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1

Improving Our Understanding of Earth System Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GREENCYCLES Annual Network and Midterm Review Meeting; Barcelona, Spain, 21-23 March 2007; The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report documents numerous examples of how human activities are profoundly affecting our global environment with long-term consequences for the climate system. However, considerable uncertainty remains concerning future Earth system responses and likely impacts on the sustainability of life on Earth under the threat of changing climate. The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme recognizes that understanding and quantifying the complex interactions between the biosphere and the climate system are essential for assessing potential sustainable futures.

Stephens, Nicholas; Zaehle, Sönke; Poulter, Ben

2007-09-01

2

Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

2011-12-01

3

Earth Scientists Forge New Understanding of Mountain-Building Dynamics  

NSF Publications Database

... mountains and Earth's climate. To better understand these dynamics, earth scientists are now ... processes active in the deep Earth, processes that change Earth's surface, and the atmosphere that ...

4

High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: Opportunities and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, a range of new remote-sensing techniques has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information, providing new opportunities for a better understanding of Earth surface processes based on geomorphic signatures. Technologies such as airborne and terrestrial lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) to obtain high-resolution topography have opened avenues for the analysis of landslides, hillslope and channellization processes, river morphology, active tectonics, volcanic landforms and anthropogenic signatures on topography. This review provides an overview of the recent flourishing literature on high-resolution topographic analyses, underlining their opportunities and critical issues such as their limitations. The goal is to provide answers to questions such as what kind of processes can be analyzed through high-resolution topographic data and how to do it. The review focuses on two different environments: natural and engineered landscapes. In both contexts, high-resolution topography offers opportunities to better understand geomorphic processes from topographic signatures. Particular attention is given to engineered landscapes in which the direct anthropic alteration of processes is significant. The last part of the review discusses future challenges.

Tarolli, Paolo

2014-07-01

5

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

6

Geologists Use Particles from Galaxy's Far Reaches to Understand Processes at Earth's Surface  

NSF Publications Database

... Earth's surface changes from such forces as erosion by rivers. "As scientists who use geochronology ... Earth's past climate cycles, changes in soil erosion, frequency of floods and landslides, and how ...

7

Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more straightforward through common interfaces and standardization of time-stepping, model domains and model parameters. At the same time major steps forward require an interdisciplinary approach, wherein the source to sink system contains ecological feedbacks and human actors.

Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

2013-12-01

8

Femtosecond spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthesis--towards an understanding of the most important energy conversion process on earth  

SciTech Connect

Reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis are ideal systems to study photosynthetic energy conversion. Femtosecond spectroscopy has delivered extensive information on the molecular mechanisms of the primary electron transfer. The data show, that primary electron transfer is an ultrafast stepwise reaction, where the electron is transferred via closely spaced pigments with reaction times as fast as 0.9 ps and 3.5 ps. Experiments on mutated and modified reaction centers allow to determine the energetics of the various intermediates in the reaction center. Recently, femtosecond experiments with light pulses in the mid infrared have shown, that an additional fast process occurs on the 200 fs timescale in the initially excited special pair. Only afterwards the well established electron transfer reactions take place. This fast process may be of importance for the optimization of the primary reaction.

Zinth, W.; Hamm, P.; Arlt, T.; Wachtveitl, J. [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Optik, Barbarastr.1 6, 80797 Muenchen (Germany) (Germany)

1996-04-01

9

Femtosecond spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthesis{emdash}towards an understanding of the most important energy conversion process on earth  

SciTech Connect

Reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis are ideal systems to study photosynthetic energy conversion. Femtosecond spectroscopy has delivered extensive information on the molecular mechanisms of the primary electron transfer. The data show, that primary electron transfer is an ultrafast stepwise reaction, where the electron is transferred via closely spaced pigments with reaction times as fast as 0.9 ps and 3.5 ps. Experiments on mutated and modified reaction centers allow to determine the energetics of the various intermediates in the reaction center. Recently, femtosecond experiments with light pulses in the mid infrared have shown, that an additional fast process occurs on the 200 fs timescale in the initially excited special pair. Only afterwards the well established electron transfer reactions take place. This fast process may be of importance for the optimization of the primary reaction. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Zinth, W.; Hamm, P.; Arlt, T.; Wachtveitl, J. [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Optik, Barbarastr.1 6, 80797 Muenchen (Germany)

1996-04-01

10

Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

Soffen, Gerald

1990-01-01

11

Understand CME Structures Near the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geoeffectiveness of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection ICME) mainly depends on the length and/or duration of the presence of southward magnetic fields in its structure. The structure has two essential components, one the ICME ejecta itself , and the other the preceding sheath region often bounded by a shock in the front. We investigate the evolution process of a CME in the interplanetary space that leads to the geometric structure observed in the near-Earth space. We examine several CME-ICME events that are well tracked continuously from the Sun to the Earth by the twin STEREO spacecraft and in-situ instruments. We study the evolution of shock fronts and ICME fronts, thus the size of sheath regions. We also determine the bulk velocity and the expansion velocity of the ICMEs, thus their size evolution. This study will help us accurately predict the arrival time of ICMEs, and their potential geoeffectiveness as well.

Zhang, Jie; Hess, . Phillip

2012-07-01

12

Progress in Understanding Fluvial Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two of the major research trends that are broadening the understanding of fluvial processes and changing the approach to investigations of stream behavior. These trends include research on rivers that do not flow in alluvial channels and detailed field studies on the mechanics of fluvial processes. (JN)

Prestegaard, Karen L.

1984-01-01

13

Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km.

Christensen, Andrew B.; Reasoner, David L.

1992-01-01

14

Activites to Support and Assess Student Understanding of Earth Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to use data effectively, learners must construct a mental model that allows them to understand and express spatial relationships in data, relationships between different data types, and relationships between the data and a theoretical model. Another important skill is the ability to identify gross patterns and distinguish them from details that may require increasingly sophisticated models. Students must also be able to express their understanding, both to help them frame their understanding for themselves, and for assessment purposes. Research in learning unequivocally shows that writing about a subject increases understanding of that subject. In UCSB's general education oceanography class, a series of increasingly demanding activities culminates in two science papers that use earth data. These activities are: 1) homework problems, 2) in-class short writing activities, 3) lab section exploration activities and presentations, and 4) the science paper. The subjects of the two papers are: Plate Tectonics and Ocean and Climate. Each student is a member of a group that adopts a country and must relate their paper to the environment of their country. Data are accessed using the "Our Dynamic Planet" and "Global Ocean Data Viewer" (GLODV) CD's. These are integrated into EarthEd Online, a software package which supports online writing, review, commenting, and return to the student. It also supports auto-graded homework assignments, grade calculation, and other class management functions. The writing assignments emphasize the construction of a scientific argument. This process is explained explicitly, requiring statements that: 1) include an observation or description of an observation (e.g. elevation profiles, quakes), 2) name features based on the observation (e.g. trench, ridge), 3) describe of features (e.g. trends NW, xxxkm long), 4) describe relationships between features (e.g. quakes are parallel to trench), 5) describe a model or theory (e.g. cartoon type representation of a subduction zone), and 6) describe the relationship between the model/theory and the data. Students generate and select data representations with the appropriate data display software, which seamlessly uploads each generated image to the student's personal storage area (on the class server). There they are available to be linked to the writing text. The assignment is "handed in" online, where it is commented, graded according to a rubric, and returned. Students rate the writing assignment as one of the most effective activities that contributes to their learning in the course.

Prothero, W. A.; Regev, J.

2004-12-01

15

Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see http://www.cs.clark.edu/mac/physlets/GlobalPollution/maintrace.htm for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

Mackay, R. M.

2002-12-01

16

Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

2012-01-01

17

Improved Understanding of the Earth System and Its Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth System Science 2010: Global Change, Climate and People; Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 10-13 May 2010; More than 200 people avoided the persistent ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcano and met in the United Kingdom for Earth System Science 2010 (see http://earthsystemscience2010.org for more on the proceedings). This was the first Open Science Conference of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme's Analysis, Integration and Modeling of the Earth System (AIMES) project. It was convened by Quantifying and Understanding the Earth System (QUEST), a U.K. Natural Environment Research Council-funded research program with close strategic links with the international activities of AIMES. This connection meant that QUEST's established Anglophone and European research community was greatly expanded, with conference contributors from Brazil, Japan, India, and China.

Cornell, Sarah; Downy, Catherine

2010-10-01

18

Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the inter...

L. Forehand

1999-01-01

19

Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

Righter, Kevin

2007-01-01

20

Pollen and spores: Microscopic keys to understanding the earth's biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most distinctive feature of planet Earth is that, unlike any other world in this solar system, it is rich in biodiversity.\\u000a Our own species, which evolved as part of the biosphere that sustains us, has the intelligence and curiosity to explore the\\u000a world around us and to understand its complexity. Given the environmental challenges that lie ahead we have

S. Blackmore

2007-01-01

21

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

Ireton, Shirley W.; Gilbert, Steven W.

2003-01-01

22

Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation has precluded determination of sufficient theoretical development. Understanding the land-surface response and feedback to climate change requires a mechanistic understanding of the coupling of ecological and hydrological processes and an expansion of theory from the life sciences to appropriately contribute to the broader Earth system science goal.

Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

2012-12-01

23

TOPO-EUROPE: Understanding of the coupling between the deep Earth and continental topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linking different spatial and temporal scales in coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a prime objective of the multidisciplinary international research program TOPO-EUROPE. The research approach of TOPO-EUROPE integrates active collection of new data, reconstruction of the geological record and numerical and analog modeling. The results of the program presented in this special volume focus on four closely interrelated topics: crustal and upper mantle structures, lithosphere geodynamics, sedimentary basin dynamics and surface processes. Quantitative understanding of topographic evolution in space and time requires study of processes from the upper mantle, through the lithosphere and crust and acting on the Earth's surface. The results presented here demonstrate the opportunities to further understanding of topography through integrated studies of the full Earth system across space and timescales.

Cloetingh, Sierd; Willett, Sean D.

2013-08-01

24

NITRO: Understanding the Earth-Venus-Mars difference in Nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen is a key element for life as an inevitable part of the amino acids and proteins. While nitrogen is abundant on the Earth (the amount in the soil, crust, and ocean are small compared to the atmospheric amount) and on Venus (only 3% but pressure is 90 times that of the Earth, resulting in three times more nitrogen than on the Earth), Martian atmosphere has very little nitrogen, about only 0.01% that of the Earth or Venus (with 10% of planetary mass). This contrasts the oxygen abundance, which is found in all three planets (Martian case, it is now believed to exist in the crust as oxidized rocks because the observed escape rate is equivalent only 10 m deep water). Considering the fact that nitrogen is much more difficult to be ionized than oxygen, due to triple chemical binding, absence of the nitrogen only on Mars is a mystery, while this absence might explain the absence of life at the present knowledge. From these viewpoints, it is important to understand the dynamics of nitrogen at different solar conditions, e.g., its difference from the oxygen dynamics for any planet. Such a study requires a dedicated space mission. We have recently proposed a small satellite mission to study this problem, NITRO. This mission will analyze the atmospheric escape and circulation in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth of heavy ions such as N+ and N2+, and will rely on a high mass resolution ion spectrometry instrumentation, capable of separationg nitrogen from oxygen ions. The science objectives and the instrumentation of the NITRO mission will be presented.

Yamauchi, M.; Dandouras, I.

2012-12-01

25

Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N?=?84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N?=?28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N?=?12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N?=?12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N?=?32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins ?1, ?2, ?, and ? increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

Sokal, Karol

2011-01-01

26

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.

27

Science data processing in the Mission to Planet Earth era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data-processing systems developed to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) are described in an overview of the system architectures. The MPE program is discussed in terms of flight segments and data types to examine the required elements of the information systems. The data-processing segments are described for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the Earth Observing System, and the Geostationary Earth Observatory. The data and information systems for the separate segments provide some redundant processing services. Distributed active archive centers are employed for each segment composed of three subelements: (1) a product-generation system, (2) a data archive and distribution system, and (3) an information management system. The data processing design for the MPE is expected to facilitate the understanding of the entire earth system on a global scale.

Goodman, H. M.

1992-01-01

28

Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the changes in geosphere. The historical records talk of changes of the water level in wells, of strange weather, of ground-hugging fog, of unusual behaviour of animals (due to change in magnetic field of the earth) that seem to feel the approach of a major earthquake. With the advent of modern science and technology the understanding of these pre-earthquake signals has become stronger enough to develop a methodology of earthquake prediction. A correlation of earth directed coronal mass ejection (CME) from the active sunspots has been possible to develop as a precursor of the earthquake. Occasional local magnetic field and planetary indices (Kp values) changes in the lower atmosphere that is accompanied by the formation of haze and a reduction of moisture in the air. Large patches, often tens to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size, seen in night-time infrared satellite images where the land surface temperature seems to fluctuate rapidly. Perturbations in the ionosphere at 90 - 120 km altitude have been observed before the occurrence of earthquakes. These changes affect the transmission of radio waves and a radio black out has been observed due to CME. Another heliophysical parameter Electron flux (Eflux) has been monitored before the occurrence of the earthquakes. More than hundreds of case studies show that before the occurrence of the earthquakes the atmospheric temperature increases and suddenly drops before the occurrence of the earthquakes. These changes are being monitored by using Sun Observatory Heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Whatever the manifestations in the environment of the atmosphere or geosphere may be, there is a positive correlation of CMEs with change in magnetic field followed by aurora borealis or sudden spark of light from the sky before an earthquake. Any change in geomorphology in the pixel level, changes in groundwater level, geochemical anomalies of soils surrounding active faults and vegetation anomalies should be monitored in the mirror image position of sunspots on the earth facing side in reference to CME from the sun.

Mukherjee, S.

2007-05-01

29

Acceleration Processes in the Earth's Magnetosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three main topics have been concentrated on in this study: (1) Acceleration of heavy ions on auroral field lines and in the ring current; (2) Kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of reconnection processes in the earth's magnetosphere; and (3) The coupl...

M. Ashour-Abdalla P. J. Coleman J. M. Dawson W. Gekelman C. F. Kennel

1985-01-01

30

Lessons from Venus for understanding mantle plumes on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mantle plumes are important in the magmatic and tectonic history for both Earth and Venus. The expression of plumes is distinctive on Venus and complementary to that on Earth; therefore, a cross-comparison is useful for better understanding plume magmatism on both planets. In contrast to the Earth, Venus has no observed record of plate tectonics, a low degree of surface erosion, and an apparently short duration for the formation of the present planetary surface. The absence of plate tectonics indicates that all magmatism is 'intraplate' and is generated beneath a stagnant lithospheric lid. A low degree of surface erosion preserves the surface structures and short-wavelength topography. The short duration of preserved magmatic activity suggests a global resurfacing event. Magmatic elements include: (a) individual volcanoes with diameters ranging up to 1000 km, which represent hotspots; (b) annular structures termed coronae with diameters averaging 300 km, but ranging up to 2600 km, and which appear to lack terrestrial (i.e. Earth) analogues; (c) radiating graben-fissure systems extending up to >2000 km in radius, some of which are purely uplift-related while others mark the plumbing system (dyke swarms) of volcanic systems; (d) lava flow fields of scale comparable to terrestrial flood basalts (large igneous provinces (LIPs)); and (e) regions of small shield volcanoes representing shallow-source melting. There are several hierarchies of magmatic events on Venus, ordered in terms of increasing scale and significance: (1) isolated coronae, volcanoes, flow fields, and radiating graben systems; (2a) individual and small clusters of volcanoes and coronae associated with topographic swells, geoid highs, and triple-junction rifting; these are most clearly indicative of terrestrial-type plumes originating from the deep mantle; (2b) coronae distributed along rifts (chasmata); these are the clearest examples of melt generation associated with rifting; (3) regional concentration of activity in the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) region; this is the closest example of a plume cluster event, sometimes termed a 'superplume event'; and (4) global volcanic resurfacing of the volcanic plains; no terrestrial analogue is confirmed, although the global burst of terrestrial plume activity in the Neoarchean is a possible analogue.

Ernst, R. E.; Desnoyers, D. W.

2004-08-01

31

Parallel Image Processing and Image Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was conducted to obtain better methods for image processing. It focused on several aspects of this problem, including parallel algorithms for image processing, knowledge-based techniques for image understanding, and modeling images using sha...

A. Rosenfeld

1986-01-01

32

UNDERSTANDING DESIGN PROCESS ROBUSTNESS: A MODELLING APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitigating the influence of uncertainty in design projects without sacrificing performance is challenging, but also important as it may reduce the risk of engineering projects delivering over time or budget. In this paper, we discuss process modelling and simulation as a route to understanding the impact of uncertainty and thereby understanding robustness in design processes. We focus on robustness of

Marek J. Chalupnik; David C. Wynn; Claudia M. Eckert; P. John Clarkson

33

Improved understanding of the Earth`s radiation belts from the CRRES satellite  

SciTech Connect

Energetic particle data gathered on the CRRES spacecraft have been used to produce new and more accurate models of high-energy electron and proton fluxes as well as total dose models out to geosynchronous altitude. In addition to providing the information necessary to improve designs and operations of near-Earth space systems, the models also give insight into the dynamic behavior of the radiation belts not considered in previous models. Sample orbit runs are compared to the earlier NASA models to elucidate their weaknesses. Areas of improved understanding in the radiation environment, gained from CRRES, and how they impact systems are summarized.

Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Brautigam, D.H. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States). Geophysics Directorate] [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States). Geophysics Directorate

1996-04-01

34

Solar spot influence on Earth's molecular processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers the two-century-old problem of how solar spots influence biological objects on the Earth. It describes the modern state of the kT-problem, which for a long time has been the most difficult obstacle in explaining solar activity effects. Based on recent advances in spin chemistry and magnetoplasticity physics, it is shown that a `molecular target' sensitive to weak electromagnetic fields is spins in non-equilibrial states of the molecular system. A way of how solar spots can influence Earth's molecular, including biological, processes through a `transparency window' in the Earth's atmosphere is proposed.

Evstafyev, Vladimir K.

2013-01-01

35

External Resource: Living with a Star: Educator Resources for Understanding Connections Between the Sun and Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sun Earth Connections NASA educator's guide is designed to provide educators with a quick reference to materials and resources that are useful for understanding the connections between the Sun and Earth. Topics: solar corona, solar wind, interstellar

1900-01-01

36

Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

Rickman, Doug

2010-01-01

37

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

2007-01-01

38

Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

2003-01-01

39

Improved Understanding of the Earth System and Its Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth System Science 2010: Global Change, Climate and People; Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 10-13 May 2010; More than 200 people avoided the persistent ash cloud from Eyjafjallajökull volcano and met in the United Kingdom for Earth System Science 2010 (see http:\\/\\/earthsystemscience2010.org for more on the proceedings). This was the first Open Science Conference of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme's Analysis, Integration and

Sarah Cornell; Catherine Downy

2010-01-01

40

Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in a section…

University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

41

Using the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) to Facilitate a Fuller Understanding of the Earth through Comparisons with Other Planetary Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the Earth as a system by scientists has been enhanced by studies of our solar system made possible by the use of planetary probes. While these missions suggest many questions that scientists would like to answer, they also help scientists reach a fuller understanding the processes that produce the vastly different environments of the various planets, and

T. S. Ledley

2004-01-01

42

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2010-01-01

43

Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

Zheng, Yihua

2011-01-01

44

Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

1992-01-01

45

Chemists Celebrate Earth Day: Resources on Understanding Weather:  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This clearinghouse page provides links to web-based resources about weather, in keeping with the American Chemical Society's celebration of Earth Day 2005. The links are arranged by topic (water in the air, air masses and fronts, severe weather, forecasting); each link is accompanied by a brief description of its content and a grade level ranking. There is also a link to a separate list of print resources on the same topics.

46

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-08

47

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-28

48

Understanding processes and how to improve them.  

PubMed

This is the second in a series of articles about the science of quality improvement. Many quality improvement initiatives are aimed at improving the process of care and ensuring that high-quality care is delivered reliably. In this article, we explain why it is important to understand healthcare processes in order to improve them and how this can be achieved. We explain the use of logic models to determine what information to collect (from surveys, interviews, direct observations and other sources) and how to analyse this information (using techniques such as process maps, critical-to-quality trees, driver diagrams and cause-and-effect diagrams) to design more reliable and higher quality healthcare processes. PMID:23968268

Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Gillam, Steve

2013-01-01

49

Strides made in understanding space weather at Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances on the Sun can produce dramatic effects in the space environment surrounding the Earth. Energetic particle effects become more intense and pose a hazard to astronauts and damage spacecraft electronics; satellite lifetimes are shortened by increased atmospheric drag, and communications and navigation are disrupted by the changing plasma environment.“Space weather” has become the modern idiom for these effects, and periods of high activity are called geomagnetic storms. During a storm the ionosphere can be severely altered. A typical episode may reveal either a large decrease (negative phase) or increase (positive phase) in the normal daily peak ion density (NmF2) or total electron content (TEC). These changes in ion density are sometimes called ionospheric storms, and often persist for more than a day after a period of high geomagnetic activity.

Buonsanto, M. J.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

50

Activites to Support and Assess Student Understanding of Earth Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to use data effectively, learners must construct a mental model that allows them to understand and express spatial relationships in data, relationships between different data types, and relationships between the data and a theoretical model. Another important skill is the ability to identify gross patterns and distinguish them from details that may require increasingly sophisticated models. Students must

W. A. Prothero; J. Regev

2004-01-01

51

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

Not Available

1994-02-01

52

Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

Ozsoy, Sibel

2012-01-01

53

Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

Ronney, Paul D.

1998-01-01

54

Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

Thesenga, David; Town, James

2014-05-01

55

NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in January 2004, NASA instituted a set of internal working groups to develop ongoing recommendations for the continuing broad evolution of Earth Science Data Systems development and management within NASA. One of these Data Systems Working Groups is called the Standards Process Group (SPG). This group's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for approval to the SPG are one of 3 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community. There are 3 types of reviews potentially needed to evaluate a proposed standard: (1) A detailed technical review to determine the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the proposed specification and where a detailed technical review ensures that implementers can use the proposed standard as an implementation specification for any future implementations with confidence; (2) A "usefulness" user review that determines if the proposed standard is useful or helpful or necessary to the user to carry out his work; (3) An operational review that evaluates if the proposed standard works in an operational setting in a NASA environment with NASA data. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format), the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result.

Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

2006-12-01

56

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

2012-01-01

57

ERIPS: Earth Resource Interactive Processing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ERIPS is an interactive computer system used in the analysis of remotely sensed data. It consists of a set of software programs which are executed on an IBM System/360 Model 75J computer under the direction of a trained analyst. The software was a derivative of the Purdue LARSYS program and has evolved to include an extensive pattern recognition system and a number of manipulative, preprocessing routines which prepare the imagery for the pattern recognition application. The original purpose of the system was to analyze remotely sensed data, to develop and perfect techniques to process the data, and to determine the feasibility of applying the data to significant earth resources problems. The System developed into a production system. Error recovery and multi-jobbing capabilities were added to the system.

Quinn, M. J.

1975-01-01

58

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Using Satellite Images to Understand Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images. TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Use ImageJ to create an animation showing the change in monthly concentration of aerosols over the course of a year and compare it to a similar animation showing change in carbon monoxide concentration. Then use NEO ICE to create histograms and scatter plots, investigating the relationship between aerosol concentration and carbon monoxide concentration.

59

Understanding Interior Dynamics in Earth and Terrestrial Planets: The Essential role of Analytical and Computational Mathematics (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread acceptance that slow convection of the solid, rocky mantle drives continental drift caused a revolution in our understanding of solid Earth and planetary dynamics. Mathematical approaches, both analytical and computational, have been essential for research progress in this area, and have facilititated the understanding of many aspects of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Even so, some fundamental questions - particularly "why does Earth have plate tectonics?" - still remain. This understanding gap is troubling, particularly given the current interest in applying our knowledge of solar system planets such as Earth, Venus and Mars to newly-discovered terrestrial planets around other stars, including so-called super-Earths. A major reason for this understanding gap is the complexity of rock rheology: viscous, elastic, brittle, plastic, nonlinear, grainsize- history- and composition-dependent - which makes the appropriate mathematical description uncertain, as well as implying the impossibility of a full numerical solution of the resulting multi-timescale (seconds to billions of years), multi-lengthscale (mm to 1000s km) processes. This presentation reviews the historical development of the field, the current state of the art, and possible ways forward.

Tackley, P. J.

2013-12-01

60

Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variables—Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.

Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

2013-04-01

61

North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

Turner, G. M.

2010-12-01

62

Microbe-mineral interactions: understanding biomarker formation in modern Earth systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a microbial cell beyond Earth is often viewed as the proverbial "smoking gun" required for demonstrating beyond a doubt the existence of extraterrestrial life. However, studies of modern Earth systems have shown that the preservation of bacterial cells is a rare phenomenon that requires very specific physicochemical conditions. Similarly, many presumed remains of microbial cells observed in the rock record are now thought to be abiogenic mineral structures. More commonly, the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment lead to the formation of physical, chemical and isotopic biomarkers that are more readily preserved in the rock record. This is especially true for microbe-mineral interactions whereby minerals with characteristic textures, crystal structure, chemistry or isotopic composition are produced, often in combination with specific biochemical signatures. Such mineral biomarkers not only provide information about the organisms that created them, but also help to elucidate the environmental conditions under which they were created and the biogeochemical processes involved in their formation and preservation. The discovery of a suite of robust biomarkers on Mars would therefore not only provide proof of the existence of extraterrestrial life, but would also help in understanding the geological and chemical context of past life on Mars. Hence, studies of modern systems on Earth are essential for elucidating how these biomarkers are formed and ultimately preserved in the rock record. This information can in turn be applied directly to the development of planetary exploration strategies and science instrument payloads. Here, a number of recent examples of microbe-mineral interactions in modern systems, from terrestrial and subsurface basalts to deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, are reviewed and the key mineralogical, molecular, isotopic and elemental signatures formed in these systems are summarized.

Leveille, R. J.

2005-12-01

63

What similar physical processes occur on both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Module investigation compares and contrasts physical processes that occur on Both Earth and Mars. Students are given unidentified images of Earth and Mars. Their task is to arrange the images into pairs that show evidence of similar physical processes. Then they identify each image as one of Earth or of Mars by comparing and contrasting physical features that they observe in the image pairs. It includes teacher background materials and an answer key where appropriate.

2002-05-26

64

The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules will be developed for middle school classrooms to enrich earth science curricula by taking students into the field, and by providing opportunities to interact with scientists using real EarthScope data and research results. Curriculum modules will take advantage of Denali's new "Nature Area Network", an IEEE 802.11b wireless network serving the backcountry areas of the Park where students can engage in hands on learning about geology and geophysics and share their experiences with students worldwide via the Internet. Curricula will also focus on the new field of digital story telling, in which students will develop their own understanding of solid earth processes by creating digital stories using readily available digital moviemaking technology. A training course will be developed to enhance K-12 educators' ability to teach earth science utilizing real data and research results. And a series of public lectures both at Denali and in communities across Alaska will engage Geophysical Institute researchers with the public and foster wider participation in the EarthScope Experiment. The anticipated benefits of this project are many. An increase in public awareness and understanding of solid earth processes will lead to better preparedness, and improved decision making regarding the mitigation of risk from seismic and volcanic hazards. Earth science education will be made more vital and engaging for both students and teachers. And Alaska's visitors and residents will gain a better understand and greater appreciation for the dynamic tectonic processes that have created the rugged landscape of the state and its national parklands.

Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

2003-12-01

65

Timing And Processes Of Earth's Core Differentiation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small 182W abundance excess of terrestrial W relative to W in bulk chondrites has been recently established (Yin et al. 2002, Kleine et al. 2002, Schoenberg et al. 2002). Rapid terrestrial accretion and early core formation, with completion of the bulk metal-silicate separation within less than 30 Myr have been proposed on this basis. These studies underline how much this 182W/182Hf time scale agrees with dynamic accretion models (Wetherill, 1986) that predict a ˜10 Myr interval for the main growth stage of Earth's formation. This W model time scale for terrestrial accretion is shorter than current estimates based on Pb isotope systematics of mantle-derived basalts and terrestrial Xe isotope systematics. The end of metal-silicate differentiation and large scale mantle degassing has been defined ˜100 My after beginning of the accretion. These studies also indicate agreement of this time scale with dynamic accretion models that predict 100 My for the end of Earth's accretion. The Hf-W time scale for accretion and core formation assumes total equilibration of incoming metal and silicate of impactors with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) during planet's growth. Recently, the assumption of incomplete equilibration of metal and silicate components with BSE has been investigated (Halliday, 2004). It is proposed that impacting core material has not always efficiently mixed with the silicate portions of the Earth before being added to the Earth's core Our approach also considers that equilibration between metal and silicate has not been complete in BSE during Earth's growth, and we argue that early part of the Earth's core has segregated through unmelted silicate material. When the baby Earth was large enough, the increase of the temperature induced Fe-FeS eutectic melting. The liquid metal segregated through the crystalline silicate matrix and formed the early part of the Earth's core. Experimental study (Yoshino et al. 2003) indicates the percolation threshold for molten iron-sulphur compounds of 5 vol% solid olivine, through channel on triple junction between minerals. This study allows us to reconsider the precedent proposition (Stevenson, 1990) based on experimental and theoretical considerations suggesting that percolation of metallic iron rich liquid through a mostly solid silicate matrix is largely prevented because of the high surface tension of iron. During formation and segregation of the Fe-FeS eutectic, W isotopic equilibration is limited by the diffusion through the solid silicate matrix. During the further Earth's growth, impact melting increased and has induced a progressive melting of BSE up to the formation of magma ocean at the end of the planet's accretion. Before the occurrence of the magma ocean, W equilibration between impactors and BSE has not been complete This incomplete isotopic exchange between terrestrial metal and metal originating from impactors with solid part of BSE during early accretion of the Earth leads to the observed excess of 182W of present BSE. It occurs when the 182W production in BSE is most significant, due to the short half-life of 182Hf. The change of segregation mechanisms of Earth's core during planet's growth and short-sightedness of Hf-W chronometer focused to the early segregation of Earth's core make the divergence with the U-Pb and I-Xe terrestrial records. Yin et al. 2002, Nature 418, 949-952. Kleine et al. 2002, Nature 418, 952-955. Schoenberg et al. 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3151-3160. Wetherill 1986, in Origin of the Moon, eds Hartmann et al., LPI, 519-550. Yoshino et al. 2003, Nature 422, 154-157. Stevenson 1990, in Origin of the Earth, eds Newson et al., LPI, 231-249.

Allegre, C. J.; Manhes, G.; Gopel, C.

2004-12-01

66

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect to the conceptions

William R. Penuel; Lawrence P. Gallagher

2009-01-01

67

Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-01-01

68

Understanding of the Earth in the Presence of a Satellite Photo: A Threefold Enterprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To acknowledge both conceptual and situational factors, children's understanding of the Earth was considered from three angles: 1. the perspective as the physical point or direction from which something is seen or depicted; 2. conceptual frameworks; 3. the relevance of explanations in a situation. Fourteen children were interviewed individually in…

Ehrlen, Karin

2009-01-01

69

North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of the quest to understand Earth's magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with

G. M. Turner

2010-01-01

70

Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close—2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer—3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest—4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

Basu, Asish; Hart, Stan

71

Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

2007-01-01

72

The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. It will increase understanding of crustal movement and strain and provide insights into the causes and mechanisms of geodetic activity associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. PBO equipment includes global positioning systems; seismometers; and borehole strainmeters, which detect compression and extension of the earth's crust with a sensitivity of up to a millimeter per thousand kilometer. The deployment of a PBO strainmeters will lead to greater understanding of crustal and volcanic deformation processes at frequencies not normally recorded by the seismic or geodetic instruments. Deploying a PBO strainmeter is a four-step process: The first step is finding a suitable site for the installations of the borehole strainmeter at depths of between 500 and 800 feet below the surface. The process involves understanding the geology of a target area and once a potential site is identified a field visit is required to determine the presence of suitable access and infrastructure. The final and most difficult part of the first step is obtaining a permit from a landowner, which can take several visits and/or phone calls to work through the paperwork. Drilling the borehole is the second step. A standard water well drilling rig is normally used and the drilling process can take between 7-20 days depending on the geology and weather. The drillers must follow strict requirements for the borehole such as hole diameter, angular deviation from vertical, depth, and type of drill bits used. Variables while drilling include lithology changes, competency of rock, and amount of water being produced. The third step is identifying an optimal zone to install the instruments in the borehole. A zone of hard unfractured borehole, about 10 to 15 feet in length, with minimal water production is required for the placement of the strainmeter. Drilling and geophysical logs and a borehole camera are the primary tools used to identify the installation zone. The minimum geophysical logging tools used are full waveform sonic, acoustic televiewer, calipers, and an various electrical tool. The final step is the installation of the equipment. This takes 7-10 days depending on weather, infrastructure and borehole conditions. During the installation a Gladwin tensor strainmeter, a 3 component borehole geophone seismometer, and pore pressure sensors are installed at a minimum and at some locations GPS monuments are installed. Power and communications equipment are also installed at each site as well as an enclosure to house the equipment. If A/C power is nearby, we run power to the, but we have also used solar and Thermal Electric Generators to power equipment. At volcanic sites, tilt meters will be installed.. Post installation, data are transmitted via satellite to UNAVCO where it is processed and forward on to the NCEDC and IRIS DMC for archiving. The data are made publicly available once a station comes online and the data are in the archive. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO strainmeter network.

Johnson, W. C.; Venator, S.; Dittmann, T.; Stair, J.; Tiedeman, A.; Gottlieb, M.; Stroeve, A.; Hasting, M.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.

2006-12-01

73

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget edition 1 data processing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget is the first instrument to measure the earth radiation budget from a geostationary orbit This allows a full sampling of the diurnal cycle of radiation and clouds - which is important for climate studies as well as detailed process studies e g the lifecycle of clouds or particular aerosol events such as desert storms GERB

S. Dewitte; L. Gonzalez; N. Clerbaux; A. Ipe; C. Bertrand

2006-01-01

74

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Edition 1 data processing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument is the first to measure the earth radiation budget from a geostationary orbit. This allows a full sampling of the diurnal cycle of radiation and clouds – which is important for climate studies, as well as detailed process studies, e.g. the lifecycle of clouds or particular aerosol events such as desert storms. GERB

S. Dewitte; L. Gonzalez; N. Clerbaux; A. Ipe; C. Bertrand; B. De Paepe

2008-01-01

75

Building a Two Axes Process Model of Understanding Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes research related to models of understanding mathematics, describes the fundamental conception of understanding mathematics, discusses basic components substantially common to the process models of understanding mathematics, and presents a theoretical framework of a process model consisting of two axes. (26 references) (MKR)

Koyama, Masataka

1993-01-01

76

Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

Black, Alice A. (Jill)

77

Understanding and prediction of electronic-structure-driven physical behaviors in rare-earth compounds.  

PubMed

Rare-earth materials, due to their unique magnetic properties, are important for fundamental and technological applications such as advanced magnetic sensors, magnetic data storage, magnetic cooling and permanent magnets. For an understanding of the physical behaviors of these materials, first principles techniques are one of the best theoretical tools to explore the electronic structure and evaluate exchange interactions. However, first principles calculations of the crystal field splitting due to intra-site electron-electron correlations and the crystal environment in the presence of exchange splitting in rare-earth materials are rarely carried out despite the importance of these effects. Here we consider rare-earth dialuminides as model systems and show that the low temperature anomalies observed in these systems are due to the variation of both exchange and crystal field splitting leading to anomalous intra-site correlated-4f and itinerant-5d electronic states near the Fermi level. From calculations supported by experiments we uncover that HoAl2 is unique among rare-earth dialuminides, in that it undergoes a cubic to orthorhombic distortion leading to a spin reorientation. Calculations of a much more extended family of mixed rare-earth dialuminides reveal an additional degree of complexity: the effective quadrupolar moment of the lanthanides changes sign as a function of lanthanide concentration, leading to a change in the sign of the anisotropy constant. At this point the quadrupolar interactions are effectively reduced to zero, giving rise to lattice instability and leading to new phenomena. This study shows a clear picture that accurate evaluation of the exchange, crystal field splitting and shape of the charge densities allows one to understand, predict and control the physical behaviors of rare-earth materials. PMID:23999405

Paudyal, Durga; Pathak, Arjun K; Pecharsky, V K; Gschneidner, K A

2013-10-01

78

Expanding Our Understanding of the Inquiry Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School librarians know the importance of collaboration. They cannot run effective school library programs unless they work closely with classroom teachers. They have learned that deep collaboration is a fluid process that evolves over time. Only as connections are made and relationships are forged can real instructional progress occur. Yet it…

Stafford, Tish; Stemple, Jennifer

2011-01-01

79

Understanding Undergraduates' Problem-Solving Processes  

PubMed Central

Fostering effective problem-solving skills is one of the most longstanding and widely agreed upon goals of biology education. Nevertheless, undergraduate biology educators have yet to leverage many major findings about problem-solving processes from the educational and cognitive science research literatures. This article highlights key facets of problem-solving processes and introduces methodologies that may be used to reveal how undergraduate students perceive and represent biological problems. Overall, successful problem-solving entails a keen sensitivity to problem contexts, disciplined internal representation or modeling of the problem, and the principled management and deployment of cognitive resources. Context recognition tasks, problem representation practice, and cognitive resource management receive remarkably little emphasis in the biology curriculum, despite their central roles in problem-solving success.

Nehm, Ross H.

2010-01-01

80

Understanding of the Earth in the presence of a satellite photo: A threefold enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

To acknowledge both conceptual and situational factors, children’s understanding of the Earth was considered from three angles:\\u000a 1, the perspective as the physical point or direction from which something is seen or depicted; 2. conceptual frameworks;\\u000a 3. the relevance of explanations in a situation. Fourteen children were interviewed individually in front of a poster of a\\u000a satellite photo of the

Karin Ehrlén

2009-01-01

81

Understanding acute apophyseal spinous process avulsion injuries.  

PubMed

Apophyseal spinous process avulsion injury was first described in 1941. Since then, there have been sparse additional reports in the literature. The authors report their second case, involving an elite adolescent tennis player. The patient underwent surgical excision of the avulsed spinous process 12 weeks after initial presentation and experienced complete resolution of back pain. The authors provide the first reported histopathological analysis of the avulsion fracture site in the literature for both of their cases. The avulsion injury of the interspinous ligament was characterized by hypercellular fibrocartilage tissue, similar to that seen in severe Osgood-Schlatter's disease. The key physical examination finding in patients with avulsion spinous process fractures is acute tenderness directly over the fracture site that worsens with flexion rather than extension (unlike in spondylolysis). Patients should have routine radiographs, including dynamic flexion-extension views, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. The authors conclude that after 6 months of nonsurgical management for an athlete, surgical excision should be offered as an alternative. In both of their cases, nonsurgical management failed. Surgical excision offers definitive and simple treatment, as well as early return to athletic activities. Both patients were allowed to return to their competitive level of performance 6 weeks after surgery. PMID:24762163

Koehler, Steven M; Rosario-Quinones, Frances; Mayer, Jillian; McAnany, Steven; Schiller, Alan L; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Hecht, Andrew C

2014-03-01

82

The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

2013-04-01

83

Understanding the Process of Fascial Unwinding  

PubMed Central

Background: Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapist’s touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a client’s body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as “mystical.” Purpose: This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. Hypothetical Model: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Conclusions: Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory.

Minasny, Budiman

2009-01-01

84

Understanding what the public know and value about geoheritage sites in order to advance Earth science literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its impressive geology and rich cultural history, Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is ideally suited for Earth science education and geotourism initiatives, such as a Geopark. Geologic events that have shaped this region can be interpreted in such a way as to engage learners, not only through an intellectual connection to Earth science subject matter, but also through an emotional connection via culture, history, and sense of place. The notion that landscape is special because it is the sum total of all the interacting earth systems, including people as part of the biosphere, can be used to drive these initiatives as they affect one personally. It is speculated that most people in the Keweenaw have a basic understanding of the local cultural history and some understanding of geology. Advanced awareness and understanding of the geological significance of the Keweenaw stands to greatly enrich our community's sense of place and desire to advance further education and geotourism initiatives. It is anticipated that these initiatives will ultimately lead to increased Earth science literacy and understanding and recognition of one's own environs. This will aid in the further development of publications, teaching media, trails info, on-site museums, etc. Although the community has embraced geo-outreach thus far, it is germane to know what people value, what they know of the geology and how they connect to place. Results from semi-structured interviews administered with the aim and focus of determining what places are special to people, why they are special and how they formed will be presented in this paper. The results from this research will be used to direct the creation and continued development of geologic interpretation of our region. It is hoped that this understanding will reveal common misconceptions that can be used to improve interpretive material that not only addresses misconceptions but also connects the immediate past with the deep geologic past of the Keweenaw. Perhaps the most important outcome hoped for this study is that we as Earth scientists will be afforded an opportunity to uphold our responsibility of communicating the fascinating things we have come to learn about our planet's dynamic processes in a dialect that resonates with everyone.

Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.

2013-12-01

85

Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

86

From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

1987-01-01

87

THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Surman, Rebecca, E-mail: mrmumpow@ncsu.edu, E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu, E-mail: surmanr@union.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

2012-06-20

88

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09

89

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

1994-01-01

90

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1992-01-01

91

NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Theory Program - Recent Science Contributions to Understanding the Connections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Theory Program (SECTP) is now at the beginning of a new triennial cycle of funded research, with all the new research awards beginning in 2005. The SECTP, formerly the Space Physics Theory Program (SPTP), was initially established by the (former) Solar Terrestrial Division in 1980 to redress a weakness of support in the theory area. It has been a successful, evolving scientific program for long-term funding of relatively large "critical mass groups" pursuing theory and modeling on a scale larger than that available within the limits of traditional NASA Supporting Research & Technology (SR&T) awards. The results of the last 3 year funding cycle, just ended, carried on in the same successful manner, by contributing to ever more cutting edge theoretical understanding of all parts of the Sun-Earth Connection chain. The advances ranged from the core of the Sun out into the corona, through the solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere and down to the ionosphere and lower atmosphere with applications to understanding the environments of other solar system bodies. The contributions were not isolated findings but continued to contribute to the planning and implementation of NASA spacecraft missions and to the development of the predictive computer models that have become the workhorses for analyzing satellite and ground-based measurements.

Grebowsky, J. M.

2005-12-01

92

Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

2005-01-01

93

A Decade of Progress in Earth's Internal Properties and Processes.  

PubMed

A major component of the Inter-Union Commission on Geodynamics Project, labeled "Internal Properties and Processes," included certain experimental and theoretical research in tectonophysics, seismology, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology, and planetology. This review focuses on a few research areas in which there have been surprises and reversals. In particular, attention is given to the attempts to quantify the thermal profile in the earth's interior and the material properties of the earth's interior. PMID:17741172

Anderson, O L

1981-07-01

94

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

95

TERRA-1: Understanding the terrestrial environment, the role of earth observations from space  

SciTech Connect

TERRA-1 provides an account of the proceedings of a specialists' conference held at the Royal Geographical Society in August 1989 on land surface remote sensing, its relationship to global environmental research and earth system science, and its role in understanding global climate. The book is a collection of 19 articles from a diverse group of geologists, geographers, hydrologists, meteorologists, soil scientists, terrestrial ecologists, volcanologists, and remote sensing specialists. The articles provide a useful overview in a number of disciplines on how space-based remote sensing is helping address problems associated with monitoring and predicting the global environment and its climate.

Mather, P.M. (ed.)

1992-01-01

96

Advanced technology for earth observation - Data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is to demonstrate major advances in space-based land observation. Program success will depend upon successful demonstration of both space-segment performance and ground-system capabilities. Increases in data-rate, volume, and processing requirements present substantial challenges to the ground data processing system. ELOS is based on the utilization of the multispectral linear array (MLA) sensor, a solid-state, electronically scanned instrument. Current MLA instrument designs offer a number of capabilities beyond those provided in the Landsat imaging devices. These capabilities include greater resolution, inherent registration, onboard calibration, off-nadir pointing capability, and fore/aft pointing capability. The proposed MLA flight mission scenario will be one of continued growth and will include flights on the Space Transportation System. Attention is also given to ground-to-ground data transport, data capture, and the use of high speed computers.

Heffner, P.; Connell, E.

1982-01-01

97

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

98

Innovative Uses of Google Earth to Facilitate Scientific Understanding of Meteorological Observations, Forecasts and Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Google Earth application provides a unique means to display, animate and layer imagery and geophysical data on a 3-dimensional globe without the distortions imparted by a flat display. Using Google Earth, high resolution imagery from environmental satellite data such as the MODIS sensor onboard EOS Terra and Aqua can be viewed at various levels of detail, and updated dynamically as new datasets arrive. Observations and numerical weather prediction model forecasts can be viewed and directly compared. It also provides a forum for training and education of geophysical concepts (atmospheric and space weather, land surface processes, climate, oceanography, etc.) by fusing the aspects of a web-browser with the capability to geo-reference and geo- fuse multiple layers of data. This poster shows several examples that demonstrate how the Google Earth application can be used to display meteorological datasets. For example, an animation of satellite rainfall images from a blend of satellite types gives the user an immediate indication of heavy rain and flooding. 3-D aircraft flight tracks from a recent field experiment show how the in-situ data gathered onboard the aircraft can be compared with coordinated ground-based observations. We also demonstrate how to display data selected from a webpage directly into Google Earth, a land cover database integrated with active fire data, and the use of multispectral and multi- resolution satellite data as you zoom in on a tropical cyclone.

Curtis, C. A.; Turk, F. J.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.

2007-12-01

99

Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t-test shows that concept mapping added to the participants' conceptual understanding whether the participants learned the concepts through readings or stations. Finally, field assignments allowed the participants to apply knowledge that they learned in their science methods course in their classroom placements. This study has implications for teacher preparation programs, staff development, and conceptual change practices in field placements.

Bulunuz, Nermin

100

The Rare Earth Peak: An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Where do the heavy elements in the universe come from? While the basic principles of nucleosynthesis have been established, a definite answer to this and many related questions still eludes us. The 'rapid' neutron capture process or r-process is believed to be responsible for generating roughly half the nuclei with atomic mass A ? 100. However, the astrophysical site of this process still remains uncertain. Still further, nucleosynthesis calculations of this process must rely on theoretical extrapolations as the bulk of nuclides participating in this process are short-lived.We examine the formation and final structure of the rare earth peak (A ˜ 160) of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Since rare earth peak formation does not occur during (n, gamma) ? (gamma, n) equilibrium it is sensitive to the strong interplay between late time thermodynamic evolution and nuclear physics input. We show that under high entropy conditions (S > 100 kB), the rare earth peak forms at late times in the r-process after neutron exhaustion (neutron-to-seed ratio unity or R = 1) as matter decays back to stability. Depending on the conditions the peak forms either because of the pattern of the neutron capture rates or because of the pattern of the separation energies. We use features of a successful rare earth region to discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions. We study the sensitivity of the r-process abundance pattern to neutron capture rates and beta-decay rates in the region. We identify the range of nuclei which are in uential in rare earth peak formation.

Mumpower, Matthew Ryan

101

Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. 1998 Fact Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a comprehensive program to study the earth as an environmental system. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of earth-observing satellites; (2) an advanced data system; and (3) teams of scientists who will study the data. Contents include: (1) "The Earth

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight Center.

102

Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

2007-01-01

103

Understanding the Manuscript Review Process: Increasing the Participation of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the process leading to the publication of one's professional work to be equitable, all authors must understand why and how publication decisions are made. Psychologists must understand how editors and reviewers look at manuscripts, and how the author's own attitudes and skills may affect the acceptance of manuscripts. These four papers are…

Russo, Nancy Felipe; And Others

104

Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and

Ralph Bernstein

1976-01-01

105

On the access to an earth resources data processing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Purdue/LARS earth resources data processing system is briefly described. The considerations to which an organization would want to give attention before obtaining a remote terminal to this system are discussed. The support of such a terminal which Purdue/LARS is willing to propose is described.

Phillips, T. L.; Schwingendorf, S. K.

1974-01-01

106

Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

Sato, M.

1985-01-01

107

Understanding software defect detection in the Personal Software Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general need to understand software defects and the ability to detect defects during different activities. This is particularly important in relation to software process improvement, where one objective may be to decrease the number of defects. The Personal Software Process (PSP) has gained attention during the last couple of years as a way to individual improvement in

Claes Wohlin; Anders Wesslén

1998-01-01

108

Analyzing collaborative learning: Multiple approaches to understanding processes and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to consider collaborative processes from multiple perspectives because collaborative learning environments are complex, often requiring multiple methodological approaches to understand their different aspects (Hmelo-Silver, 2003). Collaborative learning is the subject of study in a wide variety of disciplines such as developmental psychology (e.g., socio- cognitive conflict), social psychology (person perception, motivation, group processes), sociology (status, power and

Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver

2006-01-01

109

The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

2013-12-01

110

Why Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

Smith, Michael J.

2004-01-01

111

A novel process for recovering rare earth from weathered black earth  

SciTech Connect

A novel process for recovering rare-earth (RE) elements from weathered-black-earth slime is developed. This process involves the initial removal of Mn by reduction leaching using SO{sub 2} followed by ammonium chloride roasting of the residual solids from the leaching process. The controlled roasting selectively converts RE oxides to water-soluble RE chlorides. The roasted materials are then dispersed in warm water (75 C) to extract RE, while water-insoluble iron oxides remain in gangue sludge, minimizing iron impurities in final RE products and hence simplifying the purification process. Lead chloride precipitates are obtained by cooling the leachate to {minus}10 C, and RE is recovered using oxalic acid precipitation. With this new process, a product of 92 pct purity at a RE recovery greater than 65 pct is obtained. In addition, Mn and Pb are recovered as by-products, with a recovery of 64 and 54 pct, respectively. The effect of operating variables on RE recovery is examined and the process chemistry described.

Chi, R.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.

2000-02-01

112

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

1995-01-01

113

Investigating material trends and lattice relaxation effects for understanding electron transfer phenomena in rare-earth-doped optical materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare-earth-doped insulators and semiconductors play an important role in a wide range of modern optical technologies. Knowledge of the relative energies of rare-earth ions’ localized electronic states and the band states of the host crystal is important for understanding the properties of these materials and for determining the potential material performance in specific applications such as lasers, phosphors, and optical

C. W. Thiel; R. L. Cone

2011-01-01

114

Super Star Meets the Plucky Planet... Or, how Earth and Sun come to mutual understanding and respect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an animated and narrated storybook about the Sun and its effects on Earth. Learners will read or hear about characteristics of the Sun and Earth that influence their interaction. Topics touched upon include star sizes, star life cycle, stellar core nuclear processes, plasma, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar wind, electromagnetic spectrum, Earthâs magnetosphere, and electromagnetic energy.

115

Digital image processing of earth observation sensor data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and extracting information are also illustrated.

Bernstein, R.

1976-01-01

116

Understanding underlying processes in formic acid fuel cells.  

PubMed

A basic understanding of electrode structure and the characteristics of its components can be powerfully utilized in fuel cell applications such as direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) system integration and HCOOH concentration controlled systems. There have been, thus, tremendous efforts made to elucidate theoretical aspects of electrochemical processes involving new anode catalysts and put them into practical effect on formic acid fuel cells. Herein, we highlight recent studies for better understanding of the underlying processes in DFAFC: (i) a systematic approach for developing cost-effective and stable anode catalysts and electrode structures that incorporate mass transport characteristics of HCOOH; (ii) a clear evaluation of the HCOOH crossover rate based on its physicochemical properties; and (iii) a theoretical assessment process of individual electrodes and related components during DFAFC operation using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a reversible hydrogen reference electrode, which can potentially detect subtle changes in the DFAFC mechanism and provide useful information pertaining to rate-limiting processes. PMID:19830313

Uhm, Sunghyun; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaeyoung

2009-11-01

117

Dynamic Noise and its Role in Understanding Epidemiological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of dynamic noise in understanding epidemiological systems, such as influenza or dengue fever by deriving stochastic ordinary differential equations from markov processes for discrete populations. This approach allows for an easy analysis of dynamical noise transitions between co-existing attractors.

Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maíra

2010-09-01

118

Preservice Teachers' Assessment of Student Understanding: Processes and Their Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of eight elementary student teachers used stimulated recall interviews to investigate their knowledge and processes in reading their students, or informally assessing their students' understanding during instruction. By collecting data from four student teachers in each of two different programs at the same university, one of which was…

Heuwinkel, Mary K.

119

Understanding control flow transfer and its predictability in java processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth look and understanding of control flow transfer and its predictability can guide architects to adapt control flow prediction hardware in Java processing or finely tune the performance of JVM software on general purpose machines. To our knowledge, this paper provides the first insight of branch behavior on a standard Java Virtual Machine with real workloads. Employing a complete

Tao Li; Lizy Kurian John

2001-01-01

120

Field experiments for understanding and quantification of rill erosion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many efforts over the last decades to understand rill erosion processes, they remain unclear. This paper presents the results of rill experiments accomplished in Andalusia in September 2008 using a novel experimental set up. 72L of water are introduced with an intensity of 9Lmin?1 into a rill. Rill cross sections, slope values, flow velocities and sediment concentrations were measured

S. Wirtz; M. Seeger; J. B. Ries

2012-01-01

121

Understanding Metaphorical Expressions: Conventionality, Mappings, and Comparison Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphorical expressions appear once every twenty words in everyday language, and play a central role in communication. Some cognitive linguistic theories propose that understanding metaphorical expressions requires mappings from one conceptual domain to the other. My research uses Event-Related Potentials to examine the processing, the…

Lai, Vicky Tzuyin

2009-01-01

122

Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

1975-01-01

123

What SImilar Physical Processes Occur on Both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Similar features exist on the surfaces of Earth and Mars. This investigation includes satellite images of five Earth features and five Martian features, none of which are labeled. Students must compare and contrast those images to produce five matching pairs, list the similarities and differences, and speculate about the processes that formed each feature. The URL opens to the investigation directory, with links to teacher and student materials, lesson extensions, resources, teaching tips, and assessment strategies. Note that this is Investigation 3 of four found in the Grades 5-8 Module 2 of Mission Geography. The Mission Geography curriculum integrates data and images from NASA missions with the National Geography Standards. Each of the four investigations in Module 2, while related, can be done independently.

124

Improving our understanding of clouds in the Earth's climate using polarimetry (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and ice clouds play a fundamental role in the radiative balance (and therefore climate) of the Earth, so understanding their distribution and optical properties is crucial. Recently, new data products from the ground-based NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been created. These products expand the scope of AERONET to provide data about clouds in addition to atmospheric aerosols for which the network was originally designed. The main AERONET cloud data product is the Cloud Optical Depth (COD), which describes the amount of light extinction due to clouds in a vertical atmospheric column. AERONET measurements of COD must rely, however, on assumptions about the cloud thermodynamic phase. If the thermodynamic phase can be identified, AERONET COD errors can be significantly reduced. AERONET sun photometers determine aerosol and cloud optical properties by observing both the direct solar beam and sky scattered radiation at a variety of wavelengths. Newer instruments are also sensitive to light polarization, which we show can be used to determine cloud thermodynamic phase and therefore improve AERONET cloud data products. This work has two components. First, we performed atmospheric radiative transfer simulations to verify that polarization does contain information about cloud phase, and how to best exploit this in an algorithm. Observations were then compared to theoretical simulations. The second component of this research is to build our own polarization sensitive radiometer that is optimized for cloud observations. Initial results from both of these efforts will be presented.

Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Dunagan, S.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

125

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

126

Understanding uncertainty in process-based hydrological models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building an environmental model requires making a series of decisions regarding the appropriate representation of natural processes. While some of these decisions can already be based on well-established physical understanding, gaps in our current understanding of environmental dynamics, combined with incomplete knowledge of properties and boundary conditions of most environmental systems, make many important modeling decisions far more ambiguous. There is consequently little agreement regarding what a 'correct' model structure is, especially at relatively larger spatial scales such as catchments and beyond. In current practice, faced with such a range of decisions, different modelers will generally make different modeling decisions, often on an ad hoc basis, based on their balancing of process understanding, the data available to evaluate the model, the purpose of the modeling exercise, and their familiarity with or investment in an existing model infrastructure. This presentation describes development and application of multiple-hypothesis models to evaluate process-based hydrologic models. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including multiple options for model parameterizations (e.g., below-canopy wind speed, thermal conductivity, storage and transmission of liquid water through soil, etc.), as well as multiple options for model architecture, that is, the coupling and organization of different model components (e.g., representations of sub-grid variability and hydrologic connectivity, coupling with groundwater, etc.). Application of this modeling framework across a collection of different research basins demonstrates that differences among model parameterizations are often overwhelmed by differences among equally-plausible model parameter sets, while differences in model architecture lead to pronounced differences in model simulations at larger spatial scales. Work is ongoing to use this modeling framework to understand differences among existing models, especially, to understand why different hydrologic models have a very different portrayal of the impacts of climate change on water resources.

Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Slater, A. G.; Newman, A. J.; Marks, D. G.; Landry, C.; Lundquist, J. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Nijssen, B.

2013-12-01

127

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

Saltzman, Barry

1993-01-01

128

A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

Ashmann, Scott

2012-01-01

129

Understanding CD error sources in optical mask processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As mask CD precision and uniformity specifications continue to tighten to 40 nm and below, a better understanding of CD error contributors is required in order to achieve this level of performance. The lithography system, the resist and chrome coatings, development and etching, and metrology all can contribute to the composite CD error. Error sources as small as 10 nm can be significant contributors depending on how the error adds in to the total. In this paper, techniques for isolating and examining these errors are discussed. The CD performance of the CORE-2564 is improved through the systematic optimization of process steps. The implications of `zero-bias' processing are discussed.

Buck, Peter D.

1993-03-01

130

Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components in the form of PAS instruments of processes of geophysical and man-triggered nature; to predict the presence of the features of geophysical nature in the electromagnetic field of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to study dynamics the analyzed signals coming from the geophysical and man-triggered sources in the electrical and magnetic fields of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to expose changes of the investigated time series in the periods preceding the appearance of the predicted phenomena; to form clusters of the time series being the features of the predicted events. On the base of the exposed clusters of the time series there have been built the predicting rules allowing to coordinate the probability of appearing the groups of the occurred events. The work is carried out with supporting of Program FPP #14.B37.210668, FPP #5.2071.2011, RFBR #11-05-97518.

Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay

2013-04-01

131

Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, 1995 Catalog of Education Programs and Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is an integrated, sustainable environmental education program that focuses on the concept of Earth system science which integrates fields like meteorology, oceanography, atmospheric science, geology, and biology. The program has the following objectives: training the next generation of scientists to use an…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

132

Contribution of earth observation data to Congo River basin hydrology understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural Resource Monitoring in Africa (NARMA) is one of the Core Information Services of EU-FP7 project Geoland2 addressing important sectoral policies that concern with the development of an environmental monitoring capacity over African countries for the needs of the European Commission (EC) services and for regional and continental EC partners in African countries. Congo basin is one of the target area where NARMA has to contribute to the development of AMESD/CICOS services in support to management of water resources focusing on environmental aspects of watersheds. In this contest and to better understand dynamics that occur in the watershed, an analysis has been conducted on the relation between precipitation, river discharge and vegetation dynamics by exploiting available time series of Earth Observation data. Rainfall dynamics has been described using FEWS-NET RFE estimations, river discharge has been monitored using ENVISAT radar altimeter data provided by LEGOS laboratory and vegetation dynamics have been examined through vegetation indices available from long term series of SPOT-VGT data. The comparison between river discharge measured at Bangui (Central African Republic), gauging station and radar altimeter virtual station data demonstrated that these data can be used to estimate river discharge. This result allowed to focus a preliminary analysis on the Uele watershed, Ubangi sub basin, using radar data as a proxy of river discharge, comparing these trends to seasonal rainfall estimates and trying to disentangling the effect of vegetation on discharge-rain relation. Results showed that a strong positive correlation is obtained between rain data and river discharge only at the end of the vegetation season when plants have reduced water demand for evapotranspiration and less intercept rain. Trend analysis on the considered time windows are provided and the contribution of these finding for river water alert monitoring system is discussed.

Boschetti, Mirco; Nutini, Francesco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholome, Etienne; Stroppiana, Daniela

2010-10-01

133

Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to implement an interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems. These ideas have also proven useful in quantum state discrimination, where the state of a quantum system is unknown and is to be determined.

Cohen, Scott M.

2008-05-01

134

Processing, analysis, recognition, and automatic understanding of medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper presents some new ideas introducing automatic understanding of the medical images semantic content. The idea under consideration can be found as next step on the way starting from capturing of the images in digital form as two-dimensional data structures, next going throw images processing as a tool for enhancement of the images visibility and readability, applying images analysis algorithms for extracting selected features of the images (or parts of images e.g. objects), and ending on the algorithms devoted to images classification and recognition. In the paper we try to explain, why all procedures mentioned above can not give us full satisfaction in many important medical problems, when we do need understand image semantic sense, not only describe the image in terms of selected features and/or classes. The general idea of automatic images understanding is presented as well as some remarks about the successful applications of such ideas for increasing potential possibilities and performance of computer vision systems dedicated to advanced medical images analysis. This is achieved by means of applying linguistic description of the picture merit content. After this we try use new AI methods to undertake tasks of the automatic understanding of images semantics in intelligent medical information systems. A successful obtaining of the crucial semantic content of the medical image may contribute considerably to the creation of new intelligent multimedia cognitive medical systems. Thanks to the new idea of cognitive resonance between stream of the data extracted form the image using linguistic methods and expectations taken from the representation of the medical knowledge, it is possible to understand the merit content of the image even if the form of the image is very different from any known pattern.

Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Ogiela, Marek R.

2004-07-01

135

Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus [Medioambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)

2007-07-01

136

Toward an Understanding of the Laws Governing the Development of the Earths Crust and the Geothermal Fields of the Lithosphere.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems are dealt with relating to the pro gressive development of the processes involved in the formation of the earth's crust. The causes and factors affecting the emergence of new laws during their develop ment, processes of radioactive decay, and...

N. S. Boganik

1972-01-01

137

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

1991-01-01

138

Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope's USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement

M. L. Williams; D. W. Mogk; J. R. McDaris

2010-01-01

139

Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth  

SciTech Connect

AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

2009-05-15

140

Use of Rare Earth Elements in Investigations of Aeolian Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aeolian movement of surface sediments is a natural geomorphic process that has shaped landscapes and contributes to atmospheric dust loading. Even on seemingly uniform surfaces, aeolian activity is highly variable in space and time. Tagging individual particles with Rare Earth Elements (REE) that are present in only trace amounts in the native surface soils allows the study of aeolian transport from source to sink. Rare Earth Oxides are dissolved in nitric acid and diluted to provide a several order of magnitude increase in soil REE concentration when sprayed on the source soil and allowed to infiltrate to a shallow depth. A single REE may be applied to a small area of the surface or multiple REEs may be applied to discrete micro-sites on the surface. The sediments trapped by standard aeolian samplers record the relative contributions of the tagged areas and the dispersal from a point source. We have successfully used REEs to investigate preferential micro-sites for post-fire aeolian activity in a heterogeneous environment and to investigate single season aeolian dispersal from a point source. We are also collaborating with others on the use of REEs to quantify the development of nutrient islands in desert shrublands.

Van Pelt, R. S.; Barnes, M. A.; Zobeck, T. M.

2012-12-01

141

A synthetic biology approach to understanding cellular information processing  

PubMed Central

The survival of cells and organisms requires proper responses to environmental signals. These responses are governed by cellular networks, which serve to process diverse environmental cues. Biological networks often contain recurring network topologies called ‘motifs’. It has been recognized that the study of such motifs allows one to predict the response of a biological network, and thus cellular behavior. However, studying a single motif in complete isolation of all other network motifs in a natural setting is difficult. Synthetic biology has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding the dynamic properties of network motifs. In addition to testing existing theoretical predictions, construction and analysis of synthetic gene circuits has led to the discovery of novel motif dynamics such as how the combination of simple motifs can lead to autonomous dynamics or how noise in transcription and translation can affect the dynamics of a motif. Here, we review developments in synthetic biology as they pertain to increasing our understanding of cellular information processing. We highlight several types of dynamic behaviors that diverse motifs can generate, including the control of input/output responses, the generation of autonomous spatial and temporal dynamics, as well as the influence of noise in motif dynamics and cellular behavior.

Riccione, Katherine A; Smith, Robert P; Lee, Anna J; You, Lingchong

2012-01-01

142

The statistical approach for turbulent processes in the Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scaling features of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the magnetic field fluctuations in different regions of Earth magnetosphere and the solar wind plasma at different timescales were considered. Data obtained by Interball spacecraft were used. Changes of shape and parameters of the probability distribution function for periods of the satellite position in different magnetosphere regions were examined. The probabilities of return P(0) with t, and kurtosis values at different timescales were used for the analysis. Two asymptotic regimes of P(0) characterized by different power laws were founded. In particular, while the large timescale the scaling is quite well in agreement with the typical scaling features for a normal Gaussian process, in the limit of small timescale the observed scaling resembles the behavior of a Levy process. The crossover characteristic timescale is corresponding to 1 sec. This value can be connected with ion gyrofrequency. In addition, for the analysis of turbulent processes the structure functions of different orders were investigated, and comparison of the obtained results with log-Poisson cascade model was made. Near magnetospheric boundaries the statistical study reveals super-diffusive character of the transport processes. In the quiet magnetosheath and in solar wind classical diffusion is recovered.

Kozak, Liudmyla; Savin, Sergey; Budaev, Vyacheslav; Pilipenko, Viacheslav

143

Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids in the form of collision cascades. The ballistic formation and thermalization of cascades occur rapidly and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic an- nealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable post-irradiation disorder in ion-beam-processed semiconductors and determines the "radiation tolerance" of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken. First, the effects of dynamic annealing are investigated in ZnO, a technologically relevant material that exhibits very high dynamic defect annealing at room temper- ature. Such high dynamic annealing leads to unusual defect accumulation in heavy ion bombarded ZnO. Through this work, the puzzling features that were observed more than a decade ago in ion-channeling spectra have finally been explained. We show that the presence of a polar surface substantially alters damage accumulation. Non-polar surface terminations of ZnO are shown to exhibit enhanced dynamic an- nealing compared to polar surface terminated ZnO. Additionally, we demonstrate one method to reduce radiation damage in polar surface terminated ZnO by means of a surface modification. These results advance our efforts in the long-sought-after goal of understanding complex radiation damage processes in ceramics. Second, a pulsed-ion-beam method is developed and demonstrated in the case of Si as a prototypical non-metallic target. Such a method is shown to be a novel experimental technique for direct extraction of dynamic annealing parameters. The relaxation times and effective diffusion lengths of mobile defects during the dynamic annealing process play a vital role in damage accumulation. We demonstrate that these parameters dominate the formation of stable post-irradiation disorder. In Si, a defect lifetime of ˜ 6 ms and a characteristic defect diffusion length of ˜ 30 nm are measured. These results should nucleate future pulsed-beam studies of dynamic defect interaction processes in technologically relevant materials. In particular, un- derstanding length- and time-scales of defect interactions are essential for extending laboratory findings to nuclear material lifetimes and to the time-scales of geological storage of nuclear waste.

Myers, Michael Thomas

144

Manufacturing Process for Alloys of Rare-Earth Metals and the System Used in This Manufacturing Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention concerns a process by which a dissolved-salt bath containing rare-earth metals, alkali metals and the fluorides of alkaline-earth metals, is used to manufacture alloys of rare-earth metals and metals that have a melting point and a s...

T. Yamanaka

1988-01-01

145

Stacking of blocks by chimpanzees: developmental processes and physical understanding.  

PubMed

The stacking-block task has been used to assess cognitive development in both humans and chimpanzees. The present study reports three aspects of stacking behavior in chimpanzees: spontaneous development, acquisition process following training, and physical understanding assessed through a cylindrical-block task. Over 3 years of longitudinal observation of block manipulation, one of three infant chimpanzees spontaneously started to stack up cubic blocks at the age of 2 years and 7 months. The other two infants began stacking up blocks at 3 years and 1 month, although only after the introduction of training by a human tester who rewarded stacking behavior. Cylindrical blocks were then introduced to assess physical understanding in object-object combinations in three infant (aged 3-4) and three adult chimpanzees. The flat surfaces of cylinders are suitable for stacking, while the rounded surface is not. Block manipulation was described using sequential codes and analyzed focusing on failure, cause, and solution in the task. Three of the six subjects (one infant and two adults) stacked up cylindrical blocks efficiently: frequently changing the cylinders' orientation without contacting the round side to other blocks. Rich experience in stacking cubes may facilitate subjects' stacking of novel, cylindrical shapes from the beginning. The other three subjects were less efficient in stacking cylinders and used variable strategies to achieve the goal. Nevertheless, they began to learn the effective way of stacking over the course of testing, after about 15 sessions (75 trials). PMID:16909233

Hayashi, Misato

2007-04-01

146

Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to determine the (unknown) state of a spatially distributed, multipartite quantum system. Illustrative examples of this entanglement-assisted local state discrimination are sets of orthogonal product states exhibiting what is known as ``non-locality without entanglement'', including unextendible product bases. These ideas have also proven useful in using entanglement to implement a unitary interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems.

Cohen, Scott M.

2009-03-01

147

Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

Frey, Herbert

2012-01-01

148

Using narratives to understand older people's decision-making processes.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of health and social care services designed to support people in their own homes, older people often underuse or refuse these services. It is now acknowledged that this phenomenon contributes to older people being admitted to hospital and long-term care in circumstances that could be avoided. To understand how the uptake of supportive and preventative services can be improved, the first author, supervised by the second and third authors, developed a constructivist inquiry to explore what factors enhance or bar service use. This article describes how narratives were used not only to help identify decision- and choice-making influences, but also as a way of enhancing the hermeneutic processes associated with constructivism. PMID:19641040

Tetley, Josephine; Grant, Gordon; Davies, Susan

2009-09-01

149

A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

2012-01-01

150

The Micrometeoritic Purity of the Atmosphere and Early Earth's Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic time frame of EMMA is the formation time interval of the Earth, ?(Earth) ~ 100 Myr. This value has been estimated from both the 129I 129Xe radioactive chronometer (Pepin and Phinney, 1975; Staudacher and Allègre 1982) and modern theories about the formation of the Earth initiated by Wetherill (1994) for a recent summary see Canup and Agnor (2000). In this scenario, the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere reported in Table 1 would give the average composition of about 1000 billions of billions of billions (e.g., ~1030) of juvenile IDPs captured by the Earth after the formation of the Moon, and representing a total mass of material of ~5.1024 g. Amazingly, this composition turns to be quite similar to that of an aliquot of about 500 AMMs with sizes of around 100.200 ?m, amounting to a few milligrams of material, that we used to infer the composition of a “micrometeoritic” atmosphere.

Maurette, Michel

151

Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with 20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

2013-04-01

152

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

153

A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.  

SciTech Connect

AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper, slurry injection rate, via prewetting, slurry injection angle, filter paper prewetting, and slurry mixing time. Many of these factors did not have an influence on defect formation. In order of decreasing importance, critical factors for defect formation by slurry filling are vacuum time (20 sec. optimal), slurry solids loading (20.0 g of cermet with 13.00 g of DGBEA solvent (21.2 vol%)), filling with the pipette in a vertical position, and faster injection rates (~765 l/s) as preferable to slower. No further recommendations for improvement to this process can be suggested. All findings of the slurry filling process have been transferred to CeramTec, the supplier. Paste filling methods appear to show more promise of increasing production yields. The types of flaws commonly found in slurry-filled vias were identified and followed throughout the entire source feedthru process. In general, all sizes of cracks healed during isopressing and firing steps. Additionally, small to medium sized voids (less than 1/3 the via diameter) can be healed. Porosity will usually lead to via necking, which may cause the part to be out of specification. Large voids (greater 4 than 1/3 of the diameter) and partial fills are not healed or produce significant necking. 2.Viability of High-Solids-Loading-Cermet Paste for Filling Source Feedthru ViaThe paste-filling process is easy to implement and easier to use. The high solids loading (>40 vol %) reduces the incidence of drying defects, which are seen in slurry filled (~23 vol %) vias. Additionally, the way in which the vias are filled (the paste is pushed from entrance to exit, displacing air as the paste front progresses), reduces the chance of entrapped voids, which are common in the slurry filling process. From the fair number of samples already filled, the likelihood of this process being a viable and reliable process is very good. Issues of concern for the paste process, as with any new process, are any problems that may arise in subsequent manufacturing stages of the neutron tube that may be affected by subtle changes in

Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

2006-04-01

154

Studies on Photoionization and Electron Trapping Process in Rare Earth Codoped Alkaline Earth Fluoride Crystals.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In crystals with fluorite structure, such as CaF _2, SrF_2, and BaF_2, the process of photoionization of divalent rare earth ion (RE^{2+ }) impurities along with the trapping of electrons by different trivalent RE^{3+} ions have been investigated. It was found that the direct transition from a localized ground state of a rare earth to the conduction band states of the host has a negligible photoionization rate; and photoionization occurs through a localized excited state of the RE ion by thermal ionization or quantum tunneling, depending on the relative energy between the excited state and conduction band. The low energy of the exciton state of Eu ^{2+} in BaF_2 accounts for the lack of photoionization of Eu ^{2+} from the E_ {rm g} band. The Sm^ {3+} and Tm^{3+} demonstrated much higher trapping ability than Ce^{3+}. Electrons can be trapped not only by uncompensated RE^ {3+} but also by the charge compensated one. Relative trapping efficiency of Sm^ {3+} in both sites was measured in the BaF_2 crystal. Further investigation on the charge compensated Sm^{2+} ion, which is stable at low temperature, reveals that the interstitial fluoride compensator can substantially reduce the photoionization threshold, and quench the luminescence of Sm^ {2+} at lower temperature. It is also confirmed from Sm^{2+} absorption and emission spectra that Sm^ {2+}:F^{-} complex has C_{rm 3v} local symmetry in BaF_2. Ce^{3+} ions in cubic sites were reduced by X-ray irradiation at 77K in both SrF_2 and BaF_2 crystals for the first time ever. Ce^ {2+} will return to trivalent state after warming sample to room temperature. When a Ce:Na:CaF _2 crystal was irradiated with x-ray, the absorption spectra of both Ce^{3+} and Ce^{2+} showed no evidence of trapping of electron by Na^ {+} compensated Ce^{3+ }. In general, this work has shown that the ionization efficiency of RE^{2+} in fluorite lattice is affected by the energy of the self -trapped exciton state relative to the localized excited state of impurity and the proximity of charge compensator. It also demonstrates that the trapping cross section of RE ^{3+} strongly depends on the position of the charge compensator and the lattice size of host as well as the chemistry of the impurity itself.

Mou, Wanfeng

1995-01-01

155

The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western

W. C. Johnson; S. Venator; T. Dittmann; J. Stair; A. Tiedeman; M. Gottlieb; A. Stroeve; M. Hasting; D. Mencin; M. Jackson

2006-01-01

156

Digital image-processing activities in remote sensing for earth resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States space program is in the throes of a major shift in emphasis from exploration of the moon and nearby planets to the application of remote sensing technology toward increased scientific understanding and economic exploitation of the earth itself. Over one hundred potential applications have already been identified. Since data from the unmanned Earth Resources Technology Satellites and

G. Nagy; Yorktown Heights

1972-01-01

157

Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

1973-01-01

158

Numerical study of magnetization processes in rare-earth tetraborides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple model for a description of magnetization processes in rare-earth tetraborides. The model is based on the coexistence of two subsystems, and, namely, the spin subsystem described by the Ising model and the electronic subsystem described by the Falicov-Kimball model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice (SSL). Moreover, both subsystems are coupled by the anisotropic spin-dependent interaction of the Ising type. We have found, that the switching on of the spin-dependent interaction (Jz) between the electron and spin subsystems and taking into account the electron hopping on the nearest (t) and next-nearest (t') lattice sites of the SSL leads to a stabilization of magnetization plateaus. In addition, to the Ising magnetization plateau at msp/mssp=1/3 we have found three relevant magnetization plateaus located at msp/mssp=1/2 , 1/5, and 1/7 of the saturated spin magnetization mssp . The ground states corresponding to magnetization plateaus have the same spin structure consisting of parallel antiferromagnetic bands separated by ferromagnetic stripes.

Farkašovský, Pavol; ?en?ariková, Hana; Mat'Aš, Slavomír

2010-08-01

159

Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion picture industry relied upon establishing an accepted second space within the minds of their audiences. By the end of the study period, the universe accepted by most Americans was a "California Universe". It was not a discovery of pure science, but rather a cultural-scientific product of the Mount Wilson astronomers, the Pasadena community and the landscape and culture of Southern California.

Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

160

Improved Understanding of ice and dust processes using Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the DART Data Assimilation (DA) framework to ingest radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) into the PlanetWRF Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) and measure the skill of the model in reproducing the observations, and hence to test and improve understanding of the aerosol processes at the heart of Martian climate. The DA framework is used to constrain the surface ice properties in the model using the TES radiance observations and lander pressure measurements as independent constraints on the ice properties. We compare the skill of two ice models in reproducing the TES radiance observations while simultaneously matching lander pressure observations. In one model the effect of subsurface ice is contained within the surface albedo and emissivity parameterization, in the second model subsurface ice is parameterized based on Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data. Both models reproduce the pressure cycle observed by the Viking Lander instruments, but the model with subsurface ice performs significantly better at reproducing the TES radiance observations over the ice-covered poles. We also use the DA framework to investigate the model skill using the Conrath vertical dust profile (with a near surface maximum dust abundance) and a modified dust profile with high altitude maximum that has been inferred from limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The GCM using the modified dust profile produces an atmosphere with thermal lapse rate closer to that measured using nadir observations from TES.

Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

2013-12-01

161

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

162

Earth as a System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. To understand Earth on a global scale means using a scientific approach to consider how Earth's component parts and their interactions have evolved, how they function, and how they may be expected to further evolve over time. This video points out the complex interactions between Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land, and helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education. The segment is five minutes thirty-one seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

163

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

1994-01-01

164

Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

2012-12-01

165

Why Earth Science?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

Smith, Michael J.

2004-05-01

166

SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2011-01-01

167

Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

2014-05-01

168

A Roast-Leach Process for Extraction of Rare Earths from Complex Monazite-Xenotime Concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed process approaches the problem of solubilizing rare-earth phosphates (monazite and xenotime) found at the Pea Ridge iron mine in Sullivan, MO, from both a pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical point of view. It utilizes a roasting operation that converts the rare-earth phosphates to rare-earth oxides (REOs), which eliminates some costly and hazardous processing steps currently in practice. Different combinations of

K. M. Franken

1995-01-01

169

Materials Processing of Rare Earth Cobalt (RECo5) Permanent Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rare earth-cobalt intermetallic compounds show promise for permanent magnets with a higher energy product, BH(max), than are currently available. Because fine particles are required for magnetic alignment and sintering, and since the coercivities of these...

P. J. Jorgensen

1970-01-01

170

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants

C. A. Engelmann; W. I. Rose; J. E. Huntoon; M. F. Klawiter; K. Hungwe

2010-01-01

171

The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

2012-01-01

172

The earth and beyond: developing primary teachers' understanding of basic astronomical events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demands on the primary school teacher in delivering the National Curriculum in England and Wales at Key Stage 2 (KS 2) for children aged 7?11 years are considerable. Public debate concerning teacher subject knowledge and understanding, particularly in science, has raised the issue of the need for increased specialism in the primary school. A core element of this debate

Joan Parker; Dave Heywood

1998-01-01

173

Understanding collaborative learning processes in new learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trying to understand the complexity of computer-mediated problem-based learning environments is not easy. Sociocultural theory\\u000a provides a theoretical framework for understanding such environments because it emphasizes the socially situated nature of\\u000a learning and the critical role of tools in mediating learning. To examine how different aspects of discourse relate to each\\u000a other, as well as to the tools being used

Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver; Ellina Chernobilsky; Rebecca Jordan

2008-01-01

174

From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

Rosen, Paul A.

2012-01-01

175

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

2009-12-01

176

Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

1972-01-01

177

The nuclear microprobe as a probe of earth structure and geological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear microprobe is ideally suited to the microanalysis of geological samples where trace element quantitative microanalysis and imaging are essential. The use of these methods, particularly proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is becoming more common in many areas of geology as the impact of trace element data become more widely appreciated. This review provides an update on the progress of geological applications of the nuclear microprobe since these were reviewed at the previous conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications in 1992. But more importantly, the applications described in more detail in this paper are chosen to illustrate the impact nuclear microprobe methods are having on our understanding of earth structure and geological processes, and to focus attention on the power and potential of quantitative nuclear microprobe methods for further geological research.

Ryan, C. G.

1995-09-01

178

Understanding Other Worlds with Spitzer: From Hot Jupiters to Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intense study of transiting exoplanets over the past decade has begun to unveil the vast diversity of planetary systems in the Milky Way and to place our own solar system in perspective. Notably, ground-based Doppler and transit surveys are finding at an increasing pace planets suitable for detailed characterization. These planets around bright stars fall into two distinct families providing exciting new avenues at the frontiers of exoplanetary science. On one hand are the numerous highly irradiated gas giants whose atmospheres can be studied in great detail with a wide range of existing instruments from space and ground, notably their temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy transport efficiencies, and atmospheric circulation patterns. On the other hand are the small but growing list of `super-Earths' around bright stars for which the first detections of transits and atmospheric signatures are becoming available. The Spitzer space telescope has played a prominent role in both these areas through a plethora of ground-breaking results, many involving members of our team. Our proposed Exploration Science program with Spitzer aims to pursue major advancements in the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology with a two-pronged approach focused on these two exoplanet families. On the one hand, we will use Spitzer to thoroughly characterize a large and diverse sample of new giant exoplanets, chosen for their ability to place unprecedented constraints on the classification of irradiated giant planets, and stringent constraints on the planets' atmospheric thermal, chemical, and dynamical properties. On the other hand, we will search for the transits of 15 low-mass planets detected by our HARPS Doppler survey, both to constrain their compositions and to increase the small sample of low-mass planets amenable for atmospheric studies with future facilities like JWST. Together, these two complementary parts of our program will form a new major legacy of Spitzer in the study of other worlds.

Gillon, Michael; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Queloz, Didier; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Pollacco, Don; Wheatley, Peter; Rostron, John; Smalley, Barry; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre; Mahtani, Deepak; Smith, Alexis; Bonfils, Xavier; Dragomir, Diana

2012-09-01

179

Understanding Local Structure Globally in Earth Science Remote Sensing Data Sets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical probability distributions derived from the data are the signatures of physical processes generating the data. Distributions defined on different space-time windows can be compared and differences or changes can be attributed to physical processes. This presentation discusses on ways to reduce remote sensing data in a way that preserves information, focusing on the rate-distortion theory and using the entropy-constrained vector quantization algorithm.

Braverman, Amy; Fetzer, Eric

2007-01-01

180

Towards a unified understanding of the valence transition in rare-earth systems under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valence instability is a key ingredient of the unusual properties of f electron materials, yet a clear understanding is lacking as it involves a complex interplay between f electrons and conduction states. I will present a unified picture of pressure-induced valence transition using lanthanum monochalcogenides as model system for 4f-electron materials. Using high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy, I will show that the pressure-induced valence transition in Sm and Yb monochalcogenides is driven by the promotion of a 4f electron into the lowest unoccupied (LU) 5dt2g band. This band holds the key to explaining the diverse transitions of the monochalcogenides, offering a complete picture of the f electron delocalization mechanism. I demonstrate with a promotional model that the nature of the transition at low pressures is intimately related to the density of states of the LU band, while at high pressures it is governed by the hybridization strength. These results set a new standard for the generic understanding of valence fluctuations in f-electron materials.

Jarrige, Ignace; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Rueff, Jean-Pascal; Lin, Jung-Fu; Taguchi, Munetaka; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Ishii, Hirofumi; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Imura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Takeshi; Ochiai, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Akio

2013-03-01

181

Review of Understanding of Earth's Hydrological Cycle: Observations, Theory and Modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is our most precious and arguably most undervalued natural resource. It is essential for life on our planet, for food production and economic development. Moreover, water plays a fundamental role in shaping weather and climate. However, with the growing global population, the planet's water resources are constantly under threat from overuse and pollution. In addition, the effects of a changing climate are thought to be leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather causing floods, landslides and drought. The need to understand and monitor our environment and its resources, including advancing our knowledge of the hydrological cycle, has never been more important and apparent. The best approach to do so on a global scale is from space. This paper provides an overview of the major components of the hydrological cycle, the status of their observations from space and related data products and models for hydrological variable retrievals. It also lists the current and planned satellite missions contributing to advancing our understanding of the hydrological cycle on a global scale. Further details of the hydrological cycle are substantiated in several of the other papers in this Special Issue.

Rast, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Mauser, Wolfram

2014-05-01

182

Rare earth permanent magnets and energy conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally in magnetoelectric devices the stator has been the massive and static part of the device and the dynamic element has been a moving coil. With improvements in the volumetric efficiency of permanent magnets it is possible to rearrange magnetic circuit elements and invert devices. Rare earth permanent magnets exhibit a high magnetic moment per unit volume and have extreme

R. J. Parker

1977-01-01

183

Adaptive signal processing for low Earth orbit satellite communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small link margins, multipath fading and human body effects degrade the performance of low Earth orbit satellite (LEOS) handheld terminals. Adaptive antennas take the rapidly changing environment and human body influence into account to maximise the final signal to interference plus noise ratio (STNR). The proposed reception system for LEOS handsets is an adaptive antenna system with an electric field

Faith Choy; M. Cherniakov

1998-01-01

184

Developing Students' Understanding and Thinking Process by Model Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is growing recognition that models play a fundamental role in the comprehension of science concepts. This paper aims at enhancing students' understanding and thinking by model construction. Seventh grade middle school students from an urban public school participated in this study as a part of their weekly science club that met after the…

Ayse, Oguz

2007-01-01

185

Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of

James Anderson Lacefield

1998-01-01

186

Thermochemical Models of Earth's Mantle Convection: New Insight From Fractionation and Outgassing Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As one fundamental part of the global recycling process between the Earth's mantle and lithosphere, sinking slabs in the deep mantle play a crucial role on mantle geochemical evolution. Many previous studies in the mantle dynamics subject area focused on understanding how stirring and mixing acts in the convective mantle, and thus how slab heterogeneities are spread out through the global convective process. However, none of these studies convincingly explained the still unresolved basalt geochemistry paradigm. One must emphasize that this kind of study oversimplified the problem in neglecting the complex petrologic processes at the surface of the Earth that strongly modify the trace element distributions and influence the mixing properties: for example, partial melting at ridges both smooths mantle heterogeneities in efficiently mixing the melt product, but also creates non-homogeneous distributions in fractionating elements. Here, we present the results of numerical models of thermal convection taking into account the effects of partial melting at ridges on trace element distributions (U, Th, He, K, Ar). We use the 2D-cartesian convective code ConMan (King et al 90) to carry out the calculations, and impose plate-like velocities at the surface. Passive tracers with assigned chemical compositions are advected. We input solidus, liquidus and fraction of melt as a function of temperature from petrologic data and compute the resulting fractionation process on the tracers chemical composition. We use several melting laws (fraction of melt, F=f(T), given by a linear function or data-fitted function), we vary the relative fractionation coefficients between the various species, and address their effects on the secular variations of the trace element distributions in the mantle. We are particularily interested in focusing on the resulting deep mantle composition.

Ferrachat, S.; Kellogg, L. H.

2001-12-01

187

Unified understanding of the valence transition in the rare-earth monochalcogenides under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valence instability is a key ingredient of the unusual properties of f electron materials, yet a clear understanding is lacking as it involves a complex interplay between f electrons and conduction states. Here we propose a unified picture of pressure-induced valence transition in Sm and Yb monochalcogenides, considered as a model system for mixed valent 4f-electron materials. Using high-resolution x-ray-absorption spectroscopy, we show that the valence transition is driven by the promotion of a 4f electron specifically into the lowest unoccupied (LU) 5d t2g band. We demonstrate with a promotional model that the nature of the transition at low pressures is intimately related to the density of states of the LU band, while at high pressures it is governed by the hybridization strength.

Jarrige, I.; Yamaoka, H.; Rueff, J.-P.; Lin, J.-F.; Taguchi, M.; Hiraoka, N.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Imura, K.; Matsumura, T.; Ochiai, A.; Suzuki, H. S.; Kotani, A.

2013-03-01

188

Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated

J. G. Dyke; F. Gans; A. Kleidon

2011-01-01

189

Understanding Kepler's Super-Earths and Sub-Neptunes: Insights from Thermal Evolution and Photo-Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Kepler mission has discovered a large new population of super-Earth and sub-Neptune sized planets. Although we have no analogous planet in our own solar system, such planets are incredibly common. Understanding the nature and formation of systems of these planets is one of the key challenges for theories of planet formation. We use models of thermal evolution and photo-evaporation to constrain the structure, composition, and evolution of low-mass planets. Over time Neptune-like planets with large H/He envelopes can be transformed into rocky super-Earths. We show that differences in mass loss history provide a natural explanation for many features of the Kepler multi-planet systems, such as large density contrast between Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c. For the broader population of Kepler planets, we find that there is a threshold in bulk planet density, mass, and incident flux above which no low-mass transiting planets have been observed. We suggest that this threshold is due to XUV-driven photo-evaporation and show that it is well-reproduced by our evolution models

Lopez, Eric

2014-01-01

190

A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

2006-01-01

191

Understanding the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesion studies have demonstrated impairments of specific types of phonological processes. However, results from neuropsychological studies of speech sound processing have been inconclusive as to the role of specific brain regions because of a lack of a one-to-one correspondence between behavioural patterns and lesion location. Functional…

Burton, Martha W.

2009-01-01

192

Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

193

Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

1992-01-01

194

Linking the Wilson Cycle to deep Earth processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century description of the movement and deformation of the Earth's outer layer has evolved from the hypothesis of Continental Drift into Sea-Floor Spreading and thence to the theory of Plate Tectonics. This theory is as fundamentally unifying to the Earth Sciences as Darwin's Evolution Theory is to Life Science. By 1968 Tuzo Wilson had identified three basic elements of geodynamics: plate tectonics, mantle plumes of deep origin and the Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing, which provides evidence of plate tectonic behavior in times before quantifiable plate rotations. We have recently shown that deep-seated plumes of the past have risen only from narrow plume generation zones (PGZs) at the Core Mantle Boundary and mostly on the edges of two Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) that have been stable, antipodal and equatorial in their present positions for hundreds of millions of years and perhaps for much longer. Even though links between mantle activity and plate tectonics are becoming more evident, notably through subsurface tomographic images, advances in mineral physics and much improved absolute plate motion reference frames, a need now is to generate a new Earth model embodying plate tectonics, shallow and deep mantle convection, including such elements as deeply subducted slabs and stable LLSVPs with plumes that rise only from PGZs on the CMB.

Torsvik, T. H.; Burke, K. C.

2010-12-01

195

Understanding the Process of Radicalization: Review of the Empirical Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radicalization to violence is a clear and present threat to public safety and security in Canada. Radicalization is defined by the RCMP as the process by which individuals are introduced to an overtly ideological message and belief system that encourages ...

A. L. Brown B. D. Adams C. R. Flear M. L. Thomson

2011-01-01

196

Violent Islamic Radicalization Process: A Framework for Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The violent Islamic radicalization process is understood differently across disciplines within the homeland security enterprise. Radicalization of U.S. citizens is an emerging threat within the homeland. Current theories and models of the radicalization p...

K. D. Keys-Turner

2011-01-01

197

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

198

Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

2001-12-01

199

Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression.

Kharraz, Yacine; Guerra, Joana; Serrano, Antonio L.; Munoz-Canoves, Pura

2014-01-01

200

Understanding the Writing Process through Brain Hemisphere Neurology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledging that ordering, spatial orientation, and synthesis are important properties in achieving clarity in writing, a study investigated the biological influences on students' writing processes and ways to help writers produce more coherent written products. Subjects, two males and four females ranging in age from 19 to 40, were tested using…

Hogge, Joan Ellet

201

Understanding Board of Education Decision-Making Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the findings of a single case study of a particular board of education's decision-making process in a crisis situation, and explores interpretation of those findings from two theoretical perspectives. The crisis resulted from the charges against and conviction of the superintendent for a sexual assault on a 17-year-old female…

Lyman, Linda L.

202

Understanding why decision aids work: linking process with outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision aids help patients make treatment choices. There is little empirical evidence to explain how they work. The results from this randomised controlled trial comparing routine with decision-aided consultations in the prenatal diagnosis for Down’s syndrome context are used to describe the strategies employed during decision making, to assess the impact of a decision aid on decision processes, and to

Hilary L Bekker; Jenny Hewison; Jim G Thornton

2003-01-01

203

Reinforcing the understanding of signal processing concepts using audio exercises  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the near future, multimedia techniques will be used more extensively in signal processing education because the technology is available and the benefits to student learning and information retention are high. Using a variety of teaching techniques helps a wider range of students, who have different learning styles, and enhances student skills in their weaker areas. This paper describes a

J. W. Pierre; R. F. Kubichek; J. C. Hamann

1999-01-01

204

Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

2004-01-01

205

Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

2013-01-01

206

Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue

M. E. Barber; M. Beutel; B. Lamb; R. Watts

2004-01-01

207

Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition  

PubMed Central

Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition.

Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

2013-01-01

208

Understanding the Mentoring Process between Adolescents and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of mentoring programs for disadvantaged youth is on the rise, but little is known about the processes that underpin successful mentoring relationships. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescent and adult pairs who had been in a continuous mentoring relationship for a minimum of 1 year. Using relational…

Spencer, Renee

2006-01-01

209

Comparison of sedimentary processes in rivers of Titan and the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. As the only one moon, it has a dense atmosphere and liquid on its surface. Through the work of the probe Cassini-Huygens, we know that there are similar geological structures and processes (e.g. meandering, sediment transport, bank erosion) on the Titan as well as on the Earth. In the present paper we compare these processes on the Earth and on Titan.

Misiura, K.; Czechowski, L.

2013-09-01

210

Understanding of fundamentals. Key to process modification for tailings reduction  

SciTech Connect

The tailings produced during bitumen separation from oil sands have a high water holding capacity attributed to ultrafine ([le] 0.2 [mu]m), aluminosilicate clay fractions. These components readily form gels within which both fine and coarse particles may be embedded. This complex mixture (or [open quotes]fine tails[close quotes]) shows poor dewatering and consolidation characteristics. In this work it has been demonstrated that for gel formation to occur an appropriate combination of ultrafines (amount and particle size) and water chemistry is needed. The natural salt concentration in water recycled from the tailings or pore (connate) water is sufficient to cause the ultrafines to form gels in a matter of days. Gel formers are an integral part of oil sands ores which are unavoidably released during processing. However, one way to prevent gel formation is to change the water chemistry in the extraction process where the bitumen is released. This can be achieved by the addition of sodium silicate instead of sodium hydroxide as process aid in the initial oil sands conditioning step. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kotlyar, L.S.; Sparks, B.D.; Woods, J.R. (Inst. for Environmental Chemistry, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Schutte, R. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1993-12-01

211

Using multiscale behavior of hydrological systems for improving process understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape properties and climatic inputs are strongly heterogeneous in space and time resulting in hydrological processes that show multi scale or even fractal properties and behavior (Rodriguez-Iturbe and Rinaldo, 2000). Considerable effort is invested in finding the most appropriate approaches to represent hydrological processes across different scales and to produce reliable hydrological predictions. Hydrological predictions have been mainly improved in the recent decades by increasing the complexity of hydrological models, e.g. by including different type of hydrological processes and landscape compartments and by considering feedbacks between different compartments. Nevertheless, because of information constraints that e.g. result in high parameter uncertainties, complex hydrological models also show limitations to provide reliable hydrological predictions. In other words, hydrological model predictions are and probably also will stay uncertain. Spatially distributed hydrological models produce big amount of data depending on driving data, spatially distributed model parameters but also spatial and temporal model resolution. This talk will introduce multi scale investigation techniques to explore the probabilistic behavior of hydrological states and fluxes across different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the question is addressed if catchments show self-averaging behavior.

Attinger, Sabine

2014-05-01

212

Understanding the Generation Process of High Impact Floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods in Germany are the costliest natural disasters. The 2002 and the 2013 floods in the Danube and the Elbe river basins caused a havoc, with economic losses surpassing in each event the mark of 11 billion Euros. Considering the high impact of these events and the hydrometeorological records reached in both cases, it is worth trying to disentangle the impact of contributing factors of the flood generation process that lead to the development of these extreme events. Both summer events were caused by heavy rainfall triggered by low pressure systems over middle Europe (Vb and Tm circulation patterns respectively) that carry moist air from the Adriatic northeastward. Rainfall was intensified even further by orographic effects in mountainous regions. Preliminary evidence indicates that antecedent soil moisture conditions might have played a crucial role in the flood generating processes, specifically in the case of the 2013 event. To test this hypothesis, the process based hydrologic model mHM was used to estimate the top soil moisture and the surface runoff over whole Germany at a spatial resolution of 4x4 km2. mHM was forced with gridded daily precipitation and temperature, further disaggregated into hourly values. The gridded daily forcings were obtained with external drift Kriging from a dense network of meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service. Resampling techniques were used to test the null hypothesis that the runoff generation of these two flood events is independent from antecedent soil moisture conditions. Results indicated that the soil moisture antecedent conditions, up to five days before the peak have had a statistically significant impact (p-value less than 5%) on flood generation processes. Moreover, the elasticity of the surface runoff to antecedent soil moisture exhibited a marked difference between events and basins. These differences are more pronounced in wet conditions rather than on dry ones, which in turn highlights that soil moisture is a key factor in the generation process. Soil moisture antecedent conditions before two high impact floods in Germany.

Samaniego, L. E.; Zink, M.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.

2013-12-01

213

Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.  

PubMed

Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

2012-07-01

214

Simulation approach to understanding the processes that structure food webs  

SciTech Connect

A simulation model of food web dynamics, WEB, was constructed and used in Monte Carlo experiments to study the relationship between structure and function in food webs. Four main experiments were designed using WEB. The first tested the robustness of food web structures at equilibrium to variations in the functional response of predators in the food web to the densities of their prey. The second experiment clarified the roles of predation and resource limitation in the process of structuring food webs. A third experiment studied the influence of productivity on food web structure and function using simulated food webs. The final experiment was designed to study the differential successes of generalists and specialists. The main advantage gained by using a simulation approach in each of these experiments was the ability to assess the roles played by processes of predation and competition in structuring model food webs. This was accomplished by interpreting the order of extinction events that occurred in the simulations and relating these to the species configurations at equilibrium. 61 references, 23 figures.

Jager, H.I.; Gardner, R.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Post, W.M.

1984-08-01

215

Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth's surface and interior cooled following the moon-forming impact. The oceans passed through conditions favored by thermophile organisms before becoming clement. Ocean pH was ~6 and bars of CO2 existed in the atmosphere. Subduction removed the CO2 into the mantle before the time of rock record. Serpentinite likely existed in land, tidal, and marine environments as it does today. Seafloor spreading and arc volcanism likely drove hydrothermal circulation. The late heavy bombardment occurred after ca. 4.1 Ga; low heat flow environments and hence habitable subsurface refugia existed. It is conceivable that one or a few ocean-boiling impacts left thermophile survivors in their wake. Overall, the molecular biology of extant life likely conserves features that relate to its earliest abodes.

Sleep, N. H.; Pope, E.; Bird, D.

2012-12-01

216

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

2009-12-01

217

Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils  

PubMed Central

Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system.

Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

2008-01-01

218

A modeling process to understand complex system architectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, several tools have been developed by the armed forces, and their contractors, to test the capability of a force. These campaign level analysis tools, often times characterized as constructive simulations are generally expensive to create and execute, and at best they are extremely difficult to verify and validate. This central observation, that the analysts are relying more and more on constructive simulations to predict the performance of future networks of systems, leads to the two central objectives of this thesis: (1) to enable the quantitative comparison of architectures in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability without resorting to constructive simulations, and (2) when constructive simulations must be created, to quantitatively determine how to spend the modeling effort amongst the different system classes. The first objective led to Hypothesis A, the first main hypotheses, which states that by studying the relationships between the entities that compose an architecture, one can infer how well it will perform a given capability. The method used to test the hypothesis is based on two assumptions: (1) the capability can be defined as a cycle of functions, and that it (2) must be possible to estimate the probability that a function-based relationship occurs between any two types of entities. If these two requirements are met, then by creating random functional networks, different architectures can be compared in terms of their ability to satisfy a capability. In order to test this hypothesis, a novel process for creating representative functional networks of large-scale system architectures was developed. The process, named the Digraph Modeling for Architectures (DiMA), was tested by comparing its results to those of complex constructive simulations. Results indicate that if the inputs assigned to DiMA are correct (in the tests they were based on time-averaged data obtained from the ABM), DiMA is able to identify which of any two architectures is better more than 98% of the time. The second objective led to Hypothesis B, the second of the main hypotheses. This hypothesis stated that by studying the functional relations, the most critical entities composing the architecture could be identified. The critical entities are those that when their behavior varies slightly, the behavior of the overall architecture varies greatly. These are the entities that must be modeled more carefully and where modeling effort should be expended. This hypothesis was tested by simplifying agent-based models to the non-trivial minimum, and executing a large number of different simulations in order to obtain statistically significant results. The tests were conducted by evolving the complex model without any error induced, and then evolving the model once again for each ranking and assigning error to any of the nodes with a probability inversely proportional to the ranking. The results from this hypothesis test indicate that depending on the structural characteristics of the functional relations, it is useful to use one of two of the intelligent rankings tested, or it is best to expend effort equally amongst all the entities. Random ranking always performed worse than uniform ranking, indicating that if modeling effort is to be prioritized amongst the entities composing the large-scale system architecture, it should be prioritized intelligently. The benefit threshold between intelligent prioritization and no prioritization lays on the large-scale system's chaotic boundary. If the large-scale system behaves chaotically, small variations in any of the entities tends to have a great impact on the behavior of the entire system. Therefore, even low ranking entities can still affect the behavior of the model greatly, and error should not be concentrated in any one entity. It was discovered that the threshold can be identified from studying the structure of the networks, in particular the cyclicity, the Off-diagonal Complexity, and the Digraph Algebraic Connectivity. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Robinson, Santiago Balestrini

219

Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current can be significantly reduced due to diffusional limitation of the transport of gaseous reactants through inerts such as water vapor and nitrogen gas. A non-uniform current distribution across the membrane electrode assembly can cause pinhole formation and ultimately, fuel cell failure.

Cheah, May Jean

220

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

1990-01-01

221

A review of the current understanding of seismic shear-wave splitting in the Earth’s crust and common fallacies in interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azimuthally-aligned shear-wave splitting is widely observed in the Earth’s crust. The splitting is diagnostic of some form of seismic anisotropy, although the cause of this anisotropy has been sometimes disputed. The evidence in this review unquestionably indicates cracks, specifically stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, as the predominant cause of the azimuthally-aligned shear-wave splitting in the crust. Although, in principle, shear-wave splitting is

Stuart Crampin; Sheila Peacock

2008-01-01

222

Rare-earth-doped materials for applications in quantum information storage and signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realization of practical quantum memory and optical signal processing systems critically depends on suitable materials that offer specific combinations of properties. Solid-state materials such as rare-earth ions doped into dielectric crystals are one of the most promising candidates for several quantum information storage protocols, including quantum storage of single photons. This article provides an overview of rare-earth-doped material properties and

C. W. Thiel; Thomas Böttger; R. L. Cone

2011-01-01

223

Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

1978-01-01

224

Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

1972-01-01

225

Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

DEROSA, D.C.

2000-01-13

226

EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

227

Using concentrated solar radiation to process orbital debris in low earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbital debris is a growing concern for all space applications. Specifically, the ASPOD concept has been proposed to help eliminate the debris population. This dissertation focuses on the characterization and feasibility of processing (cutting) structural metals in low earth orbit using concentrated solar energy as they pertain to the ASPOD concept. In characterizing the process, both experimental and analytical techniques

Bruce Russell Babin

1998-01-01

228

A Process for the Recovery of Mixed Rare-Earth Oxides from Monazite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for the production of mixed rare-earth oxides from monazite concentrate. The product is substantially free from radioactive materials and has a purity of more than 98 per cent. The process involves ...

W. A. M. Te Riele

1982-01-01

229

Distributed geospatial information processing: sharing distributed geospatial resources to support Digital Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new concept, distributed geospatial information processing (DGIP), which refers to the process of geospatial information residing on computers geographically dispersed and connected through computer networks, and the contribution of DGIP to Digital Earth (DE). The DGIP plays a critical role in integrating the widely distributed geospatial resources to support the DE envisioned to utilise a wide

Chaowei Yang; Wenwen Li; Jibo Xie; Bin Zhou

2008-01-01

230

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. ``Geoscience Data Puzzles\\

M. J. Passow; K. A. Kastens; A. M. Goodwillie; C. Brenner

2009-01-01

231

Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

Kleidon, Axel

2014-05-01

232

Image data processing of earth resources management. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various image processing and information extraction systems are described along with the design and operation of an interactive multispectral information system, IMAGE 100. Analyses of ERTS data, using IMAGE 100, over a number of U.S. sites are presented. The following analyses are included: investigations of crop inventory and management using remote sensing; and (2) land cover classification for environmental impact assessments. Results show that useful information is provided by IMAGE 100 analyses of ERTS data in digital form.

Desio, A. W.

1974-01-01

233

Geology 201: Non-linear processes in geofluids or Why does the Earth look the way it does?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many patterns we observe on the Earth’s surface are a result of fluid transport, fluxes, and phase changes. Coastlines, drainage networks, river deltas, types of rock deformation and the driving mechanism for plate tectonics all result from fluid flows exhibiting complex behavior. Currently, undergraduate students often do not have conceptual frameworks necessary for understanding non-linear systems. Their prior experiences have often emphasized linear and non-directional relationships, but most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. We have found it difficult to explain ideas such as feedbacks, hysteresis, and phase transitions to students without prior exposure to complex system behavior. Here we will present a curriculum designed for sophomore-level undergraduates that will use concepts of flow to explain origin of the features we see on the Earth’s surface, while simultaneously teaching fundamental properties of complex-system behavior. Example features will come from tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, and hydrology. We will provide an outline of course materials where students will first be exposed to physical and conceptual models of non-linear behavior and then follow up with understanding the equations governing these processes. Examples: Rock rheologies using food analogies and then exploring material constitutive equations, stream channel avulsion using a classroom teaching flume, then a one-dimensional model of bifurcating flow in a channel. We chose the sophomore level specifically so students are introduced early in their academic career and thus have the conceptual frameworks and quantitative skills necessary to work with complex systems as they advance to upper level courses. Learning goals for the course we present will include the ability to recognize non-linear behavior, and the development of a level of comfort with these concepts.

Orr, C. H.; Cooper, C. M.

2010-12-01

234

Is there a conflict between the Neoproterozoic glacial deposits and the snowball Earth interpretation: an improved understanding with numerical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior of the terrestrial glacial regime during the Neoproterozoic glaciations is still a matter of debate. Some papers claim that the glacial sequences cannot be explained with the snowball Earth scenario. Indeed, the near shutdown of the hydrological cycle simulated by climatic models, once the Earth is entirely glaciated, has been put in contrast with the need for active,

Yannick Donnadieu; Frederic Fluteau; Gilles Ramstein; Catherine Ritz; Jean Besse

2003-01-01

235

Reconsidering the role of artifacts in reasoning: Children's understanding of the globe as a model of the earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment investigated the effect of the presentation of a globe – the culturally accepted artifact representing the earth – on children's reasoning in elementary astronomy. Forty-four children from grades 1 and 3 were interviewed individually. First, the children were asked to make their own representations of the earth (i.e., drawings and play-dough models) and to indicate where people live

Stella Vosniadou; Irini Skopeliti; Kalliopi Ikospentaki

2005-01-01

236

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

2004-01-01

237

Untangling complex processes within Earth's radiation belts with the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress towards developing a predictive understanding of Earth's dynamic radiation belts requires that we: 1) better understand individual transport and energization mechanisms, and 2) better understand how these mechanisms act together to yield the complex behaviors that are observed. An example of the former imperative is to understand the extent to which non-linearities modify the role that whistler mode waves play in exchanging energy with and scattering radiation belt electrons. However, the latter imperative represents a greater challenge. What is the relationship between processes that supply electron source populations and those that generate the Ultra Low Frequency waves that can help transport those particles? What is the role of substorm injections in creating or modifying the global electric fields that transport and redistribute the injected plasma populations? How dependent is the wave activity that energizes radiation belt electrons on the global electric field that creates the conditions for wave generation? Two characteristics of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will enable researchers to address these interdependent mechanisms. First, the payload complement is unusually comprehensive, measuring all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) needed to address the most critical science questions. However, the ability of the two RBSP spacecraft to make multiple, identical, and simultaneous measurements over a wide range of spatial scales is even more critical. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from ~0.1 to 5 RE. Here we discuss how the unique capabilities of the RBSP mission, when combined with a multiplicity of other serendipitous assets, will resolve the interdependent mechanisms that determine the complex behavior of the radiation belts.

Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R.

2011-12-01

238

Integrated planning and scheduling for Earth science data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several current NASA programs such as the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) have data processing and data management requirements that call for an integrated planning and scheduling capability. In this paper, we describe the experience of applying advanced scheduling technology operationally, in terms of what was accomplished, lessons learned, and what remains to be done in order to achieve similar successes in ECS and other programs. We discuss the importance and benefits of advanced scheduling tools, and our progress toward realizing them, through examples and illustrations based on ECS requirements. The first part of the paper focuses on the Data Archive and Distribution (DADS) V0 Scheduler. We then discuss system integration issues ranging from communication with the scheduler to the monitoring of system events and re-scheduling in response to them. The challenge of adapting the scheduler to domain-specific features and scheduling policies is also considered. Extrapolation to the ECS domain raises issues of integrating scheduling with a product-generation planner (such as PlaSTiC), and implementing conditional planning in an operational system. We conclude by briefly noting ongoing technology development and deployment projects being undertaken by HTC and the ISTB.

Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

1995-01-01

239

Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

2012-12-01

240

Of Mice and Men: Rodent habitats in space have become essential to understanding human diseases on Earth.  

PubMed

Long-duration spaceflight has deleterious effects on organisms adapted to life in Earth?s gravity. For humans, some of these effects are relatively minor, rapidly resolved, and well understood. For example, going from Earth gravity to weightlessness can cause disorientation and nausea (space sickness), whereas returning to Earth after getting used to microgravity can cause orthostatic intolerance (various symptoms that manifest when standing but abate when sitting back down). Other effects of living in space are more persistent and potentially debilitating. Stemming from many organ systems responding to reduced gravity, these effects include cardiovascular and musculoskeletal alterations, neurovestibular and sensorimotor adaptation, immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing in soft tissues, and incomplete fracture repair in bones. PMID:25029681

Roberts, Michael S

2014-01-01

241

Emotions and feelings in learning process: understanding emotional learning experiences of postgraduate students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning is social, cognitive and emotional. Understanding the emotional effect and affect allows us to understand and support adult learning and learning process at postgraduate level at the university. Emotions and feelings are generally recognized as important, but they remain under-explored in terms of the learning experiences of adult students, especially in learning at university. The study explored the questions

Larissa Jõgi; Marin Gross; Kristiina Krabi

242

Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy, geochronology, provenance studies, and studies of temporal changes in Earth surface processes. This paper briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number of elements of interest in the environment, and then uses this information to explore the range of applications to chemical stratigraphy and other fundamental

Jay L. Banner

2004-01-01

243

Geomorhpic and Vegetation Processes of the Willamette River Floodplain, Oregon: Current Understanding and Unanswered Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willam...

D. Hulse J. E. O'Connor J. R. Wallick K. L. Jones M. K. Keith

2013-01-01

244

Preparation of alkaline earth carbonates and oxides by the EDTA-gel process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-gel process has been used to produce carbonates and oxides of the alkaline earth elements Ba, Sr and Ca and their solid solutions. These materials have a range of potential applications including electron emission and catalysis. Gels of composition Ba-EDTA, Sr-EDTA, [Ba0.5Sr0.5]-EDTA, [Ba0.5Sr0.45Ca0.05]-EDTA were prepared at pH 6 from aqueous solutions of the alkaline earth nitrates and

S. N. B. Hodgson; X. Shen; F. R. Sale

2000-01-01

245

Establishment and Implementation of a Close Approach Evaluation and Avoidance Process for Earth Observing System Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the fall of 2004, the Earth Science Mission Operations Project tasked the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSPC) Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch with establishment of a process to protect the high-value Earth Observing System (EOS) missions (Terra, Aqua, and Aura) from close approaches with space debris and other orbiting objects. An agreement between GSFC and the United States Strategic Command was put in place so that close approach predictions would be routinely generated. This paper describes the ESMO conjunction assessment process for the EOS satellites. Process details, including tools and algorithms developed, are discussed. Particular details for a predicted close approach between Terra and a piece of space debris that resulted in the execution of a debris avoidance maneuver are included. This close approach example is described in detail fiom the first screening identification through execution of the mitigation maneuver to illustrate both the process and lessons learned fiom its implementation.

Newman, Lauri; Duncan, Matthew

2006-01-01

246

Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was also collected from a larger bank of test questions. Discrimination indices across the full bank showed variation and additional work is underway to refine and field test in other settings these questions in the absence of InTeGrate curricula. When complete, faculty will be able to assemble sets of questions to track progress toward meeting literacy goals. In addition to covering geoscience content knowledge and understanding, a complementary attitudinal pre/post survey was also developed with the intent to probe InTeGrate students' ability and motivation to use their geoscience expertise to address problems of environmental sustainability. The final instruments will be made available to the geoscience education community as an assessment to be used in conjunction with InTeGrate teaching materials or as a stand-alone tool for departments to measure student learning and attitudinal gains across the major.

Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

2013-12-01

247

Nickel-titanium-rare earth alloy and method of processing the alloy  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A nickel-titanium-rare earth (Ni--Ti-RE) alloy comprises nickel at a concentration of from about 35 at. % to about 65 at. %, a rare earth element at a concentration of from about 1.5 at. % to about 15 at. %, boron at a concentration of up to about 0.1 at. %, with the balance of the alloy being titanium. In addition to enhanced radiopacity compared to binary Ni--Ti alloys and improved workability, the Ni--Ti-RE alloy preferably exhibits superelastic behavior. A method of processing a Ni--Ti-RE alloy includes providing a nickel-titanium-rare earth alloy comprising nickel at a concentration of from about 35 at. % to about 65 at. %, a rare earth element at a concentration of from about 1.5 at. % to about 15 at. %, the balance being titanium; heating the alloy in a homogenization temperature range below a critical temperature; and forming spheroids of a rare earth-rich second phase in the alloy while in the homogenization temperature range.

2013-05-14

248

Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of L?gstrup  

PubMed Central

The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905–1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an “flash of insight” is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients’ experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients’ experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience.

Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

2011-01-01

249

Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup.  

PubMed

The creative processes of understanding patients' experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905-1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients' experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an "flash of insight" is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients' experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients' experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience. PMID:22076123

Norlyk, Annelise; Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

2011-01-01

250

Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

2012-01-01

251

A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Help-Seeking Processes Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a conceptual framework for understanding the processes of help-seeking among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). A cognitive theory from general literature on help-seeking in “stigmatizing” situations suggests three relevant processes or stages of seeking help in the IPV context: defining the problem, deciding to seek help, and selecting a source of support. Individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural

Belle Liang; Lisa Goodman; Pratyusha Tummala-Narra; Sarah Weintraub

2005-01-01

252

Epistemological Understanding as a Metacognitive Process: Thinking Aloud during Online Searching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal epistemology has typically been conceptualized in one of two primary ways: as a cognitive developmental process or as a system of beliefs. The approach that is elaborated here is to conceive of epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process that activates epistemic theories, a multidimensional set of interrelated beliefs about…

Hofer, Barbara K.

2004-01-01

253

A Conceptual Model for Understanding Associations' Site Selection Processes: An Organizational Buyer Behavior Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of understanding the site selection process in the meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE) industry, there is a paucity of research in this important area. The majority of scholarly authors have focused their research work on the criteria considered significant by buyers prior to choosing a particular site rather than the decision-making process. Hence, the current article

Ahmed Fawzy; Yasser Abo Samra

2008-01-01

254

Understanding the implementation & integration of remote & tele-health services … an overview of Normalization Process Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policymakers worldwide are increasingly supporting the development of nation-wide tele-healthcare, assisted living and healthy-living technology programs. To support transformation processes within healthcare systems, the computing and Interaction Design community must continually strive to identify, describe, understand and reassess the factors causing users to adopt - and also often reject - technology. We review the Normalization Process Theory, a theoretical model

Matt-Mouley Bouamrane; Janice Osbourne; Frances S. Mair

2011-01-01

255

IBN SINA: a database for research on processing and understanding of Arabic manuscripts images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the steps that have been undertaken in order to develop the IBN SINA database, which is designed to apply learning techniques in the processing and understanding of document images. The description of the preparation process, including preprocessing, feature extraction and labeling, is provided. The database has been evaluated using classification techniques, such as the SVM classifiers. In

Reza Farrahi Moghaddam; Mohamed Cheriet; Mathias M. Adankon; Kostyantyn Filonenko; Robert Wisnovsky

2010-01-01

256

Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

2012-01-01

257

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

258

Transformation of Tidal Deformations into Geodynamic Processes and Fractal Rheology of the Earth's Substance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics and dynamics of a binary "Earth-Moon" planet system have been studied with respect to the rotational motion of the Earth and Moon about the barycenter of the system, situated at a distance of 4641 km from the center of the Earth. The Earth's orbital motion, rotation and tidal deformations have a significant influence on the geodynamic processes, generation and support of the magnetic field, and climate changes of the planet. It has been shown that the tidal force causes displacements of the inner core; the corresponding gravitational effect on the Earth's surface has been evaluated (Avsyuk, 2001; Avsyuk, Suvorova, 2006). To explain these correlations, a number of mechanisms of transformations of radial tidal deformations into lateral displacements of the Earth's substance have been considered. In addition, three rheological models were taken to model tidal deformations: viscous, granular, and a fractal model based on Zener's standard rheological element. Mathematical modeling of tidal deformations for different rheologies of the substances of Earth demonstrated that the radial planetary tides are being transformed into lateral motion of planetary layers. Evaluation of the rate of lateral motion shows that this mechanism can be responsible for the westward drift of the lithosphere. The rate of lateral motion of planetary layers depends on the magnitude of the rate of radial tidal deformations, k(r). Mathematical modeling of tidal deformations for different distributions k(r) showed that the radial variation of this coefficient produces differential motion of deep planetary layers resulting in internal frictional heating of deep layers which can raise temperatures at given depths to the melting point of this material (Maslov, Anokhin, 2007; Maslov, 2007). This melting can be one of the factors influencing and amplifying the Earth's magnetic field. It is shown that the rate and energy of differential lateral motion of material in the core are enough to generate and support Earth's magnetic field. Experimental modeling (Revuzhenko, 2006) of tidal deformations in granular substance is in good agreement with the results of mathematical modeling.

Maslov, L. A.; Avsyuk, Y. N.

2008-12-01

259

Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet?  

NASA Video Gallery

Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

260

MT+, integrating magnetotellurics to determine earth structure, physical state, and processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of the few deep-earth imaging techniques, magnetotellurics provides information on both the structure and physical state of the crust and upper mantle. Magnetotellurics is sensitive to electrical conductivity, which varies within the earth by many orders of magnitude and is modified by a range of earth processes. As with all geophysical techniques, magnetotellurics has a non-unique inverse problem and has limitations in resolution and sensitivity. As such, an integrated approach, either via the joint interpretation of independent geophysical models, or through the simultaneous inversion of independent data sets is valuable, and at times essential to an accurate interpretation. Magnetotelluric data and models are increasingly integrated with geological, geophysical and geochemical information. This review considers recent studies that illustrate the ways in which such information is combined, from qualitative comparisons to statistical correlation studies to multi-property inversions. Also emphasized are the range of problems addressed by these integrated approaches, and their value in elucidating earth structure, physical state, and processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

Bedrosian, P. A.

2007-01-01

261

PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

2009-02-01

262

Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

McCurdy, K. M.

2005-12-01

263

Relative and average sea level changes, and endo-, epi-, and exogenic processes on the Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past sea levels at any given epoch, identified geologically from positions of sea level-related indicators, differ between sites around the world due to vertical displacements of the Earth's surface. These are caused by endogenic (e.g. tectonic) processes and by epigenic (e.g. isostatic) responses. Geological records of sea level changes thus are relative only to local datum, and reduction to average

JOHN CHAPPELL

264

Hydration process of alkaline-earth metal atoms in water clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionization potentials (IPs) of water clusters containing alkaline-earth metal atoms are measured by a photoionization threshold method to examine the hydration process of the metal atoms in clusters. IPs of Mg(H2O)n and Ca(H2O)n are found to decrease with increasing n and become constant at 3.18eV for n?9 and n?8, respectively. The observed constant IP agrees with an estimated photoelectric threshold

Nobuhiro Okai; Haruki Ishikawa; Kiyokazu Fuke

2005-01-01

265

Acceleration processes in the earth's magnetosphere. Final report, December 1981-December 1984  

SciTech Connect

Three main topics were concentrated on in this study: (1) acceleration of heavy ions on auroral field lines and in the ring current; (2) kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of reconnection processes in the earth's magnetosphere; and (3) coupling of the magnetosphere and ionosphere via field-aligned currents. Two reports are presented here: Driven Magnetic Reconnection in Three Dimensions: Energy conversion and Field-Aligned Current Generation and Heating of Thermal Helium in the Equatorial Magnetosphere: A simulation study.

Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Coleman, P.J.; Dawson, J.M.; Gekelman, W.; Kennel, C.F.

1985-05-17

266

Carbon cycling and snowball Earth.  

PubMed

The possibility that Earth witnessed episodes of global glaciation during the latest Precambrian challenges our understanding of the physical processes controlling the Earth's climate. Peltier et al. suggest that a 'hard snowball Earth' state may have been prevented owing to the release of CO(2) from the oxidation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the ocean as the temperature decreased. Here we show that the model of Peltier et al. is not self-consistent as it implies large fluctuations of the ocean alkalinity content without providing any processes to account for it. Our findings suggest that the hard snowball Earth hypothesis is still valid. PMID:19092867

Goddéris, Yves; Donnadieu, Yannick

2008-12-18

267

The Earth as a living planet: human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The Earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the Earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture-induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic features of the critical point of a thermal second-order phase transition. A dramatic breakdown of critical characteristics appears in the tail of the fracture process of heterogeneous system and the injured heart's electrical action. Analyses by means of Hurst exponent and wavelet decomposition further support the hypothesis that a dynamical analogy exists between the geological and biological systems under study.

Contoyiannis, Y. F.; Potirakis, S. M.; Eftaxias, K.

2013-01-01

268

Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.  

PubMed

The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

2011-01-01

269

The Earth's core formation and development: evidence from evolution of tectonomagmatic processes and paleomagnetic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many geologists confident that the core provides modern tectonic and magmatic activity on the Earth, which explains our interest in this topic, and vice versa we can use evolution of tectonomagmatic processes throughout the Earth's (and other terrestrial planetary bodies) history for reconstruction of the core formation and evolution. Most researchers, follow to V. Safronov (1972) and A. Ringwood (1979), confident that the Earth has occurred due to accumulation of hypothetical chemically homogeneous planetesimals, composed by chondrite material, ie, as a result of homogeneous accretion. However, this single-stage chondrite model of accretion is inconsistent with fact of cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes on the terrestrial planets in the middle stages of their development. For example, the critical irreversible change of the Earth's tectonomagmatic evolution occurred in range 2.35-2.0 Ga, when geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts firstly appeared in large quantities and first geological evidence of plate tectonics showed up (Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2010). We suggest that these changes were linked with ascending of mantle superplumes of the second generation (thermochemical), originated at the the boundary of liquid iron core and silicate mantle, in similar way as the modern plumes. All terrestrial planetary bodies (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, and the Moon) have a similar structure, consist of iron core and silicate envelope, and developed at the same scenario, which provide for drastic irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes at the middle stages of their evolution (Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2009). Such a situation can be realized only in case: (1) the terrestrial planetary bodies originally had heterogeneous structure, and (2) their heating occurred from the top down accompanied by cooling of outer shells. As a result, material of the primordial cores, where enriched material survived, were remained a long time untouched. It assumes the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) occurred by heterogeneous accretion from the material that existed in the early Solar system with primordial iron cores as embryos. Material of this core can be activated only as a result of its melting which fit with paleomagnetic data on the Earth, where magnetic field strength culminated practically simultaneously with beginning of the tectonomagmatic activity change. However, magnetic field on the Earth was existed at least from 3.5 Ga (Tardino et al., 2010) evidence about liquid iron in its deep interior, considered with separation of low-temperature Fe+FeS eutectic from the chondritic primordial mantle. It sank through silicate matrix and accumulated on surface of still cool primordial core. However, it was not affected on tectonomagmatic processes, which occurred essential later. So, the modern (secondary) Earth's core is formed by mixture of the iron of chondrite origin and material of the primordial core which were intermixed by convection after melting of the latter. It agrees with Walker (2010) data that part of material of the terrestrial planets cores was not related to chondrite.

Sharkov, E. V.

2011-12-01

270

Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

1989-01-01

271

NASA Remote Sensing Data in Earth Sciences: Processing, Archiving, Distribution, Applications at the GES DISC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) archiving and distributing remote sensing data from the NASA's Earth Observing System. In addition to providing just data, the GES DISC/DAAC has developed various value-adding processing services. A particularly useful service is data processing a t the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data). The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from data subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. Shifting processing and data management burden from users to the GES DISC, allows scientists to concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the data management and data processing at a lower cost. Several examples of successful partnerships with scientists in the area of data processing and mining are presented.

Leptoukh, Gregory G.

2005-01-01

272

Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

Grundstrom, Erika

2013-01-01

273

Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:…

Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

2004-01-01

274

Characteristics of the solar signal on the Earth's surface through stratosphere-troposphere coupled process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar influence on climate has been discussed since long time on the assumption that the total solar irradiance (TSI) directly affects Earth's surface. Recent measurements from the space revealed that the variation of the TSI associated with the 11-year solar cycle is about 0.1%, which cannot produce little effect on Earth's climate without a feedback from the atmosphere-ocean system. Several amplifying mechanism are proposed for different variation of solar origin, cosmic ray, visible light, solar ultra violet. To determine which process is actually operating in the Earth's atmosphere, it needs to investigate not only the global mean temperature, but also its spatial structure. Observed 11-year solar signals in surface temperature can be characterizes by warming in midlatitudes and the absence of warming (or even slight cooling) in the tropics. Midlatitudes warming of the surface temperature occurs in associated with a downward penetration of stratospheric polar-night jet or the polar-night jet oscillation. Little change in tropical surface temperature is consistent with dynamical nature. Meridional circulation change produces a warming in the tropical lower stratosphere, but little effect on the tropospheric temperature. Such characteristics of solar signal can be expected from that produced through change of the solar ultraviolet. Change of the solar heating in the middle atmosphere modulates wave mean-flow interaction in the stratosphere through two processes: one is the polar-night jet oscillation, and the other is a modulation of the meridional circulation.

Kodera, Kunihiko

2014-05-01

275

Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

Irwin, Mary Ann

2010-01-01

276

Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

2007-01-01

277

The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

2006-01-01

278

Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

279

Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…

Guiffrida, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

280

Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

2012-01-01

281

Understanding variation in roller compaction through finite element-based process modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of primary goals of the Quality by Design initiative in the pharmaceutical industry is to reduce variation in the product quality through increased understanding and control of the manufacturing process. In the case of roller compaction, in which mixtures of active and inert powders are fed via a screw to counter-rotating rolls, drawn into the nip region and compacted

John C. Cunningham; Denita Winstead; Antonios Zavaliangos

2010-01-01

282

Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

Kindfield, Ann C. H.

283

Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

PubMed

Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant-microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

2013-07-01

284

Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

2007-12-01

285

Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

Abbot, D. S.

2012-12-01

286

Chemical Alteration of Soils on Earth as a Function of Precipitation: Insights Into Weathering Processes Relevant to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils lie at the interface of the atmosphere and lithosphere, and the rates of chemical and physical processes that form them hinge on the availability of water. Here we quantify the effect of these processes on soil volume and mass in different rainfall regimes. We then use the results of this synthesis to compare with the growing chemical dataset for soils on Mars in order to identify moisture regimes on Earth that may provide crude analogues for past Martian weathering conditions. In this synthesis, the rates of elemental gains/losses, and corresponding volumetric changes, were compared for soils in nine soil chronosequences (sequences of soils of differing ages) - sequences formed in climates ranging from ~1 to ~4500 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). Total elemental chemistry of soils and parent materials were determined via XRF, ICP-MS, and/or ICP-OES, and the absolute elemental gains or losses (and volume changes) were determined by normalizing data to an immobile index element. For the chronosequences examined, the initial stages of soil formation (103^ to 104^ yr), regardless of climate, generally show volumetric expansion due to (1) reduction in bulk density by biological/physical turbation, (2) addition of organic matter, (3) accumulation of water during clay mineral synthesis, and/or (4) accumulation of atmospheric salts and dust. Despite large differences in parent materials (basalt, sandstone, granitic alluvium), there was a systematic relationship between long-term (105^ to 106^ yr) volumetric change and rainfall, with an approximate cross-over point between net expansion (and accumulation of atmospheric solutes and dust) and net collapse (net losses of Si, Al, and alkaline earths and alkali metals) between approximately 20 and 100 mm MAP. Recently published geochemical data of soils at Gusev Crater (Gellert et al. 2004. Science 305:829), when normalized to Ti, show apparent net losses of Si and Al that range between 5 and 50% of values relative to adjacent rocks. However the chemical impact of globally distributed dust on Mars greatly affects the interpretation of these apparent elemental losses. From the available soil data, no Earth-based soil geochemical signature perfectly matches the reported Martian data, though arid soils in the Atacama Desert and elsewhere exhibit certain similarities (losses of Si, Al and gains of S). For both Earth and Mars, an understanding of the chemical signature of atmospherically derived elements is critical for calculating accurate measures of chemical weathering in soils.

Amundson, R.; Chadwick, O.; Ewing, S.; Sutter, B.; Owen, J.; McKay, C.

2004-12-01

287

PUBLISHING YOUR WORK IN A JOURNAL: UNDERSTANDING THE PEER REVIEW PROCESS  

PubMed Central

Manuscripts have been subjected to the peer review process prior to publication for over 300 years. Currently, the peer review process is used by almost all scientific journals, and The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy is no exception. Scholarly publication is the means by which new work is communicated and peer review is an important part of this process. Peer review is a vital part of the quality control mechanism that is used to determine what is published, and what is not. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a description of the peer review process, both generally, and as utilized by The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. It is the hope of the authors that this will assist those who submit scholarly works to understand the purpose of the peer review process, as well as to appreciate the length of time required for a manuscript to complete the process and move toward publication.

Hoogenboom, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

288

Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research.

Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2013-01-01

289

A process-based understanding of the late Cenozoic carbon cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On a million-year time scale the global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 are assumed to be largely determined by the so-called solid Earth processes weathering, sedimentation, and volcanic outgassing. However, it is not clear how much of the observed dynamics in the proxy data constraining the carbon cycle over the Cenozoic might be determined by internal processes of the atmosphere-ocean-biosphere subsystem. Here, we apply for the first time a process-based model of the global carbon cycle in transient simulations over the last 20 Myr to identify the contributions of terrestrial carbon storage, solubility pump and ocean gateways on changes in atmospheric CO2 and marine ?13C. We apply the isotopic carbon cycle box model BICYCLE, which consists of atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean reservoirs, the latter containing the full marine carbonate system. Our simulation results show that the long-term cooling since the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (about 15 Myr BP) leads to an intensification of the solubility pump, and a drop in atmospheric CO2 of up to 100 ppmv. This oceanic carbon uptake is largely counterbalanced by carbon loss from the terrestrial biosphere. The reduction in terrestrial C storage over time including the expansion of C4 grasses during the last 8 Myr might explain half of the long-term decline in deep ocean ?13C and would support high CO2 (400 to 450 ppmv) around 15 Myr BP. The closure of the Tethys and the Central America ocean gateways explains the developing gradient in deep ocean ?13C between the Atlantic and Pacific basin. We furthermore calculate the residuals, which are unexplained by our results and are therefore caused by solid Earth processes. From the residuals a rise in both ocean alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon over time is detected as reasons for declining atmospheric CO2 which led to Earth's long-term cooling observed since the Mid Miocene Climate Optimum. Increased continental weathering in combination with changes in volcanic out-gassing of CO2 might explain these changes in marine carbonate chemistry. Around 16 Myr BP we find a prominent regime shift in the carbon cycle-climate system at which the gradient in both deep ocean ?13C and temperature significantly declines. This might be connected with a shrinking seafloor spreading rates which might have caused reduced volcanic activity and thus less CO2 outgassing. The existence of such a regime shift is confirmed if we extend our analysis to deep ocean records of ?18O and ?13C over the whole Cenozoic.

Köhler, P.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; de Boer, B.; Lourens, L. J.; Bintanja, R.; Bickert, T.; Lohmann, G.

2012-04-01

290

Zonal concentration of some geophysical process intensity caused by tides and variations in the Earth's rotation velocity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed what kind of fundamental physical phenomena can be responsible for the generation of the anomalous latitudinal zones of the seismic activity, and the hotspots, and some other geophysical processes. The assessment of tidal effect contribution to the earthquake preparation process is discussed. A disk model of the Earth's rotation was proposed. The model is acceptable for the homogeneous Earth and for the heterogeneous one. The disk model explains the nucleation of two maximums of the gradient of the moment of inertia over latitude with respect to the Equator. Effects of the variations in the Earth's rotation angular velocity were estimated and the possible features caused by the rotation velocity instability were described. The variations in the relative velocity of the Earth's rotation (dimensionless value ? ? (T - P)/P) are approximately equal upon the average to 10-8, where T is the observed length of day for the Earth, and P is the astronomical day. These variations lead to the occurrence of the additional energy estimated as 1020 J. The authors proposed the hypothesis of a pulsating geoid based on effects of the Earth's rotation features, and tidal forces, and conception of critical latitudes in the solid Earth. This hypothesis may highlight the phenomenon of zonal intensification of some geological processes in the solid Earth (the seismic activity, and hotspot location, and major ore deposit locations).

Levin, B.; Domanski, A.; Sasorova, E.

2014-01-01

291

In service teachers' understanding of salt dissolution process through representational animations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are repeatedly applied to support student comprehension in the theoretical ideas of chemistry. However, students' understanding the dynamics of the phenomena is directly related to the understanding of teachers as instructors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how the features of three different molecular level animations are viewed and understood by the teachers who had more than 2 years experience. Participants (n=10) are in-service science teachers, mostly high school, grouped into three groups with four participants in the first group and three people in the other two. Each group viewed short different animations and one common animation demonstrating the salt dissolution process. Teachers were asked to take pre and post-tests to measure the influence of the animations in their understandings of the content in addition to a group discussion and an interview. The study suggests that the animations improved the content knowledge of the teachers slightly.

Malkoc, Ummuhan

292

A field study for understanding thermally driven coupled processes in partially saturated fractured welded tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a multi-laboratory team, we are carrying out two in situ thermal tests — the single Heater Test and Drift Scale Test, in an underground facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, the proposed site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Our objective in these tests is to gain a more in-depth understanding of the coupled thermal–hydrological–mechanical–chemical processes likely

Y. W Tsang

2000-01-01

293

n-Gram Statistics for Natural Language Understanding and Text Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

n-gram (n = 1 to 5) statistics and other properties of the English language were derived for applications in natural language understanding and text processing. They were computed from a well-known corpus composed of 1 million word samples. Similar properties were also derived from the most frequent 1000 words of three other corpuses. The positional distributions of n-grams obtained in

Ching Y. Suen

1979-01-01

294

Applying comparative fractal analysis to infer origin and process in channels on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been a large amount of interest in identifying the nature of channels on (extra terrestrial) bodies. These studies are closely linked to the search for water (and ultimately signs of life) and are unarguably important. Current efforts in this direction rely on identifying geomorphic characteristics of these channels through painstaking analysis of multiple high resolution images. Here we present a new and simple technique that shows significant potential in its ability to distinguish between lava and water channels. Channels formed by water or lava on earth (as depicted in map view) display sinuosity over a large scale of range. Their geometries often point to the fluid dynamics, channel gradient, type of sediments in the river channels and for lava channels, it has been suggested that they are indicative of the thermal characteristics of the flow. The degree of this sinuosity in geometry can be measured using the divider method, and represented by fractal dimension (D) values. The higher D value corresponds to higher degree of sinuosity and channel irregularity and vice versa. Here we apply this fractal analysis to compare channels on Earth and Mars using D values extracted from satellite images. The fractal dimensions computed in this work for terrestrial river channels range from 1.04 - 1.38, terrestrial lava channels range from 1.01-1.10 and Martian channels range from 1.01 - 1.18. For terrestrial channels, preliminary results from river networks attain a fractal dimension greater than or equal to 1.1 while lava channels have fractal dimension less than or equal to 1.1. This analysis demonstrates the higher degree of irregularity present in rivers as opposed to lava channels and ratifies the utility of using fractal dimension to identify the source of channels on earth, and by extension, extra terrestrial bodies. Initial estimates of the fractal dimension from Mars fall within the same ranges as the lava channels on Earth. Based on what has been observed on Earth, we hypothesize that the differences in the dynamics of lava and water flow will cause significant differences in the degrees of irregularity of their respective channels. Thus fractal analysis has the potential to be a simple, straight forward and easily available tool to provide first-order constraint on the origin and processes active in Martian channels.

Balakrishnan, A.; Rice-Snow, S.; Hampton, B. A.

2010-12-01

295

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

2013-01-01

296

ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

2012-12-01

297

Scientists Aboard Drilling Vessel Recover Rocks from Earth?s Crust Far Below Seafloor  

NSF Publications Database

... Vessel Recover Rocks from Earth?s Crust Far Below Seafloor But Earth's elusive mantle is a near ... we learn that Earth?s structure is more complex. Our understanding of how the Earth evolved is ...

298

Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2°C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

Aalto, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

2014-06-01

299

The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbon’s role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

2009-12-01

300

A subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in Earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchanges. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models may lead to inadequate representation of subgrid heterogeneity and lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Here a subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented in each subbasin on a pseudo-grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART). The framework is implemented in two topographically and climatically contrasting regions of the US: the Pacific Northwest and the Midwest. The relative merits of this modeling framework, with greater emphasis on scalability (i.e., ability to perform consistently across spatial resolutions) in streamflow simulation compared to the grid-based modeling framework are investigated by performing simulations at 0.125°, 0.25°, 0.5°, and 1° spatial resolutions. Comparison of the two frameworks at the finest spatial resolution showed that a small difference between the averaged forcing could lead to a larger difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear processes. More systematic comparisons conducted using statistical metrics calculated between each coarse resolution and the corresponding 0.125°-resolution simulations showed superior scalability in simulating both peak and mean streamflow for the subbasin based over the grid-based modeling framework. Scalability advantages are driven by a combination of improved consistency in runoff generation and the routing processes across spatial resolutions.

Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.; Huang, M.; Ke, Y.; Sun, Y.; Liu, Y.

2014-05-01

301

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

302

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can `run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375Wm-2, which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-01

303

Prospects for projecting the impact of Earth system processes on Integrated Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the prospects for advancing the quantitative exploration of climate mitigation strategies using the integrated Earth System Model (iESM). The iESM leverages existing investments by DOE in community simulation capabilities including the Community Earth System Model (CESM) together with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) and the Global Land-use Model (GLM). GCAM and GLM are the foundation for one of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) evaluated in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The distinguishing features of iESM are the incorporation of integrated assessment capabilities into a full ESM and the provision for two-way interactions between the energy sector and climate change. Initial experiments using this new modeling system have demonstrated the need to revisit the conceptual design of the RCP scenarios [Moss, et al., 2010]. The iESM team has shown that feedbacks from climate change to the energy sector, an important class of interactions omitted from the current IPCC scenarios, can significantly alter the future allocation of land for energy and food production. Because human and biogeophysical Earth systems are closely coupled in the iESM, it is now possible to rapidly explore climate implications of new scenarios for future assessments and likewise to quantify the effects of improved treatments of major climatic processes on those scenarios. We discuss the progress towards significantly enhanced treatments of aerosols, carbon cycles, and methane feedbacks in CESM. We conclude with the potential applications of these capabilities in integrated assessment on decadal to centennial timescales using iESM.

Collins, W.; Edmonds, J. A.; Thornton, P. E.; Craig, A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Truesdale, J.

2012-12-01

304

Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

2007-12-01

305

The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

2006-11-01

306

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

1997-01-01

307

Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

Yoon, Sae Yeol

308

The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.  

PubMed

The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150?h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

2012-05-01

309

Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

deGroh, Henry C., III

1999-01-01

310

Non-resonant excitation of rare-earth ions via virtual Auger process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The luminescence of rare-earth ions (REI) is often intensified by defects associated with REIs or excitons bound to these defects. In this paper we show that the presence of such a state opens the possibility of non-resonance optical pumping via the process involving virtual Auger transition. It is the second order perturbation process when an electron arrives in an virtual intermediate state due to the optical transition (the first step) and the Auger transition is the second one. We have calculated the cross-section of such an excitation process when the optical transition is accompanied by creation of the exciton bound to the defect associated with REI and obtained a simple analytical expression for the cross-section. The excess energy of the excitation quanta is taken away by multiphonon emission. The electron-phonon interaction with local phonon vibrations of the bound exciton is assumed to determine the multiphonon process. It is shown that the probability of the process under study exceeds considerably the probability of direct optical 4f-4f absorption even in the case when the energy distance between the excitation quantum energy and the exciton energy is about 0.1 of the exciton energy. The excitation mechanism considered leads to the appearance of a broad unsymmetrical band in the excitation spectrum with the red side much wider and flatter than the blue one.

Yassievich, I. N.

2011-05-01

311

Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span, included follow-up support to teachers, and incorporated active learning approaches in the professional development. In addition, the designs had a high level of coherence with other reform activities and with local standards. The main difference among the designs was in the roles of teachers in designing, adopting, or adapting curriculum materials. Evidence from teacher survey and observation data indicated that all programs had positive impacts on how teachers planned and enacted teaching for understanding, but differences among programs was more evident in their impacts on instructional planning.

Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

2009-10-01

312

Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

Peters, N. E.

2008-01-01

313

Groundwater-surface water interactions: New methods and models to improve understanding of processes and dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interest in groundwater (GW)-surface water (SW) interactions has grown steadily over the last two decades. New regulations such as the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) now call for a sustainable management of coupled ground- and surface water resources and linked ecosystems. Embracing this mandate requires new interdisciplinary research on GW-SW systems that addresses the linkages between hydrology, biogeochemistry and ecology at nested scales and specifically accounts for small-scale spatial and temporal patterns of GW-SW exchange. Methods to assess these patterns such as the use of natural tracers (e.g. heat) and integrated surface-subsurface numerical models have been refined and enhanced significantly in recent years and have improved our understanding of processes and dynamics. Numerical models are increasingly used to explore hypotheses and to develop new conceptual models of GW-SW interactions. New technologies like distributed temperature sensing (DTS) allow an assessment of process dynamics at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. These developments are reflected in the contributions to this Special Issue on GW-SW interactions. However, challenges remain in transferring process understanding across scales.

Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Krause, Stefan; Hannah, David M.; Boano, Fulvio

2010-11-01

314

A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.  

PubMed

Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay. PMID:20556650

Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

2011-04-01

315

NASA's Earth science missions overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth is a complex and dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, is comprised of diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. The purpose of NASA's Earth science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. NASA's role is unique and highly complements those of other U.S. Federal agencies (such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) by continually advancing Earth system science from space, creating new remote sensing capabilities, and enhancing the operational capabilities of other agencies and collaborating with them to advance national Earth science goals. International collaborations are also a feature of many of these NASA Earth science activities. Continuous global observations of variability and change are required to reveal natural variability and the forces involved, the nature of the underlying processes and how these are coupled within the Earth system. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) provides these observations through its orbital and suborbital flight programs. Currently, NASA has 15 operating Earth science space missions with 6 more in development and 9 under study. In the next decade, ESD will develop and demonstrate new sensors and interacting constellations of satellites to address critical science questions and enable advances in operational capabilities in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications.

Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

2009-09-01

316

EarthScope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EarthScope is an Earth science program to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and to understand the processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. Site materials include an overview of the program, quarterly reports, an image gallery, and document archives. There are also descriptions of specific EarthScope initiatives: the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), Plate Boundary Observatory, and USArray Seismic Observatory; and the instruments used in gathering data for these programs. The Data Access page provides datasets and tools for analyzing seismic, GPS, and strainmeter data, as well as materials (cutting and mud sample reports, core logs, lithological reports) from SAFOD. The Education and Outreach page provides information on upcoming workshops and professional development opportunities, and educational products and tools that use EarthScope data.

317

Science Sampler : The sweet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great number of geologic processes either take unimaginable lengths of time to complete, or happen in places that cannot be directly observed, such as under the Earth's crust. It is, therefore, necessary for an Earth science teacher to find a connection between students' experiences and the geologic process they are studying to help them better understand that which is often unobservable. One Earth science topic with a tendency to be beyond the reach of direct observation for students is rock formation. This activity compares different kinds of candy to the different types of rocks based on direct observation.

Spurr, Aaron; Johnson, Lisa

2005-01-01

318

The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Projections of Extreme Rainfall Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations and do not capture the properties of sub-daily events that may lead to flooding in urban areas. In the UK and Europe, particularly during the summer, a large proportion of precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. The CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed to provide improvements in estimates of change in extreme rainfall, particularly for summer convective events. As usable predictions require the synthesis of observations, understanding of atmospheric processes and models, a change in focus from traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes for model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales is needed. By adopting this new focus CONVEX aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change on timescales from days to decades. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. Under the project the UK Meteorological Office has run new RCM simulations at 50km and 12km resolutions and compared these with new 1.5km-resolution model simulations for the southern UK. At this fine resolution convection may be explicitly represented in the model rather than parameterised as at coarser resolutions. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales and in particular has investigated the links between temperature and extreme rainfall. A further key part of the project has been the simulation of a high-resolution climate change experiment using "baseline" climate and future simulations which are being compared with coarser model projections. It is thus envisaged that CONVEX will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. As well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change projections. Recommendations to the user community will also be provided by the project, including qualitative guidance for the use of projections from coarser resolution models.

Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Chris; Roberts, Nigel; Sessford, Pat

2014-05-01

319

Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

Balter, B. M.

1979-01-01

320

The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health  

PubMed Central

A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions.

Grippo, Angela J.

2011-01-01

321

Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

1984-01-01

322

Parallel image processing and image understanding. Final report, April 1985-March 1986  

SciTech Connect

This research was conducted to obtain better methods for image processing. It focused on several aspects of this problem, including parallel algorithms for image processing, knowledge-based techniques for image understanding, and modeling images using shape and texture. Eighteen technical reports produced will also appear as published papers in journals. In the paper Holes and Genus of 3D images, it was shown that certain geometric invariants of a digital image (number of components, number of holes, and number of cavities) do not determine the topology (in the sense of connectivity) of the image refuting the commonly believed assumption that they do. This research lays the groundwork for research on digital and computational geometry of 3D images. In the paper Hough Transform Algorithms for Mesh-Connected SIMD Parallel Processors, several methods of Hough transform computation are studied in terms of suitability for implementation on a parallel processor, providing a valuable tool for straight-line detection.

Rosenfeld, A.

1986-03-31

323

The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health.  

PubMed

A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

Grippo, Angela J

2011-04-01

324

Improved understanding of hillslope-scale hydrological processes using high-resolution soil moisture measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture is a key variable that controls e.g. matter and energy fluxes, slope stability, occurence of flood events and soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange processes. Deriving detailed process understanding at the hillslope scale is not trivial, because of the non-linearity of hillslope response to rainfall due to local soil moisture dynamics. Characterizing this variability is one of the major challenges in hillslope hydrology. Long-term monitoring of surface and subsurfce soil moisture at various depths can provide a comprehensive picture of the spatial and temporal pattern of soil moisture dynamics, and facilitate understanding the controlling factors of underlying hydrological processes. In the Schäfertal catchment (located in the Harz Mountains, in Central Germany) a 2.5 ha hillslope area was permanently instrumented with a wireless soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring network. Ground-based electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements and topographic data were included into a geostatistical sampling strategy in order to optimize the placement of the network nodes. In total, 240 sensors were distributed to create 40 pairs of instrumented soil profiles, providing hourly measurements of soil water content and soil temperature at 5, 25 and 50 cm depth. The soil spatial variability was mapped and the soil texture was determined for each node location and each soil horizon. For the selected monitoring period of 14 months, the soil moisture pattern and its variability through time were analyzed. Seasonal and event-based analysis shows the varying relevance of topography and soil properties in determining several near-surface processes such as preferential flow, subsurface lateral flow and dynamics of the groundwater table.

Martini, Edoardo; Kögler, Simon; Wollschläger, Ute; Werban, Ulrike; Behrens, Thorsten; Schmidt, Karsten; Dietrich, Peter; Zacharias, Steffen

2014-05-01

325

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

326

Towards understanding how geographic, hydrologic, and chemical processes interact to produce trends in groundwater quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop methods and guidelines to help understand how geographic (land use and resource development), hydrologic (directions and rates of groundwater flow), and chemical processes (reaction rates) interact to explain historical changes in the distribution of natural and anthropogenic constituents in and across major aquifer systems and how these factors might affect groundwater quality in the coming decades. This study will include contribute to the understanding of how geologic heterogeneity and data/model uncertainty affect the quality of predictions made using large-scale groundwater models. An ancillary purpose is to make recommendations for sampling USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program water-quality networks to enhance the detection and understanding of incipient groundwater quality trends. This study is in the early stages of development. Although the study encompasses work at multiple sites, this presentation will focus on an effort in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah. Groundwater quality is spatially variable in this basin-fill aquifer, primarily as a result of rock-water interaction and variations in recharge water quality. Recharge water quality is influenced by human activities (such as the use of de-icing chemicals) that tend to contribute water with relatively high dissolved solids and by natural processes (such as the infiltration of meteoric water from adjacent mountains) that tend to contribute water with relatively low dissolved solids. Human activities and natural processes are not stationary, and changes in water-quality distribution over time are expected; documented changes in groundwater quality include local increases in nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved solids. These changes affect the public-water supply that is pumped from the deeper part of the basin-fill aquifer and should be considered in the future management of that supply. An existing groundwater flow model was recalibrated using more than 100 tritium samples. Flow-weighted travel times were calculated by backward-tracking particles from the simulated vertical position of the sampled well screens. Advective travel times calculated in this way were subtracted from the date of sampling, giving the simulated date of recharge. The atmospheric tritium value on this date was decayed, using the advective travel time, to calculate simulated equivalents for comparison to measured tritium concentrations. Future work includes testing a variety of approaches to account for some of the mixing, dilution, and transformation that occurs; assessing the predictive ability of the model by comparison of simulated historical trends with historical data for selected constituents; assessing the possible effect on future groundwater quality from processes, rates, and feedback loops arising from climate change and increased development; and assessing prediction uncertainty using Monte Carlo simulations.

Starn, J. J.; Green, C. T.; Hinkle, S. R.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lindsey, B.; Thiros, S.

2009-12-01

327

Relating Major Surface Processes to the Deep Earth — The Importance of the Miocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many global scale tectonic, oceanic and climate changes began in the Tertiary with global tectonics as the underlying driving force and changed the world. In full flower by the beginning of the Middle Miocene around 16 Ma, these changes continued through the Late Miocene into the present so we can firmly say that most of our modern world, continental glaciations excepted, began in the Middle and Late Miocene. We summarize in a flow diagram how the major earth surface processes active in the Miocene are related to the Deep Earth as understood by recent advances in seismic tomography. This 11 Ma interval had two global orogenic zones, the Alpine-Tethyan orogen from Gibraltar across southern Asia into Vietnam and around the Pacific Rim, both crustal expressions of downwellings taking place, especially in the upper mantle. These downwellings are balanced by upwellings in the lower mantle in and on the rim of the African and Pacific superplumes, which are large, low-shear velocity provinces; part of the rising plumes originated from the most extensively melted regions of the core-mantle boundary layer, D", where heat flow from the outer core is highest. Together these up-and downwellings indicate that mantle convection extended, at least periodically, through the whole mantle and reflected lateral variations in convection and heat flow in the cooling and slowly crystallizing outer core. Correlation of mantle convection with surface features is most evident in the uppermost mantle whose dynamic topography is readily reflected by the subsidence and tilting of continents moving toward the downwelling zones. Because they are closely synchronous, these two orogenic belts had enormous consequences for the earth's surface, and because they are close to us in time, they are easy to study and sample. Thus the Miocene is ideal to study for both its many global intra connections and for their link to the Deep Earth. As these two orogenies developed, they changed a global warm water ocean into our present cooler, more fragmented system with a cooler atmosphere. Higher plateaus and uplifted mountains deflected jet streams, expanded rain shadows promoting desertification, favored initial mountain glaciation, and helped cool air temperatures. Upwelling was enhanced on both sides of the Pacific basin, silica production shifted from the Atlantic to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, more mud and sand were brought to the ocean causing many passive margins to prograde, and hemipelagic mud became more abundant off continental margins. At the very end of the Miocene even the Mediterranean dried up, as it was isolated by the Alpine orogeny at Gibraltar. Onshore, epeirogenic uplift was widespread both in the interiors of the continents and along many of their margins. Active convergent margins changed continental tilts, completely altered some rivers, and formed new ones with new deltas, some on the other side of a continent. The above changes greatly altered the surface environment and induced many significant changes in flora and fauna and their distribution and have great economic importance. Many of the major geochemical cycles of the ocean and atmosphere also experienced major changes at this time. We posit that the generalizations ultimately emerging from the Miocene will apply to all the Phanerozoic and far back into the Precambrian and that are all tied to Deep Earth.

Potter, P. E.; Szatmari, P.

2012-12-01

328

The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

King, Chris

2000-01-01

329

UNDERSTANDING OLIVINE CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

Carbonation of Mg-rich minerals offers an intriguing candidate carbon sequestration process technology, which can provide large-scale CO{sub 2} disposal. Such disposal bypasses many long-term storage problems by (i) providing containment in the form of mineral carbonates that have proven stable over geological time, (ii) generating only environmentally benign materials, and (iii) essentially eliminating the need for continuous site monitoring. The primary challenge for viable process development is reducing process cost. This is the primary focus of the CO{sub 2} Mineral Sequestration Working Group managed by Fossil Energy at DOE, which includes members from the Albany Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, Penn State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the University of Utah, as well as from our research group at Arizona State University. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a leading process candidate, which converts CO{sub 2} into the mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). As olivine carbonation is exothermic, it offers intriguing low-cost potential. Recent studies at the Albany Research Center have found aqueous-solution carbonation is a promising approach. Cost effectively enhancing carbonation reactivity is central to reducing process cost. Many of the mechanisms that impact reactivity occur at the solid/solution interface. Understanding these mechanisms is central to the ability to engineer new and modified processes to enhance carbonation reactivity and lower cost. Herein, we report the results of our UCR I project, which focused on exploring the reaction mechanisms that govern aqueous-solution olivine carbonation using model olivine feedstock materials. Carbonation was found to be a complex process associated with passivating silica layer formation, which includes the trapping of magnesite nanocrystals within the passivating silica layers, cracking and exfoliation of the layers, silica surface migration, olivine etch pit formation, transfer of the Mg and Fe in the olivine into the product carbonate, and the nucleation and growth of magnesite crystals on/in the silica/olivine reaction matrix. These phenomena occur in concert with the large solid volume changes that accompany the carbonation process, which can substantially impact carbonation reactivity. Passivating silica layer formation appears to play a major role in inhibiting carbonation reactivity. New approaches that can mitigate the effectiveness of passivating layer formation may offer intriguing potential to enhance carbonation reactivity and lower process cost.

M.J. McKelvy; H. Bearat; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter

2003-08-01

330

Surficial Expressions of Deeper Processes- Ridge 2000 Spurs Understanding of Mantle-Hydrothermal Connections and the Role of Crustal Processes at Oceanic Spreading Centers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decade ago the Ridge 2000 (R2K) program began implementing the Integrated Studies Site (ISS) strategy as a means to advance understanding of the linked magmatic/tectonic/hydrothermal systems that dictate the structure and ecosystems observed in young crust along the spreading axis. Through comparison amongst ISSs and other well-studied sites, where controlling factors such as spreading rate or tectonic/thermal setting differ, a number of new insights have been gained. I will review progress on 3 aspects, emphasizing R2K contributions but also noting a few other recent results: the pattern of magma supply, along and across axis; ridge segmentation and crust/mantle interplay; threshold behavior and limiting processes that are manifested in crustal properties. The results are derived from petrological/geochemical, seismic (imaging, seismicity, compliance), electromagnetic, modeling, and mapping investigations, so I will touch on each of these types of constraint. The breadth of the melt supply zone is an example where R2K results document that influx to at least the lower crust can extend out several km beyond the axial graben. Such knowledge addresses a fundamental problem in Earth Sciences- how magmatism and faulting interact and the potential for hydrothermal circulation to both influence, and be influenced by, their distributions. In addition to briefly summarizing work already completed, I will highlight efforts on the mantle portions of the Juan de Fuca and Lau ISS that are currently underway, using data/modeling from the final phase of R2K, to tease out further connections between mantle processes and crustal structure, within which the now-known-to-be-ubiquitous hydrothermal systems develop.

Blackman, D. K.

2011-12-01

331

The roles of rare earth dispersoids and process route on the low cycle fatigue behavior of a rapidly solidified powder metallurgy titanium alloy  

SciTech Connect

Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at 482C (900F) on forgings and extrusions of a rapidly solidified powder metallurgy titanium base alloy with and without rare earth additions. The variables studied were process temperature and heat treatment. Rare earth dispersions reduced fatigue life, and fracture surfaces indicated internal fatigue crack initiation at rare earth particles.

Gigliotti, M.F.X. (General Electric Corp. Research and Development, Schenectady, NY (United States)); Woodfield, A.P. (General Electric Aircraft Engines, Evendale, OH (United States))

1993-08-01

332

Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.  

SciTech Connect

A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

Goussis, Dimitris A. (Ploutonos 7, Palaio Faliro, Greece); Najm, Habib N.

2006-01-01

333

Understanding the role of ions and water molecules in the NaCl dissolution process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of NaCl in water is one of the most common everyday processes, yet it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report the results of an extensive density functional theory study in which the initial stages of NaCl dissolution have been examined at low water coverages. Our specific approach is to study how the energetic cost of moving an ion or a pair of ions to a less coordinated site at the surface of various NaCl crystals varies with the number of water molecules adsorbed on the surface. This "microsolvation" approach allows us to study the dependence of the defect energies on the number of water molecules in the cluster and thus to establish when and where dissolution becomes favorable. Moreover, this approach allows us to understand the roles of the individual ions and water molecules in the dissolution process. Consistent with previous work we identify a clear preference for dissolution of Cl ions over Na ions. However, the detailed information obtained here leads to the conclusion that the process is governed by the higher affinity of the water molecules to Na ions than to Cl ions. The Cl ions are released first as this exposes more Na ions at the surface creating favorable adsorption sites for water. We discuss how this mechanism is likely to be effective for other alkali halides.

Klimeš, Ji?í; Bowler, David R.; Michaelides, Angelos

2013-12-01

334

Understanding the role of ions and water molecules in the NaCl dissolution process.  

PubMed

The dissolution of NaCl in water is one of the most common everyday processes, yet it remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report the results of an extensive density functional theory study in which the initial stages of NaCl dissolution have been examined at low water coverages. Our specific approach is to study how the energetic cost of moving an ion or a pair of ions to a less coordinated site at the surface of various NaCl crystals varies with the number of water molecules adsorbed on the surface. This "microsolvation" approach allows us to study the dependence of the defect energies on the number of water molecules in the cluster and thus to establish when and where dissolution becomes favorable. Moreover, this approach allows us to understand the roles of the individual ions and water molecules in the dissolution process. Consistent with previous work we identify a clear preference for dissolution of Cl ions over Na ions. However, the detailed information obtained here leads to the conclusion that the process is governed by the higher affinity of the water molecules to Na ions than to Cl ions. The Cl ions are released first as this exposes more Na ions at the surface creating favorable adsorption sites for water. We discuss how this mechanism is likely to be effective for other alkali halides. PMID:24359381

Klimeš, Ji?í; Bowler, David R; Michaelides, Angelos

2013-12-21

335

Understanding the Evolutionary Process of Grammatical Evolution Neural Networks for Feature Selection in Genetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

The identification of genetic factors/features that predict complex diseases is an important goal of human genetics. The commonality of gene-gene interactions in the underlying genetic architecture of common diseases presents a daunting analytical challenge. Previously, we introduced a grammatical evolution neural network (GENN) approach that has high power to detect such interactions in the absence of any marginal main effects. While the success of this method is encouraging, it elicits questions regarding the evolutionary process of the algorithm itself and the feasibility of scaling the method to account for the immense dimensionality of datasets with enormous numbers of features. When the features of interest show no main effects, how is GENN able to build correct models? How and when should evolutionary parameters be adjusted according to the scale of a particular dataset? In the current study, we monitor the performance of GENN during its evolutionary process using different population sizes and numbers of generations. We also compare the evolutionary characteristics of GENN to that of a random search neural network strategy to better understand the benefits provided by the evolutionary learning process—including advantages with respect to chromosome size and the representation of functional versus non-functional features within the models generated by the two approaches. Finally, we apply lessons from the characterization of GENN to analyses of datasets containing increasing numbers of features to demonstrate the scalability of the method.

Motsinger, Alison A.; Reif, David M.; Dudek, Scott M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

2010-01-01

336

Current understanding of the process of tooth formation: transfer from the laboratory to the clinic.  

PubMed

Teeth are typical examples of organs in which genes determine the progress of development from initiation to the final shape, size and structure, whereas environmental factors play a minor role. Advances in gene technology over the last three decades have led to powerful novel methods to explore the mechanisms of embryonic development. Today we know a few hundred genes that regulate tooth development, and mutations in dozens of these genes have been shown to cause aberrations in tooth development in mice and/or humans. The functions of an increasing number of genes in tooth development have been discovered using genetically modified mouse models. We are now beginning to understand the 'programme' underlying the process of tooth formation. Key components of the programme are signals mediating communication between cells and complex gene regulatory networks in which the signal pathways are integrated. Understanding the mechanisms of tooth development at the level of genes, cells and molecules will lay the basis for new ways to prevent and treat dental defects and diseases. Over the last decade knowledge about dental stem cells has accumulated rapidly and novel stem cell technologies have been developed. Combining stem cell research with knowledge on the mechanisms of tooth development may open up novel possibilities for clinical tooth regeneration. PMID:24236691

Thesleff, I

2014-06-01

337

Preparation and Support of Patients through the Transplant Process: Understanding the Recipients' Perspectives  

PubMed Central

Preparation for heart transplant commonly includes booklets, instructional videos, personalized teaching sessions, and mentorship. This paper explores heart transplant recipients' thoughts on their preparation and support through the transplant process. Twenty-five interviews were audio-/videotaped capturing voice and body language and transcribed verbatim. Coding addressed language, bodily gesture, volume, and tone in keeping with our visual methodology. Recipients reported that only someone who had a transplant truly understands the experience. As participants face illness and life-altering experiences, maintaining a positive attitude and hope is essential to coping well. Healthcare professionals provide ongoing care and reassurance about recipients' medical status. Mentors, family members, and close friends play vital roles in supporting recipients. Participants reported that only heart transplant recipients understood the experience, the hope, and ultimately the suffering associated with living with another persons' heart. Attention needs to be focused not solely on the use of teaching modalities, but also on the development of innovative support networks. This will promote patient and caregiver engagement in self-management. Enhancing clinicians' knowledge of the existential aspects of transplantation will provide them with a nuanced understanding of the patients' experience, which will ultimately enhance their ability to better prepare and support patients and their caregivers.

Mauthner, Oliver; De Luca, Enza; Poole, Jennifer; Gewarges, Mena; Abbey, Susan E.; Shildrick, Margrit; Ross, Heather

2012-01-01

338

Examining the construction process: A study of changes in level 10 students' understanding of classical mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study explored students' conceptual understanding and conceptual growth regarding classical mechanics in the natural context of a Grade-level 10 science classroom. The purpose of the study was to determine the pervasiveness of a pattern observed in an earlier study in which learners initially gave evidence of scientifically valid knowledge structures but then returned or regressed to an earlier, primitive level of understanding. In the current study, concept mapping and interview methods were used to capture students' construction of knowledge patterns across a survey course designed to focus on some big ideas in physics. The analyses of mean ratings of student-generated concept maps and interview transcripts over three data collections did not consistently reveal the progression-regression patterns across the instruction as observed in the earlier study. The students' knowledge structures remained stable across the 10 weeks and remained unchanged 4 weeks after instruction ceased, suggesting that very little construction or restructuring of knowledge was taking place, and possibly worse, that the students' existing knowledge was not challenged sufficiently to promote the construction or reconstruction process. Implications of the alternative interpretations are discussed.

Shymansky, James; Yore, Larry; Treagust, David; Thiele, R. B.; Harrison, A.; Waldrip, L. D.

2005-11-23

339

Developing Classroom Research Modules Through In Depth Understanding of the Research Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students of low income families often have fewer opportunities, especially in regards to science, than their peers of higher socioeconomic upbringing. This opportunity deficit can stifle their interest in science before it begins. As an elementary teacher at a Title 1 school, I strive to enrich the scientific opportunities for my students. I gained exposure to soil science by participating in a litter decomposition experiment and the Summer Soil Institute at Colorado State University through an NSF funded Research Experience for Teachers program (RET). My participation in the RET provided me with the tools necessary to implement in depth research in my 5th grade classroom. A teacher's greatest tool is having a deep understanding of a topic prior to relaying it to students. This depth of knowledge needs to be coupled with a general understanding of the research process and techniques that are being used by contemporary scientists. Applying these ideas, I created a long-term decomposition module for my students that can be used as a model for teachers to create meaningful research opportunities for students.

Guilbert, K.; Soong, J.; Cotrufo, M.

2012-12-01

340

Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01

341

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-09-01

342

The key role of global solid-Earth processes in the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern hemisphere glaciation started ~3 My ago with Greenland leading the other northern areas. It is unknown why these extreme global climatic transitions were initiated there and why at this time. Here we show that build-up of the Greenland ice-sheet was underpinned by three major solid-Earth processes. These processes were active since at least ~60 Ma and collectively led to conditions of sufficiently high topography and northern latitude of Greenland for glaciations to initiate at ~3 Ma. First, a strong mantle-plume pulse, causing the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province at ~60 Ma, regionally thinned the lithosphere, while subsequent pulses led to uplift that accelerated at around 5 Ma. Our numerical mantle flow models also suggest recent uplift caused by Iceland plume material flowing northward. Second, a ~700 km northward movement of Greenland relative to the mantle since ~60 Ma is featured in recent plate tectonic reconstructions. Third, a concurrent northward rotation of the entire mantle and crust toward the pole, dubbed True Polar Wander (TPW), contributed a 12° (~1300 km) change in latitude. Our study emphasizes the role of mantle plumes, plate tectonic motions, and in particular TPW for driving long-term global climatic transitions.

Steinberger, Bernhard; Spakman, Wim; Japsen, Peter; Torsvik, Trond

2014-05-01

343

Understanding the role of London dispersion forces in molecular surface processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions and dynamics of molecules at surfaces and within pores are essential to many chemical processes, ranging from molecular storage to catalysis and self-assembly. A molecular level understanding of molecule-surface interactions is crucial for tuning surface/pore selectivity and reactivity. While it is clear that strong chemisorption bonds facilitate these interactions, the role of weaker van der Waals (vdW) forces, which include London dispersion and ?-? stacking interactions, are often unknown or overlooked. Recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) have now made it possible to reliably account for London dispersion interactions. In this paper, I will discuss the use of one such technique, the Rutgers-Chalmers vdW non-local correlation functional,ootnotetextM. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schr"oder, B. I. Lundqvist and D. C. Langreth, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 246401 (2004)^,ootnotetextT. Thonhauser, V. R. Cooper, S. Li, A. Puzder, P. Hyldgaard, and David C. Langreth, Phys. Rev. B, 76, 125112 (2007) to demonstrate how the inclusion of London dispersion forces is critical for a truly first principles understanding of processes sensitive to molecule-surface interactions, such as the loading of H2 within porous materials and the chemisorption of organic molecules at surfaces. These works highlight the fundamental importance of London dispersion interactions in the broader context of chemical physics. This work was supported by the Department of Energy, BES, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.ootnotetextCollaborators: Guo Li, Isaac Tamblyn, Yungok Ihm, Jun-Hyung Cho, Shixuan Du, Jeffrey B. Neaton, Hong-Jun Gao, Zhenyu Zhang, James R. Morris

Cooper, Valentino R.

2012-02-01

344

Understanding Earth's Climate: Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of children's books recommends nonfiction titles that supplement basic information found in lessons and activities of this themed issue of the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. The books are grouped by topic -- water, weather and climate, and atmosphere. Each book is described by its content, reading level, and possible uses in the classroom. Covers are pictured. The online magazine is produced for elementary school teachers and is structured around the essential principles of climate sciences and climate literacy.

Hastings, Kate

2011-03-01

345

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

346

Application of Thermodynamic Models for Better Understanding and Optimizing the Hall-Heroult Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, important improvements have been made in the application of thermodynamic models for studying the molten cryolite system used in the Hall-Heroult process. This approach allows a better understanding and paves the way for furthering developments in bath chemistry and molten metal processing. In this article, thermodynamic modeling is used to explore the operating windows in the reduction of alumina in molten cryolite. The impact of a range of concentrations of AlF3, CaF2, and Al2O3 in conventional or "lithium-free" baths is also discussed. Subsequently, the model was also used to evaluate the impact of additions of lithium fluoride to the bath. Conditions allowing an operation at lower cell voltages and lower bath temperatures were identified. The modeling approach described in this article is considered as an important innovation to revisit fundamentals, to constantly re-examine paradigms, and to identify potential modifications in bath chemistry for improving energy efficiency and productivity of modern prebaked Hall-Heroult cells.

Coursol, Pascal; Dufour, Gilles; Coté, Jules; Chartrand, Patrice; Mackey, Phillip

2012-11-01

347

Understanding the application niche of microbial fuel cells in a cheese wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

Identifying proper application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology and understanding how MFCs can be effectively integrated into the existing wastewater treatment process is critical to further development of this technology. In this study, four identical MFCs were used to treat the wastes sampled from different stages of a cheese wastewater treatment process, and both treatment performance and energy balance were examined. The two MFCs treating liquid wastes achieved more than 80% removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), while the other two MFCs fed with sludge or cheese whey removed about 60% of TCOD. The MFC-2 treating the dissolved air flotation effluent generated the highest Coulombic efficiency of 27.2±3.6% and the highest power density of 3.2±0.3Wm(-3), and consumed the least amount of energy of 0.11kWhm(-3), indicating that MFCs may be more suitable for treating low-strength wastewater in terms of both treatment and energy performance. PMID:24549237

Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

2014-04-01

348

Contributions of TRMM to Our Understanding of Precipitation Processes and Climate Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan effort, has completed seven and a half years in orbit. This successful research mission studying precipitation processes and climatology has also become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first rain radar and microwave radiometer combination in space, continues to function perfectly, and the satellite has the capability to operate for a number of additional years, providing a unique, long-term record of global tropical precipitation characteristics. A summary of research highlights will be presented covering topics ranging over climate analysis, improving forecasts, and storm and precipitation processes. A focus of the talk will be the important role of TRMM data in multi-satellite precipitation analyses at fine time scales and in improving our understanding of the validity of climate-scale variations through comparison with, and eventual improvement of, the GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 25-year data set.

Adler, Robert F.

2005-01-01

349

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information for both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values may be present in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thus, thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. In this report, calorimetric studies of lactate protonation equilibrium illustrate a distinct influence of nitrate, perchlorate, methylsulfonate and triflate on the thermodynamic parameters associated with TALSPEAK aqueous chemistry. Triflate is identified a closer non-complexing representative of lactate solution chemistry. The reported initial two stability constants for the complexation of americium and neodymium by lactate in triflate medium suggest that the identified medium effects do not significantly affect the speciation.

Zalupski, P. R.; Nash, K. L.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Martin, L. R.

2010-03-01

350

Understanding bacterial bioluminescence: a theoretical study of the entire process, from reduced flavin to light emission.  

PubMed

Bacterial bioluminescence (BL) has been successfully applied in water-quality monitoring and in vivo imaging. The attention of researchers has been attracted for several decades, but the mechanism of bacterial BL is still largely unknown due to the complexity of the multistep reaction process. Debates mainly focus on three key questions: How is the bioluminophore produced? What is the exact chemical form of the bioluminophore? How does the protein environment affect the light emission? Using quantum mechanics (QM), combined QM and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and molecular dynamic (MD) calculations in gas-phase, solvent and protein environments, the entire process of bacterial BL was investigated, from flavin reduction to light emission. This investigation revealed that: 1)?the chemiluminescent decomposition of flavin peroxyhemiacetal does not occur through the intramolecular chemical initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL) or the "dioxirane" mechanism, as suggested in the literature. Instead, the decomposition occurs according to the charge-transfer initiated luminescence (CTIL) mechanism for the thermolysis of dioxetanone. 2)?The first excited state of 4a-hydroxy-4a,5-dihydroFMN (HFOH) was affirmed to be the bioluminophore of bacterial BL. This study provides details regarding the mechanism by which bacterial BL is produced and is helpful in understanding bacterial BL in general. PMID:24825310

Hou, Cong; Liu, Ya-Jun; Ferré, Nicolas; Fang, Wei-Hai

2014-06-23

351

Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

352

The dermatology outpatient discharge decision: understanding a critical but neglected process.  

PubMed

Discharge from dermatology outpatients is a critical endpoint of patient care. Despite this, there has been very little research concerning the discharge process and factors influencing the discharge decision. To identify the factors influencing discharge decisions, articles from 1970 to April 2013 were searched in MEDLINE via Ovid, CINAHL, PROQUEST and Google Scholar using the keywords 'patient discharge', 'discharge decision', 'factors influencing discharge', 'clinical decision making', 'discharge decision making', 'process of discharge decision', 'outpatient', 'follow up', 'skin disease' and 'dermatology'. Only articles describing outpatient discharge decisions were included. Seventeen outpatient discharge articles were identified, 12 from the U.K. (seven dermatology) and five from the U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Taiwan (all nondermatology). The main influences on outpatient discharge identified were diagnosis and disease severity, clinician's level of experience and perception, patient's preferences, patient's behaviour and quality of life. These influences affected the clinician's judgement on discharge decisions both in appropriate and in inappropriate ways. Little is known concerning discharge decision making in dermatology. Given the central importance of such decisions in the appropriate care of patients and the efficient running of any dermatology service, greater understanding of the influences on discharge decision making is needed. It is therefore critical for dermatologists to be aware of these influences and to ensure that decisions are taken only in the best interests of patients. Further research is required to inform the training of dermatologists on how to take the most appropriate discharge decisions. PMID:24404897

Harun, N A; Salek, S; Piguet, V; Finlay, A Y

2014-05-01

353

Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.  

PubMed

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

354

Temporal discounting and criminal thinking: understanding cognitive processes to align services.  

PubMed

Temporal discounting is an indicator of impulsivity that has consistently been found to be associated with risky behaviors such as substance abuse and compulsive gambling. Yet, although criminal acts are clearly risky choice behaviors, no study has examined temporal discounting in the criminal attitudes and behaviors of adult offenders. Yet, such investigations have potential to understand the cognitive processes that underlie various criminal patterns of thinking and may help distinguish between high and low risk offenders. Therefore, the current study endeavored to fill this gap in the literature using 146 male inmates within 5 months of release. Results found that temporal discounting is correlated with reactive criminal thinking but was not correlated with proactive criminal thinking. In addition, inmates with higher rates of incarceration were also more likely to have higher rates of temporal discounting. Results shed light on the different cognitive processes that may underlie different styles of criminal thinking as well as potential differences in the discounting rates depending on history of incarcerations. This finding has implications for service delivery in criminal justice settings as those with reactive criminal thinking may benefit from specialized treatments for temporal discounting. PMID:24635040

Varghese, Femina P; Charlton, Shawn R; Wood, Mara; Trower, Emily

2014-05-01

355

GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY, AND ASTROPHYSICS: Dynamic Processes of Cross-Tail Current in the Near-Earth Magnetotail  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current dynamic processes in realistic magnetotail geometry are studied by Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations under various driven conditions and Hall effects. Associated with the external driving force, a thin current sheet with a broad extent is built up in the near-Earth magnetotail. The time evolution for the formation of the current sheet comprises two phases: slow growth and a fast

Xing-Qiang Lu; Zhi-Wei Ma

2009-01-01

356

Testbed for development of a DSP-based signal processing subsystem for an earth-orbiting radar scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future scatterometer instruments. Construction of the testbed also facilitated identification of an appropriate

Douglas J. Clark; James P. Lux; N. Shirbacheh

2002-01-01

357

Science Data Processing and Distribution of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CERES project at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides critical cloud and Earth radiation budget climate data records (CDRs) to support global climate change research. CERES has produced over 30 Instrument years of data from TRMM, Terra, and Aqua, and is preparing to collect, calibrate, process and distribute data from CERES Flight Model 5 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). A complex system of algorithm development, data collection, processing, archive and distribution is being developed to manage science data from CERES on NPP. A new state-of-the-art data archival and distribution system called Archive - Next Generation (ANGe) has also been developed at the Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and now supports efficient data ingest, archive, and distribution for CERES. The CERES data system integrates data from multiple sources to produce an extensive set of high quality climate data records. For NPP, CERES data will be fused with clouds and aerosol information obtained using VIIRS radiance and geolocation data, making accurate and stable calibration of VIIRS radiances critical to maintaining high quality CERES CDRs. New science processing algorithms will provide improved clouds and aerosol information that feed flux calculations and time and space averaging, and will be applied to processing CERES NPP data. A more robust ground calibration campaign has also been developed for the CERES sensors. The addition of CERES data from NPP will extend Earth radiation budget climate data records well into the next decade. This paper will describe the data flow, science data processing, and distribution of CERES data from NPP.

Closs, J. W.; Robbins, J. L.; Miller, W. F.

2009-12-01

358

Inquiry-Based Instruction: Understanding How Content and Process Go Hand-in-Hand with School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquiry has been used to promote activity-oriented learning that reflects scientific investigation, specifically the observation, experimentation, and reasoning used by scientists. Understanding the roles of content and process in school science helps educators better understand and practice inquiry-based instruction. The relationship between…

Chiappetta, Eugene L.; Adams, April D.

2004-01-01

359

A Research on the Validity and Effectiveness of "Two-Axes Process Model" of Understanding Mathematics at Elementary School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the validity and effectiveness of the two-axes process model of understanding mathematics. Analyzes data collected in a case study of a third grade mathematics class in a national elementary school. Teaching and learning of mathematics that enables children to understand mathematics deeply and in their meaningful way is characterized as…

Koyama, Masataka

2001-01-01

360

Breaking up the Writing Process: How Wikis Can Support Understanding the Composition and Revision Strategies of Young Writers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding how best to support immature writers in the development of their understanding of the writing process is an important concern for researchers and teachers. Social technologies have become key features of leisure and work place writing, yet knowledge about how to design educational settings that take full advantage of the affordances…

Pifarre, Manoli; Fisher, Ros

2011-01-01

361

Teachers as Learners: A Case Study of Teachers' Understanding of Astronomy Concepts and Processes in An ACE Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here investigates the efficacy of a module in an Advanced Certificate in Education course in promoting conceptual understanding in Astronomy. The research attempted to find out how teachers' understanding of astronomy concepts and processes change after completing this module as well as the reasons for such changes, if any.…

Stears, M.; James, A.; Good, M-A.

2011-01-01

362

Learning from model improvement: On the contribution of complementary data to process understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A priori determined model structures are common in catchment rainfall-runoff modeling. While this has resulted in many ready-to-use modeling tools, there are several shortcomings of a one-size-fits-all model structure. The uniqueness of catchments with respect to their hydrological behavior and the need to adapt model complexity to data availability challenge this status quo. We present a flexible approach to model development where the model structure is adapted progressively based on catchment characteristics and the data described by the experimentalist. We demonstrate this approach with the Maimai catchment in New Zealand, a location with a large availability of data, including stream discharge, groundwater levels, and stream isotope measurements. Different types of data are introduced progressively, and the architecture of the model is adjusted in a stepwise fashion to better describe the processes suggested by the new data sources. The revised models are developed in a way to strike a balance between model complexity and data availability, by keeping models as simple as possible, but complex enough to explain the dynamics of the data. Our work suggests that (1) discharge data provides information on the dynamics of storage (represented by the "free" water in the reservoirs) subject to pressure wave propagation generated by rainfall into the catchment, (2) groundwater data provides information on thresholds and on the contribution of different portions of the catchment to stream discharge, and (3) isotope data provides information on particle transport and mixing of the rainfall with the storage present in the catchment. Moreover, while groundwater data appear to be correlated with discharge data, and only a marginal improvement could be obtained adding this information to the model development process, isotope data appear to provide an orthogonal view on catchment behavior. This result contributes to understanding the value of data for modeling, which may serve as a guidance in the process of gauging ungauged catchments.

Fenicia, Fabrizio; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

2008-06-01

363

Towards understanding the processes that govern variability in the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate at extratropical latitudes is strongly a result of the behavior of the zonal mean zonal wind and its inherent variability. This variability is dominated largely by the north-south fluctuation of the midlatitude jet and is identified in the Southern Hemisphere as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Recent observations have shown a tendency of the jet to move poleward due to, in part, the forcing associated with stratospheric cooling due to ozone loss and the tropical tropospheric warming from increasing greenhouse gases. Two dominant processes drive variability in the midlatitude jet: anomalies in the eddy momentum flux (EMF) and the eddy heat flux (EHF). In an attempt to link these processes, this study aims to diagnose a relationship in the observational data via two aspects: 1) To assess the extent to which feedbacks between the EMF and EHF give rise to the annular modes; and 2) To understand, in the context of the atmospheric energy cycle, the dominant patterns of variability of the EMF and EHF fields. Preliminary results reveal that the variability observed in the extratropical flow may exhibit a slight feedback between these processes. Additionally, it has been found that this variability may be viewed in the context of two distinct structures: (i) those that owe their existence to conversions between zonal-mean and eddy kinetic energy and (ii) those that owe their existence to conversions between zonal-mean and eddy potential energy. Past studies have largely focused on the former's impact on the extratropical circulation. However, not much emphasis has been placed on the latter, despite arguably playing an equally important role in driving the variability.

Woodworth, Jonathan D.

364

Isotopic order, biogeochemical processes, and earth history - Goldschmidt lecture, Davos, Switzerland, August 2002  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impetus to interpret carbon isotopic signals comes from an understanding of isotopic fractionations imposed by living organisms. That understanding rests in turn on studies of enzymatic isotope effects, on fruitful concepts of isotopic order, and on studies of the distribution of 13C both between and within biosynthetic products. In sum, these studies have shown that the isotopic compositions of biological products are governed by reaction kinetics and by pathways of carbon flow. Isotopic compositions of individual compounds can indicate specific processes or environments. Examples include biomarkers which record the isotopic compositions of primary products in aquatic communities, which indicate that certain bacteria have used methane as a carbon source, and which show that some portions of marine photic zones have been anaerobic. In such studies, the combination of structural and isotopic lines of evidence reveals relationships between compounds and leads to process-related thinking. These are large steps. Reconstruction of the sources and histories of molecular fossils redeems much of the early promise of organic geochemistry by resolving and clarifying paleoenviron-mental signals. In turn, contemplation of this new information is driving geochemists to study microbial ecology and evolution, oceanography, and sedimentology.

Hayes, John M.

2004-04-01

365

Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northwest, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. Since 1) and 3) are 10-minute intervals and 2) is hourly data, we are developing hourly gridded data and using 1-3) to verify and quantify the rain rate observed by the Fukushima University X-band data.

Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

2012-04-01

366

Near Earth Object impact simulation tool for supporting the NEO mitigation decision making process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a computer simulation tool, NEOSim, capable of modelling small NEO impacts and their effect on the global population. The development of the tool draws upon existing models for the atmospheric passage and impact processes. Simulation of the land and ocean impact effects combined with a population density model leads to a casualty estimation at both a regional and global level. Casualty predictions are based upon the intensity of each impact effect on the local population density with consideration given to the population inside or outside local infrastructure. Two case studies are presented. The first evaluates the potential threat to the UK from localised NEO impacts, and highlights coastal locations as being at greater risk. Locations around Cornwall demonstrate a 69% increase in casualties above the local average. The second case study concerns the potential impact of asteroid 99942 Apophis in 2036. Propagation of the possible orbits along the line of variance leads to an extensive path of risk on the Earth. Deflection of the asteroid, by a variety of means, will move the projected impact site along this path. Results generated by NEOSim for the path indicate that South American countries such as Colombia and Venezuela are at a greater risk with estimated casualty figures in excess of 10 million. Applications of this software to the NEO threat are discussed along with the next stage of NEO impact simulation.

Bailey, Nick J.; Swinerd, Graham G.; Morley, Andrew D.; Lewis, Hugh G.

2007-05-01

367

New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements.  

PubMed

Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A?140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110?A?170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A?278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A?165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A?140. PMID:24483647

Goriely, S; Sida, J-L; Lemaître, J-F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

2013-12-13

368

The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh.Design\\/Methodology\\/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were carried out to enhance understanding of the adoption process of RBFSP.Findings: A quantitative investigation showed two variables, the

Mohammad Mahfujul Haque; David C. Little; Benoy K. Barman

2010-01-01

369

Analysis of the gouldsboro pluton and the fehr granite: Understanding the scales of magmatic processes and partial melt generation from the deep to shallow crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of the continental crust has a first order control on the dynamics of plate tectonic processes and the compositions of the Earth in both time and space. Heterogeneity can be characterized at a variety of scales and in a multitude of tectonic environments, but it is the links between seemingly disparate tectonic settings and crustal levels that are critical in understanding construction of the continents. The focus of this dissertation work is to apply microtextural, microgeochemical, whole rock geochemical and traditional petrographic techniques to study features in both deep and shallow crustal igneous rocks. The goal of these efforts is to better understand the roles that magmatic processes, mafic-felsic magma interaction, and partial melting have on the evolution of continental crust. Two principal field areas were selected, the Gouldsboro pluton in coastal Maine and the Fehr granite in northern Saskatchewan, Canada, because they each represent end-members of the processes involved with the generation, modification, transport, and emplacement of magmas that build continental crust. Evidence for bimodal magmatism preserved in the Silurian age Gouldsboro pluton has led to a refined model for the construction of shallow crustal magma chambers. Research efforts focused on the Neoarchean Fehr granite and Paleoproterozoic Chipman dike swarm have contributed to the current understanding of the links between high temperature metamorphism (migmitization) and the production of new felsic magmas as well as the rheological and chemical influences of mafic-felsic magma interaction in the deep crust. The results of these combined field and laboratory efforts have demonstrated the important role of mafic-felsic magma interaction on the strength and composition of both deep and shallow continental crust and have contributed to the current understanding of the complex links between deep crustal heterogeneity and bimodal magmatism at shallow crustal levels.

Koteas, George Christopher

370

Novel solution processing of high-efficiency Earth-abundant Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells.  

PubMed

A novel solution-based approach is presented to process earth-abundant Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) absorbers using fully dissolved CZTS precursors in which each of the elemental constituents intermix on a molecular scale. This method enables the low-temperature processing of chemically clean kesterite films with excellent homogeneity. The high performance of resulting optoelectronic devices represents a chance to extend the impact of CZTS into the next chapter of thin-film solar cells. PMID:22969055

Yang, Wenbing; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Bob, Brion; Zhou, Huanping; Lei, Bao; Chung, Choong-Heui; Li, Sheng-Han; Hou, William W; Yang, Yang

2012-12-11

371

Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

372

How Do Map Projections Distort Earth's Surface?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how map projects distort Earth's surface. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." On the site, visitors will find information on representing the spherical Earth on a flat map, the different common projections used, and how to measure the properties of the projections. Many sections contain interactive features and questions which allow students to investigate and understand the ways that flattening the Earth creates problems with maps and what cartographers have done to minimize the distortion. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or out-of-class exploration.

2008-09-10

373

NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

2013-01-01

374

Integrating Empirical-Modeling Approaches to Improve Understanding of Terrestrial Ecology Processes  

SciTech Connect

Recent decades have seen tremendous increases in the quantity of empirical ecological data collected by individual investigators, as well as through research networks such as FLUXNET (Baldocchi et al., 2001). At the same time, advances in computer technology have facilitated the development and implementation of large and complex land surface and ecological process models. Separately, each of these information streams provides useful, but imperfect information about ecosystems. To develop the best scientific understanding of ecological processes, and most accurately predict how ecosystems may cope with global change, integration of empirical and modeling approaches is necessary. However, true integration - in which models inform empirical research, which in turn informs models (Fig. 1) - is not yet common in ecological research (Luo et al., 2011). The goal of this workshop, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, was to bring together members of the empirical and modeling communities to exchange ideas and discuss scientific practices for increasing empirical - model integration, and to explore infrastructure and/or virtual network needs for institutionalizing empirical - model integration (Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA). The workshop included presentations and small group discussions that covered topics ranging from model-assisted experimental design to data driven modeling (e.g. benchmarking and data assimilation) to infrastructure needs for empirical - model integration. Ultimately, three central questions emerged. How can models be used to inform experiments and observations? How can experimental and observational results be used to inform models? What are effective strategies to promote empirical - model integration?

McCarthy, Heather [University of Oklahoma; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

2012-01-01

375

Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing  

PubMed Central

For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Helene; Guichard, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

376

Applications of Future NASA Decadal Missions for Observing Earth's Land and Water Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Misson Objective: To collect altimetry data of the Earth's surface optimized to measure ice sheet elevation change and sea ice thickness, while also generating an estimate of global vegetation biomass.

Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon; Brown, Molly E.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Carroll, Mark; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Omar, Ali

2013-01-01

377

Exobiological experiments in Earth orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of exobiological research is to reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life on Earth or elsewhere in the universe. In this endeavour, scientists from a wide variety of disciplines are involved, such as astronomy, planetary research, organic chemistry, palaeontology and the various sub disciplines of biology. Space technology

G. Horneck

1998-01-01

378

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Division of Earth Sciences 16 July, 2004 Dear Colleague; The Division of Earth Sciences (EAR ... Division of Earth Sciences. EAR will now be structured in two Sections: Surface Earth Processes ...

379

SOLUBILIZATION STUDIES OF RARE EARTH OXIDES AND OXOHALIDES. APPLICATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES IN PYROCHEMICAL PROCESSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and electrochemical properties of rare earths (La, Ce, Pr and Y) chloride solutions in the eutectic LiCl-KCl and the equimolar CaCl2-NaCl mixture were studied at 450 and 550 0 C respectively. The stability of the oxidation states of rare-earths and the standard potential of the different redox couples have been determined. The solubility product of oxides and oxychlorides were

C. Caravaca; P. Díaz Arocas; J. A. Serrano; C. González; R. Bermejo; M. Vega; A. Martínez; Y. Castrillejo

380

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01

381

Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

1995-01-31

382

Understanding Metal Sources and Transport Processes in Watersheds: a Hydropedologic Approach (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the origin of metals in watersheds, as well as the transport and cycling processes that affect them is of critical importance to watershed science. Metals can be derived both from weathering of minerals in the watershed soils and bedrock and from atmospheric deposition, and can have highly variable residence times in the watershed due to cycling through plant communities and retention in secondary mineral phases prior to release to drainage waters. Although much has been learned about metal cycling and transport through watersheds using simple “box model” approaches that define unique input, output and processing terms, the fact remains that watersheds are inherently complex and variable in terms of substrate structure, hydrologic flowpaths and the influence of plants, all of which affect the chemical composition of water that ultimately passes through the watershed outlet. In an effort to unravel some of this complexity at a watershed scale, we have initiated an interdisciplinary, hydropedology-focused study of the hydrologic reference watershed (Watershed 3) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. This 41 hectare headwater catchment consists of a beech-birch-maple-spruce forest growing on soils developed on granitoid glacial till that mantles Paleozoic metamorphic bedrock. Soils vary from lateral spodosols downslope from bedrock exposures near the watershed crest to vertical and bi-modal spodosols along hillslopes to umbrepts at toe-slope positions and inferred hydrologic pinch points created by bedrock and till structure. Using a variety of chemical and isotope tracers (e.g., K/Na, Ca/Sr, Sr/Ba, Fe/Mn, 87Sr/86Sr, Ca-Sr-Fe stable isotopes) on water, soil and plant samples in an end-member mixing analysis approach, we are attempting to discretize the watershed according to soil types encountered along determined hydrologic flowpaths in order better constrain the various biogeochemical processes that control the delivery of metals to the watershed outlet. Our initial results reveal that along the numerous first-order streams that drain the watershed, chemical and Sr isotope compositions are highly variable from sample point to sample point on a given day and from season to season, reflecting the complex nature of hydrologic flowpaths that deliver water to the streams and hinting at the importance of groundwater seeps that appear to concentrate along the central axis of the watershed.

Bullen, T. D.; Bailey, S. W.; McGuire, K. J.; Brousseau, P.; Ross, D. S.; Bourgault, R.; Zimmer, M. A.

2010-12-01

383

Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections as they communicate what they know and how they know it. Although tools such as vee-maps can scaffold students' efforts to design investigations, we know less about how these tools support students in connecting scientific ideas with the evidence they are generating, how these connections develop over time, or how writing can be used to encourage such connections. In this study, we explored students' developing ability to reason scientifically by examining the relationship between students' understanding of scientific phenomena and their understanding of how to generate and evaluate evidence for their ideas in writing. Three high school classes completed three investigations. One class used vee-mapping each time, one used vee-mapping once, and one did not use vee-mapping. Students' maps and written reports were rated for understanding of relevant science procedural and conceptual ideas. Comparisons between groups and over time indicate a positive relationship between improved procedural and conceptual understanding. Findings also indicate that improved procedural understanding preceded improved conceptual understanding, and thus, multiple experiences were needed for students to connect evidence and explanation for science phenomena.

Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

2012-08-01

384

A deeper understanding of processes controlling hydrogeochemical fluxes through shallow karstic critical zones (the epikarst). (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predicting the magnitude and timing of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes through epikarst systems in response to environmental drivers (precipitation, evapotranspiration) is difficult. In the past, much work has focused on using hydrograph and chemograph data to estimate hydrologic properties and physical structure of the epikarst and less has been done to develop predictive models for the occurrence and magnitude of these responses. Predictive models are useful for a variety of reasons including water balance/recharge calculations and as a foundation for better characterizing the physical, chemical, and biological processes that influence infiltration into and recharge through the epikarst, and the evolution of waters along flowpaths. Over the past six years, we have collected continuous high-frequency discharge, geochemical, and environmental data at several sites in caves in Texas and Virginia, and detailed ecohydrologic data at the TX site. A simple predictive model of recharge response and magnitude has been developed for drip-site and springshed scale in TX, and a similar model is under development for the VA site. In both cases, data and modeling results allow hypothesis testing and questions to be answered regarding how the epikarst and related soil and biological systems function to store and transfer water vertically (up and down) and horizontally (via perched aquifers). Surprisingly, even though the two sites have few similarities with regard to structure, lithology, or climate, there are similarities in terms of how hydrologic responses in the caves are controlled by short-term (seasonal or shorter) environmental parameters. While these specific models are not applicable to all epikarst systems, they do suggest that similar approaches can be used to understand the most important environmental controls on infiltration and recharge in other settings. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring at a range of in-cave sites with different hydrologic properties in order to develop a reasonable conceptual model of flow and storage in the epikarst. Our understanding of how these systems function has been greatly facilitated by three approaches: 1) long-term continuous data spanning multiple seasons or climatic cycles, 2) an interdisciplinary approach, and 3) conceptualization of the epikarst a critical zone rather than as a system dominated by bedrock for and geologic structure.

Schwartz, B.; Gerard, B.; Schreiber, M. E.; Schwinning, S.

2013-12-01

385

Mission to Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These four written and computer activities cover concepts of remote sensing in general and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The first is a written activity asking students to consider what about the earth they would want to study. The second combines a written activity on the Galileo spacecraft with a computer activity. Students will view images of the earth taken from the spacecraft. In the third activity, students receive their first introduction to image processing programs as they view two earth images and are asked to detect differences. They work with several software tools and become comfortable opening files and applying various image processing techniques. In the final section, students work with whole earth optical images and then open up their first radar image, seeing first an image of Los Angeles and then a close-up view of Elysium Park and Dodger Stadium taken at the same time, and derive an understanding of the various advantages and limitations of the remote sensing platforms.

386

MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

387

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

388

Art Therapy and the Brain: An Attempt to Understand the Underlying Processes of Art Expression in Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of new techniques in brain imaging has expanded the understanding of the different functions and structures of the brain involved in information processing. This paper presents the main areas and functions activated in emotional states, the formation of memories, and the processing of motor, visual, and somatosensory information.…

Lusebrink, Vija B.

2004-01-01

389

Earth System science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research has solidified a view of the Earth as a global-scale interactive system with complex chemical, physical, biological and dynamical processes that link the ocean, atmosphere, land (soils, ice, snow) and marine and terrestrial living organisms. These processes both within and between the major parts of the system help determine global and regional climate and control the biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles essential to life. The study of the Earth System requires measurements ranging from the scales of the smallest processes to the global scale. An ambitious satellite observational program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), carried out along with the complementary and ongoing World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) represents a major international effort to understand this System and predict its future changes. The complex and intriguing nature of the Earth System is discussed along with a number of closely coupled processes occurring within it. These are: clouds, precipitation and vegetation; ocean circulation, sea-surface temperature and phytoplankton; coupled oceanic and atmospheric circulation (the Southern Oscillation); biological activity, atmospheric chemistry and climate; and biological emissions and the ozone layer.

Prinn, R. G.

1992-01-01

390

Refining the Understanding of Inhibitory Processes: How Response Prepotency Is Created and Overcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with…

Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.; Gorniak, Sarah L.; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

2012-01-01

391

Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help…

Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

2012-01-01

392

An Information Processing Analysis of the Function of Conceptual Understanding in the Learning of Arithmetic Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn arithmetic procedures by rote, rather than by constructing them with an understanding of numbers. Rote learning produces lack of flexibility, nonsensical errors, and other difficulties. Proposed is a theory of conceptual understanding and its role in learning and executing arithmetic procedures. The basic hypothesis is that…

Ohlsson, Stellan; Rees, Ernest

393

Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for the in-line monitoring and understanding of a powder blending process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to propose a strategy to implement a PAT system in the blending step of pharmaceutical production processes. It was examined whether Raman spectroscopy can be used as PAT tool for the in-line and real-time endpoint monitoring and understanding of a powder blending process.A screening design was used to identify and understand the significant effects

T. R. M. De Beer; C. Bodson; B. Dejaegher; B. Walczak; P. Vercruysse; A. Burggraeve; A. Lemos; L. Delattre; Y. Vander Heyden; J. P. Remon; C. Vervaet; W. R. G. Baeyens

2008-01-01

394

EarthScope Website Revised  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EarthScope is an ambitious, multidisciplinary program funded by the National Science Foundation to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and understand processes controlling earthquakes and volcanoes. The EarthScope program web site (http://www.earthscope.org) gives an initial introduction to the purpose, scope, and benefits of one of the largest NSF-funded programs ever undertaken. It also acts as the central point of information dissemination for the scientific community and a resource repository for education and outreach purposes. Over the past year, the EarthScope program Web site has been redesigned to simplify access to information while developing a larger focus on the scientific perspective derived from this uniquely inter-disciplinary program. A new categorical orientation of the EarthScope program observatories, instruments, and data availability provides new visitors a more cohesive understanding of the component facility role and a clear introduction to the organizations responsible for each facility. Though the EarthScope program web site primarily provides introductory level information and announcements, new and intuitive features are being implemented routinely. A Beta release of the new EarthScope Google Map allows a broader audience to view and access instrument station information in a way that is familiar and informative. Centralized links to visualizations and other multi-media products that showcase scientific interpretations derived from EarthScope instrument data provides a greater comprehension of the scope and benefits of this program.

Blackman, B.; Lee, E.; Jackson, M.

2007-12-01

395

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

2007-04-19

396

The modes of occurrence of rare-earths ores and the issues on their beneficiation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rare-earths (RE) ores can largely be divided into the following four types in terms of the modes of occurrence. In each type of RE ores, there are some issues on beneficiation processes, which should be resolved for their successful exploitation. 1. Fine-grained phosphates with iron oxides: This type ores are commonly found from weathered carbonatite and IOCG deposits. The former is Araxa (Brazil), Zandkopsdrift (South Africa), Mt. Weld (Australia) and Yen Phu (Vietnam), and the latter Bayan Obo (China), Vergenoeg (South Africa) and Olympic Dam (Australia). Main RE minerals are monazite, xenotime and florencite contained in the aggregates of iron oxides such as goethite, hematite and magnetite. Fluorite often occurs in the latter type ores. The phosphates and iron oxides occur commonly as very fine grains (< 10 micron meters), and thus they are not readily separated by conventional physical processing. 2. Fluorapatite veins: This type ores are found from the deposits related to alkaline igneous rocks. Nolans Bore (Australia), Palabora (South Africa) and Mushugai Khudag (Mongolia) are the examples. RE is contained mostly in fluorapatite and associated monazite. It is expected that RE can be produced as byproducts of phosphorus fertilizer. However, dissolution of fluorapatite by sulfuric acid causes the coprecipitation of RE with gypsum, which is a refractory material. 3. Silicates and niobium oxides: This type ores are found from hydrothermally altered alkaline plutonic rocks or pegmatitic veins related to alkaline magmatism. Nechalacho and Strange Lake (Canada), Kvanefjeld (Greenland), Bokan Mountain (US), Norra Karr (Sweden) and Dubbo (Australia) are the representative deposits. Main RE minerals are zircon, eudialyte, mosandrite, fergusonite and allanite. They are relatively enriched in heavy RE, and it is expected that part of RE can be produced as byproducts of zirconium. However, their acid dissolution often causes the coprecipitation of RE with silica gel, which is also a refractory material. 4. Medium- to coarse-grained carbonates: This type ores occur in less weathered carbonatite bodies. Mountain Pass (US), Maoniuping (China) and Dong Pao (Vietnam) are the representative deposits. Bastnasite is a main RE mineral. Though, the ores can readily be beneficiated by conventional flotation and dissolved by acid solution, they are always depleted in heavy RE.

Takagi, T.

2012-04-01

397

Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

398

Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications  

SciTech Connect

Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

Peter Kelly Sokolowski

2007-12-01

399

MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

Clifford, Stephen M. (editor); Haberle, Robert M. (editor)

1988-01-01

400

Earth Movers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.