These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Understanding Earth: Coal Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplementary material from Understanding Earth (4th ed.), this short animation guides viewers through the formation of coal and its pathway through different grades. The animation is annotated with labels.

W.H. Freeman & amp; Co. Publishing

2

Do Young Children's Ideas about the Earth's Structure and Processes Reveal Underlying Patterns of Descriptive and Causal Understanding in Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its "geological" aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earths structure and processes held by individual children from…

Blake, Anthony

2005-01-01

3

Lorenz Lecture: Process, Pattern, Prediction: Understanding Complexity in Driven Earth Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Edward N Lorenz discovered that chaos and unpredictability are hallmarks of even simple driven systems. Yet forecasting the onset and severity of extreme events in driven earth systems, such as hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes, flooding, and weather/climate events remains a pressing global need. The economic damages from the most severe of these events amount to annualized economic costs of many billions of dollars, and are also associated with great suffering associated with the loss of many thousands of human lives each year. In addition to the problems identified by Lorenz, predicting the future evolution of a variety of driven nonlinear earth systems is further complicated by the fact that their dynamical processes are 1) often not amenable to direct observation; and 2) are strongly multi-scale, so that length and time scales range from very much smaller and shorter than human perception, to very much larger and longer. An example of such an earth system is the atmosphere, in which, from a practical standpoint, it is impossible to measure the temperatures, pressures, and humidity at all locations at all times. Here turbulent processes span length scales from sub-meter length scales to thousands of km, and time scales extend from fractions of seconds to many thousands of years. Another example is earthquake fault systems, in which lengths associated with earthquakes range from centimeters to many hundreds of km. Similarly, time scales extend from the seconds associated with the slip process, to the thousands of years between recurring events on the same fault. In systems such as these, we can only observe the space-time patterns of extreme events, the large storms, climate events, earthquakes, and floods that are the inevitable consequences of the underlying dynamics. Using these space-time patterns, and whatever is known about the dynamics of these high-dimensional nonlinear earth systems, it often possible to construct numerical simulations that can be used to make predictions about the future space-time evolution of the system and the possible occurrence of extreme events. The accuracy of these predictions and forecasts is limited by the proximity and similarity of the model trajectory through state space, to that of the actual system. This problem can be approached through data assimilation techniques. In addition, the existence of flexible new Grid computing techniques made possible by the World Wide Web has opened new avenues for the realization of sophisticated, state-of-the-art numerical simulations. Thus our ability to forecast the extreme events of the future is limited by a range of issues originating from the dynamical process of interest, the space-time patterns we can observe, and the accuracy of the predictions that are desired.

Rundle, J. B.

2004-12-01

4

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

5

Understanding Venus to understand the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

2012-12-01

6

Understanding Earth's Changes Over Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students compare the magnitude of geologic time with spans of time in a person's lifetime, which is often difficult for many students. They use a long paper strip and a reasonable scale to represent visually all of geologic time, including significant events in the development of life on earth as well as recent human events. This activity provides students with an opportunity to develop understandings of the age of the earth compared to the various events in the history of earth systems. The site contains a list of materials and all of the information required to conduct this activity.

7

Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling Earth surface processes and landforms: A review of foundation concepts and current understandings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review article presents recent advances in the field of biogeomorphology related to the reciprocal coupling between Earth surface processes and landforms, and ecological and evolutionary processes. The aim is to present to the Earth Science community ecological and evolutionary concepts and associated recent conceptual developments for linking geomorphology and biota. The novelty of the proposed perspective is that (1) in the presence of geomorphologic-engineer species, which modify sediment and landform dynamics, natural selection operating at the scale of organisms may have consequences for the physical components of ecosystems, and particularly Earth surface processes and landforms; and (2) in return, these modifications of geomorphologic processes and landforms often feed back to the ecological characteristics of the ecosystem (structure and function) and thus to biological characteristics of engineer species and/or other species (adaptation and speciation). The main foundation concepts from ecology and evolutionary biology which have led only recently to an improved conception of landform dynamics in geomorphology are reviewed and discussed. The biogeomorphologic macroevolutionary insights proposed explicitly integrate geomorphologic niche-dimensions and processes within an ecosystem framework and reflect current theories of eco-evolutionary and ecological processes. Collectively, these lead to the definition of an integrated model describing the overall functioning of biogeomorphologic systems over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

Corenblit, Dov; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Bornette, Gudrun; Darrozes, José; Delmotte, Sébastien; Francis, Robert A.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Julien, Frédéric; Naiman, Robert J.; Steiger, Johannes

2011-06-01

8

Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

1999-01-01

9

Visible Earth: Coastal Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page is part of Visible Earth, the National Atmospheric and Space Agency (NASA) web site, a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. Subtopics of Oceans: Coastal Processes are: Barrier Islands, Coral Reefs, Deltas, Estuaries, Fjords, Lagoons, Sea Level Rise, Sea Surface Height, Sediment Transport, Sedimentation, and Shoreline Displacement. At the time of cataloging, most items were images. For the Advanced search, users may search by Sensor (usually a satellite), Location, Other terms, or by Dates; they may also set retrieval for animations only. This database solicits additional material from users.

Ward, Kevin

10

Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

Soffen, Gerald

1990-01-01

11

Linking deep earth to surface processes in the Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea; a framework for understanding (U)HP exhumation globally  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Cenozoic the leading edge of the AUS plate was subducted northwards beneath the forearc of oceanic island arc(s), during its north-northeast passage over a complexly structured mantle. Sediments and basalts were metamorphosed under (U)HP conditions to form blueschists and eclogites, and lower-grade metamorphic rocks that are now exposed throughout New Guinea, primarily south of, and structurally beneath, obducted ophiolites. In the Woodlark Rift the youngest (2-8 Ma) (U)HP rocks on Earth were exhumed from mantle depths (>90 km) at plate tectonic rates (1-4 cm yr-1) west of the active Woodlark Basin seafloor spreading center rift tip. How these (U)HP rocks were exhumed is the focus of an ongoing collaborative multidisciplinary project which aims to understand linkages between deep earth, plate tectonic, and surface processes in the Woodlark Rift. Since the Late Miocene, a regionally extensive subduction complex was exhumed on the southern-rifted margin of the Woodlark Basin (Pocklington Rise), and in the lower plates of the D'Entrecasteaux, Misima, and Dayman dome metamorphic core complexes. Late Miocene-to-Pliocene metamorphism of sediments and basalts preceded diachronous exhumation from east to west, in the same direction as rift propagation. In contrast the northern-rifted margin (Woodlark Rise) comprises mid-Miocene to Pliocene volcanic flows and pyroclastic material ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, with capping limestone. The age of volcanic rocks on the northern-rifted margin also youngs from east to west. Pliocene to active syn-rift volcanism on the Woodlark Rise and in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands is synchronous with (U)HP exhumation, and results from decompression melting of a relict mantle wedge. As lithospheric extension proceeds, volcanic compositions evolve from subduction zone geochemical signatures (i.e., negative HFSE anomalies) toward E-MORB. Preliminary mantle convection models investigate large-scale background mantle flow associated with slab remnants and the resultant induced dynamic topography in the region. These models depict surface uplift that increases from east to west (where lithospheric extension is active), consistent with the pattern of surface uplift inferred from regional stream profile analysis. The rising topography over thinned crust occurs over warm asthenosphere, indicating that mantle buoyancy and flow contribute to active surface uplift and landscape evolution in the Woodlark Rift. Thermokinematic models constrained by thermochronologic data are being used to assess the relative role of buoyancy forces vs extensional forces in driving (U)HP exhumation. Integrated isotopic studies reveal details in the timing and conditions of (U)HP metamorphism in Papua New Guinea that are rarely resolvable in older (U)HP terranes. However in the active Woodlark Rift, transient thermal effects associated with syn-rift magmatism have partially to completely overprinted the late Miocene record of (U)HP metamorphism. Understanding how deep earth, plate tectonic and surface processes are linked in New Guinea provides an active, obliquely convergent geodynamic setting to compare with (U)HP exhumation in collisional orogens elsewhere, such as the Oligocene western Alps, and the Eocene Himalaya.

Baldwin, S.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Moucha, R.; Miller, S. R.; Catalano, J. P.; Zirakparvar, N. A.

2012-12-01

12

Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

Genio, Anthony Del

2013-01-01

13

Using Satellite Images to Understand Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Earth Exploration Toolbook chapter, students select, explore, and analyze satellite imagery. They do so in the context of a case study of the origins of atmospheric carbon monoxide and aerosols, tiny solid airborne particles such as smoke from forest fires and dust from desert wind storms. They use the software tool ImageJ to animate a year of monthly images of aerosol data and then compare the animation to one created for monthly images of carbon monoxide data. Students select, explore and analyze satellite imagery using NASA Earth Observatory (NEO) satellite data and NEO Image Composite Explorer (ICE) tool to investigate seasonal and geographic patterns and variations in concentration of CO and aerosols in the atmosphere.

Todd Ensign

14

Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see http://www.cs.clark.edu/mac/physlets/GlobalPollution/maintrace.htm for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

Mackay, R. M.

2002-12-01

15

Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

2012-01-01

16

Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2002-08-01

17

AGU and Earth Science Women's Network sign memorandum of understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In furtherance of our strategic goal to be a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science, AGU signed a memorandum of understanding with the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) in spring 2012. Under the agreement, AGU will provide ESWN with an online platform through which to better connect its members. The agreement will allow AGU to further its strategic goal and help ESWN enhance cooperation and collaboration among women in Earth and space science. ESWN is a community of scientists dedicated to supporting collaborations and providing mentorship for its members, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. The new online platform should help ESWN to connect with more individuals and create a stronger network of dedicated women pursuing research in Earth and space science.

McEntee, Chris

2012-06-01

18

Destinations Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are  

E-print Network

Destinations ­ Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences #12;#12;An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are to sustainably manage Earth's energy, water, mineral, soil, coastal and biological resources.The Earth and Ocean Sciences are also the key to predicting and managing natural hazards

Waikato, University of

19

Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

Townsend, William F.

1996-01-01

20

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-print Network

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

21

Sedimentary Processes on Earth and Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by USRA, presents the Earth Science Picture of the Day from December 6, 2000. The photograph is an image of the surface of Mars that seems to depict sedimentation processes. Alongside the image from Mars are images of landscapes formed by sedimentation on the Earth. At the bottom of the page there are links to related resources for more information.

Ruzek, Martin; Editor; Association, Universities S.

22

Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings  

SciTech Connect

The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

Robeck, Edward C. [American Geological Institute; Coulson, Doug [PS International

2010-01-05

23

Understanding near-Earth asteroids: Is it in the details?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important to our understanding of meteorites, impact probabilities for terrestrial planets, dynamics of the main belt, and asteroid surface processes. Crucial to these investigations is knowledge of the NEA size and albedo distributions and regolith properties; however, as we sample ever-smaller NEAs, we see an increasing variation in these physical properties. A notable diversity of shapes, surface features, and rotation states have been revealed by radar observations, whereas infrared observations have shown a range of spectral types and thermal characteristics. Although spacecraft missions will yield details for a few objects, and space-based surveys will result in important overviews, only ground-based observations can provide an overall understanding of the NEA population as a whole owing to the range of observing conditions (e.g., wavelength coverage, phase angle, heliocentric distance) they provide. Radiometry is commonly used to infer both size and thermal properties, but necessary assumptions about the regolith, which controls thermal and (often) radar reflectance properties, can be especially dangerous for small NEAs because surface properties change as a function of size and irregular shapes play an increasingly important role. Our investigation combines thermal measurements with radar delay-Doppler imaging to better understand the regolith properties of different types of NEAs through detailed thermophysical modeling. Over the past five years, we have measured the spectra of 53 NEAs at different phase angles and rotation phases to see how the inferred thermal properties depend on the detailed shape. The observations were carried out with SpeX at the NASA IRTF (0.8--4 microns) [1], which allows us to measure both the reflected and thermal contributions to the overall spectrum, thereby providing for a greater degree of self- consistency in the thermal modeling than infrared observations alone. The observed objects span a variety of spectral types: S-complex, C-complex, and X-complex, including two high-albedo (Tholen E-type) and two low-albedo (Tholen P-type) asteroids. Most of these objects were also observed with the Arecibo planetary radar. Although the quality of the radar data varies, for many of the objects we can determine the pole, spin state, and surface features from shape modeling without assuming a convex surface [e.g., 2,3]. These radar objects span a gamut of types, from nearly spherical to elongated or irregular shapes, single bodies to contact binaries to multiple-body systems, slow to fast rotators, and sizes from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. To study the properties of these NEAs, we have developed a thermophysical model, ''SHERMAN'', that uses the detailed shape to simulate multiple observations of an NEA at different viewing geometries, which we then compare to the actual infrared observations to infer the regolith properties. SHERMAN computes the local surface temperature for each facet on the asteroid at the time of observation, including self-shadowing, multiple scattering, and sub-scale roughness [modeled as small hemispherical craters following the methods of 4,5]. We will present an overview of our dataset as well as specific examples comparing our thermal modeling results to those from simple models such as NEATM [6] to illustrate some of the effects shape, observing geometry, and asteroid composition can have on the derived properties.

Vervack, R.; Howell, E.; Magri, C.; Fernández, Y.; Nolan, M.; Taylor, P.; Marshall, S.; Jones, J.; Rivkin, A.

2014-07-01

24

Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the changes in geosphere. The historical records talk of changes of the water level in wells, of strange weather, of ground-hugging fog, of unusual behaviour of animals (due to change in magnetic field of the earth) that seem to feel the approach of a major earthquake. With the advent of modern science and technology the understanding of these pre-earthquake signals has become stronger enough to develop a methodology of earthquake prediction. A correlation of earth directed coronal mass ejection (CME) from the active sunspots has been possible to develop as a precursor of the earthquake. Occasional local magnetic field and planetary indices (Kp values) changes in the lower atmosphere that is accompanied by the formation of haze and a reduction of moisture in the air. Large patches, often tens to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size, seen in night-time infrared satellite images where the land surface temperature seems to fluctuate rapidly. Perturbations in the ionosphere at 90 - 120 km altitude have been observed before the occurrence of earthquakes. These changes affect the transmission of radio waves and a radio black out has been observed due to CME. Another heliophysical parameter Electron flux (Eflux) has been monitored before the occurrence of the earthquakes. More than hundreds of case studies show that before the occurrence of the earthquakes the atmospheric temperature increases and suddenly drops before the occurrence of the earthquakes. These changes are being monitored by using Sun Observatory Heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Whatever the manifestations in the environment of the atmosphere or geosphere may be, there is a positive correlation of CMEs with change in magnetic field followed by aurora borealis or sudden spark of light from the sky before an earthquake. Any change in geomorphology in the pixel level, changes in groundwater level, geochemical anomalies of soils surrounding active faults and vegetation anomalies should be monitored in the mirror image position of sunspots on the earth facing side in reference to CME from the sun.

Mukherjee, S.

2007-05-01

25

Linking Deep Earth and Surface Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important developments in Earth science over the past decade has been recognition of the significance of linking deep Earth dynamic processes with surface and near-surface geologic processes [e.g., Braun, 2010]. Deep Earth research, encompassing fields such as seismology and mantle geodynamics, has traditionally operated distinctly from fields focusing on dynamics of the Earth's surface, such as sedimentology and geomorphology. However, these endeavors have in common the study of Earth's topography and the prediction of changes in its surface. Observables from surface studies, such as basin stratigraphy, geomorphology of landscapes, changes in surface elevation, and changes in sea level, provide some of the principal constraints on geodynamic and tectonic models. Conversely, deep geodynamic processes give rise to the topography, erosion, and sediment generation that are the basis of surface geology. Surface manifestations of deep geodynamic processes have significant societal impact by creating natural hazards, such as earthquakes and mass movements, and controlling the distribution of natural resources such as fossil fuels or geothermal energy. The relevance of research conducted in both the deep Earth and surface regimes is thus enhanced through a focus on their interaction.

Cloetingh, Sierd; Willett, Sean D.

2013-01-01

26

Optical processing in the earth sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical processing of information has been understood in principle for nearly a century, but it has found little practical use thus far except in the earth and space sciences. This article describes briefly the advantages and principles of optical data processing through transformation and frequency filtering, and gives some elementary examples of the handling of pictorial information in the fields

M. B. Dobrin

1968-01-01

27

Understanding technology development processes theory & practice  

E-print Network

Technology development is hard for management to understand and hard for practitioners to explain, however it is an essential component of innovation. While there are standard and predictable processes for product development, ...

Oswald, W. Andrew (William Andrew)

2013-01-01

28

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

2007-01-01

29

Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 11 UnderstandingGlobalClimateChange 2  

E-print Network

Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 11 #12;UnderstandingGlobalClimateChange 2 A Systems Approach to Look at Earth 1.1 AdifferentwayofunderstandingEarth Notes1.1.1 If we are going to look at Earth and the house would end up either being too hot or too cold. #12;Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 13 Notes1

Howat, Ian M.

30

Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

2003-01-01

31

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-01-01

32

Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

Rickman, Doug

2010-01-01

33

EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the  

E-print Network

EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused this understanding to read the record of earth history written in rocks and sediments, and on developing models by humans. Opportunities for Students Sigma Gamma Epsilon: The Omega Chapter of the national honorary earth

Krylov, Anna I.

34

The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

2002-01-01

35

Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

1992-01-01

36

THE WRITING PROCESS Understand the Assignment  

E-print Network

THE WRITING PROCESS #12; Understand the Assignment Plan Outline Write Body Paragraphs Write if necessary (e.g. The role of women in the Civil Rights Movement) Library Resources (Homer, ProQuest, JSTOR you write, but too much detail and you might as well just start writing! Keep it organized

Zhou, Chongwu

37

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2010-01-01

38

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2011-01-01

39

are exploring planet Earth is the part of earth science dealing with the physical processes and  

E-print Network

GeoKids are exploring planet Earth Geophysics is the part of earth science dealing of the children provides a good basis for effective learning. The reflection on selected themes of earth sciences with the physical processes and characteristics of the Earth and its environment. Volcanism, earthquakes

Brückl, Ewald

40

How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification or falsification and conclusions that must be well grounded and argued. The intelligibility of theories is improved by the combination of these two types of understanding. This is also attested by the fact that both theoretical and embodied skills are considered essential for the training of university students at all levels. However, from surprised and confounded reactions of the public to natural disasters it appears that just showing scientific results is not enough to convey the scientific understanding to the public. By using the tools used by earth scientists to develop explanations and achieve understanding, laymen could achieve understanding as well without rigorous theoretical training. We are presently investigating in science musea whether engaging the public in scientific activities based on embodied skills leads to understanding of earth-scientific phenomena by laymen.

Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

2010-12-01

41

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-08

42

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-28

43

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) is to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Data Systems through the endorsement of Earth science data systems standards. SPG's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (4) A defacto standard already widely used. SPG's standards process has been revised to provide a comprehensive but not a redundant review of the proposed standard. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss the potential defacto standards (Google's KML, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF), GeoTIFF file format) that could be identified and endorsed through our revised Standards Process in the future. We will discuss the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result of our experience.

Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

2007-12-01

44

Children's Cosmographies: Understanding the Earth's Shape and Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed Nussbaum's developmental model (SE 024 045) using a new sample given no special instructions in spherical earth/gravity concepts. Also identified distribution of notions among students (N=159 in grades three to eight), compared distribution of notions at each age level with those in other studies, and explored role of individual…

Sneider, Cary; Pulos, Steven

1983-01-01

45

Tungsten geochemistry and implications for understanding the Earth's interior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concentration of tungsten (W) in basaltic melts provides a window into the behavior of this element during core-mantle separation, crust formation, silicate differentiation, and potentially core-mantle interaction. We have analyzed an extensive suite of modern basalts ( n = 86) for their trace element chemistry via laser ablation ICP-MS, with barium (Ba), thorium (Th), uranium (U), and W concentrations typically determined to ? 5% (2 ?) uncertainty. We find that the partitioning behavior of U mirrors that of W during basalt genesis, whereas Ba and Th both behave more incompatibly. The W/U ratio of our complete sample suite (0.65 ± 0.45, 2 ?) is representative of the mean modern mantle, and is indistinguishable from that of mid-ocean ridge basalts (W/U MORB = 0.65 ± 0.41, n = 52), ocean island basalts (W/U OIB = 0.63 ± 0.07, n = 10), and back-arc basin basalts (W/U BABB = 0.62 ± 0.09, n = 12). This ratio is also consistent with the W/U ratio of the continental crust, and thus represents the W/U ratio of the entire silicate portion of the Earth. Assuming a concentration of 20 ± 8 (2 ?) ng/g U in the bulk silicate Earth, the abundance of W in the silicate Earth is 13 ± 10 ng/g. Following mass balance, this implies a mean modern mantle and core composition of 8.3 ± 7.1 ng/g W and 500 ± 120 ng/g W, respectively. Additionally, the MORB source is modeled to contain approximately 3.0 ± 2.3 ng/g W, indicating a four-fold depletion of the highly incompatible elements in the MORB source relative to the silicate Earth. Although both the isotopic composition of W and the constancy of the silicate Earth W/U ratio allow for potential insight into core-mantle exchange, both of these proxies are extremely dependent on the chemical composition of the source. A case study of three Hawaiian picrites with enrichments in 186Os- 187Os but terrestrial ?182W can be explained by: i) a lack of a core component in the Hawaiian "plume," ii) crustal contamination, or iii) a source composition enriched in incompatible trace elements relative to the bulk silicate Earth.

Arevalo, Ricardo; McDonough, William F.

2008-08-01

46

Future Earth: Advancing Civic Understanding of the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anthropocene, a term first coined in the 1980s by biologist Eugene Stoermer, is a word that encapsulates a powerful idea—that the world is now in the throes of a novel geological epoch, a period of time in which human activity, not natural cycles, dominates many of Earth's chemical, geological, and biological systems. The growing realization of our importance has caused a reanalysis, both scientifically and ethically, of our relationship with the natural world.

Schultz, Colin

2014-08-01

47

Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in global circulation models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision-making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth system models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for upscaling from the local to global scale. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of teleconnections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global-scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.

Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.

2014-02-01

48

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

1994-01-01

49

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

Not Available

1994-02-01

50

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We have found that the candidate submissions that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (3) A defacto standard already widely used; or a (4) Technical Note We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss a potential defacto standard (NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF)) that is currently being reviewed. This past year, the SPG has modified its Standards Process to provide a comprehensive but not redundant review of the submitted RFC. The end result of the process tailoring is that the reviews will be completed faster. At each RFC submission, the SPG will decide which reviews will be performed. These reviews are conducted simultaneously and can include these three types: (1) A Technical review to review the technical specification and associated implementations; (2) An Operational Readiness review to evaluate whether the proposed standard works in a NASA environment with NASA Earth science data with the volume of users; (3) Usefulness review to determine whether the candidate standard is useful or helpful or fits the purpose for the users. Some submissions, particularly the defacto standards or standards already approved by other standards organizations, will not need all three types of reviews. As an internal advisory group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

2008-12-01

51

Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

Ronney, Paul D.

1998-01-01

52

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in January 2004, NASA instituted a set of internal working groups to develop ongoing recommendations for the continuing broad evolution of Earth Science Data Systems development and management within NASA. One of these Data Systems Working Groups is called the Standards Process Group (SPG). This group's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for approval to the SPG are one of 3 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community. There are 3 types of reviews potentially needed to evaluate a proposed standard: (1) A detailed technical review to determine the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the proposed specification and where a detailed technical review ensures that implementers can use the proposed standard as an implementation specification for any future implementations with confidence; (2) A "usefulness" user review that determines if the proposed standard is useful or helpful or necessary to the user to carry out his work; (3) An operational review that evaluates if the proposed standard works in an operational setting in a NASA environment with NASA data. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format), the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result.

Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

2006-12-01

53

Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

Ozsoy, Sibel

2012-01-01

54

Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

Thesenga, David; Town, James

2014-05-01

55

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

2012-01-01

56

Understanding the Distribution of Near-Earth Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No accurate estimate of the orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) currently exists, largely because: (i) the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects which favor the discovery of bright or large objects that come close to Earth; (ii) relatively few NEOs have been discovered, making debiasing efforts difficult; (iii) NEO orbits are chaotic on short timescales (< 1000 years); and (iv) the source regions and replenishment mechanisms for the NEOs are not well understood. For these reasons, observers are still struggling to increase NEO detection rates, while the interpretation of existing data continues to be problematic. We propose a new method to attack this problem, one which takes advantage of theoretical advances and new numerical tools. To treat observational biases, we have applied a model-independent, semi-analytical method for calculating the probability that an asteroid observation program will find a given asteroid in a (a, e, i, and H; semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and absolute magnitude, respectively) bin per square degree at opposition at the Vernal Equinox (Jedicke and Metcalfe 1998). To discover how NEOs are replenished, we have used symplectic numerical integration techniques which can track the orbital paths of test bodies started in several potential NEO source regions (e.g., 3:1 resonance, v_6 resonance, multiple weak mean-motion resonances). By merging the observational biases with these NEO dynamical ``roadmaps" (and an NEO absolute magnitude distribution), we get a probability distribution which, if the sources have been weighted correctly, can be directly compared to the known NEOs. By testing a range of possible source combinations, we have produced a ``best-fit'' distribution which not only yields the normalized and debiased NEO orbital and absolute magnitude distribution (over various NEO sizes) but also the relative importance of each NEO replenishment source. These results have several important applications for NEO observers and for studies of the impact rates of asteroids onto the terrestrial planets. These issues are discussed in an abstract by Morbidelli et al. (this issue).

Bottke, W. F.; Jedicke, R.; Morbidelli, A.; Gladman, B.; Petit, J.-M.

1999-09-01

57

Understanding Interior Dynamics in Earth and Terrestrial Planets: The Essential role of Analytical and Computational Mathematics (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread acceptance that slow convection of the solid, rocky mantle drives continental drift caused a revolution in our understanding of solid Earth and planetary dynamics. Mathematical approaches, both analytical and computational, have been essential for research progress in this area, and have facilititated the understanding of many aspects of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Even so, some fundamental questions - particularly "why does Earth have plate tectonics?" - still remain. This understanding gap is troubling, particularly given the current interest in applying our knowledge of solar system planets such as Earth, Venus and Mars to newly-discovered terrestrial planets around other stars, including so-called super-Earths. A major reason for this understanding gap is the complexity of rock rheology: viscous, elastic, brittle, plastic, nonlinear, grainsize- history- and composition-dependent - which makes the appropriate mathematical description uncertain, as well as implying the impossibility of a full numerical solution of the resulting multi-timescale (seconds to billions of years), multi-lengthscale (mm to 1000s km) processes. This presentation reviews the historical development of the field, the current state of the art, and possible ways forward.

Tackley, P. J.

2013-12-01

58

Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock

Nermin Bulunuz

2006-01-01

59

Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-06-01

60

North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

Turner, G. M.

2010-12-01

61

Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalogen losses in the melting step.

Gschneidner, K. A.

1998-10-01

62

From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record  

E-print Network

From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record and on rigorous observation and modeling of Earth's present state, our activities cut across traditional disciplines

Anderson, Richard

63

Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2009-01-01

64

Author's personal copy Tungsten geochemistry and implications for understanding the Earth's interior  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Tungsten geochemistry and implications for understanding the Earth Keywords: tungsten uranium basalt core mantle concentration ratio The concentration of tungsten (W of tungsten (W) was sequestered into the core (Jagoutz et al., 1979; Sun, 1982; Newsom and Palme, 1984

Mcdonough, William F.

65

Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

2006-01-01

66

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

2009-01-01

67

Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-01-01

68

Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly better performance than the local machine. Much of the difference was due to newer equipment in the Nebula than the legacy computer, which is suggestive of a potential economic advantage beyond elastic power, i.e., access to up-to-date hardware vs. legacy hardware that must be maintained past its prime to amortize the cost. In addition to a trade study of advantages and challenges of porting complex processing to the cloud, a tutorial was developed to enable further progress in utilizing the Nebula for Earth Science applications and understanding better the potential for Cloud Computing in further data- and computing-intensive Earth Science research. In particular, highly bursty computing such as that experienced in the user-demand-driven Giovanni system may become more tractable in a Cloud environment. Our future work will continue to focus on migrating more GES DISC's applications/instances, e.g. Giovanni instances, to the Nebula platform and making matured migrated applications to be in operation on the Nebula.

Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

2011-12-01

69

Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

2007-01-01

70

Super Star Meets the Plucky Planet... Or, how Earth and Sun come to mutual understanding and respect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an animated and narrated storybook about the Sun and its effects on Earth. Learners will read or hear about characteristics of the Sun and Earth that influence their interaction. Topics touched upon include star sizes, star life cycle, stellar core nuclear processes, plasma, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar wind, electromagnetic spectrum, Earth’s magnetosphere, and electromagnetic energy.

71

From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

1987-01-01

72

Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and research results to facilitate teaching about the deep earth across the geoscience curriculum. Another goal of the workshop was to experiment with, and evaluate the effectiveness of, the virtual format. Although there are advantages to face-to-face workshops, the virtual format was remarkably effective. The interactive discussions during synchronous presentations were vibrant, and the virtual format allowed participants to introduce references, images and ideas in real-time. The virtual nature of the workshop allowed participation by those who are not able to attend a traditional workshop, with an added benefit that participants had direct access to all their research and teaching materials to share with the workshop. Some participants broadcast the workshop ‘live’ to their classes and many brought discussions directly from the presentation to the classroom. The workshop webpage includes the workshop program with links to recordings of all presentations, discussion summaries, a collection of recommended resources about deep Earth research, and collections of peer-reviewed instructional activities. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/deepearth/index.html

Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

2010-12-01

73

Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

74

Understanding the Process of Medical Referral  

PubMed Central

In a critique of the existing literature, the author found that most studies simply calculate referral rates and count letters between referring physicians and specialists. Longitudinal studies that consider all participants' views and place referral in a broader context could reveal more about this complex process. This article is the first of a six-part series reporting on a longitudinal study of 50 referrals in Ontario and Manitoba. PMID:21229088

Muzzin, Linda J.

1991-01-01

75

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09

76

THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Surman, Rebecca, E-mail: mrmumpow@ncsu.edu, E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu, E-mail: surmanr@union.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

2012-06-20

77

The Rare Earth Peak : An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic  

E-print Network

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high entropy r-process (S>100k_B) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

M. Mumpower; G. McLaughlin; R. Surman

2012-02-08

78

Understanding what the public know and value about geoheritage sites in order to advance Earth science literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its impressive geology and rich cultural history, Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is ideally suited for Earth science education and geotourism initiatives, such as a Geopark. Geologic events that have shaped this region can be interpreted in such a way as to engage learners, not only through an intellectual connection to Earth science subject matter, but also through an emotional connection via culture, history, and sense of place. The notion that landscape is special because it is the sum total of all the interacting earth systems, including people as part of the biosphere, can be used to drive these initiatives as they affect one personally. It is speculated that most people in the Keweenaw have a basic understanding of the local cultural history and some understanding of geology. Advanced awareness and understanding of the geological significance of the Keweenaw stands to greatly enrich our community's sense of place and desire to advance further education and geotourism initiatives. It is anticipated that these initiatives will ultimately lead to increased Earth science literacy and understanding and recognition of one's own environs. This will aid in the further development of publications, teaching media, trails info, on-site museums, etc. Although the community has embraced geo-outreach thus far, it is germane to know what people value, what they know of the geology and how they connect to place. Results from semi-structured interviews administered with the aim and focus of determining what places are special to people, why they are special and how they formed will be presented in this paper. The results from this research will be used to direct the creation and continued development of geologic interpretation of our region. It is hoped that this understanding will reveal common misconceptions that can be used to improve interpretive material that not only addresses misconceptions but also connects the immediate past with the deep geologic past of the Keweenaw. Perhaps the most important outcome hoped for this study is that we as Earth scientists will be afforded an opportunity to uphold our responsibility of communicating the fascinating things we have come to learn about our planet's dynamic processes in a dialect that resonates with everyone.

Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.

2013-12-01

79

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

80

Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

2005-01-01

81

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

82

Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

O'Mara, Joanne

2002-01-01

83

Internal wave coupling processes in Earth's atmosphere  

E-print Network

This paper presents a contemporary review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere and ionosphere system induced by internal waves of lower atmospheric origin. Atmospheric waves are primarily generated by meteorological processes, possess a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and can propagate to the upper atmosphere. A brief summary of internal wave theory is given, focusing on gravity waves, solar tides, planetary Rossby and Kelvin waves. Observations of wave signatures in the upper atmosphere, their relationship with the direct propagation of waves into the upper atmosphere, dynamical and thermal impacts as well as concepts, approaches, and numerical modeling techniques are outlined. Recent progress in studies of sudden stratospheric warming and upper atmospheric variability are discussed in the context of wave-induced vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere.

Yi?it, Erdal

2014-01-01

84

Internal wave coupling processes in Earth's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a contemporary review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere and ionosphere system induced by internal waves of lower atmospheric origin. Atmospheric waves are primarily generated by meteorological processes, possess a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and can propagate to the upper atmosphere. A brief summary of internal wave theory is given, focusing on gravity waves, solar tides, planetary Rossby and Kelvin waves. Observations of wave signatures in the upper atmosphere, their relationship with the direct propagation of waves into the upper atmosphere, dynamical and thermal impacts as well as concepts, approaches, and numerical modeling techniques are outlined. Recent progress in studies of sudden stratospheric warming and upper atmospheric variability are discussed in the context of wave-induced vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere.

Yi?it, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.

2015-02-01

85

Resources and Strategies for Building Understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun System in Students of all Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation discusses a variety of resources and strategies used in UT Dallas education and outreach programs to help learners build understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun system including topics of scale, lunar phases, and seasons.

Urquhart, M. L.

2011-03-01

86

Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and

Ralph Bernstein

1976-01-01

87

Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

Ott, C. Mark

2014-01-01

88

Sedimentary Processes on Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production, transport and deposition of sediment occur to varying degrees on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan. These sedimentary processes are significantly influenced by climate that affects production of sediment in source regions (weathering), and the mode by which that sediment is transported (wind vs. water). Other, more geological, factors determine where sediments are deposited (topography and tectonics). Fluvial and marine processes dominate Earth both today and in its geologic past, aeolian processes dominate modern Mars although in its past fluvial processes also were important, Venus knows only aeolian processes, and Titan shows evidence of both fluvial and aeolian processes. Earth and Mars also feature vast deposits of sedimentary rocks, spanning billions of years of planetary history. These ancient rocks preserve the long-term record of the evolution of surface environments, including variations in climate state. On Mars, sedimentary rocks record the transition from wetter, neutral-pH weathering, to brine-dominated low-pH weathering, to its dry current state.

Grotzinger, J. P.; Hayes, A. G.; Lamb, M. P.; McLennan, S. M.

89

Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

Sato, M.

1985-01-01

90

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

91

Array processing for observing Earth's "hum" and microseisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Array processing of low amplitude ambient seismic noise observed by USAarray and the southern California arrays is used to identify source locations of microseisms and Earth's "hum." We show that body-wave double-frequency microseisms are generated in the deep ocean under distant storms, and propagate through the Earth's mantle and core as P, PP and PKP phases. Hum beam power observations using the USArray EarthScope transportable array, combined with infragravity wave observations, show that the dominant source area of the Earth’s hum over the 120-400 s period band during winter months is the Pacific coast of North America, with the western coast of Europe a secondary source region. Correlation of hum with model ocean wave heights indicates that the Pacific coast of Central America is an important hum source region when impacted by austral storm waves. Hum is excited by relatively local infragravity wave forcing as ocean swell propagates along coasts, with no indication of significant deep-ocean hum generation.

Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Shearer, P. M.; Zhang, J.; Harmon, N.

2009-12-01

92

Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing  

SciTech Connect

The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S. [Vanderbilt University: 2301 Vanderbilt Place/PMB 351831, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

2013-07-01

93

The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2010-01-01

94

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

1995-01-01

95

Bioimage informatics for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular processes.  

PubMed

The inner environment of the cell is highly dynamic and heterogeneous yet exquisitely organized. Successful completion of cellular processes within this environment depends on the right molecules or molecular complexes to function at the right place at the right time. Understanding spatiotemporal behaviors of cellular processes is therefore essential to understanding their molecular mechanisms at the systems level. These behaviors are usually visualized and recorded using imaging techniques. However, to infer from them systems-level molecular mechanisms, computational analysis and understanding of recorded image data is crucial, not only for acquiring quantitative behavior measurements but also for comprehending complex interactions among the molecules or molecular complexes involved. The technology of computational analysis and understanding of biological images is often referred to simply as bioimage informatics. This article introduces fundamentals of bioimage informatics for understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of cellular processes and reviews recent advances on this topic. Basic bioimage informatics concepts and techniques for characterizing spatiotemporal cell dynamics are introduced first. Studies on specific cellular processes such as cell migration and signal transduction are then used as examples to analyze and summarize recent advances, with the focus on transforming quantitative measurements of spatiotemporal cellular behaviors into knowledge of underlying molecular mechanisms. Despite the advances made, substantial technological challenges remain, especially in representation of spatiotemporal cellular behaviors and inference of systems-level molecular mechanisms. These challenges are briefly discussed. Overall, understanding spatiotemporal cell dynamics will provide critical insights into how specific cellular processes as well as the entire inner cellular environment are dynamically organized and regulated. PMID:23408597

Yang, Ge

2013-01-01

96

Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn  

E-print Network

Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn Overview The hydraulic and connecting channel hydraulics models for use in Great Lakes water resource studies. 2000 Plans Niagara River Hydraulic Studies: Detailed analysis of the impact of hydraulic regime changes in the Niagara River

97

Understanding Soil Acidification Process Using Animation and Text: An Empirical  

E-print Network

Understanding Soil Acidification Process Using Animation and Text: An Empirical User Evaluation of presenting information: animation and text. The stimuli contain equivalent information, but use fundamentally the animation or the text in an ``open book'' setting. The tested media have been assessed through the classical

�öltekin, Arzu

98

Understanding the Software Development Process by Analysis of Changed Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the impact of software change has been a challenge since software systems were first developed. With the increasing size and complexity of systems, this problem has become more difficult. There are many ways to identify change impact from the plethora of software artifacts produced during development and maintenance. We present the analysis of the software development process using change

Ranjith Purushothaman; Dewayne E. Perry

99

Dynamic Noise and its Role in Understanding Epidemiological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of dynamic noise in understanding epidemiological systems, such as influenza or dengue fever by deriving stochastic ordinary differential equations from markov processes for discrete populations. This approach allows for an easy analysis of dynamical noise transitions between co-existing attractors.

Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maíra

2010-09-01

100

What SImilar Physical Processes Occur on Both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Similar features exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars. This investigation includes satellite images of five Earth features and five Martian features, none of which are labeled. Students must compare and contrast those images to produce five matching pairs, list the similarities and differences, and speculate about the processes that formed each feature. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is Investigation 3 of four found in the Grades 5-8 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

101

Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

1975-01-01

102

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

103

Understanding How Astronauts Adapt to Space and to Earth: Anatomical Studies of Central Vestibular Adaptation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant changes take place in the nervous systems of astronauts during and following exposure to microgravity. These changes, particularly in the part of the brain that controls balance, the vestibular system, can cause sensations of rotation, dizziness, and vertigo, as well as space adaptation syndrome. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several days is often required upon return to Earth. In order to realize long-term spaceflight, effective countermeasures for these symptoms must be developed. The structural changes that take place in one of the vestibular regions of the brain (the cerebellar cortex) during the process of adaptation to Earth's gravity remain unclear and are the subject of an experiment being conducted on STS-107 by Dr. Gay Holstein of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Using the rat as a model, Dr. Holstein and her team will seek to identify the cellular changes underlying the vestibular changes experienced by astronauts.

Holstein, Gay; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

104

To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for  

E-print Network

Objective To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making at understanding the cognitive processes underlying diagnostic hypothesis generation and human judgment, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for understanding real-world decision making

Dougherty, Michael

105

Understanding of phenolic compound production in coal gasification processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of phenolic compound production in coal gasification processing was achieved by bench-scale study of the decomposition characteristics of select phenolic compounds in the homogeneous gas phase and over fixed beds of coal char and limestone-derived solids; experiments in a pilot-scale Synthane gasifier to assess the effects of changing initial devolatilization conditions on the formation of phenols from coal;

Fillo

1979-01-01

106

NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, the netCDF Classic Model, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format). The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. As an internal working group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

2009-05-01

107

A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

Ashmann, Scott

2012-01-01

108

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

1991-01-01

109

Tuning optoelectronic properties and understanding charge transport in nanocrystal thin films of earth abundant semiconducting materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the capability of producing nearly 600 TW annually, solar power is one renewable energy source with the potential to meet a large fraction of the world's burgeoning energy demand. To make solar technology cost-competitive with carbon-based fuels, cheaper devices need to be realized. Solution-processed solar cells from nanocrystal inks of earth abundant materials satisfy this requirement. Nonetheless, a major hurdle in commercializing such devices is poor charge transport through nanocrystal thin films. The efficiency of charge transport through nanocrystal thin films is strongly dependent on the quality of the nanocrystals, as well as their optoelectronic properties. Therefore, the first part of this dissertation is focused on synthesizing high quality nanocrystals of Cu2ZnSnS4, a promising earth abundant photovoltaic absorber material. The optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals were tuned by altering the copper to zinc ratio, as well as by introducing selenium to create Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSe x)4 solid solutions. Photoelectrochemical characterization was used to test the Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(S 1-xSex)4 nanocrystal thin films. The results identify minority carrier diffusion and recombination via the redox shuttle as the major loss mechanisms hindering efficient charge transport through the nanocrystal thin films. One way to solve this issue is to sinter the nanocrystals together, creating large grains for efficient charge transport. Although this may be quick and effective, it can lead to the formation of structural defects, among other issues. To this end, using a different copper-based material, namely Cu2Se, and simple surface chemistry treatments, an alternative route to enhance charge transport through nanocrystals thin films is proposed.

Riha, Shannon C.

2011-12-01

110

NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the recommendation of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA’s Earth science data systems and also reviews and endorses different types of best practices and implementation experiences as Technical Notes. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process and to improve the Standards Process. The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. We note the contrast to other international standards organizations that develop standards instead of adopting already developed practices. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards, best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented, proposed and endorsed. We will also discuss future directions for the NASA Standards Process as it applies to NASA’s planned Decadal Survey missions.

Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

2009-12-01

111

Developing improved MD codes for understanding processive cellulases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose.

Crowley, M. F.; Uberbacher, E. C.; Brooks, C. L., Iii; Walker, R. C.; Nimlos, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.

2008-07-01

112

Investigating Earthquakes with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will explore the relationship between earthquakes and the tectonic plate boundaries using Google Earth. Students will track earthquakes noting location, magnitude and date. Students will apply their findings to formulate an understanding the processes that shape the earth.

Molledo, Maggie

2012-07-25

113

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

114

Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

Powell, II, Charles,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

2002-01-01

115

Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth  

SciTech Connect

AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

2009-05-15

116

Contribution of earth observation data to Congo River basin hydrology understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural Resource Monitoring in Africa (NARMA) is one of the Core Information Services of EU-FP7 project Geoland2 addressing important sectoral policies that concern with the development of an environmental monitoring capacity over African countries for the needs of the European Commission (EC) services and for regional and continental EC partners in African countries. Congo basin is one of the target area where NARMA has to contribute to the development of AMESD/CICOS services in support to management of water resources focusing on environmental aspects of watersheds. In this contest and to better understand dynamics that occur in the watershed, an analysis has been conducted on the relation between precipitation, river discharge and vegetation dynamics by exploiting available time series of Earth Observation data. Rainfall dynamics has been described using FEWS-NET RFE estimations, river discharge has been monitored using ENVISAT radar altimeter data provided by LEGOS laboratory and vegetation dynamics have been examined through vegetation indices available from long term series of SPOT-VGT data. The comparison between river discharge measured at Bangui (Central African Republic), gauging station and radar altimeter virtual station data demonstrated that these data can be used to estimate river discharge. This result allowed to focus a preliminary analysis on the Uele watershed, Ubangi sub basin, using radar data as a proxy of river discharge, comparing these trends to seasonal rainfall estimates and trying to disentangling the effect of vegetation on discharge-rain relation. Results showed that a strong positive correlation is obtained between rain data and river discharge only at the end of the vegetation season when plants have reduced water demand for evapotranspiration and less intercept rain. Trend analysis on the considered time windows are provided and the contribution of these finding for river water alert monitoring system is discussed.

Boschetti, Mirco; Nutini, Francesco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholome, Etienne; Stroppiana, Daniela

2010-10-01

117

Chapter 8: Understanding How the Earth Works: A Geodynamic Revolution Based on Linux Computing INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Planet Earth is an extremely complex system, partly because of the existence of plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is an expression of slow convection of the Earth's mantle over geological timesEarthlosesitsinternalheat(seeglossarypagexx).Onageologicaltimescale(i.e.millions of years), plate tectonics exerts major controls on global sea-level changes and geochemical cycles. We

Müller, Dietmar

118

Goal: Understand some of the basic principles of the chemistry of earth science and envi- Knowledge necessary for solving current and emerging problems  

E-print Network

Overview Goal: Understand some of the basic principles of the chemistry of earth science and envi in interior of earth escape gradually to form atmosphere. Ex. CO 2 from carbonates in rocks #15; Primarily. Mostly N 2 with small amounts of H 2 O and CO 2 5. Earth surface unshielded from UV rays ! only small

Schofield, Jeremy

119

Earth Science: It's All about the Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

King, Chris

2013-01-01

120

Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental approach was used to better understand the effort distribution of releases and build a predictive effort model for software maintenance releases. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC). This paper presents three main results: 1) a predictive effort model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process; 2) measurement-based lessons learned about the maintenance process in the FDD; and 3) a set of lessons learned about the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program. In addition, this study provides insights and guidelines for obtaining similar results in other maintenance organizations.

Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel; Condon, Steven; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio L.; Valett, Jon D.

1996-01-01

121

A synthetic biology approach to understanding cellular information processing.  

PubMed

The survival of cells and organisms requires proper responses to environmental signals. These responses are governed by cellular networks, which serve to process diverse environmental cues. Biological networks often contain recurring network topologies called "motifs". It has been recognized that the study of such motifs allows one to predict the response of a biological network and thus cellular behavior. However, studying a single motif in complete isolation of all other network motifs in a natural setting is difficult. Synthetic biology has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding the dynamic properties of network motifs. In addition to testing existing theoretical predictions, construction and analysis of synthetic gene circuits has led to the discovery of novel motif dynamics, such as how the combination of simple motifs can lead to autonomous dynamics or how noise in transcription and translation can affect the dynamics of a motif. Here, we review developments in synthetic biology as they pertain to increasing our understanding of cellular information processing. We highlight several types of dynamic behaviors that diverse motifs can generate, including the control of input/output responses, the generation of autonomous spatial and temporal dynamics, as well as the influence of noise in motif dynamics and cellular behavior. PMID:23411668

Riccione, Katherine A; Smith, Robert P; Lee, Anna J; You, Lingchong

2012-09-21

122

Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

Shaffer, L.R.

1994-12-31

123

Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus [Medioambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)

2007-07-01

124

Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http://geology.wr.usgs.gov. More information is available about the WESPT is available on-line at the team website.

Powell, Charles, II,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

2003-01-01

125

Millikan Lecture 1994: Understanding and teaching important scientific thought processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics is an intellectually demanding discipline and many students have difficulties learning to deal with it. Further, our instruction is often far less effective than we realize. Indeed, recent investigations have revealed that many students, even when getting good grades, emerge from their basic physics courses with signification scientific misconcepts, with prescientific notions, with poor problem-solving skills, and with an inability to apply what they ostensibly learned. In short, students' acquired physics knowledge is often largely nominal rather than functiional. This situation leads one to ask: Why is this so, and what can be done about it? More specifically, it has led me to address the following two basic questions: (a) Can one understand better the underlying throught processes required to deal with a science like physics? (b) How can such an understanding be used to design more effective instruction? These are the questions which have been the focus of my work during the last several years and which I want to discuss in this article.

Reif, Frederick

2011-07-28

126

Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time as Piaget's system of time (e.g., chronological ordering of events, before and after relationships, duration or evolutionary time) was a necessary conceptual framework for students to develop a scientific understanding of deep time. An examination of students, worldviews and the interface of science and religion indicated that students often successfully applied a demarcation between science and religion in their public thinking (e.g., the formal classroom setting), but in their private thinking, the demarcation was often blurred.

Pulling, Azalie Cecile

127

Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

1973-01-01

128

Elemental processes of transport and energy conversion in Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 5 years observations from several missions and ground based observatories have honed in on the most elemental aspects of flux transport and energy conversion. Dipolarization fronts and their counterpart in the distant magnetotail "anti-dipolarization" fronts, which together are refered to herein as "reconnection fronts", usher the recently reconnected flux tubes from the near-Earth X-points and in the process convert magnetic energy to particle energy and wave radiation. On the tailward side they are responsible for plasmoid formation and acceleration. On the earthward side they result in elemental substorm current wedges or wedglets, which were initially postulated from ground observations alone. Recent observations have revealed how the interaction of wedgelets and the inner magnetosphere takes place. Questions remain with regards to the physics of the energy transfer process from global magnetic energy to local heating and waves, and with regards to the initiation of the X-point activations in space. Observations indicate that the latter may be induced by polar cap or dayside activity, suggesting a direct link between dayside reconnection and nightside phenomena. The likely causal sequence of events and open questions in light of these recent observations, and the field's outlook in anticipation of upcoming coordinated observations from the international Heliophysics System Observatory will be discussed.

Angelopoulos, Vassilis

129

Importance of using complementary process analyzers for the process monitoring, analysis, and understanding of freeze drying.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the importance of using complementary process analyzers (PAT tools) for the process monitoring, analysis, and understanding of freeze drying. A mannitol solution was used as a model system. Raman spectroscopic, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic, plasma emission spectroscopic, and wireless temperature measurements (TEMPRIS) were simultaneously performed in-line and real-time during each freeze-drying experiment. The combination of these four process analyzers to monitor a freeze-drying process is unique. The Raman and NIR data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR), while the plasma emission spectroscopic and wireless temperature measurement data were analyzed using univariate data analysis. It was shown that the considered process analyzers do not only complement but also mutually confirm each other with respect to process step end points, physical phenomena occurring during freeze drying (process understanding), and product characterization (solid state). Furthermore and most important, the combined use of the process analyzers helped to identify flaws in previous studies in which these process analyzers were studied individually. Process analyzers might wrongly indicate that some process steps are fulfilled. Finally, combining the studied process analyzers also showed that more information per process analyzer can be obtained than previously described. A combination of Raman and plasma emission spectroscopy seems favorable for the monitoring of nearly all critical freeze-drying process aspects. PMID:19681620

De Beer, T R M; Wiggenhorn, M; Veillon, R; Debacq, C; Mayeresse, Y; Moreau, B; Burggraeve, A; Quinten, T; Friess, W; Winter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

2009-09-15

130

Why Earth Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

Smith, Michael J.

2004-05-01

131

Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with 20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

2013-04-01

132

A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.  

SciTech Connect

AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper, slurry injection rate, via prewetting, slurry injection angle, filter paper prewetting, and slurry mixing time. Many of these factors did not have an influence on defect formation. In order of decreasing importance, critical factors for defect formation by slurry filling are vacuum time (20 sec. optimal), slurry solids loading (20.0 g of cermet with 13.00 g of DGBEA solvent (21.2 vol%)), filling with the pipette in a vertical position, and faster injection rates (~765 l/s) as preferable to slower. No further recommendations for improvement to this process can be suggested. All findings of the slurry filling process have been transferred to CeramTec, the supplier. Paste filling methods appear to show more promise of increasing production yields. The types of flaws commonly found in slurry-filled vias were identified and followed throughout the entire source feedthru process. In general, all sizes of cracks healed during isopressing and firing steps. Additionally, small to medium sized voids (less than 1/3 the via diameter) can be healed. Porosity will usually lead to via necking, which may cause the part to be out of specification. Large voids (greater 4 than 1/3 of the diameter) and partial fills are not healed or produce significant necking. 2.Viability of High-Solids-Loading-Cermet Paste for Filling Source Feedthru ViaThe paste-filling process is easy to implement and easier to use. The high solids loading (>40 vol %) reduces the incidence of drying defects, which are seen in slurry filled (~23 vol %) vias. Additionally, the way in which the vias are filled (the paste is pushed from entrance to exit, displacing air as the paste front progresses), reduces the chance of entrapped voids, which are common in the slurry filling process. From the fair number of samples already filled, the likelihood of this process being a viable and reliable process is very good. Issues of concern for the paste process, as with any new process, are any problems that may arise in subsequent manufacturing stages of the neutron tube that may be affected by subtle changes in

Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

2006-04-01

133

Understand assumptions and know uncertainties: Boscovich and the motion of the Earth  

E-print Network

The general prohibition of books advocating heliocentric theory put many progressive Jesuits in a difficult position. One of the most prominent Jesuit scientists of the 18th century, Rogerius Boscovich, was in particularly affected by conflicts between a beautifully simple theory of gravity by Newton, his Jesuit peripatetic education, Church doctrine and the lack of crucial experimental evidence for the motion of the Earth. I present the development of Boscovich's ideas prior to the lifting of the ban, and his retrospective considerations in later writings. These show that Boscovich's acceptance of the motion of the Earth was primarily driven by the existence of a working physical theory that also explained the motion of the Earth, and the lack of a consistent theory that supported any variation of a geocentric system.

Krajnovic, Davor

2015-01-01

134

Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

Frey, Herbert

2012-01-01

135

Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

E-print Network

Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR’s) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-Matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENR’s can proceed without the emission of high energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier Ion Band State (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENR’s, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x?1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENR’s are triggered by the polarization between injected d’s and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

Scott R. Chubb

136

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

137

A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

2012-01-01

138

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science | Service | Stewardship Understand the earth  

E-print Network

, illustrating the idea of modeling the Earth. Courtesy NOAA Geodesy Imagine bridges not meeting in the middle a glimpse of life without geodesy. What's geodesy? It's the science of measuring the size and shape"). READ ON, and find out how geodesy can be a lot of fun! Another way to think about geodesy is to imagine

139

Caries process on occlusal surfaces: evolving evidence and understanding.  

PubMed

Management of the caries process on occlusal surfaces of permanent molars has proven a major challenge. The onset of caries on these surfaces takes place soon after their eruption, and the permanent first molars, followed by the second molars, remain the sites in the dentition which show the highest caries prevalence. This paper is structured in the form of questions and answers in which traditional concepts of caries susceptibility of occlusal surfaces are appraised and confronted with the current evidence. Then, research studies examining the role of biological determinants on the development and arrest of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are discussed. Finally, the contribution of these studies in terms of developing the available scientific evidence and our understanding of the caries process on occlusal surfaces is analyzed. The current evidence does not support the concept that the early onset and high prevalence of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are due to a particularly low inherent resistance of the occlusal surface or due to the presence of inaccessible fissure-like structures on these surfaces. Evidence is provided to show that the most influential biological determinants of the development and arrest of occlusal caries are thick plaque accumulation on the groove-fossa system and the stage of tooth eruption limiting mechanical oral function. Consequently, active occlusal lesions are significantly more prevalent in erupting than in fully erupted teeth. The major contribution of this review is to provide updated knowledge about the biological principles determining the development and arrest of caries on occlusal surfaces of erupting teeth. PMID:24577073

Carvalho, J C

2014-01-01

140

Improved Understanding of ice and dust processes using Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the DART Data Assimilation (DA) framework to ingest radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) into the PlanetWRF Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) and measure the skill of the model in reproducing the observations, and hence to test and improve understanding of the aerosol processes at the heart of Martian climate. The DA framework is used to constrain the surface ice properties in the model using the TES radiance observations and lander pressure measurements as independent constraints on the ice properties. We compare the skill of two ice models in reproducing the TES radiance observations while simultaneously matching lander pressure observations. In one model the effect of subsurface ice is contained within the surface albedo and emissivity parameterization, in the second model subsurface ice is parameterized based on Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data. Both models reproduce the pressure cycle observed by the Viking Lander instruments, but the model with subsurface ice performs significantly better at reproducing the TES radiance observations over the ice-covered poles. We also use the DA framework to investigate the model skill using the Conrath vertical dust profile (with a near surface maximum dust abundance) and a modified dust profile with high altitude maximum that has been inferred from limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The GCM using the modified dust profile produces an atmosphere with thermal lapse rate closer to that measured using nadir observations from TES.

Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

2013-12-01

141

Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion picture industry relied upon establishing an accepted second space within the minds of their audiences. By the end of the study period, the universe accepted by most Americans was a "California Universe". It was not a discovery of pure science, but rather a cultural-scientific product of the Mount Wilson astronomers, the Pasadena community and the landscape and culture of Southern California.

Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

142

From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

Rosen, Paul A.

2012-01-01

143

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

144

Understanding Collaborative Learning Processes in New Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trying to understand the complexity of computer-mediated problem-based learning environments is not easy. Sociocultural theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding such environments because it emphasizes the socially situated nature of learning and the critical role of tools in mediating learning. To examine how different aspects of…

Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Chernobilsky, Ellina; Jordan, Rebecca

2008-01-01

145

Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image quality, one of these methods will perform better than the others. Because our software requires minimal user input in the form of command line arguments and has no graphical user interface (GUI), it is uniquely adept for clustering computer environments as well as normal workstations. Users can run multiple stereo sessions simultaneously to process a large number of stereo pairs. We also provide a tool called ';parallel_stereo' which utilizes GNU's parallel command to split a single stereo pair session across multiple nodes that have a shared file system. This greatly reduces the processing time of a single stereo pair. Our primary system of testing was NASA's Pleiades super computer that is freely available to NASA sponsored scientists and engineers via the High End Computing Capability (HECC) project. ASP is freely available for download from our website at irg.arc.nasa.gov/ngt/stereo. Source code for all releases and current development code is available from our Github account at github.com/NeoGeographyToolkit/StereoPipeline. In addition to being free, ASP is Apache 2 licensed which offers free license to copy, redistribute, and sell the software and results pending the license of the input imagery. It is our goal that this software will make DEMs and the processing of satellite imagery more accessible to scientists of all fields.

Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

2013-12-01

146

The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

2012-01-01

147

A substantiation of cyclic process of the system Earth-Moon-Sun tidal evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present-day knowledge of the Earth and thorough description of the tidal force affecting the system Earth-Moon-Sun permits us to work out in detail a tidal evolution model. Thus we get a possibility to reconstruct global variations of the climate. The tidal evolution of natural processes on the Earth that has a huge satellite (the Moon mass is only 81

Y. Avsyuk

2007-01-01

148

Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

1992-01-01

149

SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2011-01-01

150

Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

2014-05-01

151

Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

2014-01-01

152

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

2009-12-01

153

Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

1972-01-01

154

Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, hereinafter referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it

P. Jöckel; A. Kerkweg; J. Buchholz-Dietsch; H. Tost; R. Sander; A. Pozzer

2008-01-01

155

Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, herein after referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER

P. Jöckel; A. Kerkweg; J. Buchholz; H. Tost; R. Sander; A. Pozzer

2007-01-01

156

Earth Science (A Process Approach), Section 1: The Water Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included is a collection of earth science laboratory activities, which may provide the junior or senior high school science teacher with ideas for activities in his program. The included 48 experiments are grouped into these areas: properties of matter; evaporation; atmospheric moisture and condensation; precipitation; moving water, subsurface…

Campbell, K. C.; And Others

157

Geological processes and the earth's rotation in the past  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only factor which affects past rates of the earth's rotation and also the moon's rate of recession is the lunar tidal torque. Most geological considerations indicate that this torque would probably be greater and at least comparable to the present, in contrast to the slower rates indicated by the palaeontological and past tidal evidence. It seems that this conflict

D. H. Tarling

1975-01-01

158

An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual…

Dal, Burckin

2009-01-01

159

Developments in Genetic Understanding: Time To Engage with the Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This editorial outlines how developments in our understanding of genetic information may raise new challenges for people with learning disabilities, their parents, and professionals working in learning disability services. It concludes by highlighting some key aspects professionals need to consider if they are to support effectively people who…

Barr, Owen

2002-01-01

160

Genetic Aspects of Deafness: Understanding the Counseling Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of the genetic concepts applicable to individual cases of deafness, as well as an appreciation of the complex nature of determinaton of recurrence risks in families, will facilitate the referral of individuals and families for genetic evaluation and counseling. (Author)

Boughman, Joann A.; Shaver, Kathleen A.

1982-01-01

161

1154 D. R. Warren et al. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 11541163 (2007)  

E-print Network

1154 D. R. Warren et al. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1154­1163 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1548 Forest age, wood and nutrient dynamics in headwater streams of the Hubbard Brook

Hall Jr., Robert O.

162

Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

163

Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 629644 (2001) EGS  

E-print Network

Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution 629 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 629­644 (2001) © EGS Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution M.T. van Wijk and W

Boyer, Edmond

164

Understanding Local Structure Globally in Earth Science Remote Sensing Data Sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical probability distributions derived from the data are the signatures of physical processes generating the data. Distributions defined on different space-time windows can be compared and differences or changes can be attributed to physical processes. This presentation discusses on ways to reduce remote sensing data in a way that preserves information, focusing on the rate-distortion theory and using the entropy-constrained vector quantization algorithm.

Braverman, Amy; Fetzer, Eric

2007-01-01

165

New Advances in Understanding Northern Seasonal Processes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sublimation of the seasonal CO2 polar caps is an active surface process in today's martian climate. Seasonal processes are responsible for changes in the morphology of the dunes of the north polar erg detected from one Mars year to the next.

Hansen, C. J.; Byrne, S.; Bourke, M.; Bridges, N.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; McEwen, A.; Mellon, M.; Pommerol, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.

2014-07-01

166

Frameworks for Understanding Business Process Re-engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces a number of concepts and frameworks developed during the first phase of an EPSRC\\/CDP grant entitled “A Specification of a Business Process Re-engineering Methodology for Small and Medium Sized Manufacturing Enterprises”. A traditional, functionally oriented organization is characterized by fragmentation and staged inventories of work caused by a failure to integrate and synchronize activities. A process focused organization aims

S. J. Childe; R. S. Maull; J. Bennett

1994-01-01

167

Review of Understanding of Earth's Hydrological Cycle: Observations, Theory and Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is our most precious and arguably most undervalued natural resource. It is essential for life on our planet, for food production and economic development. Moreover, water plays a fundamental role in shaping weather and climate. However, with the growing global population, the planet's water resources are constantly under threat from overuse and pollution. In addition, the effects of a changing climate are thought to be leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather causing floods, landslides and drought. The need to understand and monitor our environment and its resources, including advancing our knowledge of the hydrological cycle, has never been more important and apparent. The best approach to do so on a global scale is from space. This paper provides an overview of the major components of the hydrological cycle, the status of their observations from space and related data products and models for hydrological variable retrievals. It also lists the current and planned satellite missions contributing to advancing our understanding of the hydrological cycle on a global scale. Further details of the hydrological cycle are substantiated in several of the other papers in this Special Issue.

Rast, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Mauser, Wolfram

2014-05-01

168

Grazing Impacts Upon Earth's Surface: Towards an Understanding of the Rio Cuarto Crater Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the Rio Cuarto crater field, Argentina has been widely debated since the early 1990s when it was first brought to public attention. In a binary on-off sense, however, the craters are either of a terrestrial origin or they formed via a large asteroid impact. While there are distinct arguments in favour of the former option being the correct interpretation, it is the latter possibility that is principally investigated here, and five distinct impact formation models are described. Of the impact scenarios it is found that the most workable model, although based upon a set of fine-tuned initial conditions, is that in which a large, 100-150-m initial diameter asteroid, entered Earth's atmosphere on a shallow angle path that resulted in temporary capture. In this specific situation a multiple-thousand kilometer long flight path enables the asteroid to survive atmospheric passage, without suffering significant fragmentation, and to impact the ground as a largely coherent mass. Although the odds against such an impact occurring are extremely small, the crater field may nonetheless be interpreted as having potentially formed via a very low-angle, smaller than 5° to the horizon, impact with a ground contact speed of order 5 km/s. Under this scenario, as originally suggested by Schultz and Lianza (Nature 355:234, 1992), the largest of the craters (crater A) in the Rio Cuarto structure was produced in the initial ground impact, and the additional, smaller craters are interpreted as being formed through the down-range transport of decapitated impactor material and crater A ejecta.

Beech, Martin

2014-08-01

169

Manure to Energy: Understanding Processes, Principles and Jargon  

E-print Network

is available from the USEPA website at www.epa.gov/agstar. Thermo-chemical Process Thermo-chemical processes include direct combustion, co-firing, gasification and pyrolysis. Direct combustion refers to burning biomass directly in a furnace to produce heat... and ammonia (NH 3 ). Upon co-firing manure and coal, NH 3 is released from manure and combines with NOx to produce harmless N and water. Gasification is the process by which carbonaceous fuel (any fossil or biomass fuel consisting of /or containing carbon...

Mukhtar, Saqib

2006-11-30

170

Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.  

PubMed

Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

2012-07-01

171

Demonstrations of Geophysical Principles Applicable to the Properties and Processes of the Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These demonstrations are designed to help students develop a conceptual understanding of geophysical principles. The concepts covered in these demonstrations include rheology, seismic waves, reflection, standing waves, velocity, earthquakes, Earth density, magnetic field, resonance, precession, the shadow zone, and Curie temperature. Each demonstration provides background information and a complete explanation of how to use and discuss the demo in class.

Barker, Jeffrey

172

Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression. PMID:24877152

Kharraz, Yacine; Guerra, Joana; Serrano, Antonio L.; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

2014-01-01

173

Google Earth in the middle school geography classroom: Its impact on spatial literacy and place geography understanding of students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success in today's globalized, multi-dimensional, and connected world requires individuals to have a variety of skill sets -- i.e. oracy, numeracy, literacy, as well as the ability to think spatially. Student's spatial literacy, based on various national and international assessment results, indicates that even though there have been gains in U.S. scores over the past decade, overall performance, including those specific to spatial skills, are still below proficiency. Existing studies focused on the potential of virtual learning environment technology to reach students in a variety of academic areas, but a need still exists to study specifically the phenomenon of using Google Earth as a potentially more useful pedagogical tool to develop spatial literacy than the currently employed methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which graphicacy achievement scores of students who were immersed in a Google Earth environment were different from students who were provided with only two-dimensional instruction for developing spatial skills. Situated learning theory and the work of Piaget and Inhelder's Child's Conception of Space provided the theoretical grounding from which this study evolved. The National Research Council's call to develop spatial literacy, as seen in Learning to Think Spatially , provided the impetus to begin research. The target population (N = 84) for this study consisted of eighth grade geography students at an upper Midwest Jr. High School during the 2009-2010 academic year. Students were assigned to the control or experimental group based on when they had geography class. Control group students ( n = 44) used two-dimensional PowerPoint images to complete activities, while experimental group students (n = 40) were immersed in the three-dimensional Google Earth world for activity completion. Research data was then compiled and statistically analyzed to answer five research questions developed for this study. One-way ANOVAs were run on data collected and no statistically significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. However, two of the five research questions yielded practically significant data that indicates students who used Google Earth outperformed their counterparts who used PowerPoint on pattern prediction and spatial relationship understanding.

Westgard, Kerri S. W.

174

Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

2013-01-01

175

Understanding the Writing Process through Brain Hemisphere Neurology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledging that ordering, spatial orientation, and synthesis are important properties in achieving clarity in writing, a study investigated the biological influences on students' writing processes and ways to help writers produce more coherent written products. Subjects, two males and four females ranging in age from 19 to 40, were tested using…

Hogge, Joan Ellet

176

Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished…

Peterson, Mark

2014-01-01

177

Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

2004-01-01

178

Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

2012-06-01

179

Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

2001-12-01

180

Photoneutron cross sections for neodymium isotopes: Toward a unified understanding of (? ,n ) and (n ,? ) reactions in the rare earth region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoneutron cross sections were measured for five stable Nd isotopes, 143 ,144 ,145 ,146 ,148Nd , near neutron threshold with highly monochromatic laser-Compton scattering ? rays. The photoneutron data were compared with the calculations performed with the talys reaction code with inputs of the Skyrme Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) plus quasi-particle random phase approximation (QRPA) model and the axially symmetric deformed Gogny HFB plus QRPA model of E 1 ? -ray strength. Using the ? -ray strength function constrained by the present photoneutron data, a thorough analysis of the reverse (n ,? ) cross sections is made. Radiative neutron capture cross sections for an s-process branching-point nucleus in the rare earth region, 147Nd with the half-life 10.98 d, are deduced with the ? -ray strength function method. The impact of the newly evaluated 147Nd(n,? ) 148Nd cross section on s-process nucleosynthesis is discussed.

Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrøm, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Filipescu, D. M.; Gheorghe, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Glodariu, T.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Péru, S.; Martini, M.; Siess, L.; Koning, A. J.

2015-01-01

181

Using multiscale behavior of hydrological systems for improving process understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape properties and climatic inputs are strongly heterogeneous in space and time resulting in hydrological processes that show multi scale or even fractal properties and behavior (Rodriguez-Iturbe and Rinaldo, 2000). Considerable effort is invested in finding the most appropriate approaches to represent hydrological processes across different scales and to produce reliable hydrological predictions. Hydrological predictions have been mainly improved in the recent decades by increasing the complexity of hydrological models, e.g. by including different type of hydrological processes and landscape compartments and by considering feedbacks between different compartments. Nevertheless, because of information constraints that e.g. result in high parameter uncertainties, complex hydrological models also show limitations to provide reliable hydrological predictions. In other words, hydrological model predictions are and probably also will stay uncertain. Spatially distributed hydrological models produce big amount of data depending on driving data, spatially distributed model parameters but also spatial and temporal model resolution. This talk will introduce multi scale investigation techniques to explore the probabilistic behavior of hydrological states and fluxes across different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the question is addressed if catchments show self-averaging behavior.

Attinger, Sabine

2014-05-01

182

Understanding Meso- and Micro-scale Coupling of Near Earth Plasmas (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Known meso-scale processes include the polar wind and plasmaspheric plumes, consisting mainly of light ions, and generic auroral ionospheric heating processes, which add heavy ion outflows including O+ and atmospheric molecular ions to the light ion outflows. Known micro-scale processes include Alfvén waves propagating into the ionosphere from turbulent magnetospheric boundary layers, current-driven instabilities leading to lower hybrid waves in the auroral acceleration region near 1 Re altitude, and convection and shear driven instabilities along auroral flux tubes, including pick-up ion ring beam relaxation in the topside, and Joule-frictional heating in the F region. Much of the latter is sunk into the neutral gas, leading to observable upwelling features above the auroras. Plasma outflows are observed to be dominated by superthermal (eV to 10's eV) ions that are transversely heated and whose flux rises in a power law relationship to the incident DC and AC Poynting (EM) fluxes and the density of precipitating hot electrons. These facts are thought consistent with lifting of ions by the ambipolar electric field, enhanced by superthermal electron precipitation, combined with heating and-or ponderomotive forcing of the ions by broadband cyclotron frequency range waves. The ambipolar electric field is reasonably well understood, but the source of ion resonant waves is indeterminate and their amplitudes cannot be derived from macroscopic disturbance conditions such as MHD field, current, and plasma conditions. The Outstanding Question in all this is "what are the mechanisms by which solar wind energy flux is dissipated in ionospheric plasmas to produce enhanced outflow?" To answer this question, a new mission is needed to provide a comprehensive picture of ionospheric mass ejection, including: i) detailed observations of the 3D energy-angle distribution of transversely accelerated ions and electrons down to thermal energies of ~0.1 eV; ii) control of plasma sensor potential at the plasma potential; iv) observation of BBELF wavelengths as well as frequencies for mode identification; v) observations of auroral neutral gas upwelling that go beyond recent accelerometer missions. Such a mission should deliver simultaneous conjugate diagnostics from the F region (250-300 km), from the exobase region (500-1300 km), and from the auroral acceleration region (4000-6000 km). Ionospheric observations could be provided by incoherent scatter radar.

Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

2010-12-01

183

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

2011-06-01

184

Visible Speech Improves Human Language Understanding: Implications for Speech Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from the study of human language understanding is presented suggesting that our ability to perceive visible speech can greatly influence our ability to understand and remember spoken language. A view of the speaker's face can greatly aid in the perception of ambiguous or noisy speech and can aid cognitive processing of speech leading to better understanding and recall. Some

Laura A. Thompson; William C. Ogden

1995-01-01

185

Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

1978-01-01

186

Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific experiments such as EarthScope, provide great opportunities to gather new data to further enhance our current understanding of the seismicity and tectonics of the CEUS region, there is also a heightened need for continuation of small-scale scientific missions geared toward understanding of seismic sources in low-seismicity regions. Although such regions are not high-priority areas of research and they do not usually receive the needed attention of funding agencies and the larger scientific community, extensive studies in these areas are still needed. Creating awareness and interest of the needs for seismic studies in such regions is a critical issue from a regulatory perspective. The U.S. NRC's open government philosophy based processes provide excellent opportunities for the involvement of research and educational communities in the regulatory processes related to seismic hazards in the US. This presentation will discuss the available processes for public participation in the US NRC new reactor licensing decisions and highlight some key research areas that will benefit seismic hazard estimations in the CEUS.

Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

2012-12-01

187

Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

DEROSA, D.C.

2000-01-13

188

SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

189

EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

190

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D in the early solar system and the processes that have led to the formation of the terrestrial planets. Stable an effective approach for unravelling the complex chemistry of the early solar system as recorded in meteorites

Henderson, Gideon

191

Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades  

PubMed Central

Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades–that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web–varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic ‘top-down’ cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled ‘bottom-up’ cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H; Lafferty, Kevin

2014-01-01

192

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

2009-12-01

193

Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically- changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. In our presentation, we will demonstrate how new software tools like Uniview can be used to dramatically enhance and accelerate public comprehension of complex, multi-scale geospatial phenomena.

Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

2008-12-01

194

Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils  

PubMed Central

Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

2008-01-01

195

Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process  

DOEpatents

A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

196

Image data processing of earth resources management. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various image processing and information extraction systems are described along with the design and operation of an interactive multispectral information system, IMAGE 100. Analyses of ERTS data, using IMAGE 100, over a number of U.S. sites are presented. The following analyses are included: investigations of crop inventory and management using remote sensing; and (2) land cover classification for environmental impact assessments. Results show that useful information is provided by IMAGE 100 analyses of ERTS data in digital form.

Desio, A. W.

1974-01-01

197

A review of the current understanding of seismic shear-wave splitting in the Earth’s crust and common fallacies in interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azimuthally-aligned shear-wave splitting is widely observed in the Earth’s crust. The splitting is diagnostic of some form of seismic anisotropy, although the cause of this anisotropy has been sometimes disputed. The evidence in this review unquestionably indicates cracks, specifically stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, as the predominant cause of the azimuthally-aligned shear-wave splitting in the crust. Although, in principle, shear-wave splitting is

Stuart Crampin; Sheila Peacock

2008-01-01

198

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

2004-01-01

199

The earth as a living planet: Human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process  

E-print Network

The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic feat...

Contoyiannis, Y F; Eftaxias, K

2013-01-01

200

Magnetization processes in rare earth intermetallic compound DyCu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility ? and elastic constant cB, c?, and c44 of DyCu (Pmbar3m) at the temperatures between 2 K and 300 K in order to evaluate the exchange and quadrupole interaction coefficients by using a mean-field approximation. The following results are obtained; (i) ? shows the Curie-Weiss behavior in the paramagnetic phase, meaning that the 4f electrons are well localized. (ii) c44 in the paramagnetic phase shows small softening at temperatures near TN while cB and c? do not. This result indicates that the dominant components of quadrupole moment are Oyz, Ozx and Oxy in the ?5 symmetry. (iii) The estimated exchange and quadrupole interaction coefficients are determined to be (J1+2J2)S2/kB=-79 K and (G1+2G2)Q2/kB=-45 K, respectively. (iv) We propose the magnetic structure models of field-induced phases, and calculate the critical fields of magnetization processes in the [0 0 1], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] directions by using above values of interaction coefficients. The calculated values are in agreement with the experimental ones.

Kakeshita, Tomoyuki; Terai, Tomoyuki; Sonomura, Hirosuke; Yasui, Motoyoshi; Kida, Takanori; Hagiwara, Masayuki

2013-07-01

201

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

1992-01-01

202

Natural hazards for the Earth's civilization from space, 1. Cosmic ray influence on atmospheric processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we give a short description of global natural disasters for the Earth's civilization from space: 1) Galactic and solar cosmic ray (CR) influence on the atmospheric processes; 2) Impacts of great space magnetic storms during big Forbush-effects in CR, 3) Impacts of great radiation hazards from solar CR during flare energetic particle events, 4) Great impacts on

L. I. Dorman

2008-01-01

203

Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional reservoirs: the Upper Jurassic Vaca  

E-print Network

Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional as to the scale of sedimentological variability within mudstone successions, and how related diagenetic alteration by Profs Taylor and Flint, to document the scale of sedimentological and diagenetic variability

Henderson, Gideon

204

Increased complexity modeling provides new physical understanding of landscape-forming processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercomputer resources are increasingly available and affordable to geomorphologists. Significant computational time on a supercomputer is often less expensive than a single trip to a research conference. Perhaps more importantly, massively-parallel, open source codes for solving fluid and particle mechanics and surface evolution, albeit with some modification, are available at no expense. Complex, reductionist modeling approaches, resolving a large range of scales while conserving mass, momentum, and energy, are under-utilized within the surface processes research community. Highly-resolved models provide a richness of data that generally cannot be gained from field or laboratory experiments. Fluid pressure, for example, is difficult to measure except at a few discrete points. The data richness of resolved models can provide physical insight that is not otherwise possible. In such circumstances, lab and field experiments can be designed to validate new physics. Validation itself is a challenge when the primary goal is to confirm new physical insight rather than to compare predicted and actual outcomes. Monte Carlo simulation of sampling distributions is quite useful for statistical inference in such situations where fields are almost always correlated in space and time. A number of highly-resolved modeling efforts of landscape forming processes, the physical insights learned, and attempts to validate them will be presented. Turbulence- and particle-resloving simulations of bedload and suspended sediment transport in water will be presented. New physical insights from this model involve direct computation of the suspended sediment boundary condition, stratification effects on momentum and mass diffusivity, a new understanding of bedload entrainment by turbulence, and a reduced importance of bedload saltation relative to other motions. Turbulence-resolving simulations of flow and suspended sediment transport in meander bends and lateral separation eddies in rivers reveal the importance of large-scale turbulence structures produced because of secondary circulation and flow separation. Turbulence-resolving and Reynolds-averaged models of flow and formation of aeolian dunes on earth and in Martian craters, and a water, air, and particle model of raindrop impacts will also be briefly presented.

Schmeeckle, M. W.

2013-12-01

205

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth like planets  

E-print Network

Because the solar luminosity increases over geological timescales, Earth climate is expected to warm, increasing water evaporation which, in turn, enhances the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can "runaway" until all the oceans are evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause oceans to escape to space before the runaway greenhouse occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated with unidimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of Earth's climate. Here we use a 3D global climate model to show that the threshold for the runaway greenhouse is about 375 W/m$^2$, significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmo...

Leconte, Jérémy; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-01-01

206

A survey of SAR image-formation processing for earth resources applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently there is considerable interest in active microwave sensors for earth resources applications. A particular example is the Seasat-A radar. However, to obtain spatial resolutions comparable to optical sensors at radar frequencies, sophisticated image formation processing techniques must be applied to the raw data. This paper briefly compares processing requirements for non-coherent optical and coherent radar imaging systems, and then discusses the image formation processing requirements for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. Both optical and digital techniques are addressed, and examples of hardware and imagery for each processing technique are presented.

Bayma, R. W.; Jordan, R. L.; Manning, B. N.

1977-01-01

207

A survey of SAR image-formation processing for earth resources applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently there is considerable interest in active microwave sensors for earth resources applications, such as the SEASAT-A radar. However, to obtain spatial resolutions comparable to optical sensors at radar frequencies, sophisticated image formation processing techniques must be applied to the raw data. Processing requirements for non-coherent optical and coherent radar imaging systems are compared. The image formation processing requirements for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems are discussed. Both optical and digital techniques are addressed, and examples of hardware and imagery for each processing technique are presented.

Bayma, R. W.; Jordan, R. L.; Manning, B. N.

1977-01-01

208

SESE 2009 Faculty Retreat 1 Earth Surface Processes Surface Process Studies in SESE  

E-print Network

on quantifying how climate, mountain building, volcanic activity, and human activity impact the co-evolution geology, geochronology, and soil science to better constrain human evolution. 3. Paleoclimate evolution. 3. Co-evolution of humans and the Earth's surface with lessons of the anticipating future effects

Rhoads, James

209

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

210

Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2012-01-01

211

Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

1989-01-01

212

Relative and average sea level changes, and endo-, epi-, and exogenic processes on the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past sea levels at any given epoch, identified geologically from positions of sea level-related indicators, differ between sites around the world due to vertical displacements of the Earth's surface. These are caused by endogenic (e.g. tectonic) processes and by epigenic (e.g. isostatic) responses. Geological records of sea level changes thus are relative only to local datum, and reduction to average

JOHN CHAPPELL

213

Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

1978-01-01

214

The Earth as a living planet: human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The Earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the Earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture-induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic features of the critical point of a thermal second-order phase transition. A dramatic breakdown of critical characteristics appears in the tail of the fracture process of heterogeneous system and the injured heart's electrical action. Analyses by means of Hurst exponent and wavelet decomposition further support the hypothesis that a dynamical analogy exists between the geological and biological systems under study.

Contoyiannis, Y. F.; Potirakis, S. M.; Eftaxias, K.

2013-01-01

215

Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model. Version 2  

E-print Network

Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic Earth model. Terrestrial heat producton from U, Th and K40 decays was calculated also. We must admit the existance of Earth expansion process to understand the obtained large value of terrestrial heat producton. The geoneutrino detector with volume more than 5 kT (LENA type) must be constructed to definitely separate between Bulk Silicat Earth model and Hydridic Earth model. In second version of the article we assume that K40 concentration distributes in the Earth uniformly.

Leonid Bezrukov

2014-02-12

216

Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

PubMed Central

In this study we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers’ performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological measures of emotion control. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers. Results indicated that the three approaches of measuring emotion control were unrelated. Regardless of the measurement method, a four-factor solution differentiating emotion control and understanding and cognitive control and understanding fit the data better than did either of two 2-factor models, one based on domains of emotion and cognition across processes, and one based on processes of control and understanding across domains. Results of this research replicate those of Leerkes et al. (2008) in describing a differentiated underlying structure of emotion and cognition processes in early childhood while also extending these conclusions across samples and across measurement approaches for assessing emotion control. PMID:22328805

Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2011-01-01

217

Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

2013-01-01

218

Characteristics of the solar signal on the Earth's surface through stratosphere-troposphere coupled process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar influence on climate has been discussed since long time on the assumption that the total solar irradiance (TSI) directly affects Earth's surface. Recent measurements from the space revealed that the variation of the TSI associated with the 11-year solar cycle is about 0.1%, which cannot produce little effect on Earth's climate without a feedback from the atmosphere-ocean system. Several amplifying mechanism are proposed for different variation of solar origin, cosmic ray, visible light, solar ultra violet. To determine which process is actually operating in the Earth's atmosphere, it needs to investigate not only the global mean temperature, but also its spatial structure. Observed 11-year solar signals in surface temperature can be characterizes by warming in midlatitudes and the absence of warming (or even slight cooling) in the tropics. Midlatitudes warming of the surface temperature occurs in associated with a downward penetration of stratospheric polar-night jet or the polar-night jet oscillation. Little change in tropical surface temperature is consistent with dynamical nature. Meridional circulation change produces a warming in the tropical lower stratosphere, but little effect on the tropospheric temperature. Such characteristics of solar signal can be expected from that produced through change of the solar ultraviolet. Change of the solar heating in the middle atmosphere modulates wave mean-flow interaction in the stratosphere through two processes: one is the polar-night jet oscillation, and the other is a modulation of the meridional circulation.

Kodera, Kunihiko

2014-05-01

219

A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model  

SciTech Connect

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

2014-05-20

220

Applications of neural network methods to the processing of earth observation satellite data.  

PubMed

The new generation of earth observation satellites carries advanced sensors that will gather very precise data for studying the Earth system and global climate. This paper shows that neural network methods can be successfully used for solving forward and inverse remote sensing problems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. Two examples of multi-neural network systems for the determination of cloud properties and for the retrieval of total columns of ozone using satellite data are presented. The developed algorithms based on multi-neural network are currently being used for the operational processing of European atmospheric satellite sensors and will play a key role in related satellite missions planed for the near future. PMID:16530385

Loyola, Diego G

2006-03-01

221

The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

2006-01-01

222

Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

Zheng, Chunxian

2012-01-01

223

Writing and Reading Software Documentation: How the development process may affect understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of documentationwithin a development process is determined by the way in which the intentions of the authors correspond to the expectations of the potential readers. Ideally, the members of a development team share a certain understanding of (the role of) the different types of documentation. However, since one's expectations of a document are personal, and part of a

Remco C. de Boer; Hans van Vliet

2009-01-01

224

Writing and Reading Software Documentation: How the Development Process may Affect Understanding  

E-print Network

Writing and Reading Software Documentation: How the Development Process may Affect Understanding and analyzed the mental models of software documentation from eight members of a single development team. We development knowledge can be shared through software documentation. 1 Introduction During software development

van Vliet, Hans

225

Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…

Guiffrida, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

226

Understanding Intrinsically Irreversible, Non-Nernstian, Two-Electron Redox Processes: A Combined Experimental and Computational  

E-print Network

insight, but the peak potential of an irreversible redox reaction is highly dependent on the scan rate andUnderstanding Intrinsically Irreversible, Non-Nernstian, Two-Electron Redox Processes: A Combined irreversible, making it difficult to use standard voltammetric methods to precisely characterize the redox

Baik, Mu-Hyun

227

Media Literacy and the Policymaking Process: A Framework for Understanding Influences on Potential Educational Policy Outputs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines some of the key public policy implications of the media literacy movement using D. Easton's (1965) model of the policymaking process. The model has six elements: (1) demands and supports; (2) policymakers; (3) policy outputs; (4) policy outcomes; (5) feedback; and (6) environment. Each element is vital to understanding the…

Yates, Bradford L.

228

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based  

E-print Network

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

Prentiss, Mara

229

Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2011-01-01

230

Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

231

Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

2014-01-01

232

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

233

The process of soot formation in a DI Diesel engine is very challenging to understand and  

E-print Network

Background The process of soot formation in a DI Diesel engine is very challenging to understand and describe. But with respect to the demand for much lower particulate emissions (Tab.1) of Diesel engines emissi- ons of a medium duty DI Diesel engine which is certified for the TIER 3 norm should be evaluated

Sandoghdar, Vahid

234

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

PubMed Central

Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

2013-01-01

235

Zonal concentration of some geophysical process intensity caused by tides and variations in the Earth's rotation velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed what kind of fundamental physical phenomena can be responsible for the generation of the anomalous latitudinal zones of the seismic activity, and the hotspots, and some other geophysical processes. The assessment of tidal effect contribution to the earthquake preparation process is discussed. A disk model of the Earth's rotation was proposed. The model is acceptable for the homogeneous Earth and for the heterogeneous one. The disk model explains the nucleation of two maximums of the gradient of the moment of inertia over latitude with respect to the Equator. Effects of the variations in the Earth's rotation angular velocity were estimated and the possible features caused by the rotation velocity instability were described. The variations in the relative velocity of the Earth's rotation (dimensionless value ? ? (T - P)/P) are approximately equal upon the average to 10-8, where T is the observed length of day for the Earth, and P is the astronomical day. These variations lead to the occurrence of the additional energy estimated as 1020 J. The authors proposed the hypothesis of a pulsating geoid based on effects of the Earth's rotation features, and tidal forces, and conception of critical latitudes in the solid Earth. This hypothesis may highlight the phenomenon of zonal intensification of some geological processes in the solid Earth (the seismic activity, and hotspot location, and major ore deposit locations).

Levin, B.; Domanski, A.; Sasorova, E.

2014-01-01

236

Earth observing SAR data processing systems at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory — SEASAT to EOS SAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper traces the evolution of SAR digital data processing and management systems developed at JPL for earth science missions. The Interim Digital Processor (IDP) was developed for SEASAT SAR, utilizing a general-purpose mini-computer and commercial array processors. The IDP established the fundamental algorithms for SAR data correlation but performance was inadequate for an extended mission. To increase performance, JPL undertook a research program to develop the Advanced Digital SAR Processor (ADSP) which implemented a frequency-domain correlation algorithm in custom hardware and was capable of processing 50 megabits per second. The ADSP design was subsequently used in a lower-throughput system recently installed at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The SIR-C and RADARSAT missions, however, will employ SAR processors based, to the maximum extent possible, on general-purpose, commercially-available computing components. Beginning with the European Earth Resources Satellite (ERS-1), routine geophysical products will be made from SAR data. A prototype system was installed at the Alaska SAR Facility which will routinely generate ice motion and ice type maps. The SIR-C ground processing system and the Alaska SAR Facility are important precursors for EOS SAR, which will have an order of magnitude greater processing requirements.

Nichols, David A.; Curlander, John C.

237

Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

Grundstrom, Erika

2013-01-01

238

Project EARTH-12-GMH2: Cadmium and barium isotopes as tracers of modern and past ocean processes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-12-GMH2: Cadmium and barium isotopes as tracers of modern and past ocean processes Supervisor: Professor Gideon Henderson Cadmium and barium both show surface depletion in the oceans, are both

Henderson, Gideon

239

A process-based understanding of the late Cenozoic carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a million-year time scale the global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 are assumed to be largely determined by the so-called solid Earth processes weathering, sedimentation, and volcanic outgassing. However, it is not clear how much of the observed dynamics in the proxy data constraining the carbon cycle over the Cenozoic might be determined by internal processes of the atmosphere-ocean-biosphere subsystem. Here, we apply for the first time a process-based model of the global carbon cycle in transient simulations over the last 20 Myr to identify the contributions of terrestrial carbon storage, solubility pump and ocean gateways on changes in atmospheric CO2 and marine ?13C. We apply the isotopic carbon cycle box model BICYCLE, which consists of atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean reservoirs, the latter containing the full marine carbonate system. Our simulation results show that the long-term cooling since the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (about 15 Myr BP) leads to an intensification of the solubility pump, and a drop in atmospheric CO2 of up to 100 ppmv. This oceanic carbon uptake is largely counterbalanced by carbon loss from the terrestrial biosphere. The reduction in terrestrial C storage over time including the expansion of C4 grasses during the last 8 Myr might explain half of the long-term decline in deep ocean ?13C and would support high CO2 (400 to 450 ppmv) around 15 Myr BP. The closure of the Tethys and the Central America ocean gateways explains the developing gradient in deep ocean ?13C between the Atlantic and Pacific basin. We furthermore calculate the residuals, which are unexplained by our results and are therefore caused by solid Earth processes. From the residuals a rise in both ocean alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon over time is detected as reasons for declining atmospheric CO2 which led to Earth's long-term cooling observed since the Mid Miocene Climate Optimum. Increased continental weathering in combination with changes in volcanic out-gassing of CO2 might explain these changes in marine carbonate chemistry. Around 16 Myr BP we find a prominent regime shift in the carbon cycle-climate system at which the gradient in both deep ocean ?13C and temperature significantly declines. This might be connected with a shrinking seafloor spreading rates which might have caused reduced volcanic activity and thus less CO2 outgassing. The existence of such a regime shift is confirmed if we extend our analysis to deep ocean records of ?18O and ?13C over the whole Cenozoic.

Köhler, P.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; de Boer, B.; Lourens, L. J.; Bintanja, R.; Bickert, T.; Lohmann, G.

2012-04-01

240

Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates  

DOEpatents

An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

Epperly, William R. (Summit, NJ); Deane, Barry C. (East Brunswick, NJ); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

1982-01-01

241

An image-processing system applied to earth-resource imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Harwell Image Processing System (HIPS) has been adapted for processing earth-resource imagery in either film or tape format. Data from film are obtained using a computer-controlled flying-spot scanner. Local rapid interactive processing is based on a PDP 11/20 minicomputer which has suitable display facilities for immediate visual appraisal of results and also a fast data link to an IBM 370/168 computer complex. An extensive subroutine library is being assembled for data preprocessing and feature extraction. This chapter includes a discussion of the basic principles of image analysis, a description of the HIPS system, and finally, for illustrative purposes, a description of several simple software routines.

Carter, P.; Gardner, W. E.

1977-01-01

242

A multi-faceted approach to characterize acid-sulfate alteration processes in volcanic hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-sulfate alteration is a dominant weathering process in high temperature, low pH, sulfur-rich volcanic environments. Additionally, hydrothermal environments have been proposed as locations where life could have originated on Earth. Based on the extensive evidence of flowing surface water and persistent volcanism, similar locations and processes could have existed on early Mars. Globally observed alteration mineral assemblages likely represent relic Martian hydrothermal settings. Yet the limited understanding of environmental controls, limits the confidence of interpreting the paleoconditions of these hydrothermal systems and assessing their habitability to support microbial life. This thesis presents a series of laboratory experiments, geochemical models, analog fieldwork, and Martian remote sensing to characterize distinguishing features and controls of acid-sulfate alteration. The experiments and models were designed to replicate alteration is a highly acidic, sulfurous, and hot field sites. The basaltic minerals were individually reacted in both experimental and model simulations with varying initial parameters to infer the geochemical pathways of acid-sulfate alteration on Earth and Mars. It was found that for a specific starting material, secondary mineralogies were consistent. Variations in pH, temperature and duration affected the abundance, shape, and size of mineral products. Additionally evaporation played a key role in secondary deposits; therefore, both alteration and evaporitic processes need to be taken into consideration. Analog volcanic sites in Nicaragua were used to supplement this work and highlight differences between natural and simulated alteration. In situ visible near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that primary lithology and gas chemistry were dominant controls of alteration, with secondary effects from environmental controls, such as temperature and pH. The spectroscopic research from the field was directly related to Mars observations in Noctis Labyrinthus, Terra Sirenum, Syrtis Major, and Mawrth Vallis to help interpret ancient conditions in those settings. To further apply the results from experiments, models, and fieldwork, Coprates Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris was studied using mineralogical and morphological data. Emplacement of alteration minerals indicated both pre- and post-rifting hydrothermal activity. Smaller southern grabens appeared to have experienced a unique alteration. In summary, this dissertation presents research that contributes to the understanding of the geological evolution of Mars and potentially habitability.

Marcucci, Emma Cordts

243

Development of Remote Laboratory for Understanding the Processes from Design to Manufacture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faculties at the Department of Production, Information and Systems Engineering at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology faces a problem how they can motivate their students who lack in substantial hands on experience of design and manufacture and let them understand the processes from design to manufacture. To overcome this difficulty, a Remote Laboratory system was developed using a Stirling engine by noting its simple structure and principle, with the aim of providing a student hands on experience. A student designs a connecting rod, and it is machined by a milling machine in the lab at a distance. The on-site lab attendant installs the connecting rod on the engine and conducts a trial run, which is viewed by the student via internet video at the remote location. Experiments demonstrated that the Remote Lab system will facilitate a student to understand the processes from design to manufacture.

Hayashi, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Shuichi

244

Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

245

DRiPs Solidify: Progress in Understanding Endogenous MHC Class I Antigen Processing  

PubMed Central

Defective Ribosomal Products (DRiPs) are a subset of rapidly degraded polypeptides that provide peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. Here, I review recent progress in understanding DRiP biogenesis. These findings place DRiPs at the center of the MHC class I antigen processing pathway, linking immunosurveillance of viruses and tumors to mechanisms of specialized translation and cellular compartmentalization. DRiPs enable the immune system to rapidly and sensitively detect alterations in cellular gene expression. PMID:21962745

Yewdell, Jonathan W.

2011-01-01

246

n-Gram Statistics for Natural Language Understanding and Text Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

n-gram (n = 1 to 5) statistics and other properties of the English language were derived for applications in natural language understanding and text processing. They were computed from a well-known corpus composed of 1 million word samples. Similar properties were also derived from the most frequent 1000 words of three other corpuses. The positional distributions of n-grams obtained in

Ching Y. Suen

1979-01-01

247

A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It\\u000a cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc.\\u000a Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various\\u000a hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the

Mohammad Shahidul Islam; James S. Bonner; Temitope O. Ojo; Cheryl Page

2011-01-01

248

The Relation between Students’ Epistemological Understanding of Computer Models and their Cognitive Processing on a Modelling Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many researchers in science education have argued that students’ epistemological understanding of models and of modelling processes would influence their cognitive processing on a modelling task, there has been little direct evidence for such an effect. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relation between students’ epistemological understanding of models and modelling and their cognitive processing (i.e., deep versus

Patrick H. M. Sins; Elwin R. Savelsbergh; Wouter R. van Joolingen

2009-01-01

249

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Data Management System  

E-print Network

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Management System DRAFT ES-8 Collection The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Data Management System supports the data processing needs of the CERES Science Team research to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and radiant

250

Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.  

PubMed

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. PMID:23416180

Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

2013-05-01

251

Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet? - Duration: 2:36.  

NASA Video Gallery

Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

252

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

2013-01-01

253

Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2°C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

Aalto, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

2014-06-01

254

Characterization of magnetization processes in nanostructured rare earth-transition metal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesize rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) amorphous films using the electrodeposition method (RE=Nd, Gd and TM=Co). Nanocrystructured RE-TM films are prepared by thermal treatment of as-synthesized films below the glass-crystal transition temperature. Based on the magnetoelastic effect, the magnetization processes in nanostructured samples are characterized by acoustic internal friction measurements using the vibrating-reed technique. Since internal friction and the Young's modulus are sensitive to grain boundary and magnetic domains movement, this technique seems to characterize the effects of nanostructures on the magnetization processes in RE-TM films well. We find that the magnetoelastic effect in nanostructured RE-TM film increases with an increase in grain size.

Zheng, Guang-ping; Zhan, Yangwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Mo

2003-05-01

255

Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

2011-12-01

256

A subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in Earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchanges. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models may lead to inadequate representation of subgrid heterogeneity and lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Here a subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented in each subbasin on a pseudo-grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART). The framework is implemented in two topographically and climatically contrasting regions of the US: the Pacific Northwest and the Midwest. The relative merits of this modeling framework, with greater emphasis on scalability (i.e., ability to perform consistently across spatial resolutions) in streamflow simulation compared to the grid-based modeling framework are investigated by performing simulations at 0.125°, 0.25°, 0.5°, and 1° spatial resolutions. Comparison of the two frameworks at the finest spatial resolution showed that a small difference between the averaged forcing could lead to a larger difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear processes. More systematic comparisons conducted using statistical metrics calculated between each coarse resolution and the corresponding 0.125°-resolution simulations showed superior scalability in simulating both peak and mean streamflow for the subbasin based over the grid-based modeling framework. Scalability advantages are driven by a combination of improved consistency in runoff generation and the routing processes across spatial resolutions.

Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.; Huang, M.; Ke, Y.; Sun, Y.; Liu, Y.

2014-05-01

257

Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

deGroh, Henry C., III

1999-01-01

258

The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.  

PubMed

The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150?h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

2012-05-01

259

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

SciTech Connect

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

2009-07-01

260

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

261

Microstructure in the extreme environment: understanding and predicting dynamic damage processes  

SciTech Connect

The future of materials science: strategic application for functionally controlled materials properties is emphasized by the need to control material performance in extreme environments. To this end, this study examines the separate effects of kinetics (in the form of dynamic loading rate and shock wave shape) from that of length-scale effects (in the form of microstructural defect distributions). Recently available mesoscale modeling techniques are being used to capture a physical link between kinetic and length-scale influences on dynamic loading. This work contributes innovative new tools in the form of shock-wave shaping techniques in dynamic experimentation, materials characterization, lending insight into 3D damage field analysis at micron resolution, and the physics necessary to provide predictive capabilities for dynamic damage evolution. Experimental results tailored for the discreet understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects during dynamic loading are obtained to provide the basis for the development of process-aware material performance models. The understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects in extreme environments of dynamic loading advances the understanding of current emerging issues relevant to phenomena such as inclusion related failure in metals, grain size dependence on ejecta, and benefits of interfaces in mitigating defect development specifically driven by the need to tailor material response. Finally, the coupling of experimental techniques with theory and simulation is aimed at advancing process-aware damage modeling as well as transitioning materials science from observation to property control.

Dennis-koller, Darcie L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo-diaz, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-21

262

Prospective faculty developing understanding of teaching and learning processes in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, teaching has been considered a burden by many academics at institutions of higher education, particularly research scientists. Furthermore, university faculty and prospective faculty often have limited exposure to issues associated with effective teaching and learning. As a result, a series of ineffective teaching and learning strategies are pervasive in university classrooms. This exploratory case study focuses on four biology graduate teaching fellows (BGF) who participated in a National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 Program. Such programs were introduced by NSF to enhance the preparation of prospective faculty for their future professional responsibilities. In this particular program, BGF were paired with high school biology teachers (pedagogical mentors) for at least one year. During this yearlong partnership, BGF were involved in a series of activities related to teaching and learning ranging from classroom teaching, tutoring, lesson planning, grading, to participating in professional development conferences and reflecting upon their practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in BGF understanding of teaching and learning processes in science as a function of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In addition, the potential transfer of this knowledge between high school and higher education contexts was investigated. The findings of this study suggest that understanding of teaching and learning processes in science by the BGF changed. Specific aspects of the BGF involvement in the program (such as classroom observations, practice teaching, communicating with mentors, and reflecting upon one's practice) contributed to PCK development. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that constant reflection is critical in the process of change. Concurrently, BGFs enhanced understanding of science teaching and learning processes may be transferable from the high school context to the university context. Future research studies should be designed to explore explicitly this transfer phenomenon.

Pareja, Jose I.

263

EarthScope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthScope is an Earth science program to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and to understand the processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. Site materials include an overview of the program, quarterly reports, an image gallery, and document archives. There are also descriptions of specific EarthScope initiatives: the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), Plate Boundary Observatory, and USArray Seismic Observatory; and the instruments used in gathering data for these programs. The Data Access page provides datasets and tools for analyzing seismic, GPS, and strainmeter data, as well as materials (cutting and mud sample reports, core logs, lithological reports) from SAFOD. The Education and Outreach page provides information on upcoming workshops and professional development opportunities, and educational products and tools that use EarthScope data.

264

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

1997-01-01

265

Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, herein after referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it is possible to define a multitude of tracer sets, depending on the spatio-temporal representation (i.e., the grid structure) of the model. The required information about a specific chemical species is split into the static meta-information about the characteristics of the species, and its (generally in time and space variable) abundance in the corresponding representation. TRACER moreover includes two submodels. One is TRACER_FAMILY, an implementation of the tracer family concept. It distinguishes between two types: type-1 families are usually applied to handle strongly related tracers (e.g., fast equilibrating species) for a specific process (e.g., advection). In contrast to this, type-2 families are applied for tagging techniques, in which specific species are artificially decomposed and associated with additional information, in order to conserve the linear relationship between the family and its members. The second submodel is TRACER_PDEF, which corrects and budgets numerical negative overshoots that arise in many process implementations due to the numerical limitations (limited precision, rounding errors). The submodel therefore guarantees the positive definiteness of the tracers and stabilises the integration scheme. As a by-product, it further provides a global tracer mass diagnostic. Last but not least, we present the submodel PTRAC for the definition of prognostic tracers via a Fortran95 namelist. TRACER with its submodels and PTRAC can readily be applied to a variety of models without further requirements. The code and a documentation is included in the electronic supplement.

Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Buchholz, J.; Tost, H.; Sander, R.; Pozzer, A.

2007-11-01

266

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

267

Effects of the Earth’s atmosphere and human neural processing of light on the apparent colors of stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical algorithm for quantifying the perceived colors of stars as viewed from the surface of the Earth across a wide range of possible atmospheric conditions. These results are then used to generate color-corrected stellar images. As a first step, optics corrections are calculated to adjust for the CCD bias and the transmission curves of any filters used during image collection. Next, corrections for atmospheric scattering and absorption are determined for the atmospheric conditions during imaging by utilizing the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). These two sets of corrections are then applied to a series of reference spectra, which are then weighted against the CIE 1931 XYZ color matching functions before being mapped onto the sRGB color space, in order to determine a series of reference colors against which the original image will be compared. Each pixel of the image is then re-colored based upon its closest corresponding reference spectrum so that the final image output closely matches, in color, what would be seen by the human eye above the Earth's atmosphere. By comparing against the reference spectrum, the stellar classification for each star in the image can also be determined. An observational experiment is underway to test the accuracy of these calculations.

Savino, Michael; Comins, Neil Francis

2015-01-01

268

Magnetic minerals: Understanding the processes of formation in soils and clays and identifying their presence in the rock record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic minerals can form authigenically in soils and sediments, but the processes involved can be complex and are often a matter of debate. For example, anomalous concentrations in magnetic minerals have been described in soils and their origin has been ascribed to a range of processes including inorganic and biological precipitation. Also, the presence of secondary magnetic minerals in sedimentary rocks has been described and their origin has been related to a variety of geologic processes such as orogenic fluid migration, presence of hydrocarbons, and clay diagenesis. Developing a better understanding for the conditions by which magnetic minerals form in soils and sediments is important because of the information they can provide to decipher the geologic past on Earth and potentially on other planets. This work presents results of biological formation of magnetite under a variety of laboratory conditions in a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil profile. Magnetite was formed only in biological samples but not in the abiotic: counterparts suggesting biological processes may be more important in the formation of magnetic minerals in soils than previously thought. A study on naturally occurring clays heated to temperatures equivalent to low burial conditions (62 and 98°C) resulted in increases in the bulk magnetic susceptibility (chib) in some smectites but not in any of the other tested clays. Furthermore, a closer look was taken at heated smectites and the authigenic magnetic grains that were formed in the process were rock magnetically characterized. The findings suggest that clay diagenetic processes occurring at low temperatures can lead to the formation of magnetite capable of carrying remanence and thus, provide a viable mechanism for the acquisition of secondary magnetizations in sedimentary rocks. Lastly, a rock magnetic comparison of two Paleozoic loessite-paleosol couplets is presented to investigate whether the enhanced chi b trends in the paleosols as compared to the loessite can be confirmed in ancient deposits. The results for one couplet are similar to those from the Chinese Loess Plateau, which have an enrichment of ferrimagnetic material in the paleosol. The second couplet, however, reveals that the variations in the chib can be more complex and shows the importance of combining rock magnetic with sedimentologic evidence in order to identify the origin and preservation of chib patterns in geologic deposits.

Cogoini, Monika

269

Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

Peters, N.E.

2008-01-01

270

Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

Balter, B. M.

1979-01-01

271

The Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory: A web-based system for modeling multi-scale earthquake processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are building a new Problem Solving Environment for use by the seismological, crustal deformation, and tectonics communities for developing an understanding of active tectonic and earthquake processes. The top-level operational architecture of our solid earth research virtual observatory (SERVO) shows science users interacting with interface programs as well as modeling, simulation, and analysis tools. The general architecture follows the "Web Services" model being developed by business interests, but is applied to scientific applications and supporting software resources (such as databases). The system is divided into three tiers: a user interface layer (implemented as a browser interface), a system resource layer, and a middle control layer that maintains proxies (or brokers) to the system resources. The middle tier provides a uniform interface to the resource layer. Following the Web Services approach, we define XML interface abstractions (in WSDL) for basic services (such as File Management) and implement the interface with appropriate technologies (such as with a relational database). Communication between the services is done with an XML messaging architecture (SOAP). Our initial focus is to integrate time-dependent crustal deformation models into the system including both layered analytical and heterogeneous finite element models.

Donnellan, A.; Fox, G.; Rundle, J.; McLeod, D.; Tullis, T.; Grant, L.; Parker, J.; Pierce, M.; Lyzenga, G.; Chen, A.; Lou, J.

2002-12-01

272

Beyond Engagement to Reflection and Understanding: Focusing on the process of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We must engage the public and make science more accessible to all...It is important that the scientific community, in its outreach, help people not only to see the fun of science but also to understand what science is, what a scientific theory is, how science is done, that accepted scientific models or theories are based on evidence, that hypotheses are tested by experiment, and that theories change as new evidence emerges. Shirley Ann Jackson, AAAS Presidential Address, 2005 The nature of science is noted as a critical topic for science literacy; however, by all accounts, Americans' understanding of the nature of science is inadequate, and students and teachers at all grade levels have inaccurate understandings of what science is and how it works. Such findings do not bode well for the future of scientific literacy in the United States. In large part, the current confusions about evolution, global warming, stem cell research, and other aspects of science deemed by some as "controversial" are symptomatic of a general misunderstanding of what science is and what it is not. Too few of our citizens view science as a dynamic process through which we gain a reliable understanding of the natural world. As a result, the public becomes vulnerable to misinformation and the very real benefits of science are obscured. New opportunities are emerging for members of the scientific community to share their science with segments of the public - both informally through science cafés and science festivals, and more formally through science competitions and classroom visits. Each of these helps to make science more accessible and provides a critical first step toward connecting the public to the "fun and excitement" of science. Less often these activities focus on how science works - what science is, what it is not, and what is not science - as well as the creativity, curiosity, exploration, dead-ends, and a-ha moments that inspire scientists. This talk will share a teacher professional development project in which graduate students play a critical role not only in engaging elementary teachers in science, but also in making the process explicit, offering the opportunity to reflect, and increasing teacher understanding of how science really works. Teachers had the chance to do science themselves which went a long way toward reducing their fears of science and increasing their confidence to teach science more effectively. At the same time, the graduate students found that working with the teachers made them better realize their own strengths and revitalized their personal excitement about science.

Scotchmoor, J. G.; Mitchell, B. J.

2011-12-01

273

Exploring the implication of climate process uncertainties within the Earth System Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uncertainties in the magnitude of future climate change have been a focus of a great deal of research. Much of the work with General Circulation Models has focused on the atmospheric response to changes in atmospheric composition, while other processes remain outside these frameworks. Here we introduce an ensemble of new simulations, based on an Earth System configuration of HadCM3C, designed to explored uncertainties in both physical (atmospheric, oceanic and aerosol physics) and carbon cycle processes, using perturbed parameter approaches previously used to explore atmospheric uncertainty. Framed in the context of the climate response to future changes in emissions, the resultant future projections represent significantly broader uncertainty than existing concentration driven GCM assessments. The systematic nature of the ensemble design enables interactions between components to be explored. For example, we show how metrics of physical processes (such as climate sensitivity) are also influenced carbon cycle parameters. The suggestion from this work is that carbon cycle processes represent a comparable contribution to uncertainty in future climate projections as contributions from atmospheric feedbacks more conventionally explored. The broad range of climate responses explored within these ensembles, rather than representing a reason for inaction, provide information on lower likelihood but high impact changes. For example while the majority of these simulations suggest that future Amazon forest extent is resilient to the projected climate changes, a small number simulate dramatic forest dieback. This ensemble represents a framework to examine these risks, breaking them down into physical processes (such as ocean temperature drivers of rainfall change) and vegetation processes (where uncertainties point towards requirements for new observational constraints).

Booth, B.; Lambert, F. H.; McNeal, D.; Harris, G.; Sexton, D.; Boulton, C.; Murphy, J.

2011-12-01

274

Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

1984-01-01

275

The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbon’s role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

2009-12-01

276

Improved understanding of hillslope-scale hydrological processes using high-resolution soil moisture measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is a key variable that controls e.g. matter and energy fluxes, slope stability, occurence of flood events and soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. Deriving detailed process understanding at the hillslope scale is not trivial, because of the non-linearity of hillslope response to rainfall due to local soil moisture dynamics. Characterizing this variability is one of the major challenges in hillslope hydrology. Long-term monitoring of surface and subsurfce soil moisture at various depths can provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal pattern of soil moisture dynamics, and facilitate understanding the controlling factors of underlying hydrological processes. In the Schäfertal catchment (located in the Harz Mountains, in Central Germany) a 2.5 ha hillslope area was permanently instrumented with a wireless soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring network. Ground-based electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements and topographic data were included into a geostatistical sampling strategy in order to optimize the placement of the network nodes. In total, 240 sensors were distributed to create 40 pairs of instrumented soil profiles, providing hourly measurements of soil water content and soil temperature at 5, 25 and 50 cm depth. The soil spatial variability was mapped and the soil texture was determined for each node location and each soil horizon. For the selected monitoring period of 14 months, the soil moisture pattern and its variability through time were analyzed. Seasonal and event-based analysis shows the varying relevance of topography and soil properties in determining several near-surface processes such as preferential flow, subsurface lateral flow and dynamics of the groundwater table.

Martini, Edoardo; Kögler, Simon; Wollschläger, Ute; Werban, Ulrike; Behrens, Thorsten; Schmidt, Karsten; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

2014-05-01

277

An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

Lopez, Ramon E.

1996-01-01

278

Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

2008-01-01

279

Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are 1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, 2) subcritical crack processes, 3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and 4) modeling.

Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

2014-01-16

280

NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS  

SciTech Connect

We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 {<=} Z {<=} 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowan, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Ivans, Inese I. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)], E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu, E-mail: iii@ociw.edu

2009-05-15

281

New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars  

E-print Network

We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

2009-01-01

282

Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, hereinafter referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it is possible to define a multitude of tracer sets, depending on the spatio-temporal representation (i.e., the grid structure) of the model. The required information about a specific chemical species is split into the static meta-information about the characteristics of the species, and its (generally in time and space variable) abundance in the corresponding representation. TRACER moreover includes two submodels. One is TRACER_FAMILY, an implementation of the tracer family concept. It distinguishes between two types: type-1 families are usually applied to handle strongly related tracers (e.g., fast equilibrating species) for a specific process (e.g., advection). In contrast to this, type-2 families are applied for tagging techniques. Tagging means the artificial decomposition of one or more species into parts, which are additionally labelled (e.g., by the region of their primary emission) and then processed as the species itself. The type-2 family concept is designed to conserve the linear relationship between the family and its members. The second submodel is TRACER_PDEF, which corrects and budgets numerical negative overshoots that arise in many process implementations due to the numerical limitations (e.g., rounding errors). The submodel therefore guarantees the positive definiteness of the tracers and stabilises the integration scheme. As a by-product, it further provides a global tracer mass diagnostic. Last but not least, we present the submodel PTRAC, which allows the definition of tracers via a Fortran95 namelist, as a complement to the standard tracer definition by application of the TRACER interface routines in the code. TRACER with its submodels and PTRAC can readily be applied to a variety of models without further requirements. The code and a documentation are included in the electronic supplement.

Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Buchholz-Dietsch, J.; Tost, H.; Sander, R.; Pozzer, A.

2008-03-01

283

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH  

E-print Network

Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

Pringle, James "Jamie"

284

Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9) discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer retrievals under light dust loadings. These results provide insights into boundary layer and dust processes in the SHL region - a region of substantial global climatic importance.

Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estellés, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Rosenberg, P.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Woolley, A.

2015-01-01

285

Treatment of a waste salt delivered from an electrorefining process by an oxidative precipitation of the rare earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the reuse of a waste salt from an electrorefining process of a spent oxide fuel, a separation of rare earth elements by an oxidative precipitation in a LiCl-KCl molten salt was tested without using precipitate agents. From the results obtained from the thermochemical calculations by HSC Chemistry software, the most stable rare earth compounds in the oxygen-used rare earth chlorides system were oxychlorides (EuOCl, NdOCl, PrOCl) and oxides (CeO 2, PrO 2), which coincide well with results of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction. In this study, similar to the thermochemical results, regardless of the sparging time and molten salt temperature, oxychlorides and oxides were formed as a precipitant by a reaction with oxygen. The structure of the rare earth precipitates was divided into two shapes: small cubic (oxide) and large plate-like (tetragonal) structures. The conversion efficiencies of the rare earth elements to their molten salt-insoluble precipitates were increased with the sparging time and temperature, and Ce showed the best reactivity. In the conditions of 650 °C of the molten salt temperature and 420 min of the sparging time, the final conversion efficiencies were over 99.9% for all the investigated rare earth chlorides.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Yang, Hee-Chul; Park, Gil-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Kim, In-Tae

2009-02-01

286

Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

Putnam, Williama

2011-01-01

287

Generalized satellite image processing: eight years of ocean colour data for any region on earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past decade, the world's oceans have been systematically observed by orbiting spectroradiometers such as MODIS and MERIS. These sensors have generated a huge amount of data with unprecedented temporal and spatial coverage. The data is freely available, but not always accessible for marine researchers with no image processing experience. In order to provide historical and current oceanographic parameters for the jellyfish forecasting in the JELLYFOR project, a tool for the generalized processing and archiving of satellite data was created (GRIMAS). Using this generalized software, the large amount of remote sensing data can be accessed, and parameters such as chlorophyll a concentration (CHL), sea surface temperature (SST) and total suspended matter concentration (TSM) can be extracted and gridded for any region on earth. Time-series and climatologies can be easily extracted from this data archive. The products generated can be based on the standard products, as supplied by space agencies, or can be new or regionally calibrated products. All available MODIS and MERIS L2 images from an eight year period (2003-2010) were processed in order to create a gridded dataset of CHL, SST (MODIS only) and of TSM for the three JELLYFOR regions. For two of the regions, data for an extended region was also processed. Multi-year composites (climatologies) of satellite data and time-series can provide a wealth of information for different projects in any region. Climatologies from the two sensors are in good agreement, while significant differences can occur on a scene per scene basis. Total suspended matter concentrations match favourably with in situ data derived from sensors on autonomous buoys. MODIS sea surface temperature corresponds closely to temperature continuously measured underway on research vessels.

Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

2011-11-01

288

Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.  

SciTech Connect

A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

Goussis, Dimitris A. (Ploutonos 7, Palaio Faliro, Greece); Najm, Habib N.

2006-01-01

289

Geophysical signatures of disseminated iron minerals: A proxy for understanding subsurface biophysicochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies have linked biogeophysical signatures to the presence of iron minerals resulting from distinct biophysicochemical processes. Utilizing geophysical methods as a proxy of such biophysicochemical processes requires an understanding of the geophysical signature of the different iron minerals. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility signatures of five iron minerals disseminated in saturated porous media under variable iron mineral content and grain size. Both pyrite and magnetite show high quadrature and inphase conductivities compared to hematite, goethite, and siderite, whereas magnetite was the highly magnetic mineral dominating the magnetic susceptibility measurements. The quadrature conductivity spectra of both pyrite and magnetite exhibit a well-defined characteristic relaxation peak below 10 kHz, not observed with the other iron minerals. The quadrature conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of individual and a mixture of iron minerals are dominated and linearly proportional to the mass fraction of the highly conductive (pyrite and magnetite) and magnetic (magnetite) iron minerals, respectively. The quadrature conductivity magnitude increased with decreasing grain size diameter of magnetite and pyrite with a progressive shift of the characteristic relaxation peak toward higher frequencies. The quadrature conductivity response of a mixture of different grain sizes of iron minerals is shown to be additive, whereas magnetic susceptibility measurements were insensitive to the variation in grain size diameters (1-0.075 mm). The integration of complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements can therefore provide a complimentary tool for the successful investigation of in situ biophysicochemical processes resulting in biotransformation or secondary iron mineral precipitation.

Abdel Aal, Gamal Z.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Revil, A.

2014-09-01

290

Novel image processing techniques to better understand white matter disruption in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows a pattern of white matter (WM) disruption but may also overlook some WM damage. Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) can provide important in-vivo information about fiber direction that is not provided by conventional MRI. The geometry of diffusion tensors can quantitatively characterize the local structure in tissues. The integration of both conventional MRI and DT-MRI measures together with connectivity-based regional assessment provide a better understanding of the nature and the location of WM abnormalities. Image processing and visualization techniques have been developed and applied to study conventional MRI and DT-MRI of MS patients. These include methods of: Image Segmentation for identifying the different areas of the brain as well as to discriminate normal from abnormal WM, Computerized Atlases, which include structural information obtained from a set of subjects, and Tractographies which can aid in the delineation of WM fiber tracts by tracking connected diffusion tensors. These new techniques hold out the promise of improving our understanding of WM architecture and its disruption in diseases such as MS. In the present study, we review the work that has been done in the development of these techniques and illustrate their applications. PMID:17027890

Goldberg-Zimring, Daniel; Warfield, Simon K

2006-10-01

291

Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01

292

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-09-01

293

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

294

Rock albedo and thermal monitoring 801 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 801811 (2005)  

E-print Network

Rock albedo and thermal monitoring 801 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process.1002/esp.1189 Rock albedo and monitoring of thermal conditions in respect of weathering: some expected within geomorphic circles, a general acceptance that rocks with low albedos will warm both faster

Lindgren, Staffan

295

Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 507525 (2006)  

E-print Network

Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Gullying and erosion control at archaeological sites in Grand Canyon, Arizona Joel L. Pederson1 *, Paul A, USA Abstract Gully erosion of cultural sites in Grand Canyon National Park is an urgent management

Pederson, Joel L.

296

Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM 579 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 579588 (2006)  

E-print Network

Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM 579 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 579­588 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/esp Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM at Embori The applicability of the European Soil Erosion Model (EUROSEM) in Kenya was tested on two subcatchments: Embori

Quinton, John

297

Flinders Ranges bedrock erosion 929 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 929944 (2007)  

E-print Network

Flinders Ranges bedrock erosion 929 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1459 Bedrock erosion and relief production in the northern Flinders Ranges, Australia and alluvial sediment in the northern Flinders Ranges reveal surprisingly high erosion rates for a supposedly

Sandiford, Mike

298

SALT MARSH TIDAL CHANNELS 295 Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 295309 (2004)  

E-print Network

SALT MARSH TIDAL CHANNELS 295 Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process March 2002; Revised 6 March 2003; Accepted 25 March 2003 ABSTRACT Salt marsh tidal channels are highly of tidal channels at China Camp Marsh in the San Francisco Bay, California. To model the planform evolution

Fagherazzi, Sergio

299

Turbulent flow over a dune 289 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 289304 (2005)  

E-print Network

Turbulent flow over a dune 289 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Turbulent flow over a dune: Green River, Colorado Jeremy G. Venditti1 * and Bernard O. Bauer2 1 Department of turbulent flow over a mobile dune in a wide, low- gradient, alluvial reach of the Green River. Based

Venditti, Jeremy G.

300

Prediction of kriging errors 601 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 601612 (2005)  

E-print Network

Prediction of kriging errors 601 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Predicting ordinary kriging errors caused by surface roughness and dissectivity Peter P. Siska1 *, Pierre models for predicting the magnitude of OK errors from surface parameters. This task in- cludes

Hung, I-Kuai

301

Teachers as Learners: A Case Study of Teachers' Understanding of Astronomy Concepts and Processes in An ACE Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here investigates the efficacy of a module in an Advanced Certificate in Education course in promoting conceptual understanding in Astronomy. The research attempted to find out how teachers' understanding of astronomy concepts and processes change after completing this module as well as the reasons for such changes, if any.…

Stears, M.; James, A.; Good, M-A.

2011-01-01

302

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface  

E-print Network

Questions about Internal Forces · Evidence of internal forces at Earth's surface · What causes earthquakes? · How do volcanoes form? · Locations of Earthquakes and Volcanoes · Where do earthquakes and volcanoes occur? · Are they uniformly distributed across Earth's surface? Or not? · Temporal Constraints

Polly, David

303

Project EARTH-11-SPH1: Impact ejecta blankets characteristics, origins and processes  

E-print Network

: Professor SP Hesselbo, Dr K Amor Continuous ejecta blankets surrounding impact craters on Earth are poorly that impact craters on Earth are most likely to resemble Martian impact craters e.g. Kenkmann and Schönian in determining the physical properties of ejecta blankets. Martian impact crater and continuous ejecta blankets

Henderson, Gideon

304

Understanding the Triaging and Fixing Processes of Long Lived Bugs Ripon K. Saha, Sarfraz Khurshid, Dewayne E. Perry  

E-print Network

Understanding the Triaging and Fixing Processes of Long Lived Bugs Ripon K. Saha, Sarfraz Khurshid- velopers/managers triage bugs carefully and schedule Email addresses: ripon@utexas.edu (Ripon K. Saha

Perry, Dewayne E.

305

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

306

The dermatology outpatient discharge decision: understanding a critical but neglected process.  

PubMed

Discharge from dermatology outpatients is a critical endpoint of patient care. Despite this, there has been very little research concerning the discharge process and factors influencing the discharge decision. To identify the factors influencing discharge decisions, articles from 1970 to April 2013 were searched in MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PROQUEST and Google Scholar using the keywords 'patient discharge', 'discharge decision', 'factors influencing discharge', 'clinical decision making', 'discharge decision making', 'process of discharge decision', 'outpatient', 'follow up', 'skin disease' and 'dermatology'. Only articles describing outpatient discharge decisions were included. Seventeen outpatient discharge articles were identified, 12 from the U.K. (seven dermatology) and five from the U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Taiwan (all nondermatology). The main influences on outpatient discharge identified were diagnosis and disease severity, clinician's level of experience and perception, patient's preferences, patient's behaviour and quality of life. These influences affected the clinician's judgement on discharge decisions both in appropriate and in inappropriate ways. Little is known concerning discharge decision making in dermatology. Given the central importance of such decisions in the appropriate care of patients and the efficient running of any dermatology service, greater understanding of the influences on discharge decision making is needed. It is therefore critical for dermatologists to be aware of these influences and to ensure that decisions are taken only in the best interests of patients. Further research is required to inform the training of dermatologists on how to take the most appropriate discharge decisions. PMID:24404897

Harun, N A; Salek, S; Piguet, V; Finlay, A Y

2014-05-01

307

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information for both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values may be present in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thus, thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. In this report, calorimetric studies of lactate protonation equilibrium illustrate a distinct influence of nitrate, perchlorate, methylsulfonate and triflate on the thermodynamic parameters associated with TALSPEAK aqueous chemistry. Triflate is identified a closer non-complexing representative of lactate solution chemistry. The reported initial two stability constants for the complexation of americium and neodymium by lactate in triflate medium suggest that the identified medium effects do not significantly affect the speciation.

Zalupski, P. R.; Nash, K. L.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Martin, L. R.

2010-03-01

308

Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.  

PubMed

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

309

Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

2011-01-01

310

Temporal discounting and criminal thinking: understanding cognitive processes to align services.  

PubMed

Temporal discounting is an indicator of impulsivity that has consistently been found to be associated with risky behaviors such as substance abuse and compulsive gambling. Yet, although criminal acts are clearly risky choice behaviors, no study has examined temporal discounting in the criminal attitudes and behaviors of adult offenders. Yet, such investigations have potential to understand the cognitive processes that underlie various criminal patterns of thinking and may help distinguish between high and low risk offenders. Therefore, the current study endeavored to fill this gap in the literature using 146 male inmates within 5 months of release. Results found that temporal discounting is correlated with reactive criminal thinking but was not correlated with proactive criminal thinking. In addition, inmates with higher rates of incarceration were also more likely to have higher rates of temporal discounting. Results shed light on the different cognitive processes that may underlie different styles of criminal thinking as well as potential differences in the discounting rates depending on history of incarcerations. This finding has implications for service delivery in criminal justice settings as those with reactive criminal thinking may benefit from specialized treatments for temporal discounting. PMID:24635040

Varghese, Femina P; Charlton, Shawn R; Wood, Mara; Trower, Emily

2014-05-01

311

Potential contributions of process modeling to understanding and constraining the global methane budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global methane budget is fairly well-constrained in aggregate, but the partitioning of global emissions into the various natural and anthropogenic sources is not. Direct measurements of emissions are essential for quantifying the various terms, but alone are not up to the task as some important source terms are widely distributed across the planet and often remote, and emissions can be highly variable in space and time. The various components of global methane emissions can also be estimated by inverse modeling, which can be constrained by the network of atmospheric concentration and isotopic measurements, but has coarse spatial resolution, and is not so useful for prognostic modeling. Process-based modeling can also help to constrain and evaluate the global methane budget. Using the DNDC model as an example, we review both strengths (e.g., spatial and temporal extrapolation), weaknesses (e.g., incomplete representations; generalization), and challenges (e.g., adequate ancillary data) of process models as a scientific tool for understanding the global methane budget.

Frolking, S.; Li, C.

2008-12-01

312

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

2007-05-01

313

Rock Cycle in the Lab: Earth Products and the Processes That Link Them  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will become familier with the rock cycle. During the first part of the lesson, students work in small groups, each group having a copy of the rock cycle on a sheet of paper and a selection of small-scale samples and photographs that represent the products of the rock cycle. The students lay out their samples and photographs next to what they consider to be the correct boxes on their copy of the rock cycle. In the second part, the teacher constructs a large scale rock cycle throughout the room while the students check their efforts. Students discover that all the parts of the rock cycle are linked together into a sort of global machine and that this machine is driven by energy from the sun and from inside the Earth. They will also realize that the rock cycle involves physical, chemical and biological processes. Copies of both the large scale and student size rock cycles are available at this site.

314

Process Network Approach to Understanding How Forest Ecosystems Adapt to Changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.

Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.

2011-12-01

315

The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

316

Interannual Variations in Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Humidity: Understanding Tropical Convective and Dynamical Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uncertainty remains as to what extent variability in mid to upper tropospheric moisture, especially over the tropics, behaves as constant relative humidity during interannual climate variations associated with ENSO. Systematic variations in HIRS 6.7 micron and MLS 205 GHz suggest that dry subtropical regions evolving during warm SST events depress relative humidity, but the interpretation of these events is still uncertain. Additional specific concerns have to do with regional signatures of convective processes: How does the origin of dry air in the eastern subtropical N. Pacific differ in ENSO warm versus cold years? The dynamics of Rossby wave forcing by convective heating, subtropical jet stream dynamics, and dynamics driven subsidence all come into play here. How variations in precipitating ice hydrometeors from tropical anvils relate to variations in UTH is also a subject of debate? Do variations in precipitating ice, cloud cover and water vapor behavior show any support for the Iris-hypothesis mechanism? Here we examine historical records of SSM/T-2 data to gain a better physical understanding of the effects of deep convective moisture sources and dynamically-induced vertical circulations on UTH. These high frequency microwave measurements (183.3 GHz) take advantage of far less sensitivity to cloud hydrometeors than the 6.7 micron data to yield a record of upper tropospheric relative humidity. Furthermore, signatures of precipitating ice from these channels facilitate comparisons to TRMM hydrometeors detected by radar. In analyzing these observations, we isolate water vapor and temperature change components that affect brightness temperatures and the inferred relative humidity. Trajectory modeling is also used to understand interannual humidity anomalies in terms of outflow fbm convective regions and history of diabatically-driven sinking which modifies relative humidity.

Robertson, Franklin R.; Fitzjarrald, Dan E.; Miller, Timothy L.

2005-01-01

317

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 Dear Colleague; The Division of Earth Sciences (EAR ... Division of Earth Sciences. EAR will now be structured in two Sections: Surface Earth Processes ...

318

Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northwest, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. Since 1) and 3) are 10-minute intervals and 2) is hourly data, we are developing hourly gridded data and using 1-3) to verify and quantify the rain rate observed by the Fukushima University X-band data.

Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

2012-04-01

319

Synthesis, characterization and processing of active rare earth-doped chalcohalide glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications for infrared-transmitting non-oxide glass fibers span a broad range of topics. They can be used in the military, the medical field, telecommunications, and even in agriculture. Rare earth ions are used as dopants in these glasses in order to stimulate emissions in the infrared spectral region. In order to extend the host glass transmission further into the infrared, selenium atoms were substituted for sulfur in the established Ge-S-I chalcohalide glass system and the fundamental properties of these latter glasses were explored. Over 30 different compositions in the Ge-Se-I glass system were investigated as to their thermal and optical properties. The resulting optimum host with a composition of Ge15Se80I5 has a broad transmission range from 0.7 mum to 17.0 mum and a high working range over 145°C. The host glass also exhibited a Tg of 125°C, making rotational casting of a cladding tube for rod-and-tube fiberization a possibility. The base glass was doped with 1000 to 4000 ppm/wt of erbium, dysprosium, or neodymium. When doped with Er3+-ions, absorptions at 1.54 mum and 3.42 mum were observed. Nd3+-doping resulted in an absorption peak near 4.24 mum and Dy3+ ions caused absorption at 1.30 mum. Fluorescence emissions were found for neodymium at 1.396 mum with a FWHM of 74 nm, and for dysprosium at 1.145 mum with a FWHM of 75 nm, at 1.360 mum with a FWHM of 98 rim and at 1.674 mum with a FWHM of 60 nm. High optical quality tubes of the host glass could be formed using rotational casting in silica ampoules. Glass tubes, 4 to 6 cm long with a 1 cm outer diameter and a tailored inner-hole diameter ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 cm could be synthesized by this process with excellent dimensional tolerances around the circumference as well as along the length. A preform of this size provided 25 continuous meters of unclad fiber with diameters ranging from 140 to 200 mum. A UV-curable acrylate cladding was applied via an external coating cup. An x-ray analysis of the resulting fiber verified the constituents of the fiber. Due to tradeoffs between thermal properties, optical properties and rare earth solubility, the Ge-Se-I glass system must still be optimized prior to use as an active fiber device. Nevertheless, the viability of this host system has been demonstrated in this investigation. Some very promising advantages to adding halides to chalcogenide glass systems have been confirmed, including the tailoring of glass transition temperatures, enhancement of rare earth solubility, expanded fluorescence emissions in the IR, and suppression of some impurity absorption bands. Also, the potential for rod-and-tube fiberization utilizing the rotational casting method for tube synthesis has been established along with its resulting pristine core-clad interface. This research provides a foundation for active fiber device applications in the 2 to 10 mum spectral region.

Debari, Roberto Mauro

320

Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk addresses the policy structure in California for developing and approving carbon offset protocols, which rely on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities. In addition to providing an overview of the legal requirements of carbon offsets, we describe a series of case studies of how scientists can engage with policymakers. Based on those experiences, we suggest ways for the earth sciences community to become more involved in climate policy development. California's climate law, known as AB 32, requires that major sectors of the state's economy reduce their emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. As part of AB 32, the California Air Resources Board created a cap-and-trade market to ensure compliance with the statutory target. Under this system, regulated companies have to acquire tradable emissions permits (called 'compliance instruments') for the greenhouse gas emissions they release. The State allocates a certain number of allowances to regulated entities through a mixture of auctions and free transfers, with the total number equal to the overall emissions target; these allowances, along with approved offsets credits, are the compliance instruments that regulated entities are required to obtain by law. One of the key policy design issues in California's cap-and-trade market concerns the use of carbon offsets. Under AB 32, the Air Resources Board can issue offset credits to project developers who reduce emissions outside of the capped sectors (electricity, industry, and transportation)--or even outside of California--pursuant to approved offset protocols. Project developers then sell the credits to regulated companies in California. Essentially, offsets allow regulated entities in California to earn credit for emissions reductions that take place outside the scope of AB 32. Many regulated entities and economists are in favor of offsets because they view them as a source of low-cost compliance instruments. On the other hand, critics argue that some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

2013-12-01

321

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2012-01-01

322

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2013-01-01

323

A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth at 20°W; and 3) a latitude vs. longitude at 4,000 m depth in the entire ocean. Students do this work at home, and come to class prepared with hypotheses that explain variations of their variable observed in their figures. Nutrients, for example, are typically depleted in the surface ocean, increase at intermediate depths, and then typically decrease in deep water. How do oceanic processes drive these variations? In the context of the other variables, and with the help of other group members, they typically develop an understanding of surface productivity, respiration of organic matter in deeper waters, upwelling of deeper water, ocean circulation, insolation, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature dependence of gas solubility. Students then prepare a written explanation to accompany the plots. Cartoon-like depictions of nutrient profiles typically presented in introductory texts have their place, but they lack the complexity inherent in real data. The objective is to mimic the excitement of discovery and the challenge of developing a hypothesis to explain existing data. The ability to develop viable hypotheses to explain real data with real variability are what motivate and inspire many scientists. How can we expect to motivate and inspire students with lackluster descriptions of ocean processes?

Hastings, D. W.

2012-12-01

324

Applications of Future NASA Decadal Missions for Observing Earth's Land and Water Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Misson Objective: To collect altimetry data of the Earth's surface optimized to measure ice sheet elevation change and sea ice thickness, while also generating an estimate of global vegetation biomass.

Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon; Brown, Molly E.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Carroll, Mark; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Omar, Ali

2013-01-01

325

Integrating Empirical-Modeling Approaches to Improve Understanding of Terrestrial Ecology Processes  

SciTech Connect

Recent decades have seen tremendous increases in the quantity of empirical ecological data collected by individual investigators, as well as through research networks such as FLUXNET (Baldocchi et al., 2001). At the same time, advances in computer technology have facilitated the development and implementation of large and complex land surface and ecological process models. Separately, each of these information streams provides useful, but imperfect information about ecosystems. To develop the best scientific understanding of ecological processes, and most accurately predict how ecosystems may cope with global change, integration of empirical and modeling approaches is necessary. However, true integration - in which models inform empirical research, which in turn informs models (Fig. 1) - is not yet common in ecological research (Luo et al., 2011). The goal of this workshop, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, was to bring together members of the empirical and modeling communities to exchange ideas and discuss scientific practices for increasing empirical - model integration, and to explore infrastructure and/or virtual network needs for institutionalizing empirical - model integration (Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA). The workshop included presentations and small group discussions that covered topics ranging from model-assisted experimental design to data driven modeling (e.g. benchmarking and data assimilation) to infrastructure needs for empirical - model integration. Ultimately, three central questions emerged. How can models be used to inform experiments and observations? How can experimental and observational results be used to inform models? What are effective strategies to promote empirical - model integration?

McCarthy, Heather [University of Oklahoma; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01

326

Students' Understanding of Large Numbers as a Key Factor in Their Understanding of Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of geologic time is comprised of 2 facets. Events in Earth's history can be placed in relative and absolute temporal succession on a vast timescale. Rates of geologic processes vary widely, and some occur over time periods well outside human experience. Several factors likely contribute to an understanding of geologic time, one of…

Cheek, Kim A.

2012-01-01

327

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31

328

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01

329

NASA Earth science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans and current status will be presented.

Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

2013-10-01

330

The Relation between Students' Epistemological Understanding of Computer Models and Their Cognitive Processing on a Modelling Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While many researchers in science education have argued that students' epistemological understanding of models and of modelling processes would influence their cognitive processing on a modelling task, there has been little direct evidence for such an effect. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relation between students' epistemological…

Sins, Patrick H. M.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A. M.

2009-01-01

331

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

332

CS 585: Natural Language Processing James Allen, Natural Language Understanding, Second Edition. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, CA, 1995.  

E-print Network

CS 585: Natural Language Processing Texts James Allen, Natural Language Understanding, Second hours Edited March 2006 (html, css checks) CS 585: Natural Language Processing - CS Dept, Illinois ... 1 generator. Locate and evaluate available parsers and generators. Build a natural language interface. Locate

Heller, Barbara

333

MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

334

Optical Observation, Image-processing, and Detection of Space Debris in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on optical observations and an efficient detection method of space debris in the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). We operate our new Australia Remote Observatory (ARO) where an 18 cm optical telescope with a charged-coupled device (CCD) camera covering a 3.14-degree field of view is used for GEO debris survey, and analyse datasets of successive CCD images using the line detection method (Yanagisawa and Nakajima 2005). In our operation, the exposure time of each CCD image is set to be 3 seconds (or 5 seconds), and the time interval of CCD shutter open is about 4.7 seconds (or 6.7 seconds). In the line detection method, a sufficient number of sample objects are taken from each image based on their shape and intensity, which includes not only faint signals but also background noise (we take 500 sample objects from each image in this paper). Then we search a sequence of sample objects aligning in a straight line in the successive images to exclude the noise sample. We succeed in detecting faint signals (down to about 1.8 sigma of background noise) by applying the line detection method to 18 CCD images. As a result, we detected about 300 GEO objects up to magnitude of 15.5 among 5 nights data. We also calculate orbits of objects detected using the Simplified General Perturbations Satellite Orbit Model 4(SGP4), and identify the objects listed in the two-line-element (TLE) data catalogue publicly provided by the U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). We found that a certain amount of our detections are new objects that are not contained in the catalogue. We conclude that our ARO and detection method posse a high efficiency detection of GEO objects despite the use of comparatively-inexpensive observation and analysis system. We also describe the image-processing specialized for the detection of GEO objects (not for usual astronomical objects like stars) in this paper.

Oda, H.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurosaki, H.; Tagawa, M.

2014-09-01

335

Sol-gel process from heterometallic alkoxides to incorporate alkaline- and rare earths in alumina for automotive applications  

SciTech Connect

The high cost of materials prepared by sol-gel processing and the loss of useful surface properties at elevated temperature has prevented the application of sol-gel processed materials in automotive exhaust reduction catalyst formulations. In this report, the authors briefly describe the important developments needed in the next generation automotive catalysts and the role of sol-gel processed materials. They will also discuss the application of heterometallic alkoxides as sol-gel precursors to achieve the molecular distribution of lanthanides and alkaline earths in alumina matrices needed for the stabilization of alumina based materials at elevated temperatures.

Narula, C.K. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-12-31

336

Effect of Friction Stir Processing on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Cast-Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-pass friction stir processing (FSP) was used to increase the mechanical properties of a cast Mg-Zn-Zr-rare earth (RE) alloy, Elektron 21. A fine grain size was achieved through intense plastic deformation and the control of heat input during processing. The effects of processing and heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated. An aging treatment of 16 hours at 200 °C resulted in a 0.2 pct proof stress of 275 MPa in the FSP material, a 61 pct improvement over the cast + T6 condition.

Freeney, T. A.; Mishra, R. S.

2010-01-01

337

A deeper understanding of processes controlling hydrogeochemical fluxes through shallow karstic critical zones (the epikarst). (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting the magnitude and timing of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes through epikarst systems in response to environmental drivers (precipitation, evapotranspiration) is difficult. In the past, much work has focused on using hydrograph and chemograph data to estimate hydrologic properties and physical structure of the epikarst and less has been done to develop predictive models for the occurrence and magnitude of these responses. Predictive models are useful for a variety of reasons including water balance/recharge calculations and as a foundation for better characterizing the physical, chemical, and biological processes that influence infiltration into and recharge through the epikarst, and the evolution of waters along flowpaths. Over the past six years, we have collected continuous high-frequency discharge, geochemical, and environmental data at several sites in caves in Texas and Virginia, and detailed ecohydrologic data at the TX site. A simple predictive model of recharge response and magnitude has been developed for drip-site and springshed scale in TX, and a similar model is under development for the VA site. In both cases, data and modeling results allow hypothesis testing and questions to be answered regarding how the epikarst and related soil and biological systems function to store and transfer water vertically (up and down) and horizontally (via perched aquifers). Surprisingly, even though the two sites have few similarities with regard to structure, lithology, or climate, there are similarities in terms of how hydrologic responses in the caves are controlled by short-term (seasonal or shorter) environmental parameters. While these specific models are not applicable to all epikarst systems, they do suggest that similar approaches can be used to understand the most important environmental controls on infiltration and recharge in other settings. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring at a range of in-cave sites with different hydrologic properties in order to develop a reasonable conceptual model of flow and storage in the epikarst. Our understanding of how these systems function has been greatly facilitated by three approaches: 1) long-term continuous data spanning multiple seasons or climatic cycles, 2) an interdisciplinary approach, and 3) conceptualization of the epikarst a critical zone rather than as a system dominated by bedrock for and geologic structure.

Schwartz, B.; Gerard, B.; Schreiber, M. E.; Schwinning, S.

2013-12-01

338

MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

Clifford, Stephen M. (editor); Haberle, Robert M. (editor)

1988-01-01

339

he Earth and Planetary Sciences section of the Platinum Jubilee volume contains a  

E-print Network

Foreword T he Earth and Planetary Sciences section of the Platinum Jubilee volume contains a set to important physical and chemical processes that occur within the earth, on its surface, and in its atmosphere a better understanding to the evolution of two impor- tant earth phenomena that impact human culture

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

340

Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early Precambrian (Archean, Early Paleoproterozoic) tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth was rather different from the Phanerozoic: the major features then were huge granite-greenstone terranes (GGTs) and their separating granulite belts; mantle melts were derived from a depleted source. The GGTs consisting of greenstone belts with komatiite-basaltic magmatism in Archean, "submerged" in granite gneiss matrix, probably, strong reworked primordial sialic crust, and by siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) in early Paleoproterozoic. GGTs were areas of extension, uplifting and denudation, whereas the granulite belts were dominated by compression, sinking and sedimentation. Generally, the Early Precambrian geological pattern was rather different from the modern plate tectonics and can be described in plumetectonics terms. A drastic change of the tectonomagamtic and ecology processes on it's surface occurred at ca. 2.3-2.0 Ga: instead of high-Mg magmas appeared geochemical enriched Fe-Ti pucrites and basalts, and the plume tectonic was changed by plate tectonics, which is still active now, as well as ecologic situation on the surface. Since that time the primordial sialic continental crust has been gradually replaced by the secondary basaltic oceanic crust. Systematic consumption of the ancient crust in subduction zones obviously started at ~2 Ga and led to gradually replacing it by the secondary mafic (oceanic) crust. The crustal materials has stored in the "slab cemeteries", revealed in the mantle by seismic tomography. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Moon began4.4-4.0 Ga in lunar highlands with low-Ti magnesium suite, analogous to the terrestrial Paleoproterozoic SHMS. Cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes, close to that on the Earth, happed on the Moon ~3.9 Ga to form large depressions of lunar maria with thinned crust and vast basaltic volcanism with signatures of plume magmatism (high-Ti basalts). The lunar maria were, probably, specific analogues of Earth's oceans. On Venus and Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basal

Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

2009-04-01

341

Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications  

SciTech Connect

Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

Peter Kelly Sokolowski

2007-12-01

342

The modes of occurrence of rare-earths ores and the issues on their beneficiation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earths (RE) ores can largely be divided into the following four types in terms of the modes of occurrence. In each type of RE ores, there are some issues on beneficiation processes, which should be resolved for their successful exploitation. 1. Fine-grained phosphates with iron oxides: This type ores are commonly found from weathered carbonatite and IOCG deposits. The former is Araxa (Brazil), Zandkopsdrift (South Africa), Mt. Weld (Australia) and Yen Phu (Vietnam), and the latter Bayan Obo (China), Vergenoeg (South Africa) and Olympic Dam (Australia). Main RE minerals are monazite, xenotime and florencite contained in the aggregates of iron oxides such as goethite, hematite and magnetite. Fluorite often occurs in the latter type ores. The phosphates and iron oxides occur commonly as very fine grains (< 10 micron meters), and thus they are not readily separated by conventional physical processing. 2. Fluorapatite veins: This type ores are found from the deposits related to alkaline igneous rocks. Nolans Bore (Australia), Palabora (South Africa) and Mushugai Khudag (Mongolia) are the examples. RE is contained mostly in fluorapatite and associated monazite. It is expected that RE can be produced as byproducts of phosphorus fertilizer. However, dissolution of fluorapatite by sulfuric acid causes the coprecipitation of RE with gypsum, which is a refractory material. 3. Silicates and niobium oxides: This type ores are found from hydrothermally altered alkaline plutonic rocks or pegmatitic veins related to alkaline magmatism. Nechalacho and Strange Lake (Canada), Kvanefjeld (Greenland), Bokan Mountain (US), Norra Karr (Sweden) and Dubbo (Australia) are the representative deposits. Main RE minerals are zircon, eudialyte, mosandrite, fergusonite and allanite. They are relatively enriched in heavy RE, and it is expected that part of RE can be produced as byproducts of zirconium. However, their acid dissolution often causes the coprecipitation of RE with silica gel, which is also a refractory material. 4. Medium- to coarse-grained carbonates: This type ores occur in less weathered carbonatite bodies. Mountain Pass (US), Maoniuping (China) and Dong Pao (Vietnam) are the representative deposits. Bastnasite is a main RE mineral. Though, the ores can readily be beneficiated by conventional flotation and dissolved by acid solution, they are always depleted in heavy RE.

Takagi, T.

2012-04-01

343

carleton.ca Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

carleton.ca Earth Sciences #12;Earth is our home. It is a dynamic planet, integrating and recording spectrometers or electron microprobes--earth scientists investigate Earth's evolution to help understand future today and for the future is enhanced by the expertise of economic geologists. Knowledge of the Earth

Dawson, Jeff W.

344

The Grieving Process in Children: Strategies for Understanding, Educating, and Reconciling Children's Perceptions of Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of how young children understand death, and offers concrete strategies for talking to children about death and suggestions for teachers about how to help children of various ages through grief and mourning. Highlights developmental differences in four components of children's understanding of death: irreversibility, finality,…

Willis, Clarissa A.

2002-01-01

345

Refining the Understanding of Inhibitory Processes: How Response Prepotency Is Created and Overcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with…

Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.; Gorniak, Sarah L.; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

2012-01-01

346

New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper,

Christopher Sneden; James E. Lawler; John J. Cowan; Inese I. Ivans; Elizabeth A. Den Hartog; Inese I

2009-01-01

347

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

2007-04-19

348

The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land management practices, energy production, industrial development, and urbanization. Emphasis should be placed on, for instance, new observation networks incorporating remote sensing techniques with ground-based observations; the role of land-cover changes in modulating carbon, nitrogen, and hydrological cycles and, consequently, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol dynamics, and climate; regional (high-latitude) processes and their influence on global simulations; and interactions among anthropogenic and biogenic aerosols, clouds, and climate. 1. Ciais Ph 2005 Nature 2. Kulmala M et al 2004 Atmos Chem Phys 3. Philippon N et al 2005 J Geophys Res 4. Arneth A et al 2010a Nature Geoscience 5. Ganzeveld L et al 2010 J Geophys Res 6. Teuling A et al. 2010 Nature Geoscience 7. Arneth A et al 2010b Biogeosciences 8. Bonan GB et al. 2011 J Geophys Res 9. Davin EL and Seneviratne SI 2011 Biogeosciences 10. Pitman AJ et al 2011 Int J Clim 11. de Noblet-Ducoudré N et al 2012 J Clim 12. Rosenfeld D et al. 2008 Science 13. Stevens B and Feingold G 2009 Nature 14. Li Z et al 2011 Nature Geoscience 15. Pitman AJ et al 2009 Geophys Res Let 16. Baldocchi DD et al. 2005 Int J Biomet 17. Hari P et al 2009 Bor Env Res 18. Guenther A et al 2011 Bor Env Res 19. de Leeuw G et al. 2011 Biogeosciences 20. Jung M et al 2011 J Geophys Res

Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

2012-12-01

349

Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

350

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

351

Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

Krasil'nikov, N.A.

1987-11-01

352

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

353

Astrochronology of the late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay (Dorset, England) and implications for Earth system processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) is an economically important, organic-rich source rock of Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian age. The main rock types of the KCF in Dorset, UK, include grey to black laminated shale, marl, coccolithic limestone, and dolostone, which occur with an obvious cyclicity at astronomical timescales. In this study, we examine two high-resolution borehole records (Swanworth Quarry 1 and Metherhills 1) obtained as part of a Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) sediment drilling project. Datasets examined were total organic carbon (TOC), and borehole wall microconductivity by Formation Microscanner (FMS). Our intent is to assess the rhythmicity of the KCF with respect to the astronomical timescale, and to discuss the results with respect to other key Late Jurassic geological processes. Power spectra of the untuned data reveal a hierarchy of cycles throughout the KCF with ˜ 167 m, ˜ 40 m, 9.1 m, 3.8 m and 1.6 m wavelengths. Tuning the ˜ 40 m cycles to the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle shows the presence of all the astronomical parameters: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession index. In particular, ˜ 100-kyr and 405-kyr eccentricity cycles are strongly expressed in both records. The 405-kyr eccentricity cycle corresponds to relative sea-level changes inferred from sequence stratigraphy. Intervals with elevated TOC are associated with strong obliquity forcing. The 405-kyr-tuned duration of the lower KCF (Kimmeridgian Stage) is 3.47 Myr, and the upper KCF (early part of the Tithonian Stage, elegans to fittoni ammonite zones) is 3.32 Myr. Two other chronologies test the consistency of this age model by tuning ˜ 8-10 m cycles to 100-kyr (short eccentricity), and ˜ 3-5 m cycles to 36-kyr (Jurassic obliquity). The 'obliquity-tuned' chronology resolves an accumulation history for the KCF with a variation that strongly resembles that of Earth's orbital eccentricity predicted for 147.2 Ma to 153.8 Ma. There is evidence for significant non-deposition (up to 1 million years) in the lowermost KCF ( baylei- mutabilis zones), which would indicate a Kimmeridgian/Oxfordian boundary age of 154.8 Ma. This absolute calibration allows assignment of precise numerical ages to zonal boundaries, sequence surfaces, and polarity chrons of the lower M-sequence.

Huang, Chunju; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda

2010-01-01

354

Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements during magmatic and post-magmatic processes: a case study from the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, northern Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concern about security of supply of critical elements used in new technologies, such as the Rare Earth Elements (REE), means that it is increasingly important to understand the processes by which they are enriched in crustal settings. High REE contents are found in syenite-dominated alkaline complexes intruded along the Moine Thrust Zone, a major collisional zone in north-west Scotland. The most northerly of these is the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, which comprises three separate intrusions. One of these, the Cnoc nan Cuilean intrusion, contains two mappable zones: a Mixed Syenite Zone in which mafic melasyenite is mixed and mingled with leucosyenite and a Massive Leucosyenite Zone. Within the Mixed Syenite Zone, hydrothermal activity is evident in the form of narrow altered veins dominated by biotite and magnetite; these are poorly exposed and their lateral extent is uncertain. The REE mineral allanite is relatively abundant in the melasyenite and is extremely enriched in the biotite-magnetite veins, which have up to 2 % total rare earth oxides in bulk rock analyses. An overall model for development of this intrusion can be divided into three episodes: (1) generation of a Light Rare Earth Element (LREE)-enriched parental magma due to enrichment of the mantle source by subduction of pelagic carbonates; (2) early crystallisation of allanite in melasyenite, due to the saturation of the magma in the LREE; and (3) hydrothermal alteration, in three different episodes identified by petrography and mineral chemistry, generating the intense enrichment of REE in the biotite-magnetite veins. Dating of allanite and titanite in the biotite-magnetite veins gives ages of c. 426 Ma, overlapping with previously published crystallisation ages for zircon in the syenite.

Walters, A. S.; Goodenough, K. M.; Hughes, H. S. R.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Gunn, A. G.; Rushton, J.; Lacinska, A.

2013-10-01

355

A strategy for Earth science from space in the 1980s. Part 1: Solid earth and oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report develops a ten-year science strategy for investigating the solid earth and dynamics of world oceans from Earth orbit. The strategy begins from the premise that earth studies have proceeded to the point where further advances in understanding Earth processes must be based on a global perspective and that the U.S. is technically ready to begin a global study approach from Earth orbit. The major areas of study and their fundamental problems are identified. The strategy defines the primary science objectives to be addressed and the essential measurements and precision to achieve them.

1982-01-01

356

Investigating Earth Changes-Looking at Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity students will learn about changes that occur in the earth's surface by investigating the process of weathering and erosion. Through interactive lectures and experiments students will understand how weathering and erosion take place and change the earth.

Gutknecht, Stafford

357

Planetary cores formation: Evidence from evolution of tectonomagmatic processes and paleomagnetic data for the Earth and the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological and petrological data on evolution of tectonomagmatic processes on the Earth and the Moon evidence that their primordial iron cores were formed as a result of heterogeneous accretion from material, existed in the Solar system in the early stages of their development, when the terrestrial planets were born and were their embryos. Material of these primordial cores began to involve in tectonomagmatis processes only at the middle stages of their development, leading to cardinal reorganization of the planets geodynamics and gradually replacement of ancient sialic crust for secondary basaltic. Modern cores of the bodies are formed by mixture of material of the primordial cores and iron of chondrite origin.

Sharkov, E.

2013-09-01

358

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

359

Temporal Variation of the Geopotential: Processes and Interactions Among the Earth's Subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seasonal variations in the Earth's gravitational field are investigated through the analyis of LAGEOS I satellite laser ranging measurements and are compared with those produced by atmospheric mass redistribution as inferred from global surface pressure date from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalyses.

Dickey, J. O.; Dong, D.; Gross, R. S.

1997-01-01

360

Understanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The understanding of runoff generation mechanisms is crucial for the sustainable management of river basins such as the allocation of water resources or the prediction of floods and droughts. However, identifying the mechanisms of runoff generation has been a challenging task, even more so in arid and semi-arid areas where high rainfall and streamflow variability, high evaporation rates, and deep groundwater reservoirs increase the complexity of hydrological process dynamics. Isotope and hydrochemical tracers have proven to be useful in identifying runoff components and their characteristics. Moreover, although widely used in humid-temperate regions, isotope hydrograph separations have not been studied in detail in arid and semi-arid areas. Thus the purpose of this study is to determine if isotope hydrograph separations are suitable for the quantification and characterization of runoff components in a semi-arid catchment considering the hydrological complexities of these regions. Through a hydrochemical characterization of the surface water and groundwater sources of the catchment and two and three component hydrograph separations, runoff components of the Kaap Catchment in South Africa were quantified using both, isotope and hydrochemical tracers. No major disadvantages while using isotope tracers over hydrochemical tracers were found. Hydrograph separation results showed that runoff in the Kaap catchment is mainly generated by groundwater sources. Two-component hydrograph separations revealed groundwater contributions between 64 and 98% of total runoff. By means of three-component hydrograph separations, runoff components were further separated into direct runoff, shallow and deep groundwater components. Direct runoff, defined as the direct precipitation on the stream channel and overland flow, contributed up to 41% of total runoff during wet catchment conditions. Shallow groundwater defined as the soil water and near-surface water component, contributed up to 45% of total runoff, and deep groundwater contributed up to 84% of total runoff. A strong correlation for the four studied events was found between the antecedent precipitation conditions and direct runoff. These findings suggest that direct runoff is enhanced by wetter conditions in the catchment which trigger saturation excess overland flow as observed in the hydrograph separations.

Camacho, V. V.; Saraiva Okello, A. M. L.; Wenninger, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

2015-01-01

361

UNDERSTANDING THE ADOPTION OF WEB-ENABLED TRANSACTION PROCESSING BY SMALL BUSINESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise of the Internet and e-commerce has led to the increasing use of the web for transaction processing. Many organizations have adopted web-enabled transaction processing for applications such as processing payments online, selling products online, making travel reservations to name a few. In spite of the trend in this direction, transaction processing is not a major application on the

Pamila Dembla; Prashant Palvia; Balaji Krishnan

2007-01-01

362

Understanding Language: An Information-Processing Analysis of Speech Perception, Reading, and Psycholinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an information-processing approach to language processing, language processing is viewed as a sequence of psychological stages that occur between the initial presentation of the language stimulus and the meaning in the mind of the language processor. This book defines each of the processes and structures involved, explains how each of them…

Massaro, Dominic W., Ed.

363

Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with linguistic and mathematical symbols; hence there exist at least two perspectives of modelling, physical and mathematical modelling. According to Greca and Moreira (2001) [2] understanding of physics in school is achieved if it is possible to predict a physical phenomenon from its physical models. Yet, apart from the physical and the mathematical perspective of modelling other perspectives of modelling are necessary for understanding complex physical phenomena. To prevent confusion for the learner it is essential to differentiate between these different perspectives of modelling. This process of differentiation between various perspectives of modelling will be referred to as `Multiperspective-Modelling'. Prior studies (F. Goldberg and L. McDermott, (1986), Wiesner 1992) [1, 5] on how individual students think about images in plane mirrors revealed that the learners have misconceptions. Based on the idea of `Multiperspective-Modelling' we developed and evaluated a special training for the learner. This training differentiates physical, mathematical and `human' perspectives of modelling of the plane mirror phenomenon. The purposes of this study were to investigate the understanding of the plane mirror phenomenon of novices, before and after the special training.

Böhm, U.; Pospiech, G.; Körndle, H.; Narciss, S.

2010-07-01

364

Process-based understanding of the morphological evolution of embayed beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embayed beaches are well-known for the curvature of their shorelines and are often observed in states of dynamic or static equilibrium. These equilibrium states are typically assumed to be influenced by headland geometry, cellular circulation patterns, wave obliquity at the shoreline and diffraction in and around the shadow zone. A comprehensive understanding of the role of (i) wave forcing, (ii) environmental conditions and (iii) the geological setting in embayed beach evolution has not yet been established due to limited observations, scale effects in laboratory experiments and inherent limitations of one-line coastal models. The aim of this study is to highlight the effect of systematically varying (i), (ii) and (iii) and to synthesize the results. State-of-the-art 2DH morphological models are currently sufficiently advanced that they can be used to obtain greater insight into the interaction between hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes over large spatial and temporal scales. As such, morphodynamic simulations of the evolution of a schematic embayment from an initially straight beach under idealized wave forcing conditions were done. The beach lies between two headland structures and has a large, highly curved shadow zone. Simulations are typically run for 3 years for a bay width of 150 m. Wave forcing is varied between a mixture of time-invariant and time-varying cases. Environmental conditions are varied by changing sediment size, tidal amplitude and mean wave height. The geological setting is varied by changing the angle of obliquity of the waves and the bay width. Several wave climate variables influence the distribution of wave energy throughout the bay and in the shadow zone: wave direction, directional spreading and wave height. Diffraction is shown to be dominant only when the wave conditions are both narrow-banded and when the incoming waves are highly oblique. Nevertheless, time varying wave directions (as little as 6%) can account for shoreline curvature in the shadow zone. Changes in environmental conditions and geological setting generally affect the rate of development of the bay as well as the equilibrium size of the bay. For example: increased tidal amplitude enhances the size of the shadow zone due to modulation of the wave energy in this area, and wider bays require an exponentially larger period of time to attain equilibrium (~1200 years for a bay width of 600 m). For all simulations, changes in flow and transport patterns are noted as the bay develops and are shown to be consistently related to long-term, non-uniform shoreline cutback (beach rotation) which progressively weakens the residual long-shore current and sediment transport. Thus, the curvature of the shoreline is primarily a remnant of decaying erosion processes resulting from beach rotation. Therefore, from the wide range of simulations, a robust explanation of how embayed beaches attain their equilibrium planform shape can be given.

Daly, C. J.; Bryan, K. R.; Winter, C.

2013-12-01

365

Elementary GLOBE Unit: All About Earth Our World on Stage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, the GLOBE Kids are excited to perform a play for the rest of the school, demonstrating what they have learned about the Earth and all of its parts. They hit a glitch when they cannot decide which Earth component is the most important, but end up learning a lot about the Earth, Sun, water, air, soil, and living things, and the way these components are interconnected. In Activity 1: Earth System in a Bottle, students will understand how water, soil, and sunlight support plant life. They will learn how to set up fair tests, record detailed observations, draw conclusions, and share their results. In Activity 2: We're All Connected, students will gain an awareness that the Earth's processed are interconnected and that Earth system interactions can be seen all around them. In Activity 3: Earth System Play, students will demonstrate their knowledge of the Earth as a system of the above-mentioned components.

2006-01-01

366

NASA RESEARCH PRIORITIESNASA RESEARCH PRIORITIES SCIENTIFIC RETURNSCIENTIFIC RETURN Aquarius Science Goal To understand the regional and global processes  

E-print Network

NASA RESEARCH PRIORITIESNASA RESEARCH PRIORITIES SCIENTIFIC RETURNSCIENTIFIC RETURN Aquarius and ocean circulation and influence present and future climate. Aquarius Science Goal ­ To understand the regional and global processes that couple changes in the water cycle and ocean circulation and influence

Waliser, Duane E.

367

Why Is Evolution Important? The discovery and understanding of the processes of evolution represent one of the most  

E-print Network

#12;Why Is Evolution Important? The discovery and understanding of the processes of evolution represent one of the most powerful achievements in the history of science. Evolution successfully explains education in our schools is being undermined by efforts to introduce non-scientific concepts about evolution

Lanterman, Aaron

368

Enduring Understandings, Artistic Processes, and the New Visual Arts Standards: A Close-up Consideration for Curriculum Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Writing Team member Marilyn G. Stewart discusses what to expect from the new "next generation" Visual Arts Standards, detailing the 4 Artistic Processes and 15 Enduring Understandings. This invited essay addresses the instructional aspects of the standards, and looks at how they can help…

Stewart, Marilyn G.

2014-01-01

369

Welcome to College? Developing a Richer Understanding of the Transition Process for Adult First Year Students Using Reflective Written Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the process of adjustment among adult learners by focusing on their own perceptions as they make the transition to higher education in an Irish setting, in order to gain a richer understanding about early university experience. The analysis of the journal-based reflections confirms existing insights about the complexity of…

Risquez, Angelica; Moore, Sarah; Morley, Michael

2008-01-01

370

The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

2010-01-01

371

Gravel-Bed Rivers VI: From Process Understanding to River Restoration H. Habersack, H. Pie gay, M. Rinaldi, Editors  

E-print Network

literature on sediment transport in rivers, the predominant viewpoint is that the rate of sediment transportGravel-Bed Rivers VI: From Process Understanding to River Restoration H. Habersack, H. Pie´ gay, M. Rinaldi, Editors r 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 473 18 Sediment storage and transport in coarse

Eaton, Brett

372

The effects of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ conceptual understanding of matter, scientific process skills and science attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) environments, on students’ conceptual understanding of matter, scientific process skills and attitudes towards science. A teaching intervention was designed on the basis of IBL principles, which was put into practice in a 5th grade science class (n=20). Instruction lasted 8 weeks in total as provided by normal science

P?nar ?im?ek; Filiz Kabap?nar

2010-01-01

373

Understanding the Zongo : processes of socio-spatial marginalization in Ghana  

E-print Network

The spatial processes of marginalization and ghettoization have been described, labeled, and theorized extensively in the United States and Europe, yet there has been little research dedicated to these processes in the ...

Williamson, Emily Anne

2014-01-01

374

Integration of multi-discipline data processing for earth observing systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first steps taken to ensure the controlled evolution of existing facilities toward greater interoperability and sharing of resources among NASA-supported earth science and applications data systems (ESADS) are described. Recommendations made by the various panels during the 1987 ESADS Workshop are presented. The panels were concerned with directories and catalogs, data archives, data manipulation software, computational facilities, data storage media, database management, and networking. Consideration was also given to the tracking and tuning of overall development and management coordination issues.

Kahn, Ralph; Chase, Robert

1987-01-01

375

Processing and electrical properties of alkaline earth-doped lanthanum gallate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxides exhibiting substantial oxygen ion conductivity are utilized in a number of high-temperature applications, including solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, membrane reactors, and oxygen sensors. Alkaline earth-doped lanthanum gallate powders were prepared by glycine\\/nitrate combustion synthesis. Compacts of powders synthesized under fuel-rich conditions were sintered to densities greater than 97% of theoretical. Appropriate doping with Sr or Ba

J. W. Stevenson; T. R. Armstrong; D. E. McCready; L. R. Pederson; W. J. Weber

1997-01-01

376

Efficient qubit detection using alkaline-earth-metal ions and a double stimulated Raman adiabatic process  

SciTech Connect

We present a scheme for robust and efficient projection measurement of a qubit consisting of the two magnetic sublevels in the electronic ground state of alkaline-earth-metal ions. The scheme is based on two stimulated Raman adiabatic passages involving four partially coherent laser fields. We show how the efficiency depends on experimentally relevant parameters: Rabi frequencies, pulse widths, laser linewidths, one- and two-photon detunings, residual laser power, laser polarization, and ion motion.

Moeller, Ditte; Soerensen, Jens L.; Thomsen, Jakob B.; Drewsen, Michael [QUANTOP - Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 (Denmark)

2007-12-15

377

Efficient qubit detection using alkali earth metal ions and a double STIRAP process  

E-print Network

We present a scheme for robust and efficient projection measurement of a qubit consisting of the two magnetic sublevels in the electronic ground state of alkali earth metal ions. The scheme is based on two stimulated Raman adiabatic passages (STIRAP) involving four partially coherent laser fields. We show how the efficiency depends on experimentally relevant parameters: Rabi frequencies, pulse widths, laser linewidths, one- and two-photon detunings, residual laser power, laser polarization and ion motion.

Ditte Møller; Jens L. Sørensen; Jakob B. Thomsen; Michael Drewsen

2007-10-10

378

Social-Motivational Processes and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Understanding Motivation at School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-motivational processes and socialization experiences can play a critical role in students' academic success. However, the search for specific mechanisms and processes that explain these social influences on motivation is still in its inception. The purpose of this article was to begin to articulate some of these processes in the hope that more precise explanations of influence will emerge. The

Kathryn R. Wentzel

1999-01-01

379

Intercultural Understanding: The Problem and a Process. Social Studies for the Elementary School. Proficiency Module #7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is one in a series of teaching modules developed for a contemporary social studies curriculum. The purpose of this module is to develop an understanding of the sources of content to be used in an intercultural awareness curriculum and to reinforce teaching strategies learned in the other modules by applying them to the development of…

Keach, Everett T., Jr.

380

An Ecological Approach to Understanding Sexual Revictimization: Linking Personal, Interpersonal, and Sociocultural Factors and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies an ecological model to the problem of sexual revictimization to advance the understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to child sexual abuse victims' increased risk of being sexually victimized later in life. This ecological model explores how sexual revictimization is multiply determined by factors related to the victim's personal history (e.g., traumatic sexualization), the

Liz Grauerholz

2000-01-01

381

Invited Commentary: Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Pain Processing in Adolescents' Non-Suicidal Self-Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) is reported in 13-23% of adolescents and is an increasingly studied topic, there has been little investigation into the pathophysiology behind self-injury. This commentary examines recent research into pain and emotional distress to discuss implications for the manner we should understand, research, and…

Ballard, Elizabeth; Bosk, Abigail; Pao, Maryland

2010-01-01

382

Robotics and Science Literacy: Thinking Skills, Science Process Skills and Systems Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a study of the relationship of robotics activity to the use of science literacy skills and the development of systems understanding in middle school students. Twenty-six 11-12-year-olds (22 males and 4 females) attending an intensive robotics course offered at a summer camp for academically advanced students…

Sullivan, Florence R.

2008-01-01

383

Understanding Decimal Proportions: Discrete Representations, Parallel Access, and Privileged Processing of Zero  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results…

Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R.

2013-01-01

384

Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models  

PubMed Central

There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

2014-01-01

385

Using Statistical Natural Language Processing for Understanding Complex Responses to Free-Response Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas great advances have been made in the statistical sophistication of assessments in terms of evidence accumulation and task selection, relatively little statistical work has explored the possibility of applying statistical techniques to data for the purposes of determining appropriate domain understanding and to generate task-level scoring…

DeMark, Sarah F.; Behrens, John T.

2004-01-01

386

The GEC Reference Cell as a Benchmark for Understanding Microelectronic Processing Plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microelectronics manufacturing industry has used plasmas to etch and deposit materials for many years. Comparisons between experiments and models used to understand these plasmas vary, as does the behavior of seemingly identical commercial reactors. To address this problem, a collaborative experimental effort was initiated at the 1988 Gaseous Electronic Conference (GEC). An ad hoc committee was formed to develop

M. L. Brake

1998-01-01

387

Monitoring and Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment and its influence on sacchrification kinetics, total sugar yield, and inhibitor formation is essential to develop efficient next-generation biofuels strategies, capable of displacing fossil fuels at a commercial level. In this study we investigate t...

388

Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)  

E-print Network

The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic heat. A typical scale of the processes that take place at the CMB is about 200km. To observe these processes from the surface requires an angular resolution of about 3 degrees. EARTH aims at creating a high-resolution 3D-map of the radiogenic heat sources in the interior of the Earth. It will thereby contribute to a better understanding of a number of geophysical phenomena observed at the surface of the Earth. This condition requires a completely different approach from the monolithic detector systems as e.g. KamLAND. This paper presents, for such telescopes, the boundary conditions set by ph...

De Meijer, R J; Fearick, R W; Mantovani, F; Smit, F D; Wörtche, H J

2006-01-01

389

LamontDoherty Earth Observatory The Earth Institute at Columbia UniversityThe Earth Institute at Columbia Univ  

E-print Network

12 12 Lamont­Doherty Earth Observatory The Earth Institute at Columbia UniversityThe Earth-DOHERTYEARTHOBSERVATORYTHEEARTHINSTITUTEATCOLUMBIAUNIVERSITYBIENNIALREPORT2000­2002 #12;Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory is renowned in the internationLamont-Doherty Earth suc- cess and innovation in advancing understanding of Earth, for itcess and innovation in advancing

390

Monitoring and Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment and its influence on saccharification kinetics, total sugar yield, and inhibitor\\u000a formation is essential to develop efficient next-generation biofuel strategies, capable of displacing fossil fuels at a commercial\\u000a level. In this study, we investigated the effect of residence time and temperature during ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of\\u000a switchgrass using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate. The primary metrics

Rohit Arora; Chithra Manisseri; Chenlin Li; Markus D. Ong; Henrik Vibe Scheller; Kenneth Vogel; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

2010-01-01

391

Understanding invasion as a process: the case of Phalaris arundinacea in wet prairies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants that most threaten biodiversity are those that rapidly form a monospecific stand, like the clonal grass, Phalaris arundinacea. Understanding complex and potentially interacting factors that are common in urban and agricultural landscapes and underlie\\u000a rapid invasions requires an experimental, factorial approach. We tested the effects of flooding and nutrient and sediment\\u000a additions (3 ? 3 ? 3 = 27 treatments, plus a control with

Suzanne M. Kercher; Andrea Herr-Turoff; Joy B. Zedler

2007-01-01

392

Robotics and science literacy: Thinking skills, science process skills and systems understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study of the relationship of robotics activity to the use of science literacy skills and the development of systems understanding in middle school students. Twenty-six 11-12-year-olds (22 males and 4 females) attending an intensive robotics course offered at a summer camp for academically advanced students participated in the research. This study analyzes how

Florence R. Sullivan

2008-01-01

393

GOCE observations and geophysical constraints to better understand the lithosphere and geodynamical processes under the Paraná-Etendeka region: preliminary results of PERLA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the light of the considerable progress made by the modern geodetic satellite mission GOCE, one of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth deep interior, and their relationship to Earth-surface changes. In this context we propose a study that aims to understand the two pieces of lithosphere underlying the Paraná-Etendeka conjugate margins (Brazil, and Angola-Namibia). It is essential to collect the geological and geophysical information about the thickness and the density of sedimentary layers, crustal thickness and mantle inhomogeneities. Our methodology integrates the geophysical database with the GOCE data, product of the innovative gravity satellite mission, that was concluded November 2013. Crustal thickness was obtained from all available seismological datasets. The density-depth relation of the shallow layers is modeled by geophysical data collected from literature and from the on-shore and off-shore drilling programs. Several compaction laws are used to estimate the density of each layer. This information is necessary to reduce the observations considering the gravity effect of all intracrustal known layers, to resolve the deep crustal structures (e.g. Moho and intracrustal bodies). A positive gravity anomaly is expected due to the magmatic activity of the Paraná-Etendeka province. The smaller-scale and shallow gravity anomaly should be due to the occurrence of the volcanic activity close to the alkaline-carbonatite complexes, while the large-scale anomaly is expected from the underplating of a wide denser body at the depth of the crustal mantle boundary. In the present work some preliminary results of the inversion of the residual gravity anomaly in terms of densities in the middle and shallow lithosphere under the Paraná-Etendeka region will be presented and interpreted.

Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

2014-05-01

394

Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

Thompson, Stephen

2010-01-01

395

A Scheme for Understanding Group Processes in Problem-Based Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and interpret group processes occurring in tutorials in problem-based learning. Another aim was to investigate if a combination of Steiner's (Steiner, I. D. (1972). "Group process and productivity". New York: Academic Press.) theory of group work and Bion's (Bion, W. R. (1961). "Experiences in…

Hammar Chiriac, Eva

2008-01-01

396

A quantitative framework for understanding complex interactions between competing interfacial processes and in situ biodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ bioremediation of contaminated groundwater is made technologically challenging by the physically, chemically, and biologically heterogeneous subsurface environment. Subsurface heterogeneities are important because of influences on interfacial mass transfer processes that impact the availability of substrates to microorganisms. The goal of this study was to perform a "proof-of-concept" evaluation of the utility of a quantitative framework based on a set of dimensionless coefficients for evaluating the effects of competing physicochemical interfacial and biokinetic processes at the field scale. First, three numerical modeling experiments were completed, demonstrating how the framework can be used to identify the rate-limiting process for the overall bioremediation rate, and to predict what engineered enhancements will alleviate the rate-limiting process. Baseline conditions for each scenario were established to examine intrinsic biodegradation with a given rate-limiting process (either dispersion, biokinetics, or sorption). Then different engineering treatments were examined. In each case, the treatment predicted to be appropriate for addressing the overall rate-limiting process based on the quantitative framework alleviated the limitation more successfully, and enhanced the in situ biodegradation rate more than the alternative enhancements. Second, the quantitative framework was applied to a series of large-scale laboratory and field-scale experiments, using reported parameter estimates to calculate the relevant dimensionless coefficients and predict the rate-limiting process(es). Observations from the studies were then used to evaluate those predictions.

Johnson, Mark A.; Song, Xin; Seagren, Eric A.

2013-03-01

397

Quantifying variable erosion rates to understand the coupling of surface processes in the Teton Range, Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term geomorphic processes (fluvial, glacial, and hillslope erosion) and long-term exhumation control transient alpine landscapes. Long-term measurements of exhumation are not sufficient to capture the processes driving transient responses associated with short-term climatic oscillations, because of high variability of individual processes across space and time. This study compares the efficacy of different erosional agents to assess the importance of variability in tectonically active landscapes responding to fluctuations in Quaternary climate. We focus on the Teton Range, where erosional mechanisms include hillslope, glacial, and fluvial processes. Erosion rates were quantified using sediment accumulation and cosmogenic dating (bedrock and stream sediments). Results show that rates of erosion are highly variable, with average short-term rockfall rates (0.8 mm/y) occurring faster than either apparent basin-averaged (0.2 mm/y) and long-term ridge erosion rates (0.02 mm/y). Examining erosion rates separately also demonstrates the coupling between glacial, fluvial, and hillslope processes. Apparent basin-averaged erosion rates amalgamate valley wall and ridge erosion with stream and glacial rates. Climate oscillations drive the short-term response of a single erosional process (e.g., rockfalls or other mass wasting) that may enhance or limit the erosional efficiency of other processes (glacial or fluvial). While the Teton landscape may approach long-term equilibrium, stochastic processes and rapid response to short-term climate change actively perpetuate the transient ruggedness of the topography.

Tranel, Lisa M.; Spotila, James A.; Binnie, Steven A.; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

2015-01-01

398

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING84 Understanding Paper Codes 85  

E-print Network

SCIENCE & ENGINEERING84 PAPERS Understanding Paper Codes 85 100 Level Science Papers 86 Biological Sciences 87 Chemistry 94 Earth Sciences 99 Electronics 106 Engineering 111 Environmental Sciences 115 Material and Processing 116 Physics 124 Psychology 127 Work Placements 133 ­ Science 133 ­ Engineering 134

Waikato, University of

399

An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

Dawson, Vaille

2007-03-01

400

Towards understanding creativity : a hypothesis about the creative process and the education in architecture  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a hypothetical vision of creativity as an integrative process allowed by the organic human nature; by the way the human being is organized in aspects and systems from whose interaction six creative ...

Giménez Abente, Manuel María

1983-01-01

401

Understanding Pitch Perception as a Hierarchical Process with Top-Down Modulation  

PubMed Central

Pitch is one of the most important features of natural sounds, underlying the perception of melody in music and prosody in speech. However, the temporal dynamics of pitch processing are still poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that the auditory system uses a wide range of time scales to integrate pitch-related information and that the effective integration time is both task- and stimulus-dependent. None of the existing models of pitch processing can account for such task- and stimulus-dependent variations in processing time scales. This study presents an idealized neurocomputational model, which provides a unified account of the multiple time scales observed in pitch perception. The model is evaluated using a range of perceptual studies, which have not previously been accounted for by a single model, and new results from a neurophysiological experiment. In contrast to other approaches, the current model contains a hierarchy of integration stages and uses feedback to adapt the effective time scales of processing at each stage in response to changes in the input stimulus. The model has features in common with a hierarchical generative process and suggests a key role for efferent connections from central to sub-cortical areas in controlling the temporal dynamics of pitch processing. PMID:19266015

Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Clark, Nicholas R.; Coath, Martin; Krumbholz, Katrin; Denham, Susan L.

2009-01-01

402

Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic heat. A typical scale of the processes that take place at the CMB is about 200 km. To observe these processes from the surface requires an angular resolution of about 3°. EARTH aims at creating a high-resolution 3D-map of the radiogenic heat sources in the Earth’s interior. It will thereby contribute to a better understanding of a number of geophysical phenomena observed at the Earth’s surface. This condition requires a completely different approach from the monolithic detector systems as e.g. KamLAND. This paper presents, for such telescopes, the boundary conditions set by physics, the estimated count rates, and the first initial results from Monte-Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments. The Monte-Carlo simulations indicate that the large volume telescope should consist of detector modules each comprising a very large number of detector units, with a cross section of roughly a few square centimetres. The signature of an antineutrino event will be a double pulse event. One pulse arises from the slowing down of the emitted positron, the other from the neutron capture. In laboratory experiments small sized, 10B-loaded liquid scintillation detectors were investigated as candidates for direction sensitive, low-energy antineutrino detection.

de Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wörtche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

2006-12-01

403

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wow! Endagered species are everywhere! Just understanding the needs of animals will help them to survive longer. Find out how much your use of energy leaves a 'carbon' footprint on the earth. We all need to use our limited resources wisely. Reduce your footprint! Find out how and take the carbon footrpint quiz here. Carbon Footprint Watch the following YouTube video to hear a special message from Carl Hiaasen, the ...

Mrs. Datwyler

2010-04-19

404

Understanding Li-ion battery processes at the atomic to nano-scale.  

SciTech Connect

Reducing battery materials to nano-scale dimensions may improve battery performance while maintaining the use of low-cost materials. However, we need better characterization tools with atomic to nano-scale resolution in order to understand degradation mechanisms and the structural and mechanical changes that occur in these new materials during battery cycling. To meet this need, we have developed a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS)-based platform for performing electrochemical measurements using volatile electrolytes inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This platform uses flip-chip assembly with special alignment features and multiple buried electrode configurations. In addition to this platform, we have developed an unsealed platform that permits in situ TEM electrochemistry using ionic liquid electrolytes. As a test of these platform concepts, we have assembled MnO{sub 2} nanowires on to the platform using dielectrophoresis and have examined their electrical and structural changes as a function of lithiation. These results reveal a large irreversible drop in electronic conductance and the creation of a high degree of lattice disorder following lithiation of the nanowires. From these initial results, we conclude that the future full development of in situ TEM characterization tools will enable important mechanistic understanding of Li-ion battery materials.

Zhan, Yongjie (Rice University, Houston, TX); Subramanian, Arunkumar; Hudak, Nicholas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Shaw, Michael J.; Huang, Jian Yu

2010-05-01

405

Refining the understanding of inhibitory processes: how response prepotency is created and overcome.  

PubMed

Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with inhibiting saying the name of the stimulus due to the name being semantically related to the correct response or to its being a valid response on the task (i.e. a member of the response set) though incorrect for this stimulus? Experiment 1 (with 40 4-year-olds) suggests that prepotency is caused by membership in the response set and not semantic relation. Concerning (b), Diamond, Kirkham and Amso (2002) found that 4-year-olds could succeed on the day-night task if the experimenter sang a ditty after showing the stimulus card, before the child was to respond. They concluded that it was because delaying children's responses gave them time to compute the correct answer. However, Experiment 2 (with 90 3-year-olds) suggests that such a delay helps because it gives the incorrect, prepotent response time to passively dissipate, not because of active computation during the delay. PMID:22251293

Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J; Beck, Sarah R; Gorniak, Sarah L; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

2012-01-01

406

Compartmentalization and molecular traffic in secondary metabolism: a new understanding of established cellular processes  

PubMed Central

Great progress has been made in understanding the regulation of expression of genes involved in secondary metabolism. Less is known about the mechanisms that govern the spatial distribution of the enzymes, cofactors, and substrates that mediate catalysis of secondary metabolites within the cell. Filamentous fungi in the genus Aspergillus synthesize an array of secondary metabolites and provide useful systems to analyze the mechanisms that mediate the temporal and spatial regulation of secondary metabolism in eukaryotes. For example, aflatoxin biosynthesis in A. parasiticus has been studied intensively because this mycotoxin is highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic in humans and animals. Using aflatoxin synthesis to illustrate key concepts, this review focuses on the mechanisms by which sub-cellular compartmentalization and intra-cellular molecular traffic contribute to the initiation and completion of secondary metabolism within the cell. We discuss the recent discovery of aflatoxisomes, specialized trafficking vesicles that participate in the compartmentalization of aflatoxin synthesis and export of the toxin to the cell exterior; this work provides a new and clearer understanding of how cells integrate secondary metabolism into basic cellular metabolism via the intracellular trafficking machinery. PMID:20519149

Roze, Ludmila V.; Chanda, Anindya; Linz, John E.

2010-01-01

407

Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

Hallock, Pamela

2005-04-01

408

An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process  

PubMed Central

Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

2015-01-01

409

Relation between the Electromagnetic Processes in the Near-Earth Space and Dynamics of the Biological Resources in Russian Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is a well-established fact that the electromagnetic processes of different kind occurring in the near- Earth space produce significant effects in the Earth's atmosphere at all altitudes including the ground surface. There are some indications that these processes could influence at least indirectly the human health conditions. In this study we explore relation between perturbations in the solar wind (dynamics of its density, velocity, intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field) and long- term changes in population of some species of Arctic fauna (lemmings, polar foxes, deers, wolves, elks etc.) It was found out that the best statistical coupling between various Space Weather parameters and the changes in populations of the Arctic fauna species appears when the solar wind dynamic pressure magnitude is taken as one of these parameters. It was shown that the secular variations of the solar UV radiation expressed as the Total Solar Irradiance appears to be a space parameter, showing the best correlation with the changes in population of the Arctic fauna species. Such high correlation coefficients as 0.8 are obtained. It is premature now to discuss exact physical mechanisms, which could explain the obtained relations. A possible mutual dependence of some climatic factors and fauna population in Arctic on the Space Weather parameters is discussed in this connection. Conclusion is made that the electromagnetic fields of space origin is an important factor determining dynamics of population of the Arctic fauna species.

Makarova, L. N.; Shirochkov, A. V.

410

Understanding and enabling laser processing of solar materials through temporal pulse control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present highly competitive state of the PV industry is putting the pressure on both crystalline and thin film manufactures to deploy advanced architectures as a means to differentiate their products and protect market share. c-Si back side contact passivation, selective emitter opening and selective emitter doping are three efficiency improving processes that can utilize lasers that the industry is rapidly moving to adopt. Emitter Wrap Through (EWT) is another advanced architecture which will likely see adoption in the coming years for which lasers are a critical component of the process. Improved laser TCO patterning is of interest not only for CdTe solar cells but also for display and other micro electronics applications. Laser processing results for these various solar PV materials are presented both in terms of performance, materials science, and morphology as they relate to temporal characteristics of the laser pulse.

Rekow, M.; Panarello, T.; Falletto, Nicolas; Guevremont, Marco

2012-10-01

411

Bio-inspired synthesis: understanding and exploitation of the crystallization process from amorphous precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many biominerals, such as mollusk nacre, sea urchin, bone and teeth, are found to form by an amorphous precursor pathway, and these biominerals have remarkable properties, which are better than their artificial material counterparts that are formed at high temperatures and high pressures. More than ever, synthesizing technologically relevant materials following nature's way with a specific size, shape, orientation, organization, and complex form has been a focus of ongoing interest due to the increasing need for low cost and environmentally friendly approaches to processing advanced materials. Herein, we present recent developments in the crystallization process from amorphous precursors by primarily drawing on results from our own laboratory, and discuss some unique characteristics from the transformation process that can be exploited for the design and synthesis of artificial functional materials.

Xiao, Junwu; Yang, Shihe

2011-12-01

412

Interactive Whiteboard Integration in Classrooms: Active Teachers Understanding about Their Training Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the incorporation in education of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), especially the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB), emerges the need for a proper teacher training process due to adequate the integration and the didactic use of this tool in the classroom. This article discusses the teachers' perception on the training process for ICT integration. Its main aim is to contribute to the unification of minimum criteria for effective ICT implementation in any training process for active teachers. This case study begins from the development of a training model called Eduticom which was putted into practice in 4 schools in Catalonia, Spain. Findings indicated different teachers' needs such as an appropriate infrastructure, a proper management and a flexible training model which essentially addresses methodological and didactic aspects of IWB uses in the classroom.

Pujol, Meritxell Cortada; Quintana, Maria Graciela Badilla; Romaní, Jordi Riera

413

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-01-01

414

Aeolian Processes and their Effects on Understanding the Chronology of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeolian (wind) processes can transport particles over large distances on Mars, leading to the modification or removal of surface features, formation of new landforms, and mantling or burial of surfaces. Erosion of mantling deposits by wind deflation can exhume older surfaces. These processes and their effects on the surface must be taken into account in using impact crater statistics to derive chronologies on Mars. In addition, mapping.the locations, relative ages. and orientations of aeolian features can provide insight into Martian weather, climate, and climate history.

Greeley, Ronald; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Haberle, Robert M.

2001-01-01

415

Experiential Internships: Understanding the Process of Student Learning in Small Business Internships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examines the process of student learning in a small-business experiential internship programme that pairs highly qualified undergraduates with local small or start-up companies. The Cognitive Apprenticeship model developed by Collins et al (1991) was used to conceptualize students' reported experiences. The results revealed…

Varghese, Mary E.; Parker, Loran Carleton; Adedokun, Omolola; Shively, Monica; Burgess, Wilella; Childress, Amy; Bessenbacher, Ann

2012-01-01

416

Towards an Understanding of the Business Process Analyst: An Analysis of Competencies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increase in adoption of business process management (BPM) and service oriented architecture (SOA) has created a high demand for qualified professionals with a plethora of skills. However, despite the growing amount of literature available on the topics of BPM and SOA, little research has been conducted around developing a detailed list of…

Sonteya, Thembela; Seymour, Lisa

2012-01-01

417

Understanding Data Use Practice among Teachers: The Contribution of Micro-Process Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growing volume of research on data use systems or data use activities in which teachers engage, micro-process studies--investigations of what teachers and others actually do under the broad banner of "data use" or "evidence-based decision making"--remain substantially underdeveloped. Starting with a review of the extant research on…

Little, Judith Warren

2012-01-01

418

Learning misinformation from fictional sources: Understanding the contributions of transportation and item-specific processing.  

PubMed

People often pick up incorrect information about the world from movies, novels and other fictional sources. The question asked here is whether such sources are a particularly potent source of misinformation. On the one hand, story-reading involves transportation into a fictional world, with a possible reduction in access to one's prior knowledge (likely reducing the chances that the reader will notice errors). On the other hand, stories encourage relational processing as readers create mental models, decreasing the likelihood that they will encode and remember more peripheral details like erroneous facts. To test these ideas, we examined suggestibility after readers were exposed to misleading references embedded in stories and lists that were matched on a number of dimensions. In two experiments, suggestibility was greater following exposure to misinformation in a list of sentences rather than a coherent story, even though the story was rated as more engaging than the list. Furthermore, processing the story with an item-specific processing task (inserting missing letters) increased later suggestibility, whereas this task had no impact on suggestibility when misinformation was presented within a list. The type of processing used when reading a text affects suggestibility more than engagement with the text. PMID:24499200

Fazio, Lisa K; Dolan, Patrick O; Marsh, Elizabeth J

2015-03-01

419

Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies to understand the primary processes in radiolysis  

SciTech Connect

The use of pulse radiolysis to learn about processes which occur before the beginning of chemical times is discussed. Two examples, the distance distribution of positive and negative ions in hydrocarbons, and the state of the dry electron are discussed in detail.

Jonah, C.D.; Lewis, M.A.

1984-01-01

420

Learning Processes and Approaches: Examining Their Interrelationships to Understand Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between two contrasting research paradigms, namely, cognitive and experiential research, a significant literature review previously unaddressed. To achieve this objective, a conceptual description of three theoretical frameworks, Dual-Store model, Levels of Processing (LOP; drawn from…

Chennamsetti, Prashanti

2008-01-01

421

ICESat's contribution to advancing our understanding of ice sheet processes (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ICESat mission lasted for almost 7 years from January 2003 to October 2009, and for most of this period its laser altimeter acquired surface elevations along repeated ground tracks. The unique capabilities of ICESat - high along-track resolution and vertical precision, and accurate repeatability of ground tracks - proved invaluable for detailed studies of ice sheet processes. Amongst the

H. A. Fricker

2010-01-01

422

Using Sap Flow Monitoring for Improved Process-based Ecohydrologic Understanding 2022  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sap flow measurements can be an important tool for unraveling the complex web of ecosystem fluxes, especially when it is combined with other measurements like eddy covariance, isotopes, remote sensing, etc. In this talk, we will demonstrate how sap flow measurements have improved our process-level u...

423

The Challenge of Understanding Process in Clinical Behavior Analysis: The Case of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether explicitly acknowledged or not, behavior-analytic principles are at the heart of most, if not all, empirically supported therapies. However, the change process in psychotherapy is only now being rigorously studied. Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP; Kohlenberg & Tsai, 1991; Ts