. A.; Thybo, H.; Torsvik, T.; de Vicente, G.; Wenzel, F.; Wortel, M. J. R.; Topo-Europe Working Group

    2007-07-01

    TOPO-EUROPE addresses the 4-D topographic evolution of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Aegean-Anatolian region, the Iberian Peninsula, the Scandinavian Continental Margin, the East-European Platform, and the Caucasus-Levant area. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities and know-how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Environmental Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists. This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of continental topography research, and of the challenges to TOPO-EUROPE researchers in the targeted natural laboratories.

  1. Understanding processes contributing to regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Gregory, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    WCRP/IOC Workshop on Regional Sea-Level Change; Paris, France, 7-9 February 2011 . A joint World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) workshop was held to discuss regional changes of sea level. The workshop was attended by 41 experts from the world over who compared observed regional sea level changes with those inferred from numerical simulations and compared future predictions and their analyses in terms of processes. Satellite altimetry observations continue to be essential in revealing that sea level is changing prominently on a regional scale. However, existing climate models are largely in disagreement about patterns and magnitudes of observed sea level variability, and it is unclear how accurate they may be in predicting regional sea level.

  2. Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

    2004-12-01

    Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition

  3. Understanding the processes of tropical cyclogenesis in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes-Figueroa, Marangelly

    This thesis is the result of research activity performed from 2005 to 2009 at the Laboratory for Atmospheres of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), under the guidance of Dr. Oreste Reale. The present study describes some fundamental properties occurring in global models in order to spontaneously produce tropical cyclones in the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA). The NASA finite-volume General Circulation Model (GEOS-4 and GEOS-5), the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) global model, and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) Nature Run outputs were analyzed in a set of diagnostic studies to understand how different global models with different configurations can produce tropical cyclogenesis. Diagnostics performed were classified in two groups according to the experimental configurations: simulations dependent on initializations (GEOS-4, GEOS-5 - version 2.0, and GFS) and free running simulations (ECMWF Nature Run). Objectives methods were developed to identify some controlling factors in the development of tropical cyclones and were applied to all the data generated for this study, focusing mainly on the ETNA. Global model outputs of nine tropical systems during three Atlantic hurricane seasons (2004-2006) were used and compared. The verification of the Kuo necessary condition for barotropic instability and the kinetic energy transfer across spatial scales are found to be important mechanisms by which tropical cyclogenesis can develop in global models. The main result of this work is that a vertically-aligned barotropically unstable column appears during cyclogenesis, predominantly controlled by the large scale forcing. With the exception of the Nature Run, which is not dependent on initialization, the actual roles of the Data Assimilation System (DAS) and the forecasting system cannot be rigorously separated in these experiments. Therefore, in the third part of this thesis the impact

  4. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  5. MT+, integrating magnetotellurics to determine earth structure, physical state, and processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    As one of the few deep-earth imaging techniques, magnetotellurics provides information on both the structure and physical state of the crust and upper mantle. Magnetotellurics is sensitive to electrical conductivity, which varies within the earth by many orders of magnitude and is modified by a range of earth processes. As with all geophysical techniques, magnetotellurics has a non-unique inverse problem and has limitations in resolution and sensitivity. As such, an integrated approach, either via the joint interpretation of independent geophysical models, or through the simultaneous inversion of independent data sets is valuable, and at times essential to an accurate interpretation. Magnetotelluric data and models are increasingly integrated with geological, geophysical and geochemical information. This review considers recent studies that illustrate the ways in which such information is combined, from qualitative comparisons to statistical correlation studies to multi-property inversions. Also emphasized are the range of problems addressed by these integrated approaches, and their value in elucidating earth structure, physical state, and processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth.

  7. Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System

    SciTech Connect

    Carruthers, G.R.; Lee, R.B. III NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA )

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth. 18 refs.

  8. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

  9. Understanding earthquake source processes with spatial random field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquake rupture is a complex mechanical process that can be formulated as a dynamically running shear crack on a frictional interface embedded in an elastic continuum. This type of dynamic description of earthquake rupture is often preferred among researchers because they believe the kinematic description is likely to miss physical constraints introduced by dynamic approaches and to lead to arbitrary and nonphysical kinematic fault motions. However, dynamic rupture modeling, although they produce physically consistent models, often uses arbitrary input parameters, e.g., stress and fracture energy, partially because they are more difficult to constrain with data compared to kinematic ones. I propose to describe earthquake rupture as a stochastic model with a set of random variables (e.g., random field) that represent the spatial distribution of kinematic source parameters such as slip, rupture velocity, slip duration and velocity. This is a kinematic description of earthquake rupture in the sense that a model is formulated with kinematic parameters, but since the model can be constrained by both rupture dynamics and data, it may have both physical and observational constraints inside. The stochastic model is formulated by quantifying the 1-point and 2-point statistics of the kinematic parameters. 1-point statistics define a marginal probability density function for a certain source parameter at a given point on a fault. For example, a probability distribution for earthquake slip at a given point can control a possible range of values taken by earthquake slip and their likelihood. In the same way, we can control the existence of supershear rupture with a 1-point variability of the rupture velocity. Two point statistics, i.e. auto- and cross-coherence between source parameters, control the heterogeneity of each source parameter and their coupling, respectively. Several interesting features of earthquake rupture have been found by investigating cross

  10. Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

    2011-06-01

    Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

  11. Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

  12. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  13. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H; Lafferty, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades–that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web–varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic ‘top-down’ cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled ‘bottom-up’ cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

  14. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Advance Understanding and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change at Process Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Clement Kinney, J. L.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Hamman, J.; Hughes, M.; Nijssen, B.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic changes, which are some of the most coordinated changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth. They are exemplified by the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Global Climate and Global Earth System Models (GC/ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in the GC/ESMs remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that stem from a combination of coarse model resolution, inadequate parameterizations, unrepresented processes and a limited knowledge of physical and other real world interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the GC/ESM limitations in simulating observed seasonal to decadal variability and trends in the sea ice cover and climate. RASM is a high resolution, fully coupled, pan-Arctic climate model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It uses the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP) configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° as well as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) models at 50 km resolution. All RASM components are coupled via the CESM flux coupler (CPL7) at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled earth system model, which due to the additional constraints from lateral boundary conditions and nudging within a regional model domain facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with GC/ESMs. In this talk, we will emphasize the utility of RASM to understand sensitivity to variable parameter space, importance of critical processes, coupled feedbacks and ultimately to reduce uncertainty in arctic climate change projections.

  15. Transfer of New Earth Science Understandings to Classroom Teaching: Lessons Learned From Teachers on the Leading Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R.; Ault, C.; Bishop, E.; Southworth-Neumeyer, T.; Magura, B.; Hedeen, C.; Groom, R.; Shay, K.; Wagner, R.

    2006-05-01

    Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE) provided a field-based teacher professional development program that explored the active continental margin geology of the Pacific Northwest during a two-week field workshop that traversed Oregon from the Pacific Coast to the Snake River. The seventeen teachers on this journey of geological discovery experienced regional examples of subduction-margin geology and examined the critical role of geophysics in connecting geologic features with plate tectonic processes. Two examples of successful transfer of science content learning to classroom teaching are: (1) Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis. This topic was addressed through instruction on earthquake seismology; field observations of tsunami geology; examination of tsunami preparedness of a coastal community; and interactive learning activities for children at an Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) Science Camp. Teachers at Sunnyside Environmental School in Portland developed a story line for middle school students called "The Tsunami Hotline" in which inquiries from citizens serve as launch points for studies of tsunamis, earthquakes, and active continental margin geology. OMSI Science Camps is currently developing a new summer science camp program entitled "Tsunami Field Study" for students ages 12-14, based largely on TOTLE's Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis Day. (2) The Grand Cross Section. Connecting regional geologic features with plate tectonic processes was addressed many times during the field workshop. This culminated with teachers drawing cross sections from the Juan de Fuca Ridge across the active continental margin to the accreted terranes of northeast Oregon. Several TOTLE teachers have successfully transferred this activity to their classrooms by having student teams relate earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics through artistic renderings of The Grand Cross Section. Analysis of program learning transfer to classroom teaching (or lack thereof) clearly

  16. Make Earth science education as dynamic as Earth itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenbacher, Conrad C.; Groat, Charles G.

    2004-12-01

    The images of rivers spilling over their banks and washing away entire towns, buildings decimated to rubble by the violent shaking of the Earth's plates, and molten lava flowing up from inside the Earth's core are constant reminders of the power of the Earth. Humans are simply at the whim of the forces of Mother Nature—or are we? Whether it is from a great natural disaster, a short-term weather event like El Nino, or longer-term processes like plate tectonics, Earth processes affect us all. Yet,we are only beginning to scratch the surface of our understanding of Earth sciences. We believe the day will come when our understanding of these dynamic Earth processes will prompt better policies and decisions about saving lives and property. One key place to start is in America's classrooms.

  17. Bridging the gap between omics and earth system science to better understand how environmental change impacts marine microbes.

    PubMed

    Mock, Thomas; Daines, Stuart J; Geider, Richard; Collins, Sinead; Metodiev, Metodi; Millar, Andrew J; Moulton, Vincent; Lenton, Timothy M

    2016-01-01

    The advent of genomic-, transcriptomic- and proteomic-based approaches has revolutionized our ability to describe marine microbial communities, including biogeography, metabolic potential and diversity, mechanisms of adaptation, and phylogeny and evolutionary history. New interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from this descriptive level to improved quantitative, process-level understanding of the roles of marine microbes in biogeochemical cycles and of the impact of environmental change on the marine microbial ecosystem. Linking studies at levels from the genome to the organism, to ecological strategies and organism and ecosystem response, requires new modelling approaches. Key to this will be a fundamental shift in modelling scale that represents micro-organisms from the level of their macromolecular components. This will enable contact with omics data sets and allow acclimation and adaptive response at the phenotype level (i.e. traits) to be simulated as a combination of fitness maximization and evolutionary constraints. This way forward will build on ecological approaches that identify key organism traits and systems biology approaches that integrate traditional physiological measurements with new insights from omics. It will rely on developing an improved understanding of ecophysiology to understand quantitatively environmental controls on microbial growth strategies. It will also incorporate results from experimental evolution studies in the representation of adaptation. The resulting ecosystem-level models can then evaluate our level of understanding of controls on ecosystem structure and function, highlight major gaps in understanding and help prioritize areas for future research programs. Ultimately, this grand synthesis should improve predictive capability of the ecosystem response to multiple environmental drivers. PMID:25988950

  18. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current

  19. Reconsidering the Role of Artifacts in Reasoning: Children's Understanding of the Globe as a Model of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini; Ikospentaki, Kalliopi

    2005-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of the presentation of a globe--the culturally accepted artifact representing the earth--on children's reasoning in elementary astronomy. Forty-four children from grades 1 and 3 were interviewed individually. First, the children were asked to make their own representations of the earth (i.e., drawings and…

  20. Update - The Earth Observing System (EOS) forward and return link data processing and communications services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; Kelly, A. C.; Smith, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the EOS ground support services in order to identify interfaces to and drivers of the data processing and communication systems. Generic system requirements are compared with those specifically needed for EOS, including processing requirements for forward link and return link data. Communications requirements for transporting the forward link data from the EOS Operations Center and for the transfer of level zero data to the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers are specified. The forward and return link processing requirements of the EOS instruments from the international partners are also addressed. The overall context of EOSDIS in the Mission to Planet Earth Program is addressed.

  1. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  2. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  3. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    experiments such as EarthScope, provide great opportunities to gather new data to further enhance our current understanding of the seismicity and tectonics of the CEUS region, there is also a heightened need for continuation of small-scale scientific missions geared toward understanding of seismic sources in low-seismicity regions. Although such regions are not high-priority areas of research and they do not usually receive the needed attention of funding agencies and the larger scientific community, extensive studies in these areas are still needed. Creating awareness and interest of the needs for seismic studies in such regions is a critical issue from a regulatory perspective. The U.S. NRC's open government philosophy based processes provide excellent opportunities for the involvement of research and educational communities in the regulatory processes related to seismic hazards in the US. This presentation will discuss the available processes for public participation in the US NRC new reactor licensing decisions and highlight some key research areas that will benefit seismic hazard estimations in the CEUS.

  4. The Earth as a living planet: human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoyiannis, Y. F.; Potirakis, S. M.; Eftaxias, K.

    2013-01-01

    The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The Earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the Earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture-induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic features of the critical point of a thermal second-order phase transition. A dramatic breakdown of critical characteristics appears in the tail of the fracture process of heterogeneous system and the injured heart's electrical action. Analyses by means of Hurst exponent and wavelet decomposition further support the hypothesis that a dynamical analogy exists between the geological and biological systems under study.

  5. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

  6. NASA Remote Sensing Data in Earth Sciences: Processing, Archiving, Distribution, Applications at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) archiving and distributing remote sensing data from the NASA's Earth Observing System. In addition to providing just data, the GES DISC/DAAC has developed various value-adding processing services. A particularly useful service is data processing a t the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data). The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from data subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. Shifting processing and data management burden from users to the GES DISC, allows scientists to concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the data management and data processing at a lower cost. Several examples of successful partnerships with scientists in the area of data processing and mining are presented.

  7. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  8. A satellite data processing and analysis software system for earth's atmosphere and surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dealy, B.; Gautier, C.; Frouin, R.; Bates, J.; Lingner, D.

    1988-01-01

    The OASIS (Oceanic and Atmospheric Satellite Imaging System) is a satellite data processing and analysis software system being developed by the California Space Institute (Cal Space) for support of interdisciplinary and integrated earth sciences research programs. The system's software applications are integrated under a common executive, NASA's Transportable Application Executive (TAE). In this paper, TAE and the system software and hardware are described, and specific techniques used for ingesting, processing, analyzing, and graphically displaying data from many of the sensors presently being flown are presented. Scientific uses of these capabilities that are, or will shortly be, running under TAE at Cal Space are described.

  9. Marking Tests to Certify Part Identification Processes for Use in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose for the MISSE marking tests was to define Data Matrix symbol marking processes that will remain readable after exposure to Low Earth Orbit environments. A wide range of different Data Matrix symbol marking processes and materials, including some still under development, were evaluated. The samples flown on MISSE 1 and 2 were in orbit for 3 years and 348 days, MISSE 3 and 4 were in orbit for 1 year and 15 days, MISSE 6 was in orbit for 1 year and 130 days, and MISSE 8 was in orbit for 2 years and 55 days. The initial MISSE marking tests clearly reflected that intrusive marking processes can be successfully used for this purpose. All of the intrusive marking processes tested exceeded program expectations and met 100 percent of the principle investigators objectives. However, subsequent tests demonstrated that some additive marking processes will also satisfy the requirements. This was an unexpected result.

  10. Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

  11. Using Statistical Process Control for detecting anomalies in multivariate spatiotemporal Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flach, Milan; Mahecha, Miguel; Gans, Fabian; Rodner, Erik; Bodesheim, Paul; Guanche-Garcia, Yanira; Brenning, Alexander; Denzler, Joachim; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The number of available Earth observations (EOs) is currently substantially increasing. Detecting anomalous patterns in these multivariate time series is an important step in identifying changes in the underlying dynamical system. Likewise, data quality issues might result in anomalous multivariate data constellations and have to be identified before corrupting subsequent analyses. In industrial application a common strategy is to monitor production chains with several sensors coupled to some statistical process control (SPC) algorithm. The basic idea is to raise an alarm when these sensor data depict some anomalous pattern according to the SPC, i.e. the production chain is considered 'out of control'. In fact, the industrial applications are conceptually similar to the on-line monitoring of EOs. However, algorithms used in the context of SPC or process monitoring are rarely considered for supervising multivariate spatio-temporal Earth observations. The objective of this study is to exploit the potential and transferability of SPC concepts to Earth system applications. We compare a range of different algorithms typically applied by SPC systems and evaluate their capability to detect e.g. known extreme events in land surface processes. Specifically two main issues are addressed: (1) identifying the most suitable combination of data pre-processing and detection algorithm for a specific type of event and (2) analyzing the limits of the individual approaches with respect to the magnitude, spatio-temporal size of the event as well as the data's signal to noise ratio. Extensive artificial data sets that represent the typical properties of Earth observations are used in this study. Our results show that the majority of the algorithms used can be considered for the detection of multivariate spatiotemporal events and directly transferred to real Earth observation data as currently assembled in different projects at the European scale, e.g. http://baci-h2020.eu

  12. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff

  13. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  14. University Students' Understanding of Chemistry Processes and the Quality of Evidence in Their Written Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seung, Eulsun; Choi, Aeran; Pestel, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a process-oriented chemistry laboratory curriculum for non-science majors. The purpose of this study is both to explore university students' understanding of chemistry processes and to evaluate the quality of evidence students use to support their claims regarding chemistry processes in a process-oriented chemistry laboratory…

  15. Understanding surface processes 3D imaging from micro-scale to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin; Guerin, Antoine; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Michoud, Clément; Nicolet, Pierrick; Penna, Ivanna; Rudaz, Benjamin; Voumard, Jeremie; Wyser, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    detected either for debris-flows prone catchments or at the level of the soil erosion such as in black marls context. In addition, the application of these methods to micro-scale erosional processes such as raindrop erosion permits to open new perspective in the understanding of the soil erosion that is a major threat. Last but not least, these fine topographies can be used to map geology not only by the morphometric attribute but also by the intensity of the laser or by images from other sources, providing useful tools for lithological mapping. Therefore, the erosion processes are even better tackled, as it has been demonstrated for instance on granite cliffs. Furthermore, the use of surface information such as slope aspect etc. can give information on the ground structure. Large domains of research are now being opened, providing great perspectives in earth surface dynamics.

  16. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was

  17. Final Report Collaborative Project. Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; MacCready, Parker; Whitney, Michael

    2015-11-20

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation. The main computational objectives were: 1. To develop computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterizations of estuary and continental shelf mixing processes for use in an Earth System Model (CESM). 2. To develop a two-way nested regional modeling framework in order to dynamically downscale the climate response of particular coastal ocean regions and to upscale the impact of the regional coastal processes to the global climate in an Earth System Model (CESM). 3. To develop computational infrastructure to enhance the efficiency of data transfer between specific sources and destinations, i.e., a point-to-point communication capability, (used in objective 1) within POP, the ocean component of CESM.

  18. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  19. Evaluating and improving CLM hydrologic processes for integrated earth system modeling at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Coleman, A. M.; Ke, Y.; Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.

    2010-12-01

    The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being developed, accurate hydrologic information in all of its components including socio-economy, atmosphere, land, and energy infrastructure is needed to represent the interactions between human and earth system processes. Applying CLM in this framework requires evaluation and model improvement so that CLM could be used to represent hydrology, soil, managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and biogeochemical processes across scales in a single modeling framework. In this presentation, we will report preliminary results on the development of CLM featuring: (1) improved land surface hydrology that incorporates hydrologic processes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, including the parameterizations of subgrid variability, dynamic surface- and groundwater interactions, and hydraulic redistribution; (2) a semi-distributed extension of CLM (DCLM) for more spatially-explicit hydrologic modeling, which is critical for regional land and water management decisions under climate change mitigation and adaptation scenarios. The model development will be evaluated at flux towers and watersheds at various scales.

  20. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  1. Environmental seismology: What can we learn on earth surface processes with ambient noise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Eric; Carrière, Simon; Voisin, Christophe; Bottelin, Pierre; Baillet, Laurent; Guéguen, Philippe; Walter, Fabian; Jongmans, Denis; Guillier, Bertrand; Garambois, Stéphane; Gimbert, Florent; Massey, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Environmental seismology consists in studying the mechanical vibrations that originate from, or that have been affected by external causes, that is to say causes outside the solid Earth. This includes for instance the coupling between the solid Earth and the cryosphere, or the hydrosphere, the anthroposphere and the specific sources of vibration developing there. Environmental seismology also addresses the modifications of the wave propagation due to environmental forcing such as temperature and hydrology. Recent developments in data processing, together with increasing computational power and sensor concentration have led to original observations that allow for the development of this new field of seismology. In this article, we will particularly review how we can track and interpret tiny changes in the subsurface of the Earth related to external changes from modifications of the seismic wave propagation, with application to geomechanics, hydrology, and natural hazard. We will particularly demonstrate that, using ambient noise, we can track 1) thermal variations in the subsoil, in buildings or in rock columns; 2) the temporal and spatial evolution of a water table; 3) the evolution of the rigidity of the soil constituting a landslide, and especially the drop of rigidity preceding a failure event.

  2. Zonal concentration of some geophysical process intensity caused by tides and variations in the Earth's rotation velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B.; Domanski, A.; Sasorova, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed what kind of fundamental physical phenomena can be responsible for the generation of the anomalous latitudinal zones of the seismic activity, and the hotspots, and some other geophysical processes. The assessment of tidal effect contribution to the earthquake preparation process is discussed. A disk model of the Earth's rotation was proposed. The model is acceptable for the homogeneous Earth and for the heterogeneous one. The disk model explains the nucleation of two maximums of the gradient of the moment of inertia over latitude with respect to the Equator. Effects of the variations in the Earth's rotation angular velocity were estimated and the possible features caused by the rotation velocity instability were described. The variations in the relative velocity of the Earth's rotation (dimensionless value ν ≈ (T - P)/P) are approximately equal upon the average to 10-8, where T is the observed length of day for the Earth, and P is the astronomical day. These variations lead to the occurrence of the additional energy estimated as 1020 J. The authors proposed the hypothesis of a pulsating geoid based on effects of the Earth's rotation features, and tidal forces, and conception of critical latitudes in the solid Earth. This hypothesis may highlight the phenomenon of zonal intensification of some geological processes in the solid Earth (the seismic activity, and hotspot location, and major ore deposit locations).

  3. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non

  4. Parallel architecture for labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing in speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Speech understanding is a complex task which requires extensive computation. To increase the processing speed, a speech understanding system is decomposed into tasks which can be performed by a series of distributed processing subsystems. An architecture to perform labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing is described. Using a parametric characterization of the speech signal, this system divides an utterance into labeled homogeneous regions. The system then performs dictionary lookups based on all probable labelings and segmentations in order to generate a complete set of word hypotheses. Using realistic assumptions from existing speech understanding systems, a statistical model of speech input, and simulations of the speech processing algorithms, the attributes of the parallel system to perform labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing for real-time speech understanding are derived. 36 references.

  5. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOEpatents

    Epperly, William R.; Deane, Barry C.; Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  6. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    SciTech Connect

    Brunson, R.J.; Deane, B.C.; Epperly, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  7. Extraction of rare earth elements from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of apatite processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropov, M. O.; Anufrieva, A. V.; Buynovskiy, A. S.; Makaseev, Y. N.; Mazov, I. N.; Nefedov, R. A.; Sachkov, V. I.; Stepanova, O. B.; Valkov, AV

    2016-01-01

    The features of extraction of rare earth elements (REE) were considered from hydrate-phosphate precipitates of REE of apatite processing by nitric acid technology. The preliminary purification of nitrate solution of REE from impurities of titanium, aluminum, iron, uranium and thorium was suggested to obtain stable solutions not forming precipitates. Washing the extract was recommended with the evaporated reextract that allows to obtain directly on the cascade of REE extraction the concentrated solutions suitable for the separation into groups by the extraction method. Technical decisions were suggested for the separation of REE in groups without the use of salting-out agent.

  8. Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

    2013-01-01

    A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

  9. Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

  10. Learning to Read: Developing Processes for Recognizing, Understanding and Pronouncing Written Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Morag

    2006-01-01

    Major theories of how skilled readers recognize, understand and pronounce written words include processes for phonological recoding (i.e., translating segments of print to their corresponding segments of sound) and processes by which direct access is achieved from printed words to their meanings. If these are the processes employed in skilled…

  11. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  12. Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Earth Crust of Central Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2012-12-01

    At present methods of monitoring are widely used and implemented in the different fields of science to receive non stop information about the observed object in time. The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust is developed in Garny Geophysical Observatory. It is based on the abilities of geophysical and hydrogeological indicators to react to the changes of stressedly deformative state of earth crust. The study of variations of magnetic observations connected with the deformation processes which took place during the preparation of earthquake source or of other tectonic movements will significantly increase the informational and effective character of monitoring. The changes of hydrogeological indicators depending on the deformation of water-bearing rocks are defined by the parameters of deformational fields and by the elastic and filtration characters of rocks. Methodological means of monitoring are brought to the signal appearing which reflects the deformation of rock massive. The methods of noise elimination and singling out 'deformational signals' allow to delete or mention the trend, to compensate the influence of variations on atmospheric pressure on time rows of geophysical rows and underground water level, to allocate earth tide induced fluctuations of level. But not all the noise may be deleted by calculation. The following is included in the group of non-controlled noise: the influence of infiltration on atmospheric precipitations, effects of certain technogenic influences. Deformation indicators may be not only the deflection of geophysical indicators from certain phone values but also the parametres of variations of these indicators. There exists data on the changes of parameters of barometric effectiveness and saw tooth fluctuations of underground water level before seismic events. In some cases the noise which hinders the appearance of deformational signal may itself carry useful information. Method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was

  13. Questionable inheritance: What Processes on Planetesimals Mean for the Bulk Composition of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins-Tanton, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    Interrogating Earth's interior is limited to indirect means, such as seismic or magnetic fields, and relies heavily on modeling. A large body of literature either attempts to constrain the composition of the deep mantle by mass balancing the Earth with a chondritic composition, or to demonstrate that the Earth does not have a chondritic composition. These models provide predictions for the composition and density of the ultra-low shear wave provinces and for the D" layer, among others, and compare their results to structures resulting from seismic studies. The bulk composition of the Earth, however, remains an open question. We now know that the planets accreted from embryos that were already differentiated. The complexity of processes that occurred on planetesimals and planetary embryos are just beginning to come to light. Heating by radiogenic 26Al likely produced waves of hydration and dehydration in planetesimals. These free fluids may have carried a wide range of volatiles, moving them from the interior to the lid, or even losing them to space. Simultaneously, the first free fluids may have reacted with metals, producing oxides or sulfides. Further heating is required to reduce these to metals and made core formation possible; or perhaps the earliest cores are not fully metallic. These planetesimals and the embryos they were growing into were subjected to a series of impacts. As the work of Asphaug and his group have demonstrated, some of these are accretionary impacts, and some are hit-and-run, or destructive impacts. These destructive impacts may have reduced the thickness of Mercury's mantle, and stripped the mantle off the metal asteroid Psyche. Where, then would the shattered silicates from such collisions go? Asphuag suggests that at least in part they are added to the growing terrestrial planets. If the planetesimals and planetary embryos were compositionally heterogeneous because of interior fluid and magma movement, then the silicates blown off them

  14. Putting the Cart before the Horse: Understanding the Family Assessment Process in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votava, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of six state-wide policies and procedures used in the family assessment process within early intervention services. This study looked at the administrative understanding of the family assessment federal regulations, state policies and procedures, and local implementation from the perspective…

  15. The Design of a High Performance Earth Imagery and Raster Data Management and Processing Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qingyun

    2016-06-01

    This paper summarizes the general requirements and specific characteristics of both geospatial raster database management system and raster data processing platform from a domain-specific perspective as well as from a computing point of view. It also discusses the need of tight integration between the database system and the processing system. These requirements resulted in Oracle Spatial GeoRaster, a global scale and high performance earth imagery and raster data management and processing platform. The rationale, design, implementation, and benefits of Oracle Spatial GeoRaster are described. Basically, as a database management system, GeoRaster defines an integrated raster data model, supports image compression, data manipulation, general and spatial indices, content and context based queries and updates, versioning, concurrency, security, replication, standby, backup and recovery, multitenancy, and ETL. It provides high scalability using computer and storage clustering. As a raster data processing platform, GeoRaster provides basic operations, image processing, raster analytics, and data distribution featuring high performance computing (HPC). Specifically, HPC features include locality computing, concurrent processing, parallel processing, and in-memory computing. In addition, the APIs and the plug-in architecture are discussed.

  16. Science-Grade Observing Systems as Process Observatories: Mapping and Understanding Nonlinearity and Multiscale Memory with Models and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, A. P.; Wilson, A. M.; Miller, D. K.; Tao, J.; Genereux, D. P.; Prat, O.; Petersen, W. A.; Brunsell, N. A.; Petters, M. D.; Duan, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using the planet as a study domain and collecting observations over unprecedented ranges of spatial and temporal scales, NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) program was an agent of transformational change in Earth Sciences over the last thirty years. The remarkable space-time organization and variability of atmospheric and terrestrial moist processes that emerged from the analysis of comprehensive satellite observations provided much impetus to expand the scope of land-atmosphere interaction studies in Hydrology and Hydrometeorology. Consequently, input and output terms in the mass and energy balance equations evolved from being treated as fluxes that can be used as boundary conditions, or forcing, to being viewed as dynamic processes of a coupled system interacting at multiple scales. Measurements of states or fluxes are most useful if together they map, reveal and/or constrain the underlying physical processes and their interactions. This can only be accomplished through an integrated observing system designed to capture the coupled physics, including nonlinear feedbacks and tipping points. Here, we first review and synthesize lessons learned from hydrometeorology studies in the Southern Appalachians and in the Southern Great Plains using both ground-based and satellite observations, physical models and data-assimilation systems. We will specifically focus on mapping and understanding nonlinearity and multiscale memory of rainfall-runoff processes in mountainous regions. It will be shown that beyond technical rigor, variety, quantity and duration of measurements, the utility of observing systems is determined by their interpretive value in the context of physical models to describe the linkages among different observations. Second, we propose a framework for designing science-grade and science-minded process-oriented integrated observing and modeling platforms for hydrometeorological studies.

  17. ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

    2012-12-01

    The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

  18. Three-photon process for producing a degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, D. S.; Pisenti, N. C.; Reschovsky, B. J.; Campbell, G. K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating a quantum degenerate gas of metastable alkaline-earth-metal atoms. This has yet to be achieved due to inelastic collisions that limit evaporative cooling in the metastable states. Quantum degenerate samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent three-photon process. Numerical integration of the density-matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth-metal atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ≃90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the three-photon process can be set up such that it imparts no net momentum to the degenerate gas during the excitation, which will allow for studies of metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to successfully realizing our scheme, including the minimization of differential ac Stark shifts between the four states connected by the three-photon transition.

  19. A 3-photon process for producing degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Daniel S.; Pisenti, Neal C.; Reschovsky, Benjamin J.; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2016-05-01

    We present a method for creating quantum degenerate gases of metastable alkaline-earth atoms. A degenerate gas in any of the 3 P metastable states has not previously been obtained due to large inelastic collision rates, which are unfavorable for evaporative cooling. Samples prepared in the 1S0 ground state can be rapidly transferred to either the 3P2 or 3P0 state via a coherent 3-photon process. Numerical integration of the density matrix evolution for the fine structure of bosonic alkaline-earth atoms shows that transfer efficiencies of ~= 90 % can be achieved with experimentally feasible laser parameters in both Sr and Yb. Importantly, the 3-photon process does not impart momentum to the degenerate gas during excitation, which allows studies of these metastable samples outside the Lamb-Dicke regime. We discuss several experimental challenges to the successful realization of our scheme, including the minimization of differential AC Stark shifts between the four states connected by the 3-photon transition.

  20. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  1. Representation of Sea Ice Processes in State of the Art Earth System Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of Earth System Models now include thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice models with a subgridscale representation of ice thickness. The current sea ice component of the Community Earth System Model is the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) version 5. This new version of the model includes prognostic salinity in the vertical thermodynamic calculation as well as a representation of melt pond drainage through the sea ice. The CICE5 also includes a melt pond parameterization that takes into account the deformed and non-deformed ice within a model grid cell. Snow on sea ice processes allow for an evolving effective snow grain radius as a function of temperature, which is used in the shortwave radiative transfer and surface albedo calculation. I will discuss the results from coupled climate model sensitivity simulations that consider the subgridscale representations of some of these processes. This will include analysis of mean state and feedbacks in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Additional discussion will be provided on how we have used observations to guide these efforts.

  2. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of Rare Earth Elements in aqueous nitric acid solutions for process control.

    PubMed

    Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Tikhomirova, Tatyana I; Pomerantsev, Alexey L

    2015-04-15

    Noninvasive analytical control is of special interest for the complicated and hazardous production processes. On-line monitoring provides a unique opportunity to determine critical concentrations rapidly and without serious risks to operating personnel and the environment. Models for quantitative determination of concentrations of Rare Earth Elements in complex mixtures in nitric acid serve for these purposes. Here, the feasibility of simultaneous determination of cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium using the whole UV-vis spectroscopic range, together with chemometric data processing, is studied. The predictability of two chemometric techniques, partial least squares regression and correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares are compared. Models' performances are analyzed in out-of-control cases. PMID:25818140

  4. Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

  5. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  6. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

  7. Onboard Processing of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data of Volcanic Activity for Future Earth-Orbiting and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of eruption parameters and maps of thermal structure, has allowed these products to be delivered rapidly to volcanologists to aid them in assessing eruption risk and hazard. Such applications will enhance science return from future Earth-orbiting spacecraft and also from spacecraft exploring the Solar System, or beyond, which hope to image dynamic processes. Especially in the latter case, long communication times between the spacecraft and Earth exclude a rapid response to what may be a transient process - only using onboard autonomy can the spacecraft react quickly to such an event.

  8. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  9. Glacial Processes on Earth and Mars: New Perspectives from Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Alicia Marie

    Chemical and physical interactions of flowing ice and rock have inexorably shaped planetary surfaces. Weathering in glacial environments is a significant link in biogeochemical cycles --- carbon and strontium --- on Earth, and may have once played an important role in altering Mars' surface. Despite growing recognition of the importance of low-temperature chemical weathering, these processes are still not well understood. Debris-coated glaciers are also present on Mars, emphasizing the need to study ice-related processes in the evolution of planetary surfaces. During Earth's history, subglacial environments are thought to have sheltered communities of microorganisms from extreme climate variations. On Amazonian Mars, glaciers such as lobate debris aprons (LDA) could have hosted chemolithotrophic communities, making Mars' present glaciers candidates for life preservation. This study characterizes glacial processes on both Earth and Mars. Chemical weathering at Robertson Glacier, a small alpine glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, is examined with a multidisciplinary approach. The relative proportions of differing dissolution reactions at various stages in the glacial system are empirically determined using aqueous geochemistry. Synthesis of laboratory and orbital thermal infrared spectroscopy allows identification of dissolution rinds on hand samples and characterization of carbonate dissolution signals at orbital scales, while chemical and morphological evidence for thin, discontinuous weathering rinds at microscales are evident from electron microscopy. Subglacial dissolution rates are found to outpace those of the proglacial till plain; biologically-mediated pyrite oxidation drives the bulk of this acidic weathering. Second, the area-elevation relationship, or hypsometry, of LDA in the midlatitudes of Mars is characterized. These glaciers are believed to have formed ˜500 Ma during a climate excursion. Hypsometric measurements of these debris-covered glaciers

  10. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  11. Preparation of Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, William C.

    A preliminary draft of a "Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science" has been prepared on the basis of a careful analysis of the current practice of science. This manuscript attempts to formulate guidelines for an explanation of communicative processes of scientific inquiry to students without rigorous background…

  12. From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

  13. Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika

    2013-01-01

    To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

  14. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-04-28

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipf's law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x) ~ x(-λ), where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from α = 2 to ∞. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipf's law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  15. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipf’s law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x)∼x−λ, where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from α=2 to ∞. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipf’s law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  16. Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balter, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

  17. The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150 h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

  18. Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    1999-01-01

    This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

  19. Simulation of energy-dependent electron diffusion processes in the Earth's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Nishimura, Y.; Zhang, X.-J.; Reeves, G. D.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Henderson, M. G.; Spence, H. E.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2016-05-01

    The radial and local diffusion processes induced by various plasma waves govern the highly energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, causing distinct characteristics in electron distributions at various energies. In this study, we present our simulation results of the energetic electron evolution during a geomagnetic storm using the University of California, Los Angeles 3-D diffusion code. Following the plasma sheet electron injections, the electrons at different energy bands detected by the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) and Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) instruments on board the Van Allen Probes exhibit a rapid enhancement followed by a slow diffusive movement in differential energy fluxes, and the radial extent to which electrons can penetrate into depends on energy with closer penetration toward the Earth at lower energies than higher energies. We incorporate radial diffusion, local acceleration, and loss processes due to whistler mode wave observations to perform a 3-D diffusion simulation. Our simulation results demonstrate that chorus waves cause electron flux increase by more than 1 order of magnitude during the first 18 h, and the subsequent radial extents of the energetic electrons during the storm recovery phase are determined by the coupled radial diffusion and the pitch angle scattering by EMIC waves and plasmaspheric hiss. The radial diffusion caused by ULF waves and local plasma wave scattering are energy dependent, which lead to the observed electron flux variations with energy dependences. This study suggests that plasma wave distributions in the inner magnetosphere are crucial for the energy-dependent intrusions of several hundred keV to several MeV electrons.

  20. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

  1. Relating Major Surface Processes to the Deep Earth — The Importance of the Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, P. E.; Szatmari, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many global scale tectonic, oceanic and climate changes began in the Tertiary with global tectonics as the underlying driving force and changed the world. In full flower by the beginning of the Middle Miocene around 16 Ma, these changes continued through the Late Miocene into the present so we can firmly say that most of our modern world, continental glaciations excepted, began in the Middle and Late Miocene. We summarize in a flow diagram how the major earth surface processes active in the Miocene are related to the Deep Earth as understood by recent advances in seismic tomography. This 11 Ma interval had two global orogenic zones, the Alpine-Tethyan orogen from Gibraltar across southern Asia into Vietnam and around the Pacific Rim, both crustal expressions of downwellings taking place, especially in the upper mantle. These downwellings are balanced by upwellings in the lower mantle in and on the rim of the African and Pacific superplumes, which are large, low-shear velocity provinces; part of the rising plumes originated from the most extensively melted regions of the core-mantle boundary layer, D", where heat flow from the outer core is highest. Together these up-and downwellings indicate that mantle convection extended, at least periodically, through the whole mantle and reflected lateral variations in convection and heat flow in the cooling and slowly crystallizing outer core. Correlation of mantle convection with surface features is most evident in the uppermost mantle whose dynamic topography is readily reflected by the subsidence and tilting of continents moving toward the downwelling zones. Because they are closely synchronous, these two orogenic belts had enormous consequences for the earth's surface, and because they are close to us in time, they are easy to study and sample. Thus the Miocene is ideal to study for both its many global intra connections and for their link to the Deep Earth. As these two orogenies developed, they changed a global warm

  2. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  3. Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  4. Comprehensive understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Youn, Sungmin; Zhu, Tongren; Kim, Ijung; Lau, Boris L T

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes has been limited by difficulties of nanoparticle characterization. In this study, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was deployed to evaluate the absolute particle size distributions in laboratory scale flocculation and filtration experiments with silver nanoparticles. The results from NTA were consistent with standard theories of particle destabilization and transport. Direct observations of changes in absolute particle size distributions from NTA enhance both qualitative and quantitative understanding of particle separation processes of nano-sized particles. PMID:26676021

  5. Detectability of deterministic non-linear processes in Earth rotation time-series-II. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frede, V.; Mazzega, P.

    1999-05-01

    We investigate the possibility of detecting non-linear low-dimensional deterministic processes in the time-series of the length of day (LOD) and polar motion components (PMX, PMY), filtered to keep the period range [ ~ 1 day-100 days]. After each time-series has been embedded in a pseudo-phase space with dimension D_E*=5 or 6 (see Frede & Mazzega 1999, hereafter referred to as Paper I) we extract the geometric and dynamical characteristics of the reconstructed orbit. Using a local false neighbours algorithm and an analysis of the data local covariance matrix eigenspectrum, we find a local dimension D_L=5 for the three EOP series. The principal Lyapunov exponents averaged over the ~ 27 years of observation (1970-1997) are positive. This result unambiguously indicates the chaotic nature of the Earth's rotational dynamical regime in this period range of fluctuations. As a consequence, some theoretical prediction horizons cannot be exceeded by any tentative forecast of the EOP evolution. Horizons of 11.3 days for LOD, 8.7 days for PMX and 8.1 days for PMY are found, beyond which prediction errors will be of the order of the s of the filtered EOP series, say 0.12 ms, 2.30 mas (milliarcsecond) and 1.57 mas respectively. From the Lyapunov spectra we estimate the Lyapunov dimension D_Lyap, which is an upper bound for the corresponding attractor dimension D_A. We find D_Lyap(LOD)=4.48, D_Lyap(PMX)=4.90 and D_Lyap(PMY)=4.97. These determinations are in broad agreement with those of the attractor dimensions obtained from correlation integrals, i.e. D_A(LOD)=4.5-5.5, D_A(PMX)=3.5-4.5, D_A(PMY)=4-5. We finally show that the Earth's rotational state experiences large changes in stability. Indeed, the local prediction horizons, as deduced from the local Lyapunov exponents, occasionally drop to about 3.3 days for LOD in the years 1982-1984, 2.6 days for PMX in 1972-1973 and 2.6 days for PMY in 1996-1997. Some of these momentary stability perturbations of the Earth's rotation are

  6. The compact electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2009-04-01

    The electromagnetically equivalent device model [1]-[2] is extended as considering the whole Earth like a complete system in this paper. The crustal structures are considered as a complex network of distributed circuits involving slot antenna arrays, open waveguides, cavities, transmission strip lines, attenuators, frequency converters, dividers, couplings in the electromagnetically equivalent device model of the complete system of Earth (EEDMCSE). The variations at the geo-data taken at any port of the EEDMCSE give some functional relationships on the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network explained above. The mappings said here are based on the transformations among both the temporal and the spatial variations of both geo-data and the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network [2]. The Finite Difference Time Domain Method is used at the evaluations. The temporal variations at the mappings of EEDMCSE at specific locations extract the mechanisms explaining the relationships among the characteristics of the distributed complex network and seismic phenomena of Earth in the future. A mapping is established between the parameter space of the geo-data and the characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent device model. The temporal variations of the geo-data are correlated to the self-optimizing the specific characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent device. The relationships said here give a possibility of predicting the geo-data. Using the inverses of the mappings generates the evaluations giving the predictability conditions involving restrictions. The inversion of the mapping exploits a fine model at predicting the natural iterations of the geo-data at future on both the region connected the port and some locations non-related to the port either geologically or seismically or phenomenologically relating to the earth [1] - [5]. 2 References [1] T. Sengor,"The electromagnetic device optimization

  7. Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Grimmett, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten LiCl-KCl and activity coefficients for Cd and Bi. Data were obtained between 400 and 500 C. Results for the rare earth chlorides using an improved experimental technique were consistent with theory, with standard free energy of formation values somewhat more negative than those found in the literature. Special attention was given to Am in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system because it can exist as the +2 and/or +3 ion in this system. Americium ions existed only as the +3 ion in LiCl-KCl/Bi. Standard electrochemical potentials for Am/Am{sup +2} in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 400, 450, and 500 C were {minus}2.893, {minus}2.853, and {minus}2.838 V, respectively, relative to Cl{sup 2}/Cl{sup {minus}}. Standard electrochemical potentials vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup {minus}} for Am/Am{sup +3} in LiCl-KCl eutectic were {minus}2.83 V at 450 C and {minus}2.78 V at 500 C. Activity coefficients for Am in molten Cd were 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} at 450 and 500 C.

  8. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  9. John Lubbock's early contribution to the understanding of river terraces and their importance to Geography, Archaeology and Earth Science

    PubMed Central

    Bridgland, David R.

    2014-01-01

    In his writings John Lubbock expounded views on the understanding of past climates, prehistoric faunas, early humans, and the evolution of landscape and river systems. His contributions on some of these related topics are scarcely remembered, despite comparison with modern thinking showing them frequently to have been prescient. He visited the Somme valley, observing river terrace gravels and Palaeolithic artefacts in the company of the leading geologists and archaeologists of his day, visits that furnished knowledge of the early archaeological record and were also formative in terms of his understanding of river-valley and landscape evolution. He noted that terraces represented former valley-floor levels and that rivers had deepened their valleys in response to uplift of the land, something that is often not fully grasped at the present time. He was also an early believer in interglacial–glacial climatic fluctuation, an idea not widely accepted in Britain until after his death.

  10. Solar energy and its interaction with Earth`s atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tulunay, Y. ||

    1993-12-31

    The Sun is responsible for many of the phenomena on Earth, including the maintenance of life. In addition, magnetic storms, capable of disrupting radio communication, and auroral displays are associated with solar events. Man-made electrical, satellite, and communication systems are affected strongly by the near-Earth space environments. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the interaction of solar activity with the near-Earth environment. These processes can be studied by examing two sets of interactions. That is, the interaction of the solar electromagnetic output with the Earth`s neutral atmosphere, and the solar corpuscular output with the geomagnetic field. In order to understand the types of interactions one needs to know more details of the interacting components. Therefore, the near-Earth environments which comprise neutral atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric regions will be discussed in relation to the direct and indirect influences of solar activity.

  11. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents

    PubMed Central

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models’ isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  12. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Williama

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

  13. The key role of global solid-Earth processes in the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, Bernhard; Spakman, Wim; Japsen, Peter; Torsvik, Trond

    2014-05-01

    Northern hemisphere glaciation started ~3 My ago with Greenland leading the other northern areas. It is unknown why these extreme global climatic transitions were initiated there and why at this time. Here we show that build-up of the Greenland ice-sheet was underpinned by three major solid-Earth processes. These processes were active since at least ~60 Ma and collectively led to conditions of sufficiently high topography and northern latitude of Greenland for glaciations to initiate at ~3 Ma. First, a strong mantle-plume pulse, causing the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province at ~60 Ma, regionally thinned the lithosphere, while subsequent pulses led to uplift that accelerated at around 5 Ma. Our numerical mantle flow models also suggest recent uplift caused by Iceland plume material flowing northward. Second, a ~700 km northward movement of Greenland relative to the mantle since ~60 Ma is featured in recent plate tectonic reconstructions. Third, a concurrent northward rotation of the entire mantle and crust toward the pole, dubbed True Polar Wander (TPW), contributed a 12° (~1300 km) change in latitude. Our study emphasizes the role of mantle plumes, plate tectonic motions, and in particular TPW for driving long-term global climatic transitions.

  14. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  15. Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.

  16. Adsorption of crystal violet with diatomite earth&carbon by a modification of hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Li, Jun; Chen, Guanghui; Bian, Wei; Lu, Yun; Li, Wenjing; Zheng, Zhaoming; Cheng, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    The high colority and difficulty of decolorization are the most important tasks on printing and dyeing wastewater. This study investigates the ability of diatomite earth&carbon (DE&C) as an adsorbent to removal crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of CV. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord with well IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 73.15 m(2) g(-1) for DE&C and an average pore diameter of 10.56 nm. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.99). The results of kinetics study showed that the pseudo-second-order model fitted to the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. ΔH° <0, ΔS° > 0 and ΔG° < 0 demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic for dye. Furthermore the positive value of ΔS° reflected good affinity of the CV dye. PMID:27003089

  17. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  18. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents.

    PubMed

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models' isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  19. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  20. Implementation of Web Processing Services (WPS) over IPSL Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadygrov, Nikolay; Denvil, Sebastien; Carenton, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Guillaume; Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is aimed to provide access to climate data for the international climate community. ESGF is a system of distributed and federated nodes that dynamically interact with each other. ESGF user may search and download climatic data, geographically distributed over the world, from one common web interface and through standardized API. With the continuous development of the climate models and the beginning of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6), the amount of data available from ESGF will continuously increase during the next 5 years. IPSL holds a replication of the different global and regional climate models output, observations and reanalysis data (CMIP5, CORDEX, obs4MIPs, etc) that are available on the IPSL ESGF node. In order to let scientists perform analysis of the models without downloading vast amount of data the Web Processing Services (WPS) were installed at IPSL compute node. The work is part of the CONVERGENCE project founded by French National Research Agency (ANR). PyWPS implementation of the Web processing Service standard from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) in the framework of birdhouse software is used. The processes could be run by user remotely through web-based WPS client or by using command-line tool. All the calculations are performed on the server side close to the data. If the models/observations are not available at IPSL it will be downloaded and cached by WPS process from ESGF network using synda tool. The outputs of the WPS processes are available for download as plots, tar-archives or as NetCDF files. We present the architecture of WPS at IPSL along with the processes for evaluation of the model performance, on-site diagnostics and post-analysis processing of the models output, e.g.: - regriding/interpolation/aggregation - ocgis (OpenClimateGIS) based polygon subsetting of the data - average seasonal cycle, multimodel mean, multimodel mean bias - calculation of the

  1. Integrated solution for the complete remote sensing process - Earth Observation Mission Control Centre (EOMC2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapski, Paweł

    2016-07-01

    We are going to show the latest achievements of the Remote Sensing Division of the Institute of Aviation in the area of remote sensing, i.e. the project of the integrated solution for the whole remote sensing process ranging from acquiring to providing the end user with required information. Currently, these tasks are partially performed by several centers in Poland, however there is no leader providing an integrated solution. Motivated by this fact, the Earth Observation Mission Control Centre (EOMC2) was established in the Remote Sensing Division of the Institute of Aviation that will provide such a comprehensive approach. Establishing of EOMC2 can be compared with creating Data Center Aerial and Satellite Data Centre (OPOLIS) in the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography in the mid-70s in Poland. OPOLIS was responsible for broadly defined data processing, it was a breakthrough innovation that initiated the use of aerial image analysis in Poland. Operation center is a part of the project that will be created, which in comparison with the competitors will provide better solutions, i.e.: • Centralization of the acquiring, processing, publishing and archiving of data, • Implementing elements of the INSPIRE directive recommendations on spatial data management, • Providing the end-user with information in the near real-time, • Ability of supplying the system with images of various origin (aerial, satellite, e.g. EUMETCast, Sentinel, Landsat) and diversity of telemetry data, data aggregation and using the same algorithms to images obtained from different sources, • System reconfiguration and batch processing of large data sets at any time, • A wide range of potential applications: precision agriculture, environmental protection, crisis management and national security, aerial, small satellite and sounding rocket missions monitoring.

  2. NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.; Ivans, Inese I. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 {<=} Z {<=} 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  3. The Effects of Science Models on Students' Understanding of Scientific Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berglin, Riki Susan

    This action research study investigated how the use of science models affected fifth-grade students' ability to transfer their science curriculum to a deeper understanding of scientific processes. This study implemented a variety of science models into a chemistry unit throughout a 6-week study. The research question addressed was: In what ways do using models to learn and teach science help students transfer classroom knowledge to a deeper understanding of the scientific processes? Qualitative and quantitative data were collected through pre- and post-science interest inventories, observations field notes, student work samples, focus group interviews, and chemistry unit tests. These data collection tools assessed students' attitudes, engagement, and content knowledge throughout their chemistry unit. The results of the data indicate that the model-based instruction program helped with students' engagement in the lessons and understanding of chemistry content. The results also showed that students displayed positive attitudes toward using science models.

  4. Separation of technetium and rare earth metals for co-decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Catherine; Martin, Leigh

    2015-05-01

    Poster. In the US there are several technologies under consideration for the separation of the useful components in used nuclear fuel. One such process is the co-decontamination process to separate U, Np and Pu in a single step and produce a Np/ Pu and a U product stream. Although the behavior of the actinide elements is reasonably well defined in this system, the same is not true for the fission products, mainly Zr, Mo, Ru and Tc. As these elements are cationic and anionic they may interact with each other to extract in a manner not predicted by empirical models such as AMUSE. This poster presentation will discuss the initial results of batch contact testing under flowsheet conditions and as a function of varying acidity and flowsheet conditions to optimize recovery of Tc and minimize extraction of Mo, Zr and Ru with the goal of developing a better understanding of the behavior of these elements in the co-decontamination process.

  5. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

  6. Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

  7. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  8. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  9. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  10. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

  11. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  12. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  13. Understanding the Process of Science by Students Exposed to Different Science Curricula in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1972-01-01

    The contributions of Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Chemical Education Materials Study, and the Physical Science Study Committee courses to the understanding of science among Israeli students are compared. Changes in science process inventory scores in concurrent courses in grades 9-12 are examined. Common misunderstandings about the nature…

  14. Listening Processes: Attention, Understanding, Evaluation. What Research Says to the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul G.

    This review of the research on listening offers general guidelines to help teachers be more effective listeners and to help them teach their students more effective listening skills. The process of listening is discussed according to three components, attentiveness, understanding, and evaluation, which are viewed as occurring sequentially,…

  15. Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…

  16. Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

  17. Understanding the Student-Faculty Mentoring Process: Its Effects on At-Risk University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Silvia J.; Reigadas, Elena T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand the student-faculty mentoring process and how mentoring relationships facilitate at-risk students' adjustment to college. The sample consisted of 65 college students who were involved in a Faculty Mentoring Program (FMP) at a four-year institution. A conceptual model was tested relating ethnic…

  18. Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Chunxian

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

  19. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

  20. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  1. Videogame Construction by Engineering Students for Understanding Modelling Processes: The Case of Simulating Water Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretelín-Ricárdez, Angel; Sacristán, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing research project where university engineering students were asked to construct videogames involving the use of physical systems models. The objective is to help them identify and understand the elements and concepts involved in the modelling process. That is, we use game design as a constructionist approach…

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    PubMed

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant-microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    PubMed Central

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  4. Space Weather - Sun Earth Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, K. Sundara

    2011-03-01

    Sun, a star of spectral type G2 is the main source of energy to the Earth. Being close to the Earth, Sun produces a resolvable disk of great detail, which is not possible for other stars. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the enigmatic phenomena that occur in the solar atmosphere and regularly bombard the Earth's environment in addition to the solar wind. Thus it becomes important for us not only to understand these physical processes of the Sun, but in addition how these activities affect the Earth and it's surrounding. Thus a branch of study called "Space Weather" had emerged in the recent past, which connects the Sun Earth rela-tions. This paper details about the solar activity and associated energetic phenomena that occur in the atmosphere of the Sun and their influence on the Earth.

  5. Synchronization of Terrestrial Processes with Frequencies of the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenkov, N. S.

    It is established that the frequencies of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of atmospheric winds and the Chandler wobble (CW) of the Earth's poles are synchronized with each other and with the fundamental frequencies of the Earth-Moon-Sun system. The QBO and CW frequencies are resonance combinations of the frequencies of the Earth-Moon system's yearly rotation around the Sun, precessions of the lunar orbit, and the motion of its perigee. The QBO and CW frequencies are in a ratio of 1:2. The synchronizations between Mul'tanovskii's natural synoptic periods and tidal oscillations of the Earth's daily rotation rate, as well as between variations in climatic characteristics and long-time fluctuations of the Earth's rotation rate are described.

  6. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  7. Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Bruce C; Colson, Steven D; Dixon, David A.; Laufer, Allan H; Ray, Douglas

    2003-06-10

    On September 26–28, 2002, a workshop entitled “Understanding the Role of Water on Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry” was held to assess new research opportunities in electron-driven processes and radical chemistry in aqueous systems. Of particular interest was the unique and complex role that the structure of water plays in influencing these processes. Novel experimental and theoretical approaches to solving long-standing problems in the field were explored. A broad selection of participants from universities and the national laboratories contributed to the workshop, which included scientific and technical presentations and parallel sessions for discussions and report writing.

  8. Understanding charge carrier relaxation processes in terbium arsenide nanoparticles using transient absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoef, Laura R.

    Erbium arsenide nanoparticles epitaxially grown within III-V semiconductors have been shown to improve the performance of devices for applications ranging from thermoelectrics to THz pulse generation. The small size of rare-earth nanoparticles suggests that interesting electronic properties might emerge as a result of both spatial confinement and surface states. However, ErAs nanoparticles do not exhibit any signs of quantum confinement or an emergent bandgap, and these experimental observations are understood from theory. The incorporation of other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles into III-V hosts is a likely path to engineering carrier excitation, relaxation and transport dynamics for optoelectronic device applications. However, the electronic structure of these other rare-earth monopnictide nanoparticles remains poorly understood. The objective of this research is to explore the electronic structure and optical properties of III-V materials containing novel rare-earth monopnictides. We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the electronic structure of TbAs nanoparticles in III-V hosts. We start with TbAs:GaAs, which was expected to be similar to ErAs:GaAs. We study the dynamics of carrier relaxation into the TbAs states using optical pump terahertz probe transient absorption spectroscopy. By analyzing how the carrier relaxation rates depend on pump fluence and sample temperature, we conclude that the TbAs states are saturable. Saturable traps suggest the existence of a bandgap for TbAs nanoparticles, in sharp contrast with previous results for ErAs. We then apply the same experimental technique to two samples of TbAs nanoparticles in InGaAs with different concentrations of TbAs. We observe similar relaxation dynamics associated with trap saturation, though the ability to resolve these processes is contingent upon a high enough TbAs concentration in the sample. We have also constructed an optical pump optical probe transient absorption

  9. NOAA's Science On a Sphere Education Program: Application of a Scientific Visualization System to Teach Earth System Science and Improve our Understanding About Creating Effective Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, C.; McLaughlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA has developed several programs aimed at facilitating the use of earth system science data and data visualizations by formal and informal educators. One of them, Science On a Sphere, a visualization display tool and system that uses networked LCD projectors to display animated global datasets onto the outside of a suspended, 1.7-meter diameter opaque sphere, enables science centers, museums, and universities to display real-time and current earth system science data. NOAA's Office of Education has provided grants to such education institutions to develop exhibits featuring Science On a Sphere (SOS) and create content for and evaluate audience impact. Currently, 20 public education institutions have permanent Science On a Sphere exhibits and 6 more will be installed soon. These institutions and others that are working to create and evaluate content for this system work collaboratively as a network to improve our collective knowledge about how to create educationally effective visualizations. Network members include other federal agencies, such as, NASA and the Dept. of Energy, and major museums such as Smithsonian and American Museum of Natural History, as well as a variety of mid-sized and small museums and universities. Although the audiences in these institutions vary widely in their scientific awareness and understanding, we find there are misconceptions and lack of familiarity with viewing visualizations that are common among the audiences. Through evaluations performed in these institutions we continue to evolve our understanding of how to create content that is understandable by those with minimal scientific literacy. The findings from our network will be presented including the importance of providing context, real-world connections and imagery to accompany the visualizations and the need for audience orientation before the visualizations are viewed. Additionally, we will review the publicly accessible virtual library housing over 200 datasets for SOS

  10. The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

    2009-12-01

    National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbon’s role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

  11. New Fission Fragment Distributions and r-Process Origin of the Rare-Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A≳140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110≲A≲170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A≃278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A≃165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A≳140.

  12. Optical observation, image-processing, and detection of space debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Tagawa, Makoto

    We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds, and the time interval of each images is about 4.7 seconds. We can detect faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 14 among 5 nights data, and found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the two-line-element (TLE) data provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We conclude that our ARO posses a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing method specialised for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

  13. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements.

    PubMed

    Goriely, S; Sida, J-L; Lemaître, J-F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2013-12-13

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A≳140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110≲A≲170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A≃278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A≃165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A≳140. PMID:24483647

  14. The Synthetic Aperture Radar Science Data Processing Foundry Concept for Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hua, H.; Norton, C. D.; Little, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and the Advanced Information Systems Technology Program have invested in two technology evolutions to meet the needs of the community of scientists exploiting the rapidly growing database of international synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. JPL, working with the science community, has developed the InSAR Scientific Computing Environment (ISCE), a next-generation interferometric SAR processing system that is designed to be flexible and extensible. ISCE currently supports many international space borne data sets but has been primarily focused on geodetic science and applications. A second evolutionary path, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) science data system, uses ISCE as its core science data processing engine and produces automated science and response products, quality assessments and metadata. The success of this two-front effort has been demonstrated in NASA's ability to respond to recent events with useful disaster support. JPL has enabled high-volume and low latency data production by the re-use of the hybrid cloud computing science data system (HySDS) that runs ARIA, leveraging on-premise cloud computing assets that are able to burst onto the Amazon Web Services (AWS) services as needed. Beyond geodetic applications, needs have emerged to process large volumes of time-series SAR data collected for estimation of biomass and its change, in such campaigns as the upcoming AfriSAR field campaign. ESTO is funding JPL to extend the ISCE-ARIA model to a "SAR Science Data Processing Foundry" to on-ramp new data sources and to produce new science data products to meet the needs of science teams and, in general, science community members. An extension of the ISCE-ARIA model to support on-demand processing will permit PIs to leverage this Foundry to produce data products from accepted data sources when they need them. This paper will describe each of the elements of the SAR SDP Foundry and describe their

  15. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  16. Image processing in a science classroom: The role of students' understanding of the technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Jeffrey S.

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation is an exploratory cognitive study of high school science students when they use computer image processing as a tool for visual data analysis. The core findings are that students readily generate a large variety of interpretive methods and that the quality of their interpretations often depends upon the ways they understand the image processing technology itself The dissertation study seeks to identify the ways students understand and misunderstand the technology and how their understandings support or hinder accurate interpretations of image displays in terms of the underlying data. The data corpus consists of videotapes of pairs of high school students analyzing digital images of astronomical objects. The study identifies the many visual attributes of image displays that students notice and the various understandings of the technology that they apply when interpreting these visual attributes. The study also identifies the ways students apply generalizations from their perceptual experiences and conventions that they may have learned from interpreting maps and other representational displays of spatially distributed data. The study analyzes the ways these generalizations support or hinder accurate interpretations. The study also identifies characteristics of the image-processing activities themselves that may support hinder, or challenge students' capabilities for interpreting image displays. Major results include a specification of knowledge of the technology that students would find most helpful when using image processing as a toot for visual data analysis. The results also include a set of heuristics for designing image-processing-based data analytic activities that will support and challenge students. Although the study uses only astronomical data, the results should apply to any remotely sensed data or, more generally, spatially distributed data. Also, the results should apply to other technology-based representational devices, including

  17. Isotopic order, biogeochemical processes, and earth history - Goldschmidt lecture, Davos, Switzerland, August 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, John M.

    2004-04-01

    The impetus to interpret carbon isotopic signals comes from an understanding of isotopic fractionations imposed by living organisms. That understanding rests in turn on studies of enzymatic isotope effects, on fruitful concepts of isotopic order, and on studies of the distribution of 13C both between and within biosynthetic products. In sum, these studies have shown that the isotopic compositions of biological products are governed by reaction kinetics and by pathways of carbon flow. Isotopic compositions of individual compounds can indicate specific processes or environments. Examples include biomarkers which record the isotopic compositions of primary products in aquatic communities, which indicate that certain bacteria have used methane as a carbon source, and which show that some portions of marine photic zones have been anaerobic. In such studies, the combination of structural and isotopic lines of evidence reveals relationships between compounds and leads to process-related thinking. These are large steps. Reconstruction of the sources and histories of molecular fossils redeems much of the early promise of organic geochemistry by resolving and clarifying paleoenviron-mental signals. In turn, contemplation of this new information is driving geochemists to study microbial ecology and evolution, oceanography, and sedimentology.

  18. Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and processing of active rare earth-doped chalcohalide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debari, Roberto Mauro

    Applications for infrared-transmitting non-oxide glass fibers span a broad range of topics. They can be used in the military, the medical field, telecommunications, and even in agriculture. Rare earth ions are used as dopants in these glasses in order to stimulate emissions in the infrared spectral region. In order to extend the host glass transmission further into the infrared, selenium atoms were substituted for sulfur in the established Ge-S-I chalcohalide glass system and the fundamental properties of these latter glasses were explored. Over 30 different compositions in the Ge-Se-I glass system were investigated as to their thermal and optical properties. The resulting optimum host with a composition of Ge15Se80I5 has a broad transmission range from 0.7 mum to 17.0 mum and a high working range over 145°C. The host glass also exhibited a Tg of 125°C, making rotational casting of a cladding tube for rod-and-tube fiberization a possibility. The base glass was doped with 1000 to 4000 ppm/wt of erbium, dysprosium, or neodymium. When doped with Er3+-ions, absorptions at 1.54 mum and 3.42 mum were observed. Nd3+-doping resulted in an absorption peak near 4.24 mum and Dy3+ ions caused absorption at 1.30 mum. Fluorescence emissions were found for neodymium at 1.396 mum with a FWHM of 74 nm, and for dysprosium at 1.145 mum with a FWHM of 75 nm, at 1.360 mum with a FWHM of 98 rim and at 1.674 mum with a FWHM of 60 nm. High optical quality tubes of the host glass could be formed using rotational casting in silica ampoules. Glass tubes, 4 to 6 cm long with a 1 cm outer diameter and a tailored inner-hole diameter ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 cm could be synthesized by this process with excellent dimensional tolerances around the circumference as well as along the length. A preform of this size provided 25 continuous meters of unclad fiber with diameters ranging from 140 to 200 mum. A UV-curable acrylate cladding was applied via an external coating cup. An x-ray analysis of the

  20. In service teachers' understanding of salt dissolution process through representational animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoc, Ummuhan

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are repeatedly applied to support student comprehension in the theoretical ideas of chemistry. However, students' understanding the dynamics of the phenomena is directly related to the understanding of teachers as instructors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how the features of three different molecular level animations are viewed and understood by the teachers who had more than 2 years experience. Participants (n=10) are in-service science teachers, mostly high school, grouped into three groups with four participants in the first group and three people in the other two. Each group viewed short different animations and one common animation demonstrating the salt dissolution process. Teachers were asked to take pre and post-tests to measure the influence of the animations in their understandings of the content in addition to a group discussion and an interview. The study suggests that the animations improved the content knowledge of the teachers slightly.

  1. Models for Deploying Open Source and Commercial Software to Support Earth Science Data Processing and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetman, G.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    Software deployment is needed to process and distribute scientific data throughout the data lifecycle. Developing software in-house can take software development teams away from other software development projects and can require efforts to maintain the software over time. Adopting and reusing software and system modules that have been previously developed by others can reduce in-house software development and maintenance costs and can contribute to the quality of the system being developed. A variety of models are available for reusing and deploying software and systems that have been developed by others. These deployment models include open source software, vendor-supported open source software, commercial software, and combinations of these approaches. Deployment in Earth science data processing and distribution has demonstrated the advantages and drawbacks of each model. Deploying open source software offers advantages for developing and maintaining scientific data processing systems and applications. By joining an open source community that is developing a particular system module or application, a scientific data processing team can contribute to aspects of the software development without having to commit to developing the software alone. Communities of interested developers can share the work while focusing on activities that utilize in-house expertise and addresses internal requirements. Maintenance is also shared by members of the community. Deploying vendor-supported open source software offers similar advantages to open source software. However, by procuring the services of a vendor, the in-house team can rely on the vendor to provide, install, and maintain the software over time. Vendor-supported open source software may be ideal for teams that recognize the value of an open source software component or application and would like to contribute to the effort, but do not have the time or expertise to contribute extensively. Vendor-supported software may

  2. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  3. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  4. Understanding processes that generate flash floods in the arid Judean Desert to the Dead Sea - a measurement network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, Hanna; Rödiger, Tino; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Geyer, Stefan; Merz, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods in (semi-) arid regions are fascinating in their suddenness and can be harmful for humans, infrastructure, industry and tourism. Generated within minutes, an early warning system is essential. A hydrological model is required to quantify flash floods. Current models to predict flash floods are often based on simplified concepts and/or on concepts which were developed for humid regions. To more closely relate such models to local conditions, processes within catchments where flash floods occur require consideration. In this study we present a monitoring approach to decipher different flash flood generating processes in the ephemeral Wadi Arugot on the western side of the Dead Sea. To understand rainfall input a dense rain gauge network was installed. Locations of rain gauges were chosen based on land use, slope and soil cover. The spatiotemporal variation of rain intensity will also be available from radar backscatter. Level pressure sensors located at the outlet of major tributaries have been deployed to analyze in which part of the catchment water is generated. To identify the importance of soil moisture preconditions, two cosmic ray sensors have been deployed. At the outlet of the Arugot water is sampled and level is monitored. To more accurately determine water discharge, water velocity is measured using portable radar velocimetry. A first analysis of flash flood processes will be presented following the FLEX-Topo concept .(Savenije, 2010), where each landscape type is represented using an individual hydrological model according to the processes within the three hydrological response units: plateau, desert and outlet. References: Savenije, H. H. G.: HESS Opinions "Topography driven conceptual modelling (FLEX-Topo)", Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2681-2692, doi:10.5194/hess-14-2681-2010, 2010.

  5. Applications of Future NASA Decadal Missions for Observing Earth's Land and Water Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon; Brown, Molly E.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Carroll, Mark; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Misson Objective: To collect altimetry data of the Earth's surface optimized to measure ice sheet elevation change and sea ice thickness, while also generating an estimate of global vegetation biomass.

  6. Development of Remote Laboratory for Understanding the Processes from Design to Manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    Faculties at the Department of Production, Information and Systems Engineering at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology faces a problem how they can motivate their students who lack in substantial hands on experience of design and manufacture and let them understand the processes from design to manufacture. To overcome this difficulty, a Remote Laboratory system was developed using a Stirling engine by noting its simple structure and principle, with the aim of providing a student hands on experience. A student designs a connecting rod, and it is machined by a milling machine in the lab at a distance. The on-site lab attendant installs the connecting rod on the engine and conducts a trial run, which is viewed by the student via internet video at the remote location. Experiments demonstrated that the Remote Lab system will facilitate a student to understand the processes from design to manufacture.

  7. Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

  8. Novel solution processing of high-efficiency Earth-abundant Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenbing; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Bob, Brion; Zhou, Huanping; Lei, Bao; Chung, Choong-Heui; Li, Sheng-Han; Hou, William W; Yang, Yang

    2012-12-11

    A novel solution-based approach is presented to process earth-abundant Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) absorbers using fully dissolved CZTS precursors in which each of the elemental constituents intermix on a molecular scale. This method enables the low-temperature processing of chemically clean kesterite films with excellent homogeneity. The high performance of resulting optoelectronic devices represents a chance to extend the impact of CZTS into the next chapter of thin-film solar cells. PMID:22969055

  9. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  10. Understanding S Stars by C/O Ratios and s-Process Element Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrant, David J.; Speck, A.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical evolution of dust expelled from Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars is influenced by the Carbon to Oxygen (C/O) ratio, because of the high stability of Carbon Monoxide (CO). S Stars are thought to be "in between” Carbon-rich AGB stars and Oxygen-rich AGB stars, having a C/O ratio of near unity and thus are expected to have interesting dust properties. However, there is not a precise definition for S Stars. S Stars are currently defined by the molecular bands in their spectra; they have reasonably strong zirconium oxide (ZrO) bands, which are believed to be indicative of dredge-up of s-process nucleosynthesis products. However, production and dredge-up of s-process elements may not scale with the production and dredge up of s-process elements such as Zirconium (Zr), especially when we consider destruction of carbon through hot bottom burning. If we are to understand the effect of chemistry, either in terms of s-process enhancements or C/O ratios, we must be able to characterize our sample stars and thus a more precise definition of S Stars is needed. Preliminary studies are presented to understand the properties of S Stars by determining what relationships exist between C/O ratios and s-process elements abundances.

  11. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  12. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  13. MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

  14. Optical Observation, Image-processing, and Detection of Space Debris in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Tagawa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds (or 5 seconds), and the time interval of CCD shutter open is about 4.7 seconds (or 6.7 seconds). In the line detection method, a sufficient number of sample objects are taken from each image based on their shape and intensity, which includes not only faint signals but also background noise (we take 500 sample objects from each image in this paper). Then we search a sequence of sample objects aligning in a straight line in the successive images to exclude the noise sample. We succeed in detecting faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 15.5 among 5 nights data. We also calculate orbits of objects detected using the Simplified General Perturbations Satellite Orbit Model 4(SGP4), and identify the objects listed in the two-line-element (TLE) data catalogue publicly provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the catalogue. We conclude that our ARO and detection method posse a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing specialized for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

  15. Neutron Scattering Studies of Fundamental Processes in Earth Materials, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, K. R.

    2007-06-11

    The aim of this work was to use neutron scattering techniques to explore the dynamics and structure of water in rock samples. The dynamics of water in rock at low (residual) saturation are directly related to the transport properties of fluids within the host rock. The structure of water in rock may be related to the elastic behavior of the rock, which in many cases is nonlinear and hysteretic. Neutron scattering techniques allow us to study water in intact rock samples at both the molecular and microstructural scales. Our samples were Berea sandstone, Calico Hills and Prow Pass tuffs from Yucca Mountain, NV, and pure samples of the tuff constituents, specifically mordenite and clinoptilolite. We chose Berea sandstone because its macroscopic elastic behavior is known to be highly unusual, and the microscopic mechanisms producing this behavior are not understood. We chose Yucca Mountain tuff, because the fluid transport properties of the geologic structure at Yucca Mountain, Nevada could be relevant to the performance of a high level nuclear waste repository at that site. Neutron scattering methods have a number of properties that are extremely useful for the study of earth materials. In contrast to X-rays, neutrons have very low absorption cross-sections for most elements so that entire bulk samples of considerable size can be 'illuminated' by the neutron beam. Similarly, samples that are optically opaque can be readily investigated by inelastic neutron scattering techniques. Neutrons are equally sensitive to light atoms as to heavy atoms, and can, for example, readily distinguish between Al and Si, neighboring atoms in the periodic table that are difficult to tell apart by X-ray diffraction. Finally, neutrons are particularly sensitive to hydrogen and thus can be used to study the motions, both vibrational and diffusive, of H-containing molecules in rocks, most notably of course, water. Our studies were primarily studies of guest molecules (in our case, water) in

  16. Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

  17. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  18. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  19. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  20. Understanding Nutrient Processing Under Similar Hydrologic Conditions Along a River Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garayburu-Caruso, V. A.; Mortensen, J.; Van Horn, D. J.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Eutrophication is one of the main causes of water impairment across the US. The fate of nutrients in streams is typically described by the dynamic coupling of physical processes and biochemical processes. However, isolating each of these processes and determining its contribution to the whole system is challenging due to the complexity of the physical, chemical and biological domains. We conducted column experiments seeking to understand nutrient processing in shallow sediment-water interactions along representative sites of the Jemez River-Rio Grande continuum (eight stream orders), in New Mexico (USA). For each stream order, we used a set of 6 columns packed with 3 different sediments, i.e., Silica Cone Density Sand ASTM D 1556 (0.075-2.00 mm), gravel (> 2mm) and native sediments from each site. We incubated the sediments for three months and performed tracer experiments in the laboratory under identical flow conditions, seeking to normalize the physical processes along the river continuum. We added a short-term pulse injection of NO3, resazurin and NaCl to each column and determined metabolism and NO3 processing using the Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization method (TASCC). Our methods allowed us to study how changes in bacterial communities and sediment composition along the river continuum define nutrient processing.

  1. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ΔH bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. PMID:26723233

  2. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolowski, Peter Kelly

    2007-01-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE2Fe14B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 105-106K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH)max for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for

  3. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    environment with encapsulated low-level drivers, HW support and testing environment). Furthermore Space PDP presents an advanced processing system to be fully adopted both as on-board module for EO spacecrafts and extra-planetary exploration rovers. The main innovative aspects are: • HW and SW modularity - scalability for the Payload Data Processing and AOC S/S • Complex processing capabilities fully available onboard (on spacecrafts or rovers) • Reduced effort in mission SW design, implementation, verification and validation tasks • HW abstraction level comparable to present multitasking Unix-like systems allowing SW and algorithms re-use (also from available GS applications). The development approach addressed by SpacePDP is based both on the re-use and resources sharing with flexible elements adjustable to different missions and to different tasks within the same mission (e.g. shared between AOCS and data management S/S) and on a strong specialization in the system elements that are designed to satisfy specific mission needs and specific technological innovations. The innovative processing system is proven in many possible scenarios of use from standard compression task up to the most complex one as the image classification directly on-board. The first one is just useful for standard benchmark trade-off analysis of HW and SW capabilities respect to the other common processing modules. The classification is the ambitious objective of that system to process directly on board the data from sensor (by down-sampling or in no-full resolution acquisition modality if necessary) to detect at flight time any features on ground or observed phenomenas. For Earth application it could be the cloud coverage (to avoid the acquisition and discard the data), burning areas or vessels detection and similar. On Planetary o Universe exploration mission it could be the path recognition for a rover, or high power energy events in outbound galaxies. Sometimes it could be need to review the

  4. Prospective faculty developing understanding of teaching and learning processes in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareja, Jose I.

    Historically, teaching has been considered a burden by many academics at institutions of higher education, particularly research scientists. Furthermore, university faculty and prospective faculty often have limited exposure to issues associated with effective teaching and learning. As a result, a series of ineffective teaching and learning strategies are pervasive in university classrooms. This exploratory case study focuses on four biology graduate teaching fellows (BGF) who participated in a National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 Program. Such programs were introduced by NSF to enhance the preparation of prospective faculty for their future professional responsibilities. In this particular program, BGF were paired with high school biology teachers (pedagogical mentors) for at least one year. During this yearlong partnership, BGF were involved in a series of activities related to teaching and learning ranging from classroom teaching, tutoring, lesson planning, grading, to participating in professional development conferences and reflecting upon their practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in BGF understanding of teaching and learning processes in science as a function of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In addition, the potential transfer of this knowledge between high school and higher education contexts was investigated. The findings of this study suggest that understanding of teaching and learning processes in science by the BGF changed. Specific aspects of the BGF involvement in the program (such as classroom observations, practice teaching, communicating with mentors, and reflecting upon one's practice) contributed to PCK development. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that constant reflection is critical in the process of change. Concurrently, BGFs enhanced understanding of science teaching and learning processes may be transferable from the high school context to the university context. Future research studies should

  5. Understanding the Psychological Process of Avoidance-Based Self-Regulation on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Marder, Ben; Houghton, David; Joinson, Adam; Shankar, Avi; Bull, Eleanor

    2016-05-01

    In relation to social network sites, prior research has evidenced behaviors (e.g., censoring) enacted by individuals used to avoid projecting an undesired image to their online audiences. However, no work directly examines the psychological process underpinning such behavior. Drawing upon the theory of self-focused attention and related literature, a model is proposed to fill this research gap. Two studies examine the process whereby public self-awareness (stimulated by engaging with Facebook) leads to a self-comparison with audience expectations and, if discrepant, an increase in social anxiety, which results in the intention to perform avoidance-based self-regulation. By finding support for this process, this research contributes an extended understanding of the psychological factors leading to avoidance-based regulation when online selves are subject to surveillance. PMID:27096603

  6. Understanding the Stress Process of Chinese- and Korean-American Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Paek, Min-So; Lim, Jung-Won

    2016-10-01

    Guided by the stress process model (SPM), this study investigated the direct and indirect pathways of primary (negative self-image and life stress), secondary stressors (family communication strain) and family coping (external and internal) on mental health outcomes among Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). A total of 156 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS were surveyed. Results showed primary and secondary stressors had a negative effect on better mental health outcomes. External coping was associated with better mental health. Family communication strain mediated the relationship between life stress and mental health outcomes. External coping mediated the relationship between family communication strain and mental health outcomes. Multi-group analysis revealed the stress process did not differ across ethnic groups. Findings suggest the SPM may be applicable to understand the stress process of Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and provide valuable insight into the role of family communication and external coping on mental health outcomes. PMID:26223968

  7. The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-11-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

  8. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  9. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  10. The Electromagnetically Equivalent Complex Network Modeling of Compact Seismo-Climatic Processes for the Complete Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2009-04-01

    the natural iterations of the geo-data at future on both the region under the observation and some locations non-related to the observation region either geologically or seismically or climatically or phenomenologically relating to the earth. The inversion processes from the electromagnetically equivalent complex system models, which are called EECSMs in short, will be discussed in this paper [1] - [5]. The fine model of 13D-hypersurface is generated by using the geophysical EQ data set. The coarse model of 10D-hypersurface is generated by using the data set of waveforms of electromagnetic quantities. The method is applied to both seismic and climatic phenomena at the Marmara Sea region and useful extractions for the prediction of both whether and seismicity are given. 2 References [1] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU 2008. [3] T. Sengor, "On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," Helsinki Univ. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor, "The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

  11. The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land

  12. Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasil'nikov, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

  13. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  14. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Predictions of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel; Stephenson, David; Jones, Richard; Sessford, Pat

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across the rest of Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations. Particularly during the summer a large proportion of the precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. Given the deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall by climate models, even in the current generation of high-resolution RCMs, the CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed that brings together observations, basic understanding and models. This should go hand in hand with a change from a focus on traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes of model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales. It is particularly true for localised intense summer convection. CONVEX therefore aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. This includes the running of new RCM simulations undertaken by the UK Meteorological Office at 50km and 12km resolutions (parameterised convection) and

  15. Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

  16. A dynamic fed batch strategy for a Pichia pastoris mixed feed system to increase process understanding.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Mixed substrate feeding strategies are frequently investigated to enhance the productivity of recombinant Pichia pastoris processes. For this purpose, numerous fed batch experiments or time-consuming continuous cultivations are required to optimize control parameters such as the substrate mixing ratio and the applied methanol concentration. In this study, we decoupled the feeding of methanol and glycerol in a mixed substrate fed batch environment to gain process understanding for a recombinant P. pastoris Muts strain producing the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Specific substrate uptake rates (qs) were controlled separately, and a stepwise increased qGly-control scheme was applied to investigate the effect of various substrate fluxes on the culture. The qs-controlled strategy allowed a parallel characterization of the metabolism and the recombinant protein expression in a fed batch environment. A critical-specific glycerol uptake rate was determined, where a decline of the specific productivity occurred, and a time-dependent acceleration of protein expression was characterized with the dynamic fed batch approach. Based on the observations on recombinant protein expression, propositions for an optimal feeding design to target maximal productivities were stated. Thus, the dynamic fed batch strategy was found to be a valuable tool for both process understanding and optimization of product formation for P. pastoris in a mixed substrate environment. PMID:22505140

  17. A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

    2011-04-01

    Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay. PMID:20556650

  18. Resolving terrestrial ecosystem processes along a subgrid topographic gradient for an earth-system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subin, Z. M.; Milly, P. C. D.; Sulman, B. N.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial control on surface water and energy fluxes, vegetation, and soil carbon cycling. Earth-system models (ESMs) generally represent an areal-average soil-moisture state in gridcells at scales of 50-200 km and as a result are not able to capture the nonlinear effects of topographically-controlled subgrid heterogeneity in soil moisture, in particular where wetlands are present. We addressed this deficiency by building a subgrid representation of hillslope-scale topographic gradients, TiHy (Tiled-hillslope Hydrology), into the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model (LM3). LM3-TiHy models one or more representative hillslope geometries for each gridcell by discretizing them into land model tiles hydrologically coupled along an upland-to-lowland gradient. Each tile has its own surface fluxes, vegetation, and vertically-resolved state variables for soil physics and biogeochemistry. LM3-TiHy simulates a gradient in soil moisture and water-table depth between uplands and lowlands in each gridcell. Three hillslope hydrological regimes appear in non-permafrost regions in the model: wet and poorly-drained, wet and well-drained, and dry; with large, small, and zero wetland area predicted, respectively. Compared to the untiled LM3 in stand-alone experiments, LM3-TiHy simulates similar surface energy and water fluxes in the gridcell-mean. However, in marginally wet regions around the globe, LM3-TiHy simulates shallow groundwater in lowlands, leading to higher evapotranspiration, lower surface temperature, and higher leaf area compared to uplands in the same gridcells. Moreover, more than four-fold larger soil carbon concentrations are simulated globally in lowlands as compared with uplands. We compared water-table depths to those simulated by a recent global model-observational synthesis, and we compared wetland and inundated areas diagnosed from the model to observational datasets. The comparisons demonstrate that LM3-TiHy has the

  19. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    environment with encapsulated low-level drivers, HW support and testing environment). Furthermore Space PDP presents an advanced processing system to be fully adopted both as on-board module for EO spacecrafts and extra-planetary exploration rovers. The main innovative aspects are: • HW and SW modularity - scalability for the Payload Data Processing and AOC S/S • Complex processing capabilities fully available onboard (on spacecrafts or rovers) • Reduced effort in mission SW design, implementation, verification and validation tasks • HW abstraction level comparable to present multitasking Unix-like systems allowing SW and algorithms re-use (also from available GS applications). The development approach addressed by SpacePDP is based both on the re-use and resources sharing with flexible elements adjustable to different missions and to different tasks within the same mission (e.g. shared between AOCS and data management S/S) and on a strong specialization in the system elements that are designed to satisfy specific mission needs and specific technological innovations. The innovative processing system is proven in many possible scenarios of use from standard compression task up to the most complex one as the image classification directly on-board. The first one is just useful for standard benchmark trade-off analysis of HW and SW capabilities respect to the other common processing modules. The classification is the ambitious objective of that system to process directly on board the data from sensor (by down-sampling or in no-full resolution acquisition modality if necessary) to detect at flight time any features on ground or observed phenomenas. For Earth application it could be the cloud coverage (to avoid the acquisition and discard the data), burning areas or vessels detection and similar. On Planetary o Universe exploration mission it could be the path recognition for a rover, or high power energy events in outbound galaxies. Sometimes it could be need to review the

  20. Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant…

  1. Recent advances in understanding stratospheric dynamics and transport processes - Application of satellite data to their interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present paper discusses the use of the transformed Eulerian (or 'residual') mean-flow formulation, the Eliassen-Palm flux, and Ertel's potential vorticity to provide an increased understanding of wave, mean-flow interactions, and constituent transport processes in the stratosphere. Temperature and ozone data retrieved from radiance profiles obtained by the LIMS instrument on the Nimbus 7 satellite are utilized in conjunction with these theoretical concepts for the interpretation of phenomena that occurred during the major and minor warmings of January-February 1979. The results illustrate the insight provided by these concepts and demonstrate that useful diagnostic quantities can be derived from global satellite temperature fields.

  2. Student Understanding Of The Physics And Mathematics Of Process Variables In P-V Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Evan B.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

    2007-11-01

    Students in an upper-level thermal physics course were asked to compare quantities related to the First Law of Thermodynamics along with similar mathematical questions devoid of all physical context. We report on a comparison of student responses to physics questions involving interpretation of ideal gas processes on P-V diagrams and to analogous mathematical qualitative questions about the signs of and comparisons between the magnitudes of various integrals. Student performance on individual questions combined with performance on the paired questions shows evidence of isolated understanding of physics and mathematics. Some difficulties are addressed by instruction.

  3. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  4. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  5. Testbed for development of a DSP-based signal processing subsystem for an Earth-orbiting radar scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lux, James P.; Shirbacheh, Mike

    2002-01-01

    A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future scatterometer instruments. Construction of the testbed also facilitated identification of an appropriate software development environment and the skills mix necessary to perform the work.

  6. Toward understanding the Sun-to-Earth evolution of the 2012 July 12-16 Coronal Mass Ejection Using Three-dimensional MHD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, F.; Feng, X.; Shen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the heliosphere is the key information for us to evaluate the CMEs' geo-effectiveness and to improve the accurate prediction of CME induced Shock Arrival Time (SAT) at Earth's environment. We present a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the evolution of the CME in a realistic ambient solar wind for the July 12-16, 2012 event by using the 3D COIN-TVD MHD code. The influence of the background solar wind speed to the SAT is analyzed. The influence of the initial position and polarity of the plasma blob to IMF Bz is also studied. In the validation study of this CME event (July 12-16, 2012), we find that this 3D COIN-TVD MHD model, with the magnetized plasma blob as CME model, provide a relatively satisfactory comparison with the ACE spacecraft observations at the L1 point.

  7. MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (Editor); Haberle, Robert M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

  8. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Projections of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Chris; Roberts, Nigel; Sessford, Pat

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations and do not capture the properties of sub-daily events that may lead to flooding in urban areas. In the UK and Europe, particularly during the summer, a large proportion of precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. The CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed to provide improvements in estimates of change in extreme rainfall, particularly for summer convective events. As usable predictions require the synthesis of observations, understanding of atmospheric processes and models, a change in focus from traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes for model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales is needed. By adopting this new focus CONVEX aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change on timescales from days to decades. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. Under the project the UK Meteorological Office has run new RCM simulations

  9. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  10. Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

  11. Parallel image processing and image understanding. Final report, April 1985-March 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfeld, A.

    1986-03-31

    This research was conducted to obtain better methods for image processing. It focused on several aspects of this problem, including parallel algorithms for image processing, knowledge-based techniques for image understanding, and modeling images using shape and texture. Eighteen technical reports produced will also appear as published papers in journals. In the paper Holes and Genus of 3D images, it was shown that certain geometric invariants of a digital image (number of components, number of holes, and number of cavities) do not determine the topology (in the sense of connectivity) of the image refuting the commonly believed assumption that they do. This research lays the groundwork for research on digital and computational geometry of 3D images. In the paper Hough Transform Algorithms for Mesh-Connected SIMD Parallel Processors, several methods of Hough transform computation are studied in terms of suitability for implementation on a parallel processor, providing a valuable tool for straight-line detection.

  12. Understanding cognitive processes behind acceptance or refusal of phase I trials.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gorini, Alessandra; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Participation in phase I trials gives patients the chance to obtain control over their disease by trying an experimental therapy. The patients' vulnerability, the informed consent process aiming at understanding the purpose and potential benefits of the phase I trial, and the complexity of the studies may impact the patient's final decision. Emotionally difficult health conditions may induce patients to succumb to cognitive biases, allocating attention only on a part of the provided information. Filling the gap in patients' information process can foster the implementation of strategies to help physicians tailor clinical trials' communication providing personalized support and tailored medical information around patients' need, so avoiding cognitive biases in patients and improving informed shared decision quality. The aim of the present review article focuses on the analysis of cognitive and psychological factors that affect patients' decision to participate or not to early phase clinical trials. PMID:26852078

  13. Beyond Engagement to Reflection and Understanding: Focusing on the process of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotchmoor, J. G.; Mitchell, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    We must engage the public and make science more accessible to all...It is important that the scientific community, in its outreach, help people not only to see the fun of science but also to understand what science is, what a scientific theory is, how science is done, that accepted scientific models or theories are based on evidence, that hypotheses are tested by experiment, and that theories change as new evidence emerges. Shirley Ann Jackson, AAAS Presidential Address, 2005 The nature of science is noted as a critical topic for science literacy; however, by all accounts, Americans' understanding of the nature of science is inadequate, and students and teachers at all grade levels have inaccurate understandings of what science is and how it works. Such findings do not bode well for the future of scientific literacy in the United States. In large part, the current confusions about evolution, global warming, stem cell research, and other aspects of science deemed by some as "controversial" are symptomatic of a general misunderstanding of what science is and what it is not. Too few of our citizens view science as a dynamic process through which we gain a reliable understanding of the natural world. As a result, the public becomes vulnerable to misinformation and the very real benefits of science are obscured. New opportunities are emerging for members of the scientific community to share their science with segments of the public - both informally through science cafés and science festivals, and more formally through science competitions and classroom visits. Each of these helps to make science more accessible and provides a critical first step toward connecting the public to the "fun and excitement" of science. Less often these activities focus on how science works - what science is, what it is not, and what is not science - as well as the creativity, curiosity, exploration, dead-ends, and a-ha moments that inspire scientists. This talk will share a teacher

  14. A Laboratory Search for the Carrier Molecules of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands; Rare Earths and the Neutron Capture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockett, Mark H.

    The identity of the carrier molecules of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) is the most durable mystery of spectroscopic astronomy. The DIBs comprise over 400 mostly broad, weak absorption features observed along many lines of sight throughout the Milky Way. Though large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be the source of the DIBs, no definitive matches have yet been made to laboratory PAH spectra. The Diffuse Interstellar Band Synchrotron Radiation Carrier Hunt (DIBSyRCH) experiment has been built at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) to test this hypothesis by conducting a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of low-temperature, gas phase PAH molecules and ions. The key elements of this experiment are the synchrotron radiation continuum from the SRC White Light beamline, a custom echelle spectrograph and the Cryogenic Circulating Advective Multi-Pass (CCAMP) absorption cell. The development and results of this experiment are described in detail. Recent abundance determinations of heavy n(eutron)-capture elements in very old, very metal-poor Galactic halostars have yielded new insights on the roles of the r(apid)- and s(low)-processes in the initial burst of Galactic nucleosynthesis. The Rare Earth (RE) elements are an important part of such efforts. The results of this ongoing work are reshaping our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Absolute atomic transition probabilities are necessary for quantitative spectroscopy in astronomy and applied fields such as lighting. I performed lifetime measurements, accurate to +/-5%, for 8 even parity and 72 odd parity levels of singly ionized erbium. These radiative lifetimes were used to determine absolute transition probabilities for 418 lines of Er II, enabling new Er abundance measurements for the sun and 5 r-process rich, metal poor stars. I performed absorption experiments using synchrotron radiation to assess the impact of possible unobserved infrared branches on

  15. NASA Earth science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2013-10-01

    NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans

  16. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack

  17. Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students

  18. Improving risk understanding across ability levels: Encouraging active processing with dynamic icon arrays.

    PubMed

    Okan, Yasmina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T; Maldonado, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Icon arrays have been found to improve risk understanding and reduce judgment biases across a wide range of studies. Unfortunately, individuals with low graph literacy experience only limited benefits from such displays. To enhance the efficacy and reach of these decision aids, the authors developed and tested 3 types of dynamic design features--that is, computerized display features that unfold over time. Specifically, the authors manipulated the sequential presentation of the different elements of icon arrays, the presence of explanatory labels indicating what was depicted in the different regions of the arrays, and the use of a reflective question followed by accuracy feedback. The first 2 features were designed to promote specific cognitive processes involved in graph comprehension, whereas the 3rd feature was designed to promote a more active, elaborative processing of risk information. Explanatory labels were effective in improving risk understanding among less graph-literate participants, whereas reflective questions resulted in large and robust performance benefits among participants with both low and high graph literacy. Theoretical and prescriptive implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938975

  19. Redefining fine roots improves understanding of belowground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, M. Luke; Dickie, Ian A.; Eissenstat, David M.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fernandez, Christopher W.; Guo, Dali; Helmisaari, Helja -Sisko; Hobbie, Erik A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jackson, Robert B.; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Norby, Richard J.; Phillips, Richard P.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.; Pritchard, Seth G.; Rewald, Boris; Zadworny, Marcin

    2015-03-10

    Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain due to challenges in consistent measurement and interpretation of fine-root systems. We define fine roots as all roots less than or equal to 2 mm in diameter, yet it is now recognized that this approach fails to capture the diversity of form and function observed among fine-root orders. We demonstrate how order-based and functional classification frameworks improve our understanding of dynamic root processes in ecosystems dominated by perennial plants. In these frameworks, fine roots are separated into either individual root orders or functionally defined into a shorter-lived absorptive pool and a longer-lived transport fine root pool. Furthermore, using these frameworks, we estimate that fine-root production and turnover represent 22% of terrestrial net primary production globally a ca. 30% reduction from previous estimates assuming a single fine-root pool. In the future we hope to develop tools to rapidly differentiate functional fine-root classes, explicit incorporation of mycorrhizal fungi in fine-root studies, and wider adoption of a two-pool approach to model fine roots provide opportunities to better understand belowground processes in the terrestrial biosphere.

  20. Redefining fine roots improves understanding of belowground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McCormack, M. Luke; Dickie, Ian A.; Eissenstat, David M.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Fernandez, Christopher W.; Guo, Dali; Helmisaari, Helja -Sisko; Hobbie, Erik A.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jackson, Robert B.; et al

    2015-03-10

    Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain due to challenges in consistent measurement and interpretation of fine-root systems. We define fine roots as all roots less than or equal to 2 mm in diameter, yet it is now recognized that this approach fails to capture the diversity of form and function observed among fine-root orders. We demonstrate how order-based and functional classification frameworks improve our understanding of dynamic root processes in ecosystems dominated by perennial plants. In these frameworks, finemore » roots are separated into either individual root orders or functionally defined into a shorter-lived absorptive pool and a longer-lived transport fine root pool. Furthermore, using these frameworks, we estimate that fine-root production and turnover represent 22% of terrestrial net primary production globally a ca. 30% reduction from previous estimates assuming a single fine-root pool. In the future we hope to develop tools to rapidly differentiate functional fine-root classes, explicit incorporation of mycorrhizal fungi in fine-root studies, and wider adoption of a two-pool approach to model fine roots provide opportunities to better understand belowground processes in the terrestrial biosphere.« less