Science.gov

Sample records for understanding earth processes

  1. Understanding the knowledge acquisition process about Earth and Space concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappart, Soren

    There exist two main theoretical views concerning the knowledge acquisition process in science. Those views are still in debate in the literature. On the one hand, knowledge is considered to be organized into coherent wholes (mental models). On the other hand knowledge is described as fragmented sets with no link between the fragments. Mental models have a predictive and explicative power and are constrained by universal presuppositions. They follow a universal gradual development in three steps from initial, synthetic to scientific models. On the contrary, the fragments are not organised and development is seen as a situated process where cultural transmission plays a fundamental role. After a presentation of those two theoretical positions, we will illustrate them with examples of studies related to the Earth Shape and gravity performed in different cultural contexts in order to enhance both the differences and the invariant cultural elements. We will show how those problematic are important to take into account and to question for space concepts, like gravity, orbits, weightlessness for instance. Indeed capturing the processes of acquisition and development of knowledge concerning specific space concepts can give us important information to develop relevant and adapted strategies for instruction. If the process of knowledge acquisition for Space concepts is fragmented then we have to think of how we could identify those fragments and help the learner organise links between them. If the knowledge is organised into coherent mental models, we have to think of how to destabilize a non relevant model and to prevent from the development of initial and synthetic models. Moreover the question of what is universal versus what is culture dependant in this acquisition process need to be explored. We will also present some main misconceptions that appeared about Space concepts. Indeed, additionally to the previous theoretical consideration, the collection and awareness of the main misconceptions is also a relevant tool to develop or adapt teaching strategies. Indeed it can help the leaner to refute those misconceptions in a constructivist way.

  2. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of teacher confidence when teaching global change content will continue to drive UGC resource development as the site expands in the future.

  3. Lorenz Lecture: Process, Pattern, Prediction: Understanding Complexity in Driven Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Edward N Lorenz discovered that chaos and unpredictability are hallmarks of even simple driven systems. Yet forecasting the onset and severity of extreme events in driven earth systems, such as hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes, flooding, and weather/climate events remains a pressing global need. The economic damages from the most severe of these events amount to annualized economic costs of many billions of dollars, and are also associated with great suffering associated with the loss of many thousands of human lives each year. In addition to the problems identified by Lorenz, predicting the future evolution of a variety of driven nonlinear earth systems is further complicated by the fact that their dynamical processes are 1) often not amenable to direct observation; and 2) are strongly multi-scale, so that length and time scales range from very much smaller and shorter than human perception, to very much larger and longer. An example of such an earth system is the atmosphere, in which, from a practical standpoint, it is impossible to measure the temperatures, pressures, and humidity at all locations at all times. Here turbulent processes span length scales from sub-meter length scales to thousands of km, and time scales extend from fractions of seconds to many thousands of years. Another example is earthquake fault systems, in which lengths associated with earthquakes range from centimeters to many hundreds of km. Similarly, time scales extend from the seconds associated with the slip process, to the thousands of years between recurring events on the same fault. In systems such as these, we can only observe the space-time patterns of extreme events, the large storms, climate events, earthquakes, and floods that are the inevitable consequences of the underlying dynamics. Using these space-time patterns, and whatever is known about the dynamics of these high-dimensional nonlinear earth systems, it often possible to construct numerical simulations that can be used to make predictions about the future space-time evolution of the system and the possible occurrence of extreme events. The accuracy of these predictions and forecasts is limited by the proximity and similarity of the model trajectory through state space, to that of the actual system. This problem can be approached through data assimilation techniques. In addition, the existence of flexible new Grid computing techniques made possible by the World Wide Web has opened new avenues for the realization of sophisticated, state-of-the-art numerical simulations. Thus our ability to forecast the extreme events of the future is limited by a range of issues originating from the dynamical process of interest, the space-time patterns we can observe, and the accuracy of the predictions that are desired.

  4. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely

  5. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  6. Understanding Venus to understand the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

  7. Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more straightforward through common interfaces and standardization of time-stepping, model domains and model parameters. At the same time major steps forward require an interdisciplinary approach, wherein the source to sink system contains ecological feedbacks and human actors.

  8. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and

  9. Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

  10. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  11. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft, platform, and operations technologies are required to enable consistent long-term collection of data through increased system reliability and operations effectiveness. Development of automation technologies for ground-based planning and operations systems would enable more flexible spacecraft and inter-spacecraft operations. This paper summarizes the effort to identify these technology requirements.

  12. Understanding Ionospheric Connections to Sun and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Rowland, Doug; England, Scott; Talaat, Elsayed; Jones, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Earth's ionosphere is the dense plasma environment that dominates the boundary between our atmosphere and space. In contrast with long-standing understanding of the ionosphere as a phenomenon influenced by changes in solar radiation and solar wind, observations over the past decade have shown us that its large day-to-day variability likely originates with forcing from the lower atmosphere. This realization came with a combination of key observations utilizing pioneering measurement techniques, the emergence of sophisticated whole-atmosphere modeling approaches, and the development and application of innovative analysis techniques. The large and unexpected signatures in the ionosphere drove real ingenuity in the development of modeling and analysis techniques, in part for the lack of needed measurements of key aspects of Earth's space environment. Still, the causal links are incomplete and a significant effort is now being mounted to make these necessary measurements and build a more complete view of the coupled space-atmosphere system. Here we will review these efforts, including the upcoming NASA missions ICON and GOLD, and discuss recent results that offer further promise for future ground-breaking observations and discovery.

  13. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  14. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  15. Standardization: Understanding the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, William

    1992-01-01

    Describes the key features that distinguish standards development organizations (SDOs) and analyzes these features in light of recent work in political economy. It is concluded that many of the features that lead to a slower process may be interpreted as an efficient institutional response to problems posed by industry standardization. (24

  16. The Understanding Process: Problem Isomorphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.; Hayes, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A formal theory of human understanding was developed and embodied in a computer program, UNDERSTAND, which simulates the understanding processes. Due to the number of alternative processing choices, some assumptions were made which are analyzed based on their validity. (Author/DEP)

  17. Satellite probes plasma processes in earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, A.B.; Reasoner, D.L. NASA, Washington, DC )

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the DOD/NASA Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) is to deepen understanding of the earth's near-space environment, including the radiation belts and the ionosphere; this will help spacecraft designers protect against radiation-belt particles that affect onboard electronics, solar panel arrays, and crewmembers. Attention is presently given to CRRES's study of ionospheric plasma processes through releases of Ba, Ca, Sr, and Li at altitudes of 400-36,000 km. 4 refs.

  18. Online Student Learning and Earth System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, R. M.

    2002-12-01

    Many students have difficulty understanding dynamical processes related to Earth's climate system. This is particularly true in Earth System Science courses designed for non-majors. It is often tempting to gloss over these conceptually difficult topics and have students spend more study time learning factual information or ideas that require rather simple linear thought processes. Even when the professor is ambitious and tackles the more difficult ideas of system dynamics in such courses, they are typically greeted with frustration and limited success. However, an understanding of generic system concepts and processes is quite arguably an essential component of any quality liberal arts education. We present online student-centered learning modules that are designed to help students explore different aspects of Earth's climate system (see http://www.cs.clark.edu/mac/physlets/GlobalPollution/maintrace.htm for a sample activity). The JAVA based learning activities are designed to: be assessable to anyone with Web access; be self-paced, engaging, and hands-on; and make use of past results from science education research. Professors can use module activities to supplement lecture, as controlled-learning-lab activities, or as stand-alone homework assignments. Acknowledgement This work was supported by NASA Office of Space Science contract NASW-98037, Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. of Lexington, MA., and Clark College.

  19. Activites to Support and Assess Student Understanding of Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Regev, J.

    2004-12-01

    In order to use data effectively, learners must construct a mental model that allows them to understand and express spatial relationships in data, relationships between different data types, and relationships between the data and a theoretical model. Another important skill is the ability to identify gross patterns and distinguish them from details that may require increasingly sophisticated models. Students must also be able to express their understanding, both to help them frame their understanding for themselves, and for assessment purposes. Research in learning unequivocally shows that writing about a subject increases understanding of that subject. In UCSB's general education oceanography class, a series of increasingly demanding activities culminates in two science papers that use earth data. These activities are: 1) homework problems, 2) in-class short writing activities, 3) lab section exploration activities and presentations, and 4) the science paper. The subjects of the two papers are: Plate Tectonics and Ocean and Climate. Each student is a member of a group that adopts a country and must relate their paper to the environment of their country. Data are accessed using the "Our Dynamic Planet" and "Global Ocean Data Viewer" (GLODV) CD's. These are integrated into EarthEd Online, a software package which supports online writing, review, commenting, and return to the student. It also supports auto-graded homework assignments, grade calculation, and other class management functions. The writing assignments emphasize the construction of a scientific argument. This process is explained explicitly, requiring statements that: 1) include an observation or description of an observation (e.g. elevation profiles, quakes), 2) name features based on the observation (e.g. trench, ridge), 3) describe of features (e.g. trends NW, xxxkm long), 4) describe relationships between features (e.g. quakes are parallel to trench), 5) describe a model or theory (e.g. cartoon type representation of a subduction zone), and 6) describe the relationship between the model/theory and the data. Students generate and select data representations with the appropriate data display software, which seamlessly uploads each generated image to the student's personal storage area (on the class server). There they are available to be linked to the writing text. The assignment is "handed in" online, where it is commented, graded according to a rubric, and returned. Students rate the writing assignment as one of the most effective activities that contributes to their learning in the course.

  20. Progress in Understanding Fluvial Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestegaard, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses two of the major research trends that are broadening the understanding of fluvial processes and changing the approach to investigations of stream behavior. These trends include research on rivers that do not flow in alluvial channels and detailed field studies on the mechanics of fluvial processes. (JN)

  1. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  2. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While

  3. Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2002-08-01

    This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

  4. AGU and Earth Science Women's Network sign memorandum of understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2012-06-01

    In furtherance of our strategic goal to be a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science, AGU signed a memorandum of understanding with the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) in spring 2012. Under the agreement, AGU will provide ESWN with an online platform through which to better connect its members. The agreement will allow AGU to further its strategic goal and help ESWN enhance cooperation and collaboration among women in Earth and space science. ESWN is a community of scientists dedicated to supporting collaborations and providing mentorship for its members, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. The new online platform should help ESWN to connect with more individuals and create a stronger network of dedicated women pursuing research in Earth and space science.

  5. Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

  6. Discovering and measuring a layered Earth: A foundational laboratory for developing students' understanding of Earth's interior structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Braile, L. W.; Olds, S. E.; Taber, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysics research is continuously revealing new insights about Earth’s interior structure. Before students can grasp theses new complexities, they first must internalize the 1st order layered structure of Earth and comprehend how seismology contributes to the development of such models. Earth structure is of course covered in most introductory geoscience courses, though all too often instruction of this content is limited to didactic methods that make little effort to inspire or engage the minds of students. In the process, students are expected to blindly accept our understanding of the unseen and abstract. Thus, it is not surprising then that many students can draw a layered Earth diagram, yet not know that knowledge of Earth’s interior is based on information from earthquakes. Cognitive learning theory would suggest that what has been missing from instruction of Earth structure is a feasible method to present students with seismic evidence in a manner that allows students to become minds-on with the content; discovering or dispelling the presence of a layered Earth for themselves. Recent advances in serving seismic data to a non-seismologist audience have made the development of such laboratory investigations possible. In this exercise students use an inquiry approach to examine seismic evidence and determine that the Earth cannot have a homogeneous composition. Further they use the data to estimate the dimensions of Earth’s outer core. To reach these conclusions, students are divided into two teams, theoreticians and seismologists, to test the simplest hypothesis for Earth's internal structure; a homogeneous Earth. The theoreticians create a scale model of a homogeneous Earth and predict when seismic waves should arrive at various points on the model. Simultaneously, seismologists interpret a seismic record section from a recent earthquake noting when seismic waves arrive at various points around Earth. The two groups of students then compare the modeled arrivals to the observed data, and when plotted, a notable discrepancy is found. To help interpret the implications of this anomaly the students transfer the data to a second scale model. By extrapolating their data for additional earthquakes students are able to define and measure a boundary for Earth’s outer core. After completing this exercise, not only do students have an understanding of how we know about the structure of Earth, students are more prepared to understand the basics of seismic tomography and the interpretation and limitations of tomographic models.

  7. Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, Edward C.; Coulson, Doug

    2010-01-05

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

  8. Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation has precluded determination of sufficient theoretical development. Understanding the land-surface response and feedback to climate change requires a mechanistic understanding of the coupling of ecological and hydrological processes and an expansion of theory from the life sciences to appropriately contribute to the broader Earth system science goal.

  9. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  10. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  11. Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2007-05-01

    Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the changes in geosphere. The historical records talk of changes of the water level in wells, of strange weather, of ground-hugging fog, of unusual behaviour of animals (due to change in magnetic field of the earth) that seem to feel the approach of a major earthquake. With the advent of modern science and technology the understanding of these pre-earthquake signals has become stronger enough to develop a methodology of earthquake prediction. A correlation of earth directed coronal mass ejection (CME) from the active sunspots has been possible to develop as a precursor of the earthquake. Occasional local magnetic field and planetary indices (Kp values) changes in the lower atmosphere that is accompanied by the formation of haze and a reduction of moisture in the air. Large patches, often tens to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size, seen in night-time infrared satellite images where the land surface temperature seems to fluctuate rapidly. Perturbations in the ionosphere at 90 - 120 km altitude have been observed before the occurrence of earthquakes. These changes affect the transmission of radio waves and a radio black out has been observed due to CME. Another heliophysical parameter Electron flux (Eflux) has been monitored before the occurrence of the earthquakes. More than hundreds of case studies show that before the occurrence of the earthquakes the atmospheric temperature increases and suddenly drops before the occurrence of the earthquakes. These changes are being monitored by using Sun Observatory Heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Whatever the manifestations in the environment of the atmosphere or geosphere may be, there is a positive correlation of CMEs with change in magnetic field followed by aurora borealis or sudden spark of light from the sky before an earthquake. Any change in geomorphology in the pixel level, changes in groundwater level, geochemical anomalies of soils surrounding active faults and vegetation anomalies should be monitored in the mirror image position of sunspots on the earth facing side in reference to CME from the sun.

  12. Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

    2003-01-01

    NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

  13. Verbal Understanding and Pavlovian Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonneau, Franois

    2004-01-01

    The behavioral processes through which people react appropriately to verbal descriptions remain poorly understood. I argue here that these processes are Pavlovian. Common objections to a Pavlovian account of symbolic behavior evidence a lack of familiarity with the relevant data or misunderstandings of operant theory. Although much remains to be

  14. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  15. Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon upconversion in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guokui

    2015-03-21

    Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results. PMID:25286989

  16. Career management: understanding the process.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-02-01

    This article is the first of a three-part series on career management for hospital pharmacists. Work attitudes, life cycles, needs, and career trends are discussed. Three basic work attitudes exist. Some see work as punishment. Others believe work in itself is good, i.e., they have a strong work ethic. Some view work as a means to satisfy, at least partially, a range of needs. Attitudinal transition points are likely to occur at specific times in the adult life cycle. The stages of the life cycle can be labeled as leaving, reaching out, questioning, midlife crisis, settling down, and mellowing. A progression through each of these stages is required for normal adult psychological development. Every individual exhibits a blend of needs that changes throughout life. Jobs can fulfill existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Relatedness needs include the need for love, affiliation, social esteem, and power, and growth needs include the need for self-esteem, competence, achievement, and autonomy. Three important career trends are the changing opportunities for advancement, women in careers, and dual-career couples. The number of women pharmacists is increasing as is the number of two-career couples. Tips for managing two-career relationships are presented. Pharmacists can manage their careers more effectively by understanding their needs, identifying their basic attitude toward work, and being aware of the trends occurring in pharmacy. PMID:3976674

  17. Understanding the emergence of life on Earth and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Gaudio, R.

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the emergence of Life on Earth it has been showed that in suitable environments, components typical of both extraterrestrial (iperstenic chondrites and siderites) [1] and terrestrial minerals and rocks containing iron (magnetite and olivine), in spite of extreme sterilization procedures, may catalyze inorganic and organic reactions leading to self-assembly metallorganic entities having a complex and composite chemical structure able to perform several catalytic activities typical of modern biology [2], [3]. In light of evidence accumulated during several years on viable microorganisms - including bacteria, archaea and fungi - found in mineral-associated environments, such as different kind of sediments and rocks (among which evaporites) as well as deep drillings and space vacuum exposure experiments, the aim of this work is to present and discuss the results of past [4] recent [1], [2], [5], and ongoing (molecular and catalytic) studies supporting the multiple root genesis hypothesis (MuRoGe) already proposed [4] in order to approach the problem of the origin of life. According to this hyphothesis, taking into account energetic, evolutionary, pre-biometabolic and environmental aspects, emergence of life on Earth accomplished through multiple origins, in different times, environments and selective contexts in whichusing terrestrial and extraterrestrial materialcooperative/ competitive, synergistic, interactive processes, life may be appeared or will emerge and survived or will survive to possible "mass extintion" due to cosmic impacts.

  18. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  19. Biological Modulation of Deep Earth Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norm

    2011-01-01

    The Earth became habitable once CO2 could be subducted into the deep mantle. It is likely that the Earth's surface became clement or even frigid within a few million years after it cooled to habitable temperatures (less than 120°C). Early life obtained its energy from chemical disequilibrium produced by internal processes within the Earth and photolysis in the air and water. The global productivity was tiny and life did not leave a useful record. By the time of the first good geological record at 3.8 billion years, life had evolved anoxygenic (sulfide and ferrous iron) photosynthesis on both water and land. By then, the effects of life were so pervasive that it is not straightforward to infer the prebiotic environment; serpentine existed and catalysts including Ni3Fe and Pt-group minerals were present in trace amounts. On land by 3.8 billion years ago, life had bountiful energy to enhance chemical weathering to liberate Fe(II). Microbial crusts covered available landscape. Life modulates crustal tectonics by producing sandstones, shales, and carbonates that form fold mountains. Melted shales became granitic rocks with quartz. The process is a climatic buffer as it replaced (black daisy) fresh basalts with (white daisy) sand deserts and granites. The subducted produces of photosynthesis control the sulfur content and oxidation state of arc lavas. Even the mantle is strongly affected by photosynthesis. Biology determines the mantle abundances of N and C. Kimberlites (in the general sense) return CO2-rich subducted shallow oceanic crust and sediments to the surface. The chemistry of these rocks provides a record of surface conditions. It is likely that the mantle in general and kimberlites in particular sequester information on the earliest Earth that is no longer preserved in the crust.

  20. Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

  1. Insights and Challenges for Using the Early Earth to Understand Potentially Habitable Environments on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, N. D.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the challenges for recognizing and reconstructing habitable environments on early Mars are shared by the early Earth. However, a number of key differences obscure the possibility for direct comparison of the evolutionary history of surface environments on the two planets. In particular, while the "faint young Sun" paradox can potentially be solved on the early Earth via high levels of reduced greenhouse gases such as the methane, the early and probably continuous oxidation (and lack of any methane today on Mars) of the Martian surface precludes a similar solution for early Mars. This necessity for a different atmospheric evolutionary history also complicates the interpretation of Martian sedimentary rocks because fundamentally different weathering reactions and different reaction rates would have occurred on early Mars relative to early Earth. In this context, it is possible to evaluate recent claims for Martian paleosols at Gale Crater using both model- and data-based methods of looking at weathering processes there and on the early Earth. The putative paleosol interpretation contrasts strongly with mission scientists, who found, for example, that major element geochemistry of weathering products at Mars' surface indicate little pedogenesis as compared with similar environments on Earth (McLennan et al. 2014, Science). Mass balance gains and losses of redox-sensitive metals (e.g., Cu and Cr) and other trace elements have been proposed as potential biosignatures for early Earth, do not exhibit similar patterns at Gale Crater. While there are orders of more data for the early Earth, this suggests either that there was little or no biological activity at Gale Crater or that those putative biosignatures were not appropriate for the aqueous environments there because they were derived from non-analogous environments. This disconnect between both paleosols/weathering environments of the early Earth and with predictions of expected weathering trends in comparison to observations from Gale Crater suggest that improvements both to our understanding of Earth analogues for Martian environments and more realistic simulations of the differences in atmospheric evolution for Mars are necessary to advance our understanding of potential or realized habitability on Mars.

  2. The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

  3. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We have found that the candidate submissions that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (3) A defacto standard already widely used; or a (4) Technical Note We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss a potential defacto standard (NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF)) that is currently being reviewed. This past year, the SPG has modified its Standards Process to provide a comprehensive but not redundant review of the submitted RFC. The end result of the process tailoring is that the reviews will be completed faster. At each RFC submission, the SPG will decide which reviews will be performed. These reviews are conducted simultaneously and can include these three types: (1) A Technical review to review the technical specification and associated implementations; (2) An Operational Readiness review to evaluate whether the proposed standard works in a NASA environment with NASA Earth science data with the volume of users; (3) Usefulness review to determine whether the candidate standard is useful or helpful or fits the purpose for the users. Some submissions, particularly the defacto standards or standards already approved by other standards organizations, will not need all three types of reviews. As an internal advisory group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

  4. Fractals in petroleum geology and earth processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, C.C.; La Pointe, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The editors of this book chose a diverse spectrum of papers written by pioneers in the field of fractals and their application to the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The geology of the Earth`s crust is complex, chaotic, and unpredictable. Fractal geometry can quantify the spatial heterogeneity of the different geologic patterns and ultimately help improve the results of both production and exploration. To this goal the book has accomplished such an objective with diverse, well-chosen contributions from a variety of experts in the field. The book starts with a chapter introducing the basics, with a short historical foot-note by Benoit Mandelbrot, who is considered the {open_quotes}father of fractals.{close_quotes} Mandelbrot emphasized that geologic processes not only exhibit fractal properties but also are strongly connected to the economic system. This paved the way for the next three chapters that deal with the size and spatial distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and their importance in economic evaluations. The following four chapters deal with the fractal processes as related to sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic systems. Chapter five is an interesting one that deals with stratigraphic models and how their fractal processes can be tied with the inter-well correlation and reconstruct depositional environments. The next three chapters are concerned with porous and fractured rocks and how they affect the flow of fluids. The last two chapters (chapters 13 and 14) are of particular interest. Chapter 13 deals with the vertical vs. horizontal well-log variability and application to fractal reservoir modeling. Chapter 14 illustrates how fractal geometry brings mathematical order to geological and geophysical disorder. This is evident when dealing with geophysical modeling and inversion.

  5. Historic and paleomagnetic secular variation and the earth's core dynamo process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, S. P.; Olson, P.

    1987-06-01

    This paper attempts to summarize briefly the recent and ongoing efforts of the geomagnetism and paleomagnetism community to understand both the earth's magnetic-field secular variation, and its implications for the core dynamo process.

  6. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in a section

  7. Children's Cosmographies: Understanding the Earth's Shape and Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneider, Cary; Pulos, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Assessed Nussbaum's developmental model (SE 024 045) using a new sample given no special instructions in spherical earth/gravity concepts. Also identified distribution of notions among students (N=159 in grades three to eight), compared distribution of notions at each age level with those in other studies, and explored role of individual

  8. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The

  9. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  10. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  11. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  12. How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

    2010-12-01

    A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification or falsification and conclusions that must be well grounded and argued. The intelligibility of theories is improved by the combination of these two types of understanding. This is also attested by the fact that both theoretical and embodied skills are considered essential for the training of university students at all levels. However, from surprised and confounded reactions of the public to natural disasters it appears that just showing scientific results is not enough to convey the scientific understanding to the public. By using the tools used by earth scientists to develop explanations and achieve understanding, laymen could achieve understanding as well without rigorous theoretical training. We are presently investigating in science musea whether engaging the public in scientific activities based on embodied skills leads to understanding of earth-scientific phenomena by laymen.

  13. Future Earth: Advancing Civic Understanding of the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-08-01

    The Anthropocene, a term first coined in the 1980s by biologist Eugene Stoermer, is a word that encapsulates a powerful ideathat the world is now in the throes of a novel geological epoch, a period of time in which human activity, not natural cycles, dominates many of Earth's chemical, geological, and biological systems. The growing realization of our importance has caused a reanalysis, both scientifically and ethically, of our relationship with the natural world.

  14. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-01

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale land models (as a component of Earth System Models, or ESMs) do not yet reflect the best hydrologic process understanding or utilize the large amount of hydrologic observations for model testing. This paper discusses the opportunities and key challenges to improve hydrologic process representations and benchmarking in ESM land models, suggesting that (1) land model development can benefit from recent advances in hydrology, both through incorporating key processes (e.g., groundwater-surface water interactions) and new approaches to describe multiscale spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; (2) accelerating model advances requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking in order to systematically evaluate competing alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs, and (3) stronger collaboration is needed between the hydrology and ESM modeling communities, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM land model development, and through rigorous evaluation of ESM hydrology performance in research watersheds or Critical Zone Observatories. Such coordinated efforts in advancing hydrology in ESMs have the potential to substantially impact energy, carbon, and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role hydrologic processes play in regulating these cycles.

  15. Climate Variability Recorded in Earth System History: Contributions to our Understanding of a Changing Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2001-12-01

    The study of Earth System History is characterized by substantial innovation and excitement directed toward addressing the critical issue of understanding a changing planet and promoting new insights into the evolution of the Earth and its resources. Much of this innovation reflects the considerable expansion in the availability and quality of observations, particularly from the oceans, and the development and application of numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere-land-ice system. The key challenge within the Earth sciences is to develop a robust understanding of this coupled earth system and then to develop a predictive capability for natural variability and global change. Our capabilities are limited, among other things, by the fact that the instrumented record is too short to provide a strong sense of the character of change and the sensitivity of the Earth system. For this reason, modern observations are inadequate to demonstrate the capability of climate models to simulate conditions very different from the present day. The importance of Earth system history, and the ocean record in particular, stems from unique capabilities to: (1) assess the temporal and spatial characteristics of system variability, (2) define the nature of Earth sensitivity to a large number of forcing factors, including changes in ocean circulation and in greenhouse gases, (3) examine the integrated climatic, chemical and biologic response of the Earth system to a variety of spatial and temporal perturbations, (4) validate the predictions of numerical models for conditions very different from the present day, and (5) assess the rates of change associated with the evolution of the Earth and its components. Earth system history provides a great diversity of examples yielding a remarkable opportunity to develop insights into a broad range of issues and problems associated with the evolution of our planet. Three examples provide a focus for discussion. First, a careful analysis of climate proxies over the last millennia demonstrates the distinctive character of climate changes over the last half of the 20th century. Second, Earth system history provides a series of known forcing factors or perturbations that can be utilized to examine potential changes in climate. For example, known variations in freshwater fluxes in polar latitudes due to modest ice sheet melt provide a remarkable opportunity to examine the sensitivity of the ocean circulation to potential future perturbations. Third, High resolution simulation of European climates during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (approximately 30,000 to 50,000 years ago at the time of transition from Neanderthalers to modern humans) permits careful model-data comparison, and therefore a test of the sensitivity of climate models to external forcing. In the process, it focuses our attention on the importance of the oceanic record. Each of these examples demonstrates the importance of natural variability in deciphering past and future climate change.

  16. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, J. C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  17. The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

  18. Understanding Allyhood as a Developmental Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Rhian

    2010-01-01

    Understanding allyhood as a developmental process will allow educators and program directors to reach a broader number of students with more powerful outcomes in line with student learning and development goals. Designing programs that promote ally development as a component of social justice education will allow programs to tailor ally

  19. Understanding stellar activity and flares to search for Earth-like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sordo, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    The radial velocity method is a powerful way to search for exoplanetary systems and it led to many discoveries of exoplanets in the last 20 years. Nowadays, understanding stellar activity, flares and noise is a key factor for achieving a substantial improvement in such technique.Radial-velocity data are time-series containing the effect of both planets and stellar disturbances: the detection of Earth-like planets requires to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, i.e. it is central to understand the noise present in the data. Noise is caused by physical processes which operate on different time-scales, oftentimes acting in a non-periodic fashion. We present here an approach to such problem: to look for multifractal structures in the time-series coming from radial velocity measurements, identifying the underlying long-range correlations and fractal scaling properties, connecting them to the underlying physical processes (stellar oscillations, stellar wind, granulation, rotation, magnetic activity). This method has been previously applied to satellite data related to Arctic sea albedo, relevant for identify trends and noise in the Arctic sea ice (Agarwal, Moon, Wettlaufer, 2012). Here we suggest to use such analysis for exoplanetary data related to possible Earth-like planets.

  20. Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudr, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.

    2014-02-01

    A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in global circulation models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision-making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth system models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for upscaling from the local to global scale. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of teleconnections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global-scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.

  1. Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozsoy, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

  2. Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    zsoy, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings

  3. Understanding the Distribution of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Jedicke, R.; Morbidelli, A.; Gladman, B.; Petit, J.-M.

    1999-09-01

    No accurate estimate of the orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) currently exists, largely because: (i) the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects which favor the discovery of bright or large objects that come close to Earth; (ii) relatively few NEOs have been discovered, making debiasing efforts difficult; (iii) NEO orbits are chaotic on short timescales (< 1000 years); and (iv) the source regions and replenishment mechanisms for the NEOs are not well understood. For these reasons, observers are still struggling to increase NEO detection rates, while the interpretation of existing data continues to be problematic. We propose a new method to attack this problem, one which takes advantage of theoretical advances and new numerical tools. To treat observational biases, we have applied a model-independent, semi-analytical method for calculating the probability that an asteroid observation program will find a given asteroid in a (a, e, i, and H; semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and absolute magnitude, respectively) bin per square degree at opposition at the Vernal Equinox (Jedicke and Metcalfe 1998). To discover how NEOs are replenished, we have used symplectic numerical integration techniques which can track the orbital paths of test bodies started in several potential NEO source regions (e.g., 3:1 resonance, v_6 resonance, multiple weak mean-motion resonances). By merging the observational biases with these NEO dynamical ``roadmaps" (and an NEO absolute magnitude distribution), we get a probability distribution which, if the sources have been weighted correctly, can be directly compared to the known NEOs. By testing a range of possible source combinations, we have produced a ``best-fit'' distribution which not only yields the normalized and debiased NEO orbital and absolute magnitude distribution (over various NEO sizes) but also the relative importance of each NEO replenishment source. These results have several important applications for NEO observers and for studies of the impact rates of asteroids onto the terrestrial planets. These issues are discussed in an abstract by Morbidelli et al. (this issue).

  4. Timing And Processes Of Earth's Core Differentiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegre, C. J.; Manhes, G.; Gopel, C.

    2004-12-01

    Small 182W abundance excess of terrestrial W relative to W in bulk chondrites has been recently established (Yin et al. 2002, Kleine et al. 2002, Schoenberg et al. 2002). Rapid terrestrial accretion and early core formation, with completion of the bulk metal-silicate separation within less than 30 Myr have been proposed on this basis. These studies underline how much this 182W/182Hf time scale agrees with dynamic accretion models (Wetherill, 1986) that predict a 10 Myr interval for the main growth stage of Earth's formation. This W model time scale for terrestrial accretion is shorter than current estimates based on Pb isotope systematics of mantle-derived basalts and terrestrial Xe isotope systematics. The end of metal-silicate differentiation and large scale mantle degassing has been defined 100 My after beginning of the accretion. These studies also indicate agreement of this time scale with dynamic accretion models that predict 100 My for the end of Earth's accretion. The Hf-W time scale for accretion and core formation assumes total equilibration of incoming metal and silicate of impactors with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) during planet's growth. Recently, the assumption of incomplete equilibration of metal and silicate components with BSE has been investigated (Halliday, 2004). It is proposed that impacting core material has not always efficiently mixed with the silicate portions of the Earth before being added to the Earth's core Our approach also considers that equilibration between metal and silicate has not been complete in BSE during Earth's growth, and we argue that early part of the Earth's core has segregated through unmelted silicate material. When the baby Earth was large enough, the increase of the temperature induced Fe-FeS eutectic melting. The liquid metal segregated through the crystalline silicate matrix and formed the early part of the Earth's core. Experimental study (Yoshino et al. 2003) indicates the percolation threshold for molten iron-sulphur compounds of 5 vol% solid olivine, through channel on triple junction between minerals. This study allows us to reconsider the precedent proposition (Stevenson, 1990) based on experimental and theoretical considerations suggesting that percolation of metallic iron rich liquid through a mostly solid silicate matrix is largely prevented because of the high surface tension of iron. During formation and segregation of the Fe-FeS eutectic, W isotopic equilibration is limited by the diffusion through the solid silicate matrix. During the further Earth's growth, impact melting increased and has induced a progressive melting of BSE up to the formation of magma ocean at the end of the planet's accretion. Before the occurrence of the magma ocean, W equilibration between impactors and BSE has not been complete This incomplete isotopic exchange between terrestrial metal and metal originating from impactors with solid part of BSE during early accretion of the Earth leads to the observed excess of 182W of present BSE. It occurs when the 182W production in BSE is most significant, due to the short half-life of 182Hf. The change of segregation mechanisms of Earth's core during planet's growth and short-sightedness of Hf-W chronometer focused to the early segregation of Earth's core make the divergence with the U-Pb and I-Xe terrestrial records. Yin et al. 2002, Nature 418, 949-952. Kleine et al. 2002, Nature 418, 952-955. Schoenberg et al. 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3151-3160. Wetherill 1986, in Origin of the Moon, eds Hartmann et al., LPI, 519-550. Yoshino et al. 2003, Nature 422, 154-157. Stevenson 1990, in Origin of the Earth, eds Newson et al., LPI, 231-249.

  5. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  7. Understanding processes and how to improve them.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Gillam, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles about the science of quality improvement. Many quality improvement initiatives are aimed at improving the process of care and ensuring that high-quality care is delivered reliably. In this article, we explain why it is important to understand healthcare processes in order to improve them and how this can be achieved. We explain the use of logic models to determine what information to collect (from surveys, interviews, direct observations and other sources) and how to analyse this information (using techniques such as process maps, critical-to-quality trees, driver diagrams and cause-and-effect diagrams) to design more reliable and higher quality healthcare processes. PMID:23968268

  8. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

  9. Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katerina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Matthew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Microbes influence soil organic matter decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) will make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models, we suggest the following: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  10. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water, rill erosion and the transport of fine and coarse sediments. Herein, rainfall simulations are one of our principal methods, as they can be used easily to study splash processes and to get data about soil erodibility. But therefore, measurements need to be comparable and the methodology very well established and documented. The incorporation of wind into rainfall events, as they usually appear in nature, is a challenge in field experimentation, which has been tackled in cooperation with colleagues from Basel (Switzerland). So, we are one of the few groups in the world able to use a low cost, but efficient rainfall-wind simulator in the field. In addition, to cover erosion processes by concentrated flow, a methodology has been developed for field measurement of erosion processes. In this context, we are focusing now also on the development of sensors to understand the movement of coarse particles (as pebbles) in concentrated flow and to investigate their influence on soil erosion. With this contribution, I would like to promote the use of experiments for soil erosion research, and to provide information and expertise on the design and application of lab and field experiments on all partial processes of soil erosion.

  11. The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules will be developed for middle school classrooms to enrich earth science curricula by taking students into the field, and by providing opportunities to interact with scientists using real EarthScope data and research results. Curriculum modules will take advantage of Denali's new "Nature Area Network", an IEEE 802.11b wireless network serving the backcountry areas of the Park where students can engage in hands on learning about geology and geophysics and share their experiences with students worldwide via the Internet. Curricula will also focus on the new field of digital story telling, in which students will develop their own understanding of solid earth processes by creating digital stories using readily available digital moviemaking technology. A training course will be developed to enhance K-12 educators' ability to teach earth science utilizing real data and research results. And a series of public lectures both at Denali and in communities across Alaska will engage Geophysical Institute researchers with the public and foster wider participation in the EarthScope Experiment. The anticipated benefits of this project are many. An increase in public awareness and understanding of solid earth processes will lead to better preparedness, and improved decision making regarding the mitigation of risk from seismic and volcanic hazards. Earth science education will be made more vital and engaging for both students and teachers. And Alaska's visitors and residents will gain a better understand and greater appreciation for the dynamic tectonic processes that have created the rugged landscape of the state and its national parklands.

  12. Understanding molecular scale effects during photoresist processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Gerard Michael

    2003-06-01

    The dimensional tolerances of photoresist features are now at the nanometer scale, where effects of individual molecules are important. In recognition of the industrial need for a molecular-scale understanding of photoresist performance, mechanistic models have been developed for each of the several photolithography processes that are used with positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists: film creation, exposure, post exposure bake, and development. These models are based on experimental studies that have clarified details of photoresist function including the photochemical quantum efficiency of photoresist exposure, the reaction-diffusion properties of exposure photoproducts, and the complex dissolution behavior of phenolic homopolymers and copolymers in aqueous base. A dynamic Monte Carlo simulation has been developed to test the experimentally derived models and further examine the underlying physical processes relevant to photoresist patterning. This mesoscale simulation consists of distinct modules for each processing step, each of which captures the appropriate chemical and physical phenomena at the molecular scale. The several simulation modules have yielded results that are qualitatively correct for every major resist processing step. The inputs to the simulation are fundamental and measurable material and processing parameters and empirical calibrations are not required. The chemical detail included in the models enables investigation of the wide formulation variable space. Furthermore, the mesoscale nature of the simulation offers the unique ability to study the stochastic processes that contribute to resist feature roughness. This simulation thus provides a useful predictive tool to guide the rational design of new photoresist materials and the optimization of photolithography processes.

  13. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  14. Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

  15. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  16. Understanding Interior Dynamics in Earth and Terrestrial Planets: The Essential role of Analytical and Computational Mathematics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The widespread acceptance that slow convection of the solid, rocky mantle drives continental drift caused a revolution in our understanding of solid Earth and planetary dynamics. Mathematical approaches, both analytical and computational, have been essential for research progress in this area, and have facilititated the understanding of many aspects of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Even so, some fundamental questions - particularly "why does Earth have plate tectonics?" - still remain. This understanding gap is troubling, particularly given the current interest in applying our knowledge of solar system planets such as Earth, Venus and Mars to newly-discovered terrestrial planets around other stars, including so-called super-Earths. A major reason for this understanding gap is the complexity of rock rheology: viscous, elastic, brittle, plastic, nonlinear, grainsize- history- and composition-dependent - which makes the appropriate mathematical description uncertain, as well as implying the impossibility of a full numerical solution of the resulting multi-timescale (seconds to billions of years), multi-lengthscale (mm to 1000s km) processes. This presentation reviews the historical development of the field, the current state of the art, and possible ways forward.

  17. Microbe-mineral interactions: understanding biomarker formation in modern Earth systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveille, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    The discovery of a microbial cell beyond Earth is often viewed as the proverbial "smoking gun" required for demonstrating beyond a doubt the existence of extraterrestrial life. However, studies of modern Earth systems have shown that the preservation of bacterial cells is a rare phenomenon that requires very specific physicochemical conditions. Similarly, many presumed remains of microbial cells observed in the rock record are now thought to be abiogenic mineral structures. More commonly, the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment lead to the formation of physical, chemical and isotopic biomarkers that are more readily preserved in the rock record. This is especially true for microbe-mineral interactions whereby minerals with characteristic textures, crystal structure, chemistry or isotopic composition are produced, often in combination with specific biochemical signatures. Such mineral biomarkers not only provide information about the organisms that created them, but also help to elucidate the environmental conditions under which they were created and the biogeochemical processes involved in their formation and preservation. The discovery of a suite of robust biomarkers on Mars would therefore not only provide proof of the existence of extraterrestrial life, but would also help in understanding the geological and chemical context of past life on Mars. Hence, studies of modern systems on Earth are essential for elucidating how these biomarkers are formed and ultimately preserved in the rock record. This information can in turn be applied directly to the development of planetary exploration strategies and science instrument payloads. Here, a number of recent examples of microbe-mineral interactions in modern systems, from terrestrial and subsurface basalts to deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, are reviewed and the key mineralogical, molecular, isotopic and elemental signatures formed in these systems are summarized.

  18. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly better performance than the local machine. Much of the difference was due to newer equipment in the Nebula than the legacy computer, which is suggestive of a potential economic advantage beyond elastic power, i.e., access to up-to-date hardware vs. legacy hardware that must be maintained past its prime to amortize the cost. In addition to a trade study of advantages and challenges of porting complex processing to the cloud, a tutorial was developed to enable further progress in utilizing the Nebula for Earth Science applications and understanding better the potential for Cloud Computing in further data- and computing-intensive Earth Science research. In particular, highly bursty computing such as that experienced in the user-demand-driven Giovanni system may become more tractable in a Cloud environment. Our future work will continue to focus on migrating more GES DISC's applications/instances, e.g. Giovanni instances, to the Nebula platform and making matured migrated applications to be in operation on the Nebula.

  19. Collective Mathematical Understanding as an Improvisational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of mathematical understanding, and offers a response to the question raised by Martin (2001) at PME-NA about the possibility for and nature of collective mathematical understanding. In referring to collective mathematical understanding we point to the kinds of learning and understanding we may see occurring when…

  20. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variablesAnswer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.

  1. THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, Rebecca E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu

    2012-06-20

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  2. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  3. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  4. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  5. Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,

  6. Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

  7. Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

  8. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  9. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,

  10. Understanding Rock Breakdown on Earth and Mars: Geomorphological Concepts and Facet Mapping Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heslop, E. E. M.; Viles, H. A.; Bourke, M. C.

    2004-03-01

    We review recent conceptual improvements in understanding rock breakdown on Earth that might be usefully applied to boulder morphologies on Mars. We outline a new field technique (facet mapping) and report on a pilot data set from the hyper-arid Atacama Desert.

  11. Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect

  12. Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of

  13. The relation between drawing three-dimensional forms and understanding earth motions diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Jutta Siefert

    Visual-spatial abilities have been associated with the rendering of drawings and the comprehension of three-dimensional fields in science. The possibility of a relation between the ability to comprehend illustrations of earth motions and the ability to draw in three-dimensional perspective led to a study to determine the degree of correlation between them. Also considered were the relations of art and earth science achievements with the Otis-Lennon School Abilities Test, and three subtests from the Differential Aptitude Tests battery: mechanical reasoning, spatial relations and abstract reasoning. The study was conducted with ninth grade students taking art and earth science. Two instruments were created to measure three-dimensional perspective rendering and earth motions understanding--an art rubric and an earth motions test. The art rubric rated the elements of three-dimensionality in student-drawn compositions of solid, geometric forms. The earth motions test consisted of illustrations in two or three-dimensional perspective. Both instruments were tested for reliability and validity. Correlation between the earth motions test scores and the art exercise ratings was +0.47 and statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Modest but significant correlations were found between earth science achievement and the standardized test scores. Art achievement correlated significantly with the standardized test scores, except spatial relations. Stepwise multiple regression analyses found that 26% of the variability in the earth motions test results could be accounted for by art and spatial relations, and when art was removed, mechanical reasoning and scholastic aptitude contributed a total of 24%. Mechanical reasoning and scholastic aptitude also accounted for 19% of the variation in art achievement. The findings indicate that the abilities to imagine relative motion and to visualize from different points of view within a three-dimensional field are important components in the understanding of concepts related to earth motions. Some of the same abilities appear to be utilized in the rendering of perspective drawings. Scholastic aptitude plays a significant, but secondary, role in both earth motions comprehension and perspective drawing. The findings suggest that science teachers should consider students' abilities in spatial and mechanical reasoning when teaching concepts relying on three-dimensional visualization. In addition, teachers are encouraged to include the drawing of three-dimensional fields in science class.

  14. Metadata for numerical models of deep Earth and Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, A.; Peckham, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Model metadata aims to provide an unambiguous and complete description of a numerical model that would allow an end user scientist an immediate snapshot of the pertinent physical laws, assumptions, and numerical approximations. A rigorous metadata format that allows machine parsing of this information also makes it possible for model coupling frameworks to provide automatic and reliable semantic matching of input and output variables when models are coupled. Model metadata hinges in part on a controlled vocabulary that consists of human- and machine-readable terms that are unambiguously defined across modeling domains. The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) Standard Names are a set of generic naming conventions that have been used to generate a self-consistent controlled vocabulary for surface dynamics processes. As part of the NSF's EarthCube "Earth System Bridge" project, we extend the rich controlled vocabulary of CSDMS standard names to solid Earth modeling domains, including geodynamics, seismology, magnetotellurics, and petrology. We proceed to create a standard for Model Coupling Metadata (MCM) that is flexible enough to serve both the surface dynamics modeling community, and the deep Earth process modelers, thus bridging CSDMS and the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) communities with a common semantic network. Here, we focus on our progress towards establishing an MCM standard for numerical models of solid Earth and Earth surface processes, and on the tools that facilitate creation and maintenance of such metadata. In development of the MCM standard, we leverage the Common Information Model (CIM) of the climate modeling community, as well as the NSF-funded EarthCube GeoSoft project.

  15. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  16. The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Venator, S.; Dittmann, T.; Stair, J.; Tiedeman, A.; Gottlieb, M.; Stroeve, A.; Hasting, M.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.

    2006-12-01

    UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. It will increase understanding of crustal movement and strain and provide insights into the causes and mechanisms of geodetic activity associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. PBO equipment includes global positioning systems; seismometers; and borehole strainmeters, which detect compression and extension of the earth's crust with a sensitivity of up to a millimeter per thousand kilometer. The deployment of a PBO strainmeters will lead to greater understanding of crustal and volcanic deformation processes at frequencies not normally recorded by the seismic or geodetic instruments. Deploying a PBO strainmeter is a four-step process: The first step is finding a suitable site for the installations of the borehole strainmeter at depths of between 500 and 800 feet below the surface. The process involves understanding the geology of a target area and once a potential site is identified a field visit is required to determine the presence of suitable access and infrastructure. The final and most difficult part of the first step is obtaining a permit from a landowner, which can take several visits and/or phone calls to work through the paperwork. Drilling the borehole is the second step. A standard water well drilling rig is normally used and the drilling process can take between 7-20 days depending on the geology and weather. The drillers must follow strict requirements for the borehole such as hole diameter, angular deviation from vertical, depth, and type of drill bits used. Variables while drilling include lithology changes, competency of rock, and amount of water being produced. The third step is identifying an optimal zone to install the instruments in the borehole. A zone of hard unfractured borehole, about 10 to 15 feet in length, with minimal water production is required for the placement of the strainmeter. Drilling and geophysical logs and a borehole camera are the primary tools used to identify the installation zone. The minimum geophysical logging tools used are full waveform sonic, acoustic televiewer, calipers, and an various electrical tool. The final step is the installation of the equipment. This takes 7-10 days depending on weather, infrastructure and borehole conditions. During the installation a Gladwin tensor strainmeter, a 3 component borehole geophone seismometer, and pore pressure sensors are installed at a minimum and at some locations GPS monuments are installed. Power and communications equipment are also installed at each site as well as an enclosure to house the equipment. If A/C power is nearby, we run power to the, but we have also used solar and Thermal Electric Generators to power equipment. At volcanic sites, tilt meters will be installed.. Post installation, data are transmitted via satellite to UNAVCO where it is processed and forward on to the NCEDC and IRIS DMC for archiving. The data are made publicly available once a station comes online and the data are in the archive. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO strainmeter network.

  17. Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwelling and downwelling, as has been postulated for Venus [10]? Many of these critical questions related to the Archean also face investigators studying Venus: 1) What is the nature of the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of Venus? (e.g., episodic plate tectonics [11]; vertical crustal accretion and depleted mantle layer overturn [10]; transition from mobile lid to stagnant lid convection [12]). 2) What is the nature of the geological evolution of Venus? (e.g., "nondirectional/ patchwork" [13], or displaying broad evolutionary, or "directional" trends [14]). 3) What is the nature of the volcanic record of Venus? (what is the significance in time and space of the wide range of different volcanic feature and deposit morphologies, ranging from extremely fluid (komatiite-like?) to much more viscous (rhyolite or dacite-like?). 4) What is the nature of the tectonic record of Venus? (e.g., what is the role and geodynamic linkage of the major deformation belts [15]; how do the protocontinent-like deformed crustal plateaus form (e.g., upwelling [16] or downwelling [17] ?). 5) What is the role of hot spots/rises in heat loss, volcanism, and mantle dynamics on Venus? [16]. 6) What is the role of crustal/lithospheric instabilities and diapirism? (e.g., are coronae mantle derived hot spots, or could they represent crustal/lithospheric instabilities and their evolution [18]. The geological and geophysical characteristics and global record of Venus provide a critical resource in which to explore these common questions between Venus and the Earth's Archean. Data from the Venera and Magellan missions have shown that Venus is characterized by atmosphere-induced high upper crustal temperatures and abundant and varied global ductile and brittle deformation [15, 19]. A wide range of tectonic features include tessera, intensely deformed high-standing terrains of thicker crust, linear fracture belts of extensional origin arrayed in narrow interconnected zones thousands of km long, narrow ridge belts of contractional origin arrayed in zones adjacent to and cross-cutting the fracture belts, folded mountain belts arrayed around the margins of tessera plateaus, young rift zones often associated with recent mantle upwelling, and zones of radial fractures and graben interpreted to be due to dike emplacement around a central intrusion. These data have shown that volcanism played a major role in the resurfacing of Venus and the building of its upper crust [20]. Extensive tracts of regional volcanic plains comprise the vast majority of the current surface. A wide range of basaltic volcanic landforms are observed, including small shields apparently representing small-scale broadly distributed melting, vast featureless flood-basalt-like plains filling lows with evidence for very high effusion rates in sinuous rilles hundreds to thousands of kilometers long, and huge lobate flow complexes emerging from rift zones and coronae (diapiric-like upwellings). Despite the current lack of a hydrosphere on Venus and evidence for dry crustal rocks, massive steep-sided domes and huge festoons are observed, suggesting evolved, more felsic compositions, often in areas of protocontinentlike crustal thickening. Broad topographic rises characterized by associated rifting and volcanism are interpreted to represent hot spots and mantle upwelling [21]. Hundreds of coronae dot the surface of Venus [18], and are interpreted to represent mantle upwellings or diapiric structures representing crustal and/or lithospheric instabilities and whose depth of origin is uncertain. Abundant shield volcanoes may be transitional to coronae. In summary, Venus and the Earth's Archean have both similarities and differences. Among the similarities are upper crustal temperatures, the importance of ductile deformation styles, evidence for both vertical and lateral tectonic structures and styles, abundant radial dike swarms, diapirism as an important candidate process, an important role for hot spots, and shared uncertainties about the geological and geodynamic precursors and evolution of the observed record. Differences include the fact that the Archean record is early in planetary history, while the record of Venus is late; the Archean record has been modified by several billion years of subsequent evolution and the recent Venus record is currently preserved and globally visible; the Archean was characterized by the presence of a hydrosphere and wet mantle, influencing petrogenesis, tectonics and erosion, while Venus apparently has a much dryer crust and lithosphere; the Archean shows some evidence for the presence of plate tectonics, but no active plate tectonics is seen on Venus, although it may have been episodic in its past [10, 11]. We have identified five key themes and questions common to both the Archean and Venus, the assessment of which could provide important new insights into the history and processes of both planets: 1) Crustal Thickening Environments and Processes. There is clear evidence of crustal thickening in the Archean record, but there are major uncertainties in terms of its tectonic setting, particularly in light of the apparent lack of evidence for obduction and other features that characterize modern-day plate tectonics. What is the range of environments in which crustal thickening occurs on Venus and what insight does this provide for the Archean record on Earth? 2) The Role of Diapirism. Crustal and lithospheric density inversions are a hallmark of the Archean, as revealed by the deep erosion of Archean terrains and the exposure of domes many tens of km in diameter, cored by gneisses and associated felsic intrusions, and surrounded by extensive deformation belts [22]. What are the similarities and differences between coronae and other diapiric structures on Venus and the basement- cored domes so common in the Earth's Archean record? 3) Nature and Origin of Deformation Belts. Archean linear and arcuate deformation belts are common [23] and are characterized by contractional features (tight, often highly inclined folds), extensional features (rift zones), and shear zones, with various amounts of offset. What is the geologic setting of linear deformation belts on Venus and how do they compare to those in the Archean in terms of structure and geological relationships? Is there evidence for extensive shear in the one-plate planet context of the Venus record [24,25]? 4) Origin and Context of Regional Plains. A hallmark of the Archean is the presence of volumetrically significant effusive volcanism (komatiite lavas and volcanic plains) thought to be derived from upwelling undepleted mantle and to have erupted onto the surface at very high temperatures [26]. Do these plains deposits bear similarities to the regional plains (and their associated sinuous channels) on Venus in terms of their emplacement style and geologic relationships [22]? 5) Geodynamic Evolution: Venus-Archean. What insight does the local, regional and global geology of Venus provide into selecting among the geodynamic processes thought to have operated during the Earth's Archean (e.g, vertical crustal accretion, lateral crustal accretion, depleted mantle layer formation, mantle and crustal overturn, massive diapirism, komatiitic flood basalts, crustal thickening and early continental growth)[5]? Archean-Venus: What insight does the Earth's Archean record provide to the nature and understanding of features, units and sequences on Venus? References: 1) E. Nisbet, The Young Earth, Allen & Unwin, 1987; 2) K. Condie, Archean Crustal Evolution, Elsevier, 1994; 3) S. Solomon & J. Head, Science 252,1991; 4) W. Bleeker, Lithos 71, 99, 2003; 5) K. Condie & K. Benn, AGU Mon. 47, 2006; 6) R. Taylor, Tectonophysics 161, 147, 1989; 7) A. Goodwin, Precambrian Geology, AP, 1991; 8) G. Davies, Geology 20, 963, 1992; 9) W. Collins et al., JSG 20, 1405, 1998; 10) E. Parmentier & P. Hess, GRL 19, 2015, 1992; 11) D. Turcotte, JGR 98, 17061, 1993; 12) R. Herrick, Geology 22, 703, 1994; 13) J. Guest & E. Stofan, Icarus 139, 55, 1999; 14) A. Basilevsky & J. Head, JGR 103, 8531, 1998; 15) S. Solomon et al., JGR 97, 13199, 1992; 16) R. Phillips and V. Hansen, Science 279, 1492, 1998; 17) D. Bindschadler et al, JGR 97, 13495, 1992; 18) E. Stofan et al., JGR 97, 13347, 1992; 19) V. Hansen et al., Venus II, UA, 797, 1997; 20) Head et al., JGR 97, 13153, 1992; 21) S. Smrekar et al., Venus II, UA, 845, 1997; 22) M. Van Kranendonk et al., Precambrian Res. 131, 173, 2004; 23) K. Benn et al., JES 31, 271, 1994; 24) E. Koenig & A. Aydin, Geology 26, 551, 1998; 25) P. Kumar, JGR 110, EO7001, 2005; 26) N. Arndt, Geology 26, 739 1998.

  18. Volcanoes and the environment: Lessons for understanding Earth's past and future from studies of present-day volcanic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanism has affected the environment of our planet over a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (< 1 yr to 100s Myr) scales and will continue to do so. As well as examining the Earth's geological record and using computer modelling to understand these effects, much of our knowledge of these processes comes from studying volcanism on the present-day planet. Understanding the full spectrum of possible routes and mechanisms by which volcanism can affect the environment is key to developing a realistic appreciation of possible past and potential future volcanic impact scenarios. This review paper seeks to give a synoptic overview of these potential mechanisms, focussing on those that we can seek to understand over human timescales by studying current volcanic activity. These effects are wide ranging from well-documented planetary-scale impacts (e.g., cooling by stratospheric aerosol veils) to more subtle or localised processes like ash fertilisation of ocean biota and impacts on cloud properties, atmospheric oxidant levels and terrestrial ecosystems. There is still much to be gained by studying present-day volcanic emissions. This review highlights the need for further work in three example areas. Firstly, to understand regional and arc-scale volcanic emissions, especially cycling of elements through subduction zones, more volatile measurements are needed to contribute to a fundamental and systematic understanding of these processes throughout geological time. Secondly, there is still uncertainty surrounding whether stratospheric ozone depletion following volcanic eruptions results solely from activation of anthropogenic halogen species. We should be poised to study future eruptions into the stratosphere with regard to their impacts and halogen load and work to improve our models and understanding of the relevant underlying processes within the Earth and the atmosphere. Thirdly, we lack a systematic understanding of trace metal volatility from magmas, which is of importance in terms of understanding their geochemical cycling and use as tracers in environmental archives and of igneous processes on Earth and more broadly on silicate planetary bodies. Measurements of volcanic rock suites and metals in volcanic plumes have an important part to play in moving towards this goal.

  19. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  20. Understanding and prediction of electronic-structure-driven physical behaviors in rare-earth compounds.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Durga; Pathak, Arjun K; Pecharsky, V K; Gschneidner, K A

    2013-10-01

    Rare-earth materials, due to their unique magnetic properties, are important for fundamental and technological applications such as advanced magnetic sensors, magnetic data storage, magnetic cooling and permanent magnets. For an understanding of the physical behaviors of these materials, first principles techniques are one of the best theoretical tools to explore the electronic structure and evaluate exchange interactions. However, first principles calculations of the crystal field splitting due to intra-site electron-electron correlations and the crystal environment in the presence of exchange splitting in rare-earth materials are rarely carried out despite the importance of these effects. Here we consider rare-earth dialuminides as model systems and show that the low temperature anomalies observed in these systems are due to the variation of both exchange and crystal field splitting leading to anomalous intra-site correlated-4f and itinerant-5d electronic states near the Fermi level. From calculations supported by experiments we uncover that HoAl2 is unique among rare-earth dialuminides, in that it undergoes a cubic to orthorhombic distortion leading to a spin reorientation. Calculations of a much more extended family of mixed rare-earth dialuminides reveal an additional degree of complexity: the effective quadrupolar moment of the lanthanides changes sign as a function of lanthanide concentration, leading to a change in the sign of the anisotropy constant. At this point the quadrupolar interactions are effectively reduced to zero, giving rise to lattice instability and leading to new phenomena. This study shows a clear picture that accurate evaluation of the exchange, crystal field splitting and shape of the charge densities allows one to understand, predict and control the physical behaviors of rare-earth materials. PMID:23999405

  1. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

  2. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.

  3. Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-07-01

    The dancing glow of the aurorae, the long tendrils of light that seem to reach up into space, has mesmerized scientists for centuries. More than a beautiful display, the aurorae tell us about the Earthabout its atmosphere, its magnetic field, and its relationship with the Sun. As technology developed, researchers looking beyond Earth's borders discovered an array of auroral processes on planets throughout the solar system. In the AGU monograph Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets, editors Andreas Keiling, Eric Donovan, Fran Bagenal, and Tomas Karlsson explore the many open questions that permeate the science of auroral physics and the relatively recent field of extraterrestrial aurorae. In this interview, Eos talks to Karlsson about extraterrestrial aurorae, Alfvn waves, and the sounds of the northern lights.

  4. North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

  5. The surface temperatures of the earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-06-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  6. The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  7. The surface temperatures of Earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information, which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  8. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Thomas S

    2008-11-28

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO3 in the CaIrO3-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones). PMID:18826921

  9. Understanding what the public know and value about geoheritage sites in order to advance Earth science literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vye, E. C.; Rose, W. I.

    2013-12-01

    With its impressive geology and rich cultural history, Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula is ideally suited for Earth science education and geotourism initiatives, such as a Geopark. Geologic events that have shaped this region can be interpreted in such a way as to engage learners, not only through an intellectual connection to Earth science subject matter, but also through an emotional connection via culture, history, and sense of place. The notion that landscape is special because it is the sum total of all the interacting earth systems, including people as part of the biosphere, can be used to drive these initiatives as they affect one personally. It is speculated that most people in the Keweenaw have a basic understanding of the local cultural history and some understanding of geology. Advanced awareness and understanding of the geological significance of the Keweenaw stands to greatly enrich our community's sense of place and desire to advance further education and geotourism initiatives. It is anticipated that these initiatives will ultimately lead to increased Earth science literacy and understanding and recognition of one's own environs. This will aid in the further development of publications, teaching media, trails info, on-site museums, etc. Although the community has embraced geo-outreach thus far, it is germane to know what people value, what they know of the geology and how they connect to place. Results from semi-structured interviews administered with the aim and focus of determining what places are special to people, why they are special and how they formed will be presented in this paper. The results from this research will be used to direct the creation and continued development of geologic interpretation of our region. It is hoped that this understanding will reveal common misconceptions that can be used to improve interpretive material that not only addresses misconceptions but also connects the immediate past with the deep geologic past of the Keweenaw. Perhaps the most important outcome hoped for this study is that we as Earth scientists will be afforded an opportunity to uphold our responsibility of communicating the fascinating things we have come to learn about our planet's dynamic processes in a dialect that resonates with everyone.

  10. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  11. Sedimentary Processes on Earth, Mars, Titan, and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, J. P.; Hayes, A. G.; Lamb, M. P.; McLennan, S. M.

    The production, transport and deposition of sediment occur to varying degrees on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Titan. These sedimentary processes are significantly influenced by climate that affects production of sediment in source regions (weathering), and the mode by which that sediment is transported (wind vs. water). Other, more geological, factors determine where sediments are deposited (topography and tectonics). Fluvial and marine processes dominate Earth both today and in its geologic past, aeolian processes dominate modern Mars although in its past fluvial processes also were important, Venus knows only aeolian processes, and Titan shows evidence of both fluvial and aeolian processes. Earth and Mars also feature vast deposits of sedimentary rocks, spanning billions of years of planetary history. These ancient rocks preserve the long-term record of the evolution of surface environments, including variations in climate state. On Mars, sedimentary rocks record the transition from wetter, neutral-pH weathering, to brine-dominated low-pH weathering, to its dry current state.

  12. Expanding Our Understanding of the Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish; Stemple, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    School librarians know the importance of collaboration. They cannot run effective school library programs unless they work closely with classroom teachers. They have learned that deep collaboration is a fluid process that evolves over time. Only as connections are made and relationships are forged can real instructional progress occur. Yet it

  13. Understanding the Term Gifted: Process? Product? Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented that views gifted individuals as being process oriented, creative individuals as product oriented, and talented individuals as performance oriented. Approaches to acting that differ based on elements of giftedness, creativity, talent, and combinations thereof are explored. (JDD)

  14. Understanding acute apophyseal spinous process avulsion injuries.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Steven M; Rosario-Quinones, Frances; Mayer, Jillian; McAnany, Steven; Schiller, Alan L; Qureshi, Sheeraz; Hecht, Andrew C

    2014-03-01

    Apophyseal spinous process avulsion injury was first described in 1941. Since then, there have been sparse additional reports in the literature. The authors report their second case, involving an elite adolescent tennis player. The patient underwent surgical excision of the avulsed spinous process 12 weeks after initial presentation and experienced complete resolution of back pain. The authors provide the first reported histopathological analysis of the avulsion fracture site in the literature for both of their cases. The avulsion injury of the interspinous ligament was characterized by hypercellular fibrocartilage tissue, similar to that seen in severe Osgood-Schlatter's disease. The key physical examination finding in patients with avulsion spinous process fractures is acute tenderness directly over the fracture site that worsens with flexion rather than extension (unlike in spondylolysis). Patients should have routine radiographs, including dynamic flexion-extension views, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography. The authors conclude that after 6 months of nonsurgical management for an athlete, surgical excision should be offered as an alternative. In both of their cases, nonsurgical management failed. Surgical excision offers definitive and simple treatment, as well as early return to athletic activities. Both patients were allowed to return to their competitive level of performance 6 weeks after surgery. PMID:24762163

  15. Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and research results to facilitate teaching about the deep earth across the geoscience curriculum. Another goal of the workshop was to experiment with, and evaluate the effectiveness of, the virtual format. Although there are advantages to face-to-face workshops, the virtual format was remarkably effective. The interactive discussions during synchronous presentations were vibrant, and the virtual format allowed participants to introduce references, images and ideas in real-time. The virtual nature of the workshop allowed participation by those who are not able to attend a traditional workshop, with an added benefit that participants had direct access to all their research and teaching materials to share with the workshop. Some participants broadcast the workshop ‘live’ to their classes and many brought discussions directly from the presentation to the classroom. The workshop webpage includes the workshop program with links to recordings of all presentations, discussion summaries, a collection of recommended resources about deep Earth research, and collections of peer-reviewed instructional activities. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/deepearth/index.html

  16. Understanding the Process of Fascial Unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Minasny, Budiman

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapists touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a clients body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as mystical. Purpose: This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. Hypothetical Model: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Conclusions: Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory. PMID:21589734

  17. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  18. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S.

    2013-07-01

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

  19. A novel process for recovering rare earth from weathered black earth

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, R.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2000-02-01

    A novel process for recovering rare-earth (RE) elements from weathered-black-earth slime is developed. This process involves the initial removal of Mn by reduction leaching using SO{sub 2} followed by ammonium chloride roasting of the residual solids from the leaching process. The controlled roasting selectively converts RE oxides to water-soluble RE chlorides. The roasted materials are then dispersed in warm water (75 C) to extract RE, while water-insoluble iron oxides remain in gangue sludge, minimizing iron impurities in final RE products and hence simplifying the purification process. Lead chloride precipitates are obtained by cooling the leachate to {minus}10 C, and RE is recovered using oxalic acid precipitation. With this new process, a product of 92 pct purity at a RE recovery greater than 65 pct is obtained. In addition, Mn and Pb are recovered as by-products, with a recovery of 64 and 54 pct, respectively. The effect of operating variables on RE recovery is examined and the process chemistry described.

  20. Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: The case for a Venus exploration program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, D.

    The planet Venus is our most Earth-like neighbor in size, mass, and solar distance. In spite of these similarities, the Venus surface and atmosphere are characterized by some of the most enigmatic features seen anywhere in the solar system. Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres of the terrestrial planets in our solar system, and provide greater insight into the conditions that may affect the habitability of terrestrial planets in other solar systems. This program includes: - The Noble Gas and Trace Gas Explorer is the highest priority mission because itsdata are vital to our understanding of the origin of Venus. This Discovery classmission requires a single entry probe that will carry the state-of-the-art instrumentsneeded to complete the noble gas and trace gas inventories between the cloud topsand the surface. - The Global Geological Process Mapping Orbiter is a Discovery class mission. Itwill carry a C- and/or X-band radar designed for stereo or interferometric imaging,to provide global maps of the surface at horizontal resolutions of 25 to 50 metersto identify and characterize the geologic processes that have shaped the Venussurface. - The Atmospheric Composition Orbiter is a Discovery class mission that will carryremote sensing instruments for characterizing clouds and trace gas variationsthroughout the atmosphere. This mission will collect the data needed tocharacterize the radiative, chemical, and dynamical processes that are maintainingthe thermal structure and composition of the present atmosphere. - The Atmospheric Dynamics Explorer is a New Frontiers class mission that willdeploy 12 to 24 long-lived balloons over a range of latitudes and altitudes toidentify the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the atmosphericsuperrotation. - The Surface and Interior Explorer is a New Frontiers class mission that will deploythree or more long-lived landers on the Venus surface. Each lander will carry aseismometer for studies of the interior structure, as well as in situ instruments forcharacterizing the surface mineralogy and elemental composition. This missionrequires significant technology development. - A Sample Return mission will eventually be needed to conduct investigations ofthe Venus surface and atmosphere that cannot be conducted by instruments onremote sensing platforms or on entry probes. This will probably require a largemission and significant technology development. This series of missions will complement and expand on the science objectives of the proposed ESA Venus Express Mission and the ISAS Venus Climate Orbiter.

  1. Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  3. Digital image processing of earth observation sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and extracting information are also illustrated.

  4. How well do we understand Earth observation electro-optical sensor parameters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, George

    Since the launch of LANDSAT-1, the Earth observation systems' capability and utilisation has increased substantially. The past decade has seen a number of remote sensing satellites with improved capabilities. Understanding the sensor parameters from a user's standpoint is not that easy. In the context of increasing relevance and dependence on fusion of data from various sensors, there is an urgent need to standardise the sensor parameters specified. The present paper is an attempt to raise some of the concerns regarding specifying spatial, radiometric, spectral and temporal resolution. I solicit inputs from the readers on the points raised to formulate a consolidated recommendation for the ISPRS Council to propose to the international community.

  5. Understanding the effect of atmospheric Density on the Cosmic Ray Flux Variations at the Earth Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaohang; Dayananda, Mathes; Butler, Carola; He, Xiaochun

    2013-10-01

    While the true impact of cosmic rays on the earth climate change is currently far from conclusive, continued efforts of long-term monitoring of cosmic ray flux variations are imperative. This study also requires a quantitative understanding of the influence of atmosphere air density fluctuations to the cosmic ray flux. In this talk, we present the study of the dependence of cosmic ray muon and neutron flux on the atmospheric density variations using Geant4 simulation package. The results are compared with the neutron flux measurements in Oulu, Finland and the muon flux measured in Atlanta, US.

  6. Microbial Communities: Tracing Growth Processes from Antarctic Lakes to Early Earth to Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Life in the Universe is dominated by microbes: they are numerically the most abundant cells in our bodies and in Earth's biosphere, and they are the only life that might be present elsewhere in our solar system. Life beyond our solar system could include macroscopic organisms, but everything we understand about the origin of life suggests it must start with microbes. Thus, understanding microbial ecosystems, in the absence of macroscopic organisms, is critical to understanding early life on Earth and life elsewhere in the Universe - if it exists. But what are the general principles of microbial ecology in the absence of predation? What happens when each cell is a chemical factory that can swap among metabolic processes in response to environmental and emergent cues? Geobiologists and astrobiologists are addressing these questions in diverse ways using both Earth's modern biosphere and its fossil record. Modern microbial communities in shallow, ice-covered lakes, Antarctica (Fig.), provide a model for high productivity microbial ecosystems with no to low predation. In these lakes, photosynthetic communities create macroscopic pinnacles and domes, sometime lithified into stromatolites. They provide an ecological, geochemical and morphological model for Precambrian microbial communities in low sedimentation, low current environments. Insights from these communities include new growth processes for ancient mats, especially some that grew prior to the oxidation of Earth's atmosphere. The diversity of biosignatures created in these communities also provides context for models of life under ice elsewhere in our solar system such as paleolakes on Mars and on icy moons. Results from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team document formerly habitable fluvial and lacustrine environments. Lacustrine environments, in particular, are favorable for preserving biosignatures, and continued investigations by MSL will provide a deeper understanding of the duration of habitable environments and the preservation potential of biosignatures in those environments. A specific search for evidence of microbial ecosystems is warranted, but investigation of old sedimentary rocks on Earth demonstrates that biosignature preservation is rare.

  7. A substantiation of cyclic process of the system Earth-Moon-Sun tidal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsyuk, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The present-day knowledge of the Earth and thorough description of the tidal force affecting the system Earth-Moon-Sun permits us to work out in detail a tidal evolution model. Thus we get a possibility to reconstruct global variations of the climate. The tidal evolution of natural processes on the Earth that has a huge satellite (the Moon mass is only 81 times less than the Earth mass) essentially differs from the evolution on a planet that has no satellite. There are some natural processes that are well-known in astrometry and geophysics but disregarded by experts in geodynamics and geotectonics. The movement of the rotation axis in the Earth's body is discovered more a century ago, but there is no a model explaining the mechanism of this process. Our predecessors emphasized importance of the discovery and suggested desire of such a model. G.H.Darwin in his comments on "Z-term" in the latitude variation wrote this movement could be due to alternate displacement of the Earth center. To explain the scale of that phenomena it is enough to adopt a displacement of the Earth center by twelve feet. A question is to the point is whether the Earth axis movement concerns with the Inner core (IC) displacements. There are some reasons testifying to forced movements of the IC. To understand the forcing influence one must not simplify the Earth's real orbital movement. In fact the system Earth-Moon rotates around the Sun with the period of year. The ecliptic is a plane containing the orbit of the Earth and the Moon mass center (barycenter). The Sun attraction is balanced dynamically in the barycenter but not in the Earth center. As a result, the Earth rotates just as the Moon round the barycenter with the period of the Moon month, and therefore the IC is subjected to a variable tidal force (1910). Newton in Append. XXV, problem VI, underlined that inasmuch as the Earth and the Moon rotate round their common mass center, the Earth movement is disturbed with similar forces. Laplace formula describes imperfectly the tidal force. One should not ignore perturbation terms. The first model was proposed by Kelvin and worked out in detail by G.H.Darwin. The model became a classic part of scientific and educational literature but without perturbations in the Earth orbit by the Sun. Provided the principal conception of the tidal evolution model is kept, we defined more accurately a model of the Earth structure and its orbital perturbations. The gravity variations due to the IC displacements are of the same order as the Moon tidal effect without perturbations. The both effects influence similarly the ocean currents and the hydrosphere dynamical figure. One can compare the model above with data of historical geology. Climatologists distinguish at least three epochs: transitions Algonk-Cambrian and Carbon-Perm, and Quaternary. Duration of mid-glaciations is of 200-250 Myear. Taken this value for the cycle duration and 21012 W for the power of variability of the rotation kinetic energy, one can estimate ranges of variation: 4R for the Earth-Moon distance, 6 for the ecliptic tilt, and 3.81018 erg/s for the power of the IC moves the outer liquids. Our studies are now at a first stage. The aim of the presentation is to show untapped possibilities in the tidal evolution model. Its updating bases on the data that were absent before and must be taken now into account for a discussion of ideas of historical geology and paleomagnetism.

  8. Precambrian paleointensity as a proxy for the deep Earth's processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    Data on the behavior of the geomagnetic field are crucial for understanding the origin and nature of Earth's early geodynamo. Identification of long-term trends in geomagnetic field intensity may also provide the insight necessary for determining the timing of important transitions within the Earth's interior, and for investigating potential causative links between the long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field and the evolution of atmosphere and biosphere. However, our current knowledge of the field history in the Precambrian remains very limited. Most notably, the paleointensity database contains only a handful of reliable data points. Notwithstanding the database limitations, some far-reaching conclusions about characteristics of the Precambrian field have been proposed. However, a great caution should be exercised when using the database to infer on the long-term behavior of Precambrian field and its implications for the Earth system evolution. Instead, our efforts should be focused on obtaining robust paleointensity determinations using modern paleointensity techniques that have shown great promise for obtaining reliable paleointensity determinations even from the oldest rocks. The new paleointensity data from several collections of Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean rocks will be presented and discussed in the context of current models of the long-term geomagnetic and themal evolution of our planet.

  9. Stochastic Growth and Nonlinear Processes in Earth's Foreshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver; Robinson, P. A.; Connors, Timothy

    2000-10-01

    Langmuir-like waves driven by electron beams in Earth's foreshock have been observed for many years. The foreshock is also a source of radiation near the electron plasma frequency fp and near 2f_p, long interpreted in terms of Langmuir waves undergoing nonlinear processes. However, standard plasma theory, in which homogeneous waves grow exponentially until saturated by a nonlinear process, encounters great difficulties explaining the burstiness, widely varying fields, and persistence far from the bow shock of the foreshock Langmuir waves Recently, however, stochastic growth theory (SGT) has been shown to provide a detailed explanation for the burstiness, field statistics, persistence, and spatial evolution of Langmuir waves in Earth's foreshock. This paper reviews this evidence for SGT and then presents a new, strong argument based on SGT that a nonlinear Langmuir process occurs near the upstream edge of Earth's foreshock. The argument involves the SGT prediction that the probability distribution P(log E) of wave electric fields E should suffer an abrupt fall-off at fields higher than the threshold field of an active nonlinear process. For two intervals of ISEE-1 data it is shown that the P(log E) distributions are well described by SGT with an active nonlinear process at fields of a few mV m-1. Based on calculated thresholds for foreshock beam parameters, the nonlinear process is most likely the electrostatic decay L arrow L' + S (L, L' and S denote Langmuir, Langmuir, and ion acoustic waves, respectively). Accordingly, these data are consistent with stochastic growth physics dominating the evolution of the Langmuir waves, and electrostatic decay occurring only near the foreshock's edge for the most intense Langmuir waves, similar to previous results for type III radio sources.

  10. Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

  11. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

  12. Quasi-static MHD processes in earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Gerd-Hannes

    1988-01-01

    An attempt is made to use the MHD equilibrium theory to describe the global magnetic field configuration of earth's magnetosphere and its time evolution under the influence of magnetospheric convection. To circumvent the difficulties inherent in today's MHD codes, use is made of a restriction to slowly time-dependent convection processes with convective velocities well below the typical Alfven speed. This restriction leads to a quasi-static MHD theory. The two-dimensional theory is outlined, and it is shown how sequences of two-dimensional equilibria evolve into a steady state configuration that is likely to become tearing mode unstable. It is then concluded that magnetospheric substorms occur periodically in earth's magnetosphere, thus being an integral part of the entire convection cycle.

  13. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;

  14. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  15. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  16. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect

  17. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  18. Midbarrel hydrocracking process employing rare earth pillared clays

    SciTech Connect

    Gortsema, F.P.; McCauley, J.R.; Miller, J.G. Rabo, J.A.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes improvement in a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbons boiling above about 700{degrees} F. to midbarrel fuel products boiling between about 300{degrees} F. and about 700{degrees} F. which includes contacting the hydrocarbons with hydrogen under effective hydrocracking conditions in the presence of a catalyst composition consisting of at least one hydrogenation component and at least one cracking component. The improvement comprises utilizing as the cracking component an expanded clay including pillars comprising at least one pillaring metal, at least one rare earth element and oxygen located between the sheets of at least one clay mineral or synthetic analogue thereof.

  19. Non-linear processes in the Earth atmosphere boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunskaya, Lubov; Valery, Isakevich; Dmitry, Rubay

    2013-04-01

    The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields. On account of non-linear property of the resonator Earth-Ionosphere the tides (moon and astrophysical tides) in the electromagnetic Earth fields are kinds of polyharmonic nature. It is impossible to detect such non-linear processes with the help of the classical spectral analysis. Therefore to extract tide processes in the electromagnetic fields, the method of covariance matrix eigen vectors is used. Experimental investigations of electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere boundary layer are done at the distance spaced stations, situated on Vladimir State University test ground, at Main Geophysical Observatory (St. Petersburg), on Kamchatka pen., on Lake Baikal. In 2012 there was continued to operate the multichannel synchronic monitoring system of electrical and geomagnetic fields at the spaced apart stations: VSU physical experimental proving ground; the station of the Institute of Solar and Terrestrial Physics of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) at Lake Baikal; the station of the Institute of volcanology and seismology of RAS in Paratunka; the station in Obninsk on the base of the scientific and production society "Typhoon". Such investigations turned out to be possible after developing the method of scanning experimental signal of electromagnetic field into non- correlated components. There was used a method of the analysis of the eigen vectors ofthe time series covariance matrix for exposing influence of the moon tides on Ez. The method allows to distribute an experimental signal into non-correlated periodicities. The present method is effective just in the situation when energetical deposit because of possible influence of moon tides upon the electromagnetic fields is little. There have been developed and realized in program components in the form of PAS instruments of processes of geophysical and man-triggered nature; to predict the presence of the features of geophysical nature in the electromagnetic field of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to study dynamics the analyzed signals coming from the geophysical and man-triggered sources in the electrical and magnetic fields of the atmosphere boundary surface layer; to expose changes of the investigated time series in the periods preceding the appearance of the predicted phenomena; to form clusters of the time series being the features of the predicted events. On the base of the exposed clusters of the time series there have been built the predicting rules allowing to coordinate the probability of appearing the groups of the occurred events. The work is carried out with supporting of Program FPP #14.B37.210668, FPP #5.2071.2011, RFBR #11-05-97518.

  20. Using the Earth as a guide to martian mass movement processes: From form to process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, N.; Newsom, H. E.; Osterloo, M. M.; Okubo, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of gully features on Mars has led to renewed interest in hillslope processes on that planet, in particular mass movement and the morphologies that it produces. Mass movement is a collection of gravity-driven processes that act to move materials down a hillslope. Here, we examine how mass movements on hillslopes may be expected to differ on Earth and Mars as the result of gravity differences between these planets. Downslope movement of unconsolidated materials is generally controlled by the bulk shear strength of these materials. Although the relationship between gravity and shear strength is largely dependent on variables that are independent of gravity, the lower gravity on Mars is expected to produce some systematic changes in mass movement behaviors that may in turn create morphological features that are observably different from their terrestrial counterparts. After scaling for gravity and modifying empirically derived relationships, we may expect the following differences on martian hillslopes when compared to their terrestrial counterparts: ==On Mars, hillslopes may have steeper angles of repose in fine grained (< ~2 mm) materials, even when dry. No change in angle of repose is expected for larger particles; ==An increase in soil moisture content (e.g., excess pore pressure) is expected to weaken unconsolidated slope materials more on Mars for a particular regolith type, which in turn may produce --An increase in creep rates for a given pore pressure, and --An increase in effectiveness of frost heave to transport materials downslope; ==Processes triggered by saturation may occur at lower pore pressures on Mars; --A smaller amount of fluid is needed to achieve failure; ==Shorter runout lengths are expected for rapid mass movements; ==On Mars, overland flow will exert a proportionally lower shear stress on slope materials; --In cohesive materials, the same volume of water will detach sediments of smaller sizes. On Earth, mass movement processes may be directly observed and measured as they occur, whereas on Mars only the resultant landforms may be studied at present. By understanding how martian hillslope processes are expected to be modified by lower gravity, the interpretation of martian landforms may be greatly aided. Examples of observations that support some of these predicted differences will be presented, with a focus on saturation-triggered events in unconsolidated materials.

  1. Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earths interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of everyday things (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learners mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earths interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this years poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

  2. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. 1998 Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight Center.

    This document describes NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a comprehensive program to study the earth as an environmental system. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of earth-observing satellites; (2) an advanced data system; and (3) teams of scientists who will study the data. Contents include: (1) "The Earth…

  3. Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research. PMID:19100995

  4. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how

  5. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  6. NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, the netCDF Classic Model, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format). The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. As an internal working group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

  7. Linking rare earth element zoning in major and accessory minerals to better understand metasedimentary migmatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. A.; Kelly, N. M.; Koenig, A.; Harley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Trace element signatures from major and accessory minerals are increasingly used to place constraints on the ages of tectonothermal events and gain insights into processes operating in the deep continental crust. Minerals such as garnet, zircon or monazite represent sensitive recorders of events if a solid understanding exists of what trace element signatures represent. A study underway on granulite facies migmatites is providing insights into trace element signatures in garnet, and when integrated with in situ, microbeam analysis of zircon and monazite, is allowing a complex polymetamorphic history to be deciphered. The Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica, are composed of felsic orthogneisses and metasediments that were affected by high-grade metamorphism and partial melting at c. 7 kbar and >800 C. Initially interpreted to have experienced a single cycle of metamorphism at c. 550-530 Ma, recent ages suggest that the area was affected by an earlier high-grade event at c. 900 Ma; the timing of migmatization relative to these two events remains uncertain. To address this, a detailed study has targeted metasedimentary migmatites. Garnet, zircon and monazite were analysed from melanosome, leucosome and selvage domains. Garnet (predominantly almandine-pyrope) preserves little, if any, major element zoning. In contrast, it records systematic within-grain variations in heavy rare earth element (HREE) concentration depending on textural context. Garnet within residuum domains displays broad cores with flat HREE slopes in chondrite-normalized plots, but are HREE-depleted (negative slopes) at boundaries adjacent to leucosome. In contrast, garnet boundaries adjacent to cordierite-rich selvages are typically HREE-enriched, with positive-sloping patterns. It is interpreted that core-rim depletions in HREE may reflect evolution of the whole-rock reservoir towards depletion during migmatization and garnet growth. Enrichment in garnet HREE adjacent to selvage domains likely resulted from local reaction between solids and melts either during melt transit and/or crystallization. Monazite, which is preferentially located in leucosome domains, preserves ages that reflect growth at c. 900 Ma and c. 530 Ma, although trace element signatures are ambiguous. However, zircon, which is preferentially located in selvage domains, preserves c. 530 Ma rims with depleted, flat to negatively sloping HREE patterns. It is interpreted that these zircon rims grew in, or near to equilibrium with garnet cores and rims during partial melting, and may date at least part of migmatite formation in the Larsemann Hills. They do not date the final crystallization of melts and development of selvage domains. Preliminary results of this study have shown that the trace element composition of garnet from high-temperature terrains can be a powerful tool in tracking metamorphic and melting processes where major elements zoning is no longer preserved. This study also demonstrates the utility of textural context when interpreting trace element patterns and ages from dateable accessory minerals in rocks from polycyclic metamorphic terrains.

  8. Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ≥1 min.

  9. Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

  10. Understanding the Manuscript Review Process: Increasing the Participation of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Nancy Felipe; And Others

    For the process leading to the publication of one's professional work to be equitable, all authors must understand why and how publication decisions are made. Psychologists must understand how editors and reviewers look at manuscripts, and how the author's own attitudes and skills may affect the acceptance of manuscripts. These four papers are

  11. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  12. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock

  13. The Critical Zone Exploration Network: A Tool For Understanding Earth's Weathering Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.; White, A. F.; Derry, L.; Chadwick, O.; Anderson, S.; Richter, D.; Firestone, M.; Kirchner, J.; Chorover, J.; April, R.; White, T. S.

    2005-12-01

    At Earth's surface, a complex suite of chemical, biological, and physical processes combines to produce soil from bedrock within the zone that extends from the outer limits of vegetation to the lower limits of groundwater (the Critical Zone). This weathering engine transforms primary minerals, provides nutrients to nourish ecosystems and human society, mediates the transport of toxic components within the biosphere, creates water flow paths that shape and weaken bedrock, and contributes to the evolution of landscapes at all temporal and spatial scales. At the longest time scales, the weathering engine sequesters carbon, thereby influencing the global carbon cycle and long-term climate change. No initiative has promoted a systems approach to investigate how Earth's weathering engine disaggregates and solubilizes rock to nourish ecosystems, sculpt terrestrial landscapes, and influence global atmospheric processes. Only with such an effort will it be possible to predict long-term sustainability of the Critical Zone. We have proposed the construction of a network of sites called the Critical Zone Exploration Network (CZEN), where each state factor can be well defined to dominate a specific point in a multi-dimensional matrix of driving factors (climate, time, biota, topography, lithology, disturbance). However, CZEN must be more than a set of sites along parameter gradients: the network must be defined by partnerships across disciplines. We seek to investigate this essential coupling through integration of new tools in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. The CZEN will be a network of sites, people, ideas, and tools to promote Critical Zone Science.

  14. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, II, Charles,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  15. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  16. Understanding the earth systems of Malawi: Ecological sustainability, culture, and place-based education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of nature-knowledge-culture systems from local, place-based perspectives. Specifically, we were interested in learning more about eco-justice issues that are related to environmental degradation in Malawi and the potential role of inquiry-oriented pedagogies in addressing these issues. In a science methods course, the African educators' views on deforestation and teaching about ecological sustainability were explored within the context of the local environment and culture. Teachers participated in inquiry pedagogies designed to promote the sharing of perspectives related to the connections between culture and ecological degradation. Strategies encouraging dialogue and reflection included role-playing, class discussions, curriculum development activities, teaching experiences with children, and field trips to a nature preserve. Data were analyzed from postcolonial and critical pedagogy of place theoretical perspectives to better understand the hybridization of viewpoints influenced by both Western and indigenous science and the political hegemonies that impact sustainable living in Malawi. Findings suggested that the colonial legacy of Malawi continues to impact the ecological sustainability issue of deforestation. Inquiry-oriented pedagogies and connections to indigenous science were embraced by the Malawian educators as a means to involve children in investigation, decision making, and ownership of critical environmental issues.

  17. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  18. Understanding How Astronauts Adapt to Space and to Earth: Anatomical Studies of Central Vestibular Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Significant changes take place in the nervous systems of astronauts during and following exposure to microgravity. These changes, particularly in the part of the brain that controls balance, the vestibular system, can cause sensations of rotation, dizziness, and vertigo, as well as space adaptation syndrome. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several days is often required upon return to Earth. In order to realize long-term spaceflight, effective countermeasures for these symptoms must be developed. The structural changes that take place in one of the vestibular regions of the brain (the cerebellar cortex) during the process of adaptation to Earth's gravity remain unclear and are the subject of an experiment being conducted on STS-107 by Dr. Gay Holstein of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Using the rat as a model, Dr. Holstein and her team will seek to identify the cellular changes underlying the vestibular changes experienced by astronauts.

  19. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),

  20. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

  1. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  2. Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

  3. Probing Earth's Middle Atmosphere: Non­lte Processes And Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, A Preliminary Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Gusev, O. A.; Kostiuk, Th.; Maguire, W.; Livengood, T. A.

    The study of chemical and physical phenomena in the Earth's troposphere, strato- sphere and mesosphere is important to understand the coupling between these regions of the atmosphere. Information on the thermal structure, non-LTE processes, pres- sures, trace species abundances, and local dynamics is contained in emitted and ab- sorbed line spectra of molecular constituents in these atmospheric regions. Access to this information is optimized by spectroscopic resolution sufficient to resolve the molecular line shapes. We will describe a direct approach for such a study using true shapes of measured lines from mid-atmospheric constituents. We will present model calculations of the Earth's limb monochromatic radiances in the 912 m spectral re- gion within spectral lines of a number of atmospheric trace gases (CO2, O3, N2O, OH, and others). The calculations account for nonLTE effects and simulate both emission and solar/lunar occultation observations from Earth orbit. These results will be com- pared to measurements expected from infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, which pro- vides the necessary spectral resolution (/ 106) to measure the line shapes and their accurate frequencies. The required instrumental parameters and the sensitivity for various observing geometries will be determined for retrieval of information on species abundance, kinetic temperature, non-LTE effects, and local winds. The feasi- bility and specific scientific return of such an investigation from Earth orbit will be discussed, in the context of many similar previous investigations of other planetary atmospheres in our solar system.

  4. A novel sequential process for remediating rare-earth wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Kang, Kyounglim; Kim, Dukmin; Snyder, Shane A; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2016-02-01

    A novel and economic sequential process consisting of precipitation, adsorption, and oxidation was developed to remediate actual rare-earth (RE) wastewater containing various toxic pollutants, including radioactive species. In the precipitation step, porous air stones (PAS) containing waste oyster shell (WOS), PASWOS, was prepared and used to precipitate most heavy metals with >97% removal efficiencies. The SEM-EDS analysis revealed that PAS plays a key role in preventing the surface coating of precipitants on the surface of WOS and in releasing the dissolved species of WOS successively. For the adsorption step, a polyurethane (PU) impregnated by coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS), PUCMDS, was synthesized and applied to deplete fluoride (F), arsenic (As), uranium (U), and thorium (Th) that remained after precipitation. The continuous-mode sequential process using PASWOS, PUCMDS, and ozone (O3) had 99.9-100% removal efficiencies of heavy metals, 99.3-99.9% of F and As, 95.8-99.4% of U and Th, and 92.4% of CODCr for 100 days. The sequential process can treat RE wastewater economically and effectively without stirred-tank reactors, pH controller, continuous injection of chemicals, and significant sludge generation, as well as the quality of the outlet met the EPA recommended limits. PMID:26583290

  5. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles, II,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http://geology.wr.usgs.gov. More information is available about the WESPT is available on-line at the team website.

  6. [Processes of earth road regolith erosion in loess area].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-ming; Qin, Wei; Zuo, Chang-qing; Wang, Wen-long; Guo, Ming-ming; Ouyang, Chao-bo

    2015-05-01

    Based on field investigation, the processes of earth road regolith erosion were studied under indoor simulated rainfall. Results showed that the runoff initiation time for both regolith and earth road surface erosion decreased with the increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness. With the increase in regolith thickness, the initiation time for earth road surface erosion lagged for 2-5 min. When the regolith thickness was ? 0.5 cm, the runoff rate turned to be stable at 2 min after runoff generation, and the average runoff rate increased with the increasing rainfall intensity and decreased with the increasing slope steepness. When the regolith thickness was ? 1.0 cm, runoff rate turned to be stable at 3 min after runoff generation, and the average runoff rate increased linearly with the rainfall intensity but exhibited a gradually decreasing trend after the first increment with the increasing slope steepness. The critical point for regolith erosion decreased with the increasing rainfall intensity and slope steepness. With the regolith thickness of ? 0.5 cm, the erosion rate increased with the increasing rainfall intensity, with the erosion rate ranging from 24.5% to 434.4%, and the erosion rates for 8 and 16 slopes were 2.4 times as those for 2 and 4 slopes. With the regolith thickness of 1.0 cm, the erosion rate turned to be stable about 9 min after runoff generation and increased with the increasing rainfall intensity and slope. With the increasing slope steepness, the erosion form changed from sheet erosion to rill erosion and then to headward erosion. The average erosion amount over 10 min single rainfall for the regolith thickness of ? 1.0 cm was 1.3 times as that for the regolith thickness of ? 0.5 cm, while it was 2.7 times as that at the stage of regolith erosion alone. With the regolith thickness of ? 0.5 cm, the erosion amount had a significant correlation with rainfall intensity, and runoff volume with slope steepness. With the regolith thickness of ? 1.0 cm, both runoff and sediment yields in 10 min single rainfall had a significant correlation with rainfall intensity. The proportion of regolith erosion to the combined erosion increased with the increasing regolith thickness, while the road erosion was the main form at small regolith thickness. PMID:26571669

  7. Improving our understanding of clouds in the Earth's climate using polarimetry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Dunagan, S.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Holben, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Water and ice clouds play a fundamental role in the radiative balance (and therefore climate) of the Earth, so understanding their distribution and optical properties is crucial. Recently, new data products from the ground-based NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been created. These products expand the scope of AERONET to provide data about clouds in addition to atmospheric aerosols for which the network was originally designed. The main AERONET cloud data product is the Cloud Optical Depth (COD), which describes the amount of light extinction due to clouds in a vertical atmospheric column. AERONET measurements of COD must rely, however, on assumptions about the cloud thermodynamic phase. If the thermodynamic phase can be identified, AERONET COD errors can be significantly reduced. AERONET sun photometers determine aerosol and cloud optical properties by observing both the direct solar beam and sky scattered radiation at a variety of wavelengths. Newer instruments are also sensitive to light polarization, which we show can be used to determine cloud thermodynamic phase and therefore improve AERONET cloud data products. This work has two components. First, we performed atmospheric radiative transfer simulations to verify that polarization does contain information about cloud phase, and how to best exploit this in an algorithm. Observations were then compared to theoretical simulations. The second component of this research is to build our own polarization sensitive radiometer that is optimized for cloud observations. Initial results from both of these efforts will be presented.

  8. Li Isotopes as a Tracer of Earth Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, W. F.; Rudnick, R. L.; Dalpe, C.; Tomascak, P. B.; Zack, T.

    2001-12-01

    The ? 7Li composition of the bulk Earth is not well established, although it can be estimated from that of mantle-derived magmas and peridotites to be about +4. Presently, there are next to no ? 7Li data for meteorites and this lack of cosmochemical constraint for the Earth needs to be considered in our models. Most upper crustal rocks and sediments have ? 7Li compositions greater than this mantle value and are generally of the order +5 to +15. Continental surface waters typically have ? 7Li values ranging from +15 to +32, while seawater has a nearly constant composition of +32. Collectively, these observations point to a uni-directional evolution in ? 7Li values from an initial mantle composition. Recently, we (Zack et al, this conference) determined that subduction-zone related eclogites and their meta-sediments possess dominantly negative ? 7Li values, ranging down -10. Additionally, the flood basalt sample BCR has a ? 7Li value of +2, which is lower than typical MORB/OIB/arc basalt values and indicates a contribution from an isotopically lighter source component. Collectively, these observations raise 2 interesting questions: (1) What is the physics controlling the fractionation of 7Li from 6Li? In contrast to an anion like O, the heavier isotope of Li is enriched in the fluid not the solid during low P-T processes. (2) Are eclogitic residues from subduction zones stored in the deep mantle as highly negative Li isotope reservoirs? The latter question raises the possibility of finding greater Li isotopic diversity in OIBs than that presently observed.

  9. Understanding Thermal Behavior in Lens Processing of Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Nelson, D.V.; Robino, C.V.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.E.; Wert, M.J.

    1998-11-05

    In direct laser metal deposition technologies, such as the Laser (LENS) process, it is important to understand and control the Engineered Net Shaping thermal behavior during fabrication. With this control, components can be reliably fabricated with desired structural material properties. This talk will describe the use of contact and imaging techniques to monitor the thermal signature during LENS processing. Recent results show a direct correlation between thermal history and material properties, where the residual stress magnitude decreases as the laser power, and therefore thermal signature, increases. Development of an understanding of solidification behavior, residual stress, and microstructural evolution with respect to thermal behavior will be discussed.

  10. Tuning optoelectronic properties and understanding charge transport in nanocrystal thin films of earth abundant semiconducting materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riha, Shannon C.

    2011-12-01

    With the capability of producing nearly 600 TW annually, solar power is one renewable energy source with the potential to meet a large fraction of the world's burgeoning energy demand. To make solar technology cost-competitive with carbon-based fuels, cheaper devices need to be realized. Solution-processed solar cells from nanocrystal inks of earth abundant materials satisfy this requirement. Nonetheless, a major hurdle in commercializing such devices is poor charge transport through nanocrystal thin films. The efficiency of charge transport through nanocrystal thin films is strongly dependent on the quality of the nanocrystals, as well as their optoelectronic properties. Therefore, the first part of this dissertation is focused on synthesizing high quality nanocrystals of Cu2ZnSnS4, a promising earth abundant photovoltaic absorber material. The optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals were tuned by altering the copper to zinc ratio, as well as by introducing selenium to create Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSe x)4 solid solutions. Photoelectrochemical characterization was used to test the Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(S 1-xSex)4 nanocrystal thin films. The results identify minority carrier diffusion and recombination via the redox shuttle as the major loss mechanisms hindering efficient charge transport through the nanocrystal thin films. One way to solve this issue is to sinter the nanocrystals together, creating large grains for efficient charge transport. Although this may be quick and effective, it can lead to the formation of structural defects, among other issues. To this end, using a different copper-based material, namely Cu2Se, and simple surface chemistry treatments, an alternative route to enhance charge transport through nanocrystals thin films is proposed.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Oscillations in the Solar Corona and Earth's Magnetosphere: Towards Consolidated Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakariakov, V. M.; Pilipenko, V.; Heilig, B.; Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.; Klimushkin, D. Y.; Kolotkov, D. Y.; Lee, D.-H.; Nisticò, G.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Verth, G.; Zimovets, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillatory processes in different plasma systems, such as the corona of the Sun and the Earth's magnetosphere, show interesting similarities and differences, which so far received little attention and remain under-exploited. The successful commissioning within the past ten years of THEMIS, Hinode, STEREO and SDO spacecraft, in combination with matured analysis of data from earlier spacecraft (Wind, SOHO, ACE, Cluster, TRACE and RHESSI) makes it very timely to survey the breadth of observations giving evidence for MHD oscillatory processes in solar and space plasmas, and state-of-the-art theoretical modelling. The paper reviews several important topics, such as Alfvénic resonances and mode conversion; MHD waveguides, such as the magnetotail, coronal loops, coronal streamers; mechanisms for periodicities produced in energy releases during substorms and solar flares, possibility of Alfvénic resonators along open field lines; possible drivers of MHD waves; diagnostics of plasmas with MHD waves; interaction of MHD waves with partly-ionised boundaries (ionosphere and chromosphere). The review is mainly oriented to specialists in magnetospheric physics and solar physics, but not familiar with specifics of the adjacent research fields.

  12. Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensar, Ferhat; Sallabas, Muhammed Eyyüp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of…

  13. Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study explored a segment of this growing population to give researchers and practitioners a deeper

  14. Dynamic Noise and its Role in Understanding Epidemiological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maíra

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the role of dynamic noise in understanding epidemiological systems, such as influenza or dengue fever by deriving stochastic ordinary differential equations from markov processes for discrete populations. This approach allows for an easy analysis of dynamical noise transitions between co-existing attractors.

  15. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  16. A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

  17. A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and

  18. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING AMERICIUM AND CURIUM FROM RARE EARTH ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Baybarz, R.D.; Lloyd, M.H.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to methods of separating americium and curium values from rare earth values. In accordance with the invention americium, curium, and rare earth values are sorbed on an anion exchange resin. A major portion of the rare earth values are selectively stripped from the resin with a concentrated aqueous solution of lithium chloride, and americium, curium, and a minor portion of rare earth values are then stripped from the resin with a dilute aqueous solution of lithium chloride. The americium and curium values are further purified by increasing the concentration of lithium chloride in the solution to at least 8 molar and selectively extracting rare earth values from the resulting solution with a monoalkylphosphoric acid. (AEC)

  19. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.

  20. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Although we have an intuitive understanding of the behavior and functions of groundwater in the Earth's critical zone at the scales of a column (atmosphere-plant-soil-bedrock), along a toposequence (ridge to valley), and across a small catchment (up to third-order streams), this paper attempts to assess the relevance of groundwater to understanding large-scale patterns and processes such as represented in global climate and Earth system models. Through observation syntheses and conceptual models, evidence are presented that groundwater influence is globally prevalent, it forms an environmental gradient not fully captured by the climate, and it can profoundly shape critical zone evolution at continental to global scales. Four examples are used to illustrate these ideas: (1) groundwater as a water source for plants in rainless periods, (2) water table depth as a driver of plant rooting depth, (3) the accessibility of groundwater as an ecological niche separator, and (4) groundwater as the lower boundary of land drainage and a global driver of wetlands. The implications to understanding past and future global environmental change are briefly discussed, as well as critical discipline, scale, and data gaps that must be bridged in order for us to translate what we learn in the field at column, hillslope and catchment scales, to what we must predict at regional, continental, and global scales.

  1. Contribution of earth observation data to Congo River basin hydrology understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Nutini, Francesco; Brivio, Pietro A.; Bartholome, Etienne; Stroppiana, Daniela

    2010-10-01

    Natural Resource Monitoring in Africa (NARMA) is one of the Core Information Services of EU-FP7 project Geoland2 addressing important sectoral policies that concern with the development of an environmental monitoring capacity over African countries for the needs of the European Commission (EC) services and for regional and continental EC partners in African countries. Congo basin is one of the target area where NARMA has to contribute to the development of AMESD/CICOS services in support to management of water resources focusing on environmental aspects of watersheds. In this contest and to better understand dynamics that occur in the watershed, an analysis has been conducted on the relation between precipitation, river discharge and vegetation dynamics by exploiting available time series of Earth Observation data. Rainfall dynamics has been described using FEWS-NET RFE estimations, river discharge has been monitored using ENVISAT radar altimeter data provided by LEGOS laboratory and vegetation dynamics have been examined through vegetation indices available from long term series of SPOT-VGT data. The comparison between river discharge measured at Bangui (Central African Republic), gauging station and radar altimeter virtual station data demonstrated that these data can be used to estimate river discharge. This result allowed to focus a preliminary analysis on the Uele watershed, Ubangi sub basin, using radar data as a proxy of river discharge, comparing these trends to seasonal rainfall estimates and trying to disentangling the effect of vegetation on discharge-rain relation. Results showed that a strong positive correlation is obtained between rain data and river discharge only at the end of the vegetation season when plants have reduced water demand for evapotranspiration and less intercept rain. Trend analysis on the considered time windows are provided and the contribution of these finding for river water alert monitoring system is discussed.

  2. Multiple Experimental Efforts to Understand the Structure and Dynamics of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Y.; Han, L.; Bennett, N.; Hou, M.; Kuwayama, Y.; Huang, H.

    2014-12-01

    It requires integration of data from different types of high-pressure experiments to understand the structure and dynamics of Earth's core. In particular, measurements of physical properties and element partitioning in systems relevant to the core provide complementary data to narrow down the range of possible core compositions. We have performed both static and dynamic compression experiments and combined results from these with literature data to establish a reliable thermal equation of state of iron. This allows us to precisely determine the density deficit in the solid inner core. The combination of density and sound velocity measurements for both solid and liquid iron and its alloys provide tight constraints on the density deficit in the liquid outer core and the amount of sulphur required to match the geophysical observations. We then conducted element-partitioning experiments between solid and liquid iron in both multi-anvil apparatus and the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell to determine the sulphur, silicon, and oxygen partitioning between the liquid outer core and solid inner core. We present newly developed high-pressure experimental and nano-scale analytical techniques that allow us to simulate the conditions of the inner core boundary (ICB) and analyze the chemical compositions of coexisting phases in the recovered samples. We have established protocols to obtain high-quality partitioning data in the laser-heating diamond-anvil cell combined with FIB/SEM crossbeam technology. The partitioning data obtained up to at least 200 GPa provide additional criteria to explain the observed density and velocity jumps at the ICB.

  3. Earth processes in wake of Gujarat earthquake reviewed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Ouzounov, Dimitar

    Two years after a devastating earthquake in Gujarat, India, scientists from many disciplines met at an international workshop to share the latest knowledge about Earth system processes related to this natural disaster. The meeting particularly focused on the use of spaceborne technology to study the effects of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere interaction prior to and following the earthquake. More than 80 of the participants were affiliated with research and academic institutions in India, and several scientists from the United States, Germany Russia, and China also participated.Soon after the earthquake on 26 January 2001, Indian scientists established a Global Positioning System (GPS) network to monitor crustal motion around the earthquake's epicenter in cooperation with scientists from Japan, Germany, and the United States. Observations made by routine GPS measurements in the past have shown that the Bhuj area has significantly shifted anti-clockwise. The leveling observations made by the Survey of India show that the Santal Pur Bhuj Block was uplifted up to 60 cm, while Bhuj, Bhachau, and Mundra subsided 60 cm. The need to establish a dense network of level lines and gravity stations in Kachchh was stressed at the meeting.

  4. Anelasticity of the HCP Metal Zinc: a Key to Understanding the Dynamics of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, S. A.; Walker, A.; Lord, O. T.; Stackhouse, S.; Armstrong, L. S.; Parsons, A. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Whitaker, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The solid inner core is the most remote and inaccessible part of our planet but its structure and composition may provide a key record needed to reveal the timing and nature of the onset of Earth's protective magnetic field generated and even of long-term changes in the way the mantle convects driving surface dynamics. Key to developing our understanding of the inner core is our ability to use seismic observations to constrain its structure on all scales. Seismic wave velocities are mostly sensitive to the atomic scale crystal structure, temperature and composition. On a larger scale the microstructure of the inner core, reflecting its deformation and crystallization history, can be probed by seismic studies of elastic anisotropy and anelasticity [Makinen & Deuss (2013) Geophys. J. Int. 194:401]. The inner core is at temperatures in excess of ~0.95Tm and interpretation of the properties and history of the inner core must therefore include careful understanding of the anelastic properties of HCP iron and its alloys. The most recent study of the anelasticity of iron and iron alloys is now over a decade old [Jackson et al., (2000) J. Geophys. Res. 105:23605] and is limited to low pressure where iron adopts the body centered cubic (BCC) or face centered cubic (FCC) structure. It is now widely, although not universally, accepted that iron in the core adopts the hexagonally close packed (HCP) epsilon-iron structure stable above 10 GPa and there are currently no results that reveal the anelasticity of this core-forming phase. We have used Zinc as a low pressure analogue for HCP-iron and measured its anelastic response as a function of frequency (periods 10-300s), temperature and pressure (P<7GPa). Our experiments use the D-DIA to apply a sinusoidally varying strain to the sample and a corundum elastic standard. We image changes in length of the sample and standard in response to the driving strain X-radiographically. The amplitude and phase of sample length change relative to that of the elastic standard gives us the effective Young's modulus (amplitude) and internal friction (frequency dependent phase lag). Above ~0.7Tm, we observe significant reduction in the sample's effective Young's modulus and an increase in internal friction; both of these are frequency dependent.

  5. Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus

    2007-07-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

  6. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  7. Understanding uncertainty in process-based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Slater, A. G.; Newman, A. J.; Marks, D. G.; Landry, C.; Lundquist, J. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Nijssen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Building an environmental model requires making a series of decisions regarding the appropriate representation of natural processes. While some of these decisions can already be based on well-established physical understanding, gaps in our current understanding of environmental dynamics, combined with incomplete knowledge of properties and boundary conditions of most environmental systems, make many important modeling decisions far more ambiguous. There is consequently little agreement regarding what a 'correct' model structure is, especially at relatively larger spatial scales such as catchments and beyond. In current practice, faced with such a range of decisions, different modelers will generally make different modeling decisions, often on an ad hoc basis, based on their balancing of process understanding, the data available to evaluate the model, the purpose of the modeling exercise, and their familiarity with or investment in an existing model infrastructure. This presentation describes development and application of multiple-hypothesis models to evaluate process-based hydrologic models. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including multiple options for model parameterizations (e.g., below-canopy wind speed, thermal conductivity, storage and transmission of liquid water through soil, etc.), as well as multiple options for model architecture, that is, the coupling and organization of different model components (e.g., representations of sub-grid variability and hydrologic connectivity, coupling with groundwater, etc.). Application of this modeling framework across a collection of different research basins demonstrates that differences among model parameterizations are often overwhelmed by differences among equally-plausible model parameter sets, while differences in model architecture lead to pronounced differences in model simulations at larger spatial scales. Work is ongoing to use this modeling framework to understand differences among existing models, especially, to understand why different hydrologic models have a very different portrayal of the impacts of climate change on water resources.

  8. Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image quality, one of these methods will perform better than the others. Because our software requires minimal user input in the form of command line arguments and has no graphical user interface (GUI), it is uniquely adept for clustering computer environments as well as normal workstations. Users can run multiple stereo sessions simultaneously to process a large number of stereo pairs. We also provide a tool called ';parallel_stereo' which utilizes GNU's parallel command to split a single stereo pair session across multiple nodes that have a shared file system. This greatly reduces the processing time of a single stereo pair. Our primary system of testing was NASA's Pleiades super computer that is freely available to NASA sponsored scientists and engineers via the High End Computing Capability (HECC) project. ASP is freely available for download from our website at irg.arc.nasa.gov/ngt/stereo. Source code for all releases and current development code is available from our Github account at github.com/NeoGeographyToolkit/StereoPipeline. In addition to being free, ASP is Apache 2 licensed which offers free license to copy, redistribute, and sell the software and results pending the license of the input imagery. It is our goal that this software will make DEMs and the processing of satellite imagery more accessible to scientists of all fields.

  9. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking Among University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-04-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristicsdynamic thinking and cyclic thinkingfocusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The study's first part was quantitative. Its population consisted of a research group (223 students majoring in geology or physical geography) and a control group (312 students with no background in geology). The students were asked to rate their agreement with each statement on a Likert scale. Overall, the students in the research group expressed higher levels of dynamic thinking than those in the control group. The geology students showed relatively strong dynamic thinking toward the geosphere and hydrosphere, but not the biosphere. In cyclic thinking, their levels were significantly higher for all Earth systems, suggesting a connection between learning about different cycles in Earth systems, developing cyclic thinking and applying it to other Earth cycles. The second part was qualitative and administered only to the students who majored in geology. They were asked to freely explain their answers to the questionnaire's statements. Our aim was to identify recurring patterns in how these students express their dynamic and cyclic thinking. Their explanations were given to four experts in the field of Earth science, who then presented, in a semi-structured interview, the recurring characteristics of dynamic thinking that they found in the students' explanations.

  10. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking Among University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-12-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics—dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking—focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The study's first part was quantitative. Its population consisted of a research group (223 students majoring in geology or physical geography) and a control group (312 students with no background in geology). The students were asked to rate their agreement with each statement on a Likert scale. Overall, the students in the research group expressed higher levels of dynamic thinking than those in the control group. The geology students showed relatively strong dynamic thinking toward the geosphere and hydrosphere, but not the biosphere. In cyclic thinking, their levels were significantly higher for all Earth systems, suggesting a connection between learning about different cycles in Earth systems, developing cyclic thinking and applying it to other Earth cycles. The second part was qualitative and administered only to the students who majored in geology. They were asked to freely explain their answers to the questionnaire's statements. Our aim was to identify recurring patterns in how these students express their dynamic and cyclic thinking. Their explanations were given to four experts in the field of Earth science, who then presented, in a semi-structured interview, the recurring characteristics of dynamic thinking that they found in the students' explanations.

  11. Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulling, Azalie Cecile

    The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time as Piaget's system of time (e.g., chronological ordering of events, before and after relationships, duration or evolutionary time) was a necessary conceptual framework for students to develop a scientific understanding of deep time. An examination of students, worldviews and the interface of science and religion indicated that students often successfully applied a demarcation between science and religion in their public thinking (e.g., the formal classroom setting), but in their private thinking, the demarcation was often blurred.

  12. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new ?18O and ?D measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from ?18O, ?D, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  13. Bedrock Channels: Towards a Process-Based Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R. E.; Horn, C. A. P. T., III; Thy, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms in large rivers have focused on aggradational bedforms within alluvial sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. Detailed understanding of the processes within bedrock reaches of river channels is vital if an improved understanding of formation and evolution of bedrock scours and bedforms are to be elucidated. The paper presents high-resolution bathymetry and sidescan derived from multibeam sonar (MBES) and detailed flow mapping by acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) to illustrate, in intricate detail, relations between morphology, flow and sediment transport processes through a bedrock reach of the Mekong River (Cambodia) during a large flood event. A 2 by 5 km reach of the Mekong river near Sambor was surveyed with a RESON 7125 MBES system revealing incredible >40 m scour features within the bedrock substrate, with sidescan imagery also revealing the routing of alluvial sediment through the scours. A series of ADCP transects were obtained, both transverse and perpendicular to the primary downstream flow, that map the flows into, around and within these scour features. The paper will conclude by looking at how advances in measurement capability have permitted the detailed processes in such channels to be investigated for the first time at this scale.

  14. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (Principal Investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  15. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process. PMID:26357398

  16. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication. PMID:22908680

  17. EARTH SYSTEM ATLAS: A Platform for Access to Peer-Reviewed Information about process and change in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D.; Prentice, C.

    2004-12-01

    A great deal of time, effort and resources have been expended on global change research to date, but dissemination and visualization of the key pertinent data sets has been problematical. Toward that end, we are constructing an Earth System Atlas which will serve as a single compendium describing the state of the art in our understanding of the Earth system and how it has responded to and is likely to respond to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. The Atlas is an interactive web-based system of data bases and data manipulation tools and so is much more than a collection of pre-made maps posted on the web. It represents a tool for assembling, manipulating, and displaying specific data as selected and customized by the user. Maps are created "on the fly" according to user-specified instructions. The information contained in the Atlas represents the growing body of data assembled by the broader Earth system research community, and can be displayed in the form of maps and time series of the various relevant parameters that drive and are driven by changes in the Earth system at various time scales. The Atlas is designed to display the information assembled by the global change research community in the form of maps and time series of all the relevant parameters that drive or are driven by changes in the Earth System at various time scales. This will serve to provide existing data to the community, but also will help to highlight data gaps that may hinder our understanding of critical components of the Earth system. This new approach to handling Earth system data is unique in several ways. First and foremost, data must be peer-reviewed. Further, it is designed to draw on the expertise and products of extensive international research networks rather than on a limited number of projects or institutions. It provides explanatory explanations targeted to the user's needs, and the display of maps and time series can be customize by the user. In general, the Atlas is designed provide the research community with a new opportunity for data observation and manipulation, enabling new scientific discoveries in the coming years. An initial prototype of the Atlas has been developed and can be manipulated in real time.

  18. Processing, analysis, recognition, and automatic understanding of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2004-07-01

    Paper presents some new ideas introducing automatic understanding of the medical images semantic content. The idea under consideration can be found as next step on the way starting from capturing of the images in digital form as two-dimensional data structures, next going throw images processing as a tool for enhancement of the images visibility and readability, applying images analysis algorithms for extracting selected features of the images (or parts of images e.g. objects), and ending on the algorithms devoted to images classification and recognition. In the paper we try to explain, why all procedures mentioned above can not give us full satisfaction in many important medical problems, when we do need understand image semantic sense, not only describe the image in terms of selected features and/or classes. The general idea of automatic images understanding is presented as well as some remarks about the successful applications of such ideas for increasing potential possibilities and performance of computer vision systems dedicated to advanced medical images analysis. This is achieved by means of applying linguistic description of the picture merit content. After this we try use new AI methods to undertake tasks of the automatic understanding of images semantics in intelligent medical information systems. A successful obtaining of the crucial semantic content of the medical image may contribute considerably to the creation of new intelligent multimedia cognitive medical systems. Thanks to the new idea of cognitive resonance between stream of the data extracted form the image using linguistic methods and expectations taken from the representation of the medical knowledge, it is possible to understand the merit content of the image even if the form of the image is very different from any known pattern.

  19. Why Understanding When and How Plate Tectonics Began Is Essential for a Robust Theory of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Gerya, T.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding when and how Plate Tectonics (PT) began and what came before has profound implications for understanding the Earth because the transition to PT from the previous tectonic regime - some variant of deformable lid tectonics (DLT)- resulted in faster cooling and enhanced recycling of surface materials to depth. The transition to PT also would have impacted ocean chemistry, climate and life evolution. There is no consensus about when PT began on Earth; estimates range from >4.2 Ga to ~0.85 Ga. Three pillars of a robust Theory of the Earth illustrate the importance of answering this question: (1) the solid Earth volatile cycle; (2) the Urey ratio; and (3) the kimberlite enigma. For (1), it is now clear that subduction injects more H2O (and probably CO2) into Earth's mantle- where it is stored - than is released to the surface by igneous activity. Presumably the volatile flux from the surface into the mantle was lower during DLT episodes, although delamination and Rayleigh-Taylor drippings would have sent some. Constraining PT H2O and CO2 fluxes requires knowing when PT began and interior soaking accelerated. Regarding (2), estimating Earth's Urey ratio (Ur; heat production/heat loss) evolution requires avoiding the "thermal catastrophe" implying that if Earth has been cooling off as fast as presently (Ur ~0.2) then it must have been totally molten 1-2 Ga; a transition from DLT (high Ur) to PT (low Ur) may resolve the paradox. Finally (3), why are the vast majority of kimberlites of Phaneozoic age? Is it because erosion has removed the evidence or because sufficient H2O-CO2 rich fluids that drive such eruptions have only been delivered below cratonic lithosphere since deep subduction associated with PT began? Determining when did PT start, what was Earth's DLT-regime before this, and how did the transition occur will require the insights of the entire geoscientific community, providing a worthy set of 21st Century geoscientific research priorities.

  20. Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

  1. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain. PMID:25884891

  2. Advancing the understanding of the Sun-Earth interaction—the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) II program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka; Shepherd, Marianna; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2015-12-01

    The Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) implemented an international collaborative program called Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES), which was active from 2004 to 2008; this was followed by the CAWSES II program during the period of 2009-2013. The CAWSES program was aimed at improving the understanding of the coupled solar-terrestrial system, with special emphasis placed on the short-term (weather) and long-term (climate) variability of solar activities and their effects on and responses of Geospace and Earth's environment. Following the successful implementation of CAWSES, the CAWSES II program pursued four fundamental questions addressing the way in which the coupled Sun-Earth system operates over time scales ranging from minutes to millennia, namely, (1) What are the solar influences on the Earth's climate? (2) How will Geospace respond to an altered climate? (3) How does short-term solar variability affect the Geospace environment? and (4) What is the Geospace response to variable inputs from the lower atmosphere? In addition to these four major tasks, the SCOSTEP and CAWSES promoted E-science and informatics activities including the creation of scientific databases and their effective utilization in solar-terrestrial physics research. Capacity building activities were also enhanced during CAWSES II, and this represented an important contribution of SCOSTEP to the world's solar-terrestrial physics community. This introductory paper provides an overview of CAWSES II activities and serves as a preface to the dedicated review papers summarizing the achievements of the program's four task groups (TGs) and the E-science component.

  3. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  4. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics--dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking--focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The…

  5. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet

  6. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics--dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking--focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The

  7. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  8. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and

  9. Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.

    Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

  10. Understanding the Relationship Between Soil Processes and Atmospheric Methane Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laybolt, W. D.; O'Connell, E.; Risk, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    As vehicle-based atmospheric surveying becomes more commonplace, its natural evolution will see an increased movement towards detection of multiple gases and geochemical approaches for discriminating leaks of different origin. While multi-gas surveys are already feasible, the factor limiting our ability to interpret them is the understanding of gas source-sink dynamics, particularly at the soil level. This study aims to understand the relationship between soil processes and atmospheric methane concentrations. Using source regions of approximately 100 km2, extensive soil gas surveys were completed, measuring CH4, δ13CH4 and CO2. We compared this to daytime and nighttime vehicle-based surveys where we acquired data for the same gases to see which of these individual gases, or ratios thereof, could be detected in the lower atmosphere. These surveys were done in two contrasting regions, which were also expected to have different source/sink processes. Results showed that atmospheric CH4 concentration, its isotopic signature, and the CO2/CH4 ratio of above-background concentrations showed the highest level of correspondence with the soil CH4 values. Anomalies in CH4 concentrations in the first study area appeared to be from predominantly biological sources (δ13CH4 values near -60‰) rather than from a fossil source (underlying coal beds). However, the study area also showed anomalous values of δ13CH4, which may have been due to a soil CH4 sink. In both regions, nighttime atmospheric studies generally yield stronger signals and correlations because decreased night winds contributed to pooling of gases and higher atmospheric concentrations. This study helps advance our understanding of the relationship between soil processes and atmospheric methane, which is essential for improving vehicle-based surveys for use in detecting environmental side-effects of energy and geosequestration projects in regions of complex surface gas dynamics.

  11. The Dunes and Rivers of Titan and Earth : An overview of comparative landscapes and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    Cassini has shown Titan to have a strikingly varied and Earth-like landscape with extensive regions modified by aeolian and fluvial sediment transport. The formation of large linear sand dunes, apparently occupying most of the low-latitude low-albedo regions such as Shangri-La and Belet, is something of a surprise, given how weak thermally-driven winds were expected to be. The explanation appears to be the gravitational tide due to Saturn, which may be the dominant driver of near-surface winds. The linear dunes observed with the Cassini RADAR are strikingly similar to such dunes seen in areas with seasonally-changing winds on Earth, such as Namibia and Arabia. Instructive comparisons may be made as excellent spaceborne radar images and in-situ studies exist of these features, giving us a window into how Titan works. The weak solar flux implies average rainfall on Titan is low, perhaps only 1cm per year. Yet like many terrestrial arid regions, the landscape is nonetheless significantly altered (at least in some places) by pluvial and fluvial processes, because when it does rain, it does so violently. Models of thunderstorms, and of sediment transport, integrate neatly with Cassini observations of fluvial networks. A recent development is the detection of probable lakes : these demand an understanding of littoral processes and, in turn, wind-wave generation. Titan is an energy-poor environment, but one in which it is easier to transport materials. Many of the factors in sediment generation and transport appear to cancel out. It remains to be seen whether Titan, as an exotic laboratory, will teach us more about Earth, or whether our home planet, as an accessible analog, will teach us more about Titan. The comparisons only make both worlds seem all the more intriguing.

  12. Industrial web inspection for manufacturing process understanding and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyuan; Floeder, Steven P.

    1999-03-01

    Many industrial manufacturing processes are not well understood and are treated as `black art' with few experts able to control the process and ensure product quality. However, modern manufacturing companies are finding it increasingly difficult to compete in the global marketplace without better process understanding and control. Automated inspection systems for general manufacturing have become more feasible through technical advances, primarily in sensor and computing technology. However, these systems have been used almost exclusively for the detection and subsequent removal of well defined, discrete defects from the product; thus guaranteeing high quality for the customer. This paper describes a larger opportunity to affect operations by employing web inspection techniques to dynamically analyze manufacturing conditions rather than just detecting the presence of defective material. One can then keep the process under better control, thereby eliminating defects, ensuring product quality, and optimizing manufacturing time on the production line. Specific image and data processing techniques will be illustrated including product uniformity metrics, automatic determination of thresholds for blob analysis, and localization of repeating defects within production data. The benefit of these techniques will be demonstrated through `real-world' examples of web-based manufactured products.

  13. Understanding and Predicting the Process of Software Maintenance Releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor; Briand, Lionel; Condon, Steven; Kim, Yong-Mi; Melo, Walcelio L.; Valett, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a case study in which an incremental approach was used to better understand the effort distribution of releases and build a predictive effort model for software maintenance releases. This study was conducted in the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC). This paper presents three main results: 1) a predictive effort model developed for the FDD's software maintenance release process; 2) measurement-based lessons learned about the maintenance process in the FDD; and 3) a set of lessons learned about the establishment of a measurement-based software maintenance improvement program. In addition, this study provides insights and guidelines for obtaining similar results in other maintenance organizations.

  14. A synthetic biology approach to understanding cellular information processing

    PubMed Central

    Riccione, Katherine A; Smith, Robert P; Lee, Anna J; You, Lingchong

    2012-01-01

    The survival of cells and organisms requires proper responses to environmental signals. These responses are governed by cellular networks, which serve to process diverse environmental cues. Biological networks often contain recurring network topologies called motifs. It has been recognized that the study of such motifs allows one to predict the response of a biological network, and thus cellular behavior. However, studying a single motif in complete isolation of all other network motifs in a natural setting is difficult. Synthetic biology has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding the dynamic properties of network motifs. In addition to testing existing theoretical predictions, construction and analysis of synthetic gene circuits has led to the discovery of novel motif dynamics such as how the combination of simple motifs can lead to autonomous dynamics or how noise in transcription and translation can affect the dynamics of a motif. Here, we review developments in synthetic biology as they pertain to increasing our understanding of cellular information processing. We highlight several types of dynamic behaviors that diverse motifs can generate, including the control of input/output responses, the generation of autonomous spatial and temporal dynamics, as well as the influence of noise in motif dynamics and cellular behavior. PMID:23411668

  15. Linking the Wilson Cycle to deep Earth processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Burke, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past century description of the movement and deformation of the Earth's outer layer has evolved from the hypothesis of Continental Drift into Sea-Floor Spreading and thence to the theory of Plate Tectonics. This theory is as fundamentally unifying to the Earth Sciences as Darwin's Evolution Theory is to Life Science. By 1968 Tuzo Wilson had identified three basic elements of geodynamics: plate tectonics, mantle plumes of deep origin and the Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing, which provides evidence of plate tectonic behavior in times before quantifiable plate rotations. We have recently shown that deep-seated plumes of the past have risen only from narrow plume generation zones (PGZs) at the Core Mantle Boundary and mostly on the edges of two Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) that have been stable, antipodal and equatorial in their present positions for hundreds of millions of years and perhaps for much longer. Even though links between mantle activity and plate tectonics are becoming more evident, notably through subsurface tomographic images, advances in mineral physics and much improved absolute plate motion reference frames, a need now is to generate a new Earth model embodying plate tectonics, shallow and deep mantle convection, including such elements as deeply subducted slabs and stable LLSVPs with plumes that rise only from PGZs on the CMB.

  16. Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Michael Thomas

    High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids in the form of collision cascades. The ballistic formation and thermalization of cascades occur rapidly and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic an- nealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable post-irradiation disorder in ion-beam-processed semiconductors and determines the "radiation tolerance" of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken. First, the effects of dynamic annealing are investigated in ZnO, a technologically relevant material that exhibits very high dynamic defect annealing at room temper- ature. Such high dynamic annealing leads to unusual defect accumulation in heavy ion bombarded ZnO. Through this work, the puzzling features that were observed more than a decade ago in ion-channeling spectra have finally been explained. We show that the presence of a polar surface substantially alters damage accumulation. Non-polar surface terminations of ZnO are shown to exhibit enhanced dynamic an- nealing compared to polar surface terminated ZnO. Additionally, we demonstrate one method to reduce radiation damage in polar surface terminated ZnO by means of a surface modification. These results advance our efforts in the long-sought-after goal of understanding complex radiation damage processes in ceramics. Second, a pulsed-ion-beam method is developed and demonstrated in the case of Si as a prototypical non-metallic target. Such a method is shown to be a novel experimental technique for direct extraction of dynamic annealing parameters. The relaxation times and effective diffusion lengths of mobile defects during the dynamic annealing process play a vital role in damage accumulation. We demonstrate that these parameters dominate the formation of stable post-irradiation disorder. In Si, a defect lifetime of 6 ms and a characteristic defect diffusion length of 30 nm are measured. These results should nucleate future pulsed-beam studies of dynamic defect interaction processes in technologically relevant materials. In particular, un- derstanding length- and time-scales of defect interactions are essential for extending laboratory findings to nuclear material lifetimes and to the time-scales of geological storage of nuclear waste.

  17. Recent Observational Advances in our Understanding of Magnetic Reconnection in Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    The availability of multi-point observations through the ion diffusion region has provided a wealth of information on the workings of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and at the nightside plasma sheet. Ion inertia and finite gyroradius result in clear Hall effects on ion inertial length scales that have been observed by single and multi-point spacecraft resulting in a fairly detailed understanding of that physics. The role of Hall dynamics on establishing the reconnection rate, and the outflow conditions is well understood. Electron violation of the frozen-in condition is much more subtle and rarely observed at the X-point; indirect evidence has been more frequently observed in parallel electric fields. The waves responsible for this violation and for resultant energy conversion are at the forefront of observational studies. The contraction of islands centered at multiple O-points could provide for rapid energy conversion. However, observations of in vivo FTEs at the dayside and classical plasmoids at the nightside, are rare even near the expected most probable location of reconnection. Rather, asymmetric proto-plasmoids and dipolarization (a.k.a reconnection) fronts at the nightside signify distinctly different evolution of the reconnection geometry from that of X and O points. Operating within meso-scale (1-3Re) flows the inherently kinetic (at electron inertial scales embeded in ion inertial scale current systems) processes at such fronts play a significant role in the dynamics and drive global magnetospheric energy conversion and flux transport. Recent studies suggest that the entire magnetosphere is, in fact, connected front-to-back by reconnection pulses resulting in meso-scale flows. The upcoming Heliophysics System Observatory, motivated by the launch of MMS and the coordinated observations of THEMIS, ARTEMIS, Van Allen probes and other space and ground assets will answer key questions on this subject locally, regionally and globally.

  18. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  19. Scientific objectives and derived system requirements of the European Space Agency's Earth Explorer Land-Surface Processes and Interactions Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Michael; Berger, Michael; Silvestrin, Pierluigi; Del Bello, Umberto

    1999-12-01

    The Earth Explorer Missions are research/demonstration missions for Earth Observation that are planned for implementation in the frame of the European Space Agency's 'Living Planet' Programme. The program focuses on advancing understanding of different processes that contribute to govern the Earth Systems. One of the four Earth Explorer Missions which was the subject of a Phase A study is the Land-Surface Processes and Interactions Mission (LSPIM). The scientific objectives are the study of land surface processes and their interactions with the atmosphere. It focuses on the measurement of surface characteristics such as albedo, reflectance, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and surface temperature, which are linked to the processes driving bio/geophysical and biochemical variables. To fulfil the mission requirements a hyperspectral imager is proposed as the LSPIM core instrument. The LSPIM imaging spectrometer will provide contiguous spectral coverage in 142 bands within the VIS/NIR/SWIR spectral region with spectral resolution between 10 and 15 nm. Furthermore, TIR observations will be performed by a radiometer in two wavebands. A spatial resolution of 50 m X 50 m with a swath width of 50 km at nadir will be provided. This mission will also have a de- pointing capability for BRDF observations along-track and areal access across-track such that each site of interest can be revisited at 3 days intervals. It is the purpose of this paper to outline the planned spaceborne mission, its scientific objectives and the derived system requirements.

  20. Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pella-Donnelly, M. A.; Daley, B.; Crawford, B.

    2010-12-01

    Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United States. Essential elements of this curriculum include a scaffolded series of lessons on nature of science, making observations and inferences of fossils and development of an increased understanding of essential earth science topics including the Law of Uniformitarianism and the principle of superposition . Through these hands-on lessons, students begin to understand evolutionary theory and nature of science. The rewards of implementing this curriculum can be observed with student excitement as they engage in authentic research; they become student paleontologists as they scour bags of rocks for the fossils that may be unearthed. The rocks had been collected during a field study, by the teachers and are well known to contain a multitude of Devonian era fossils. Students become researchers as they examine, identify, measure and quantify all fossils found in these rocks. As the children contribute their own data to an online database of an actual paleontological study, they become self driven to examine that compiled data in order to construct explanations of past life in that collection area. This presentation will focus on personal experiences of two teachers, as they engaged their students in authentic research in earth science It will focus on using inquiry-based strategies that can be transferred to a multitude of classrooms and how to use this basic format to engage, excite and develop understanding of earth science. Teachers will learn about effective inquiry-based lessons that incorporate aspects nature of science. Additionally, this presentation may inform curriculum designers and geologists of how similar geologic educational curriculum might be designed, using an authentic investigation. Measuring and identifying a Devonian era fossil.

  1. Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

    Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralis are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion picture industry relied upon establishing an accepted second space within the minds of their audiences. By the end of the study period, the universe accepted by most Americans was a "California Universe". It was not a discovery of pure science, but rather a cultural-scientific product of the Mount Wilson astronomers, the Pasadena community and the landscape and culture of Southern California.

  2. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  3. SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  4. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  5. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

    2006-04-01

    AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper, slurry injection rate, via prewetting, slurry injection angle, filter paper prewetting, and slurry mixing time. Many of these factors did not have an influence on defect formation. In order of decreasing importance, critical factors for defect formation by slurry filling are vacuum time (20 sec. optimal), slurry solids loading (20.0 g of cermet with 13.00 g of DGBEA solvent (21.2 vol%)), filling with the pipette in a vertical position, and faster injection rates (~765 l/s) as preferable to slower. No further recommendations for improvement to this process can be suggested. All findings of the slurry filling process have been transferred to CeramTec, the supplier. Paste filling methods appear to show more promise of increasing production yields. The types of flaws commonly found in slurry-filled vias were identified and followed throughout the entire source feedthru process. In general, all sizes of cracks healed during isopressing and firing steps. Additionally, small to medium sized voids (less than 1/3 the via diameter) can be healed. Porosity will usually lead to via necking, which may cause the part to be out of specification. Large voids (greater 4 than 1/3 of the diameter) and partial fills are not healed or produce significant necking. 2.Viability of High-Solids-Loading-Cermet Paste for Filling Source Feedthru ViaThe paste-filling process is easy to implement and easier to use. The high solids loading (>40 vol %) reduces the incidence of drying defects, which are seen in slurry filled (~23 vol %) vias. Additionally, the way in which the vias are filled (the paste is pushed from entrance to exit, displacing air as the paste front progresses), reduces the chance of entrapped voids, which are common in the slurry filling process. From the fair number of samples already filled, the likelihood of this process being a viable and reliable process is very good. Issues of concern for the paste process, as with any new process, are any problems that may arise in subsequent manufacturing stages of the neutron tube that may be affected by subtle changes in microstructure. Both MC4277 and MC4300-type source feedthrus were paste-filled by hand. X-ray analysis showed a much lower existence of voids in the green parts as compared to slurry-filled parts. The paste shows improvements in shelf life (weeks) as compared to slurry (minutes). This method of introducing the cermet to the via also lends itself very well to an automated filling process where a machine can either drill vias or, with the aid of a vision system, find pre-drilled vias and fill them with paste. The pastes used in this work prove the concept of this automated filling process as MC4277 sources have been filled using such a prototype machine, however, better performing pastes can be developed which are less hazardous (aqueous systems). The paste process was also used to successfully fill MC4300 %22dogleg%22 type sources.3.Optimize CND50 Two methods of creating granulated cermet powder for comparison with dry-ball milled CND50 were explored. The first method, non-aqueous spray drying, was performed at Niro Inc. used a 40/60 (wt %) ethanol/toluene solvent and three binder systems; polyvinyl butyral (B79), ethylcellulose (Ethocel), and hydroxypropylcellulose (Klucel). Due to the nature of small spray-dry systems, an excess amount of fines was present in the granulated powder, which may have contributed to the low angles of repose (68 to 78). This is a moderate increase in 5 flowability as standard dry-ball milled powder possesses an angle of repose of 79-89. Mist granulated powders were produced with a tert-butanol solvent and polyvinyl butyral binder system. The angles of repose were more promising (28). More investigation into the mist granulation method is required. Also, aqueous spray drying may be possible with cermet and should be explored. Compaction of all granulated powders is much closer to a proven pressing powder (Sandi94 - angle of repose 29) which should allow cermet to be pressed to near net shape where die filling is difficult for non-flowing powders.4.Microstructure Characterization An analytical technique was developed to numerically characterize microstructures in terms of molybdenum dispersion, homogeneity, and percolation indices. This technique was applied to dry-ball-milled samples of various ball-milling times (0.5 to 20 hours). Significant change in the microstructure could be seen with milling time. Increased milling time caused agglomeration of molybdenum particles, increasing the percolation index, whereas short milling times promoted higher dispersion indices. This phenomenon is contrary to conventional understanding of mixing. However, conventional ball milling does not usually incorporate granules with binder and separate particles. This discrepancy may explain the odd mixing behavior. It is important to note that the high percolation index possessed by long ball mill times showed lower electrical resistance than low-percolation-index microstructures. However, machinability of high percolation, low-dispersion-index microstructures were poor as compared to microstructures with high dispersion indices and moderate percolation indices. This trade-off between dispersion and percolation (at constant molybdenum levels) suggests that microstructures can be achieved that posses good mechanical and electrical properties. Coincidentally, microstructures that satisfy this condition are produced by the standard dry-ball-milled CND50 (4 hour ball mill time). The performance and sensitivity of the microstructure characterization technique should be evaluated, specifically for electrical conductivity. Processing techniques to decrease the percolation index (lowering molybdenum content, excess ball milling, 6 larger molybdenum particles, etc.) should be employed to determine the point where cermet is not conductive or falls below electrical conduction specifications.7

  6. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with 20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

  7. Tectonic and Aqueous Processes in the Formation of Mass-wasting Features on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental to the advancement of planetary geology is an understanding of the interaction between tectonic and aqueous processes on planetary surfaces. This dissertation examines this interaction within two geomorphologic processes: landslide emplacement, on Mars and on Earth, and the formation of seasonal slope features on Mars. Long-runout landsliding in equatorial Valles Marineris, Mars is among the most prominent geomorphic occurrences shaping the canyon. However, the mechanism of landslide long-distance transport, and the highly debated role of water therein, remains elusive. Through systematic mapping of high-resolution satellite images, integrated with spectral analysis, we show that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating landslide transport by lubricating the basal sliding zone. This conclusion implies that clay minerals, generated by ancient water-rock interactions, exert a long-lasting influence on Mars surface processes. The Eureka Valley (EV) landslide is an unexamined, well-preserved long-runout landslide in arid southeast Eureka Valley, California. The field, photogeologic, spectral, and luminescence dating investigation presented here support initiation as a result of fault-generated fracture during the mid to early Holocene at minimum, and transport lubricated by the presence of basal clays, characterized by 3-D internal deformation, as the most likely EV landslide emplacement mechanism. This geomorphological characterization may be applied to long-runout landslides on Earth and other planetary surfaces, suggesting that their emplacement likely does not require the participation of water. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are seasonal, narrow, low-albedo features extending down steep, equator-facing Mars slopes. RSL formation has been largely attributed to the seepage of near-surface water, though its source is not well understood. Through detailed analysis of high-resolution satellite images of RSL geologic contexts, we quantify the significant spatial correlation between RSL source regions and fractures in several geologic settings, indicating that fractures may act as conduits for fluid flow in the formation of RSL. This work provides insight into the hydrological cycle and the potential presence of habitable conditions on present-day Mars. This new understanding of the formation processes of these planetary surface features implicates the persistent role of aqueous and tectonic processes in the formation of geomorphic features on widespread planetary surfaces throughout geologic time.

  8. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Pope, E.; Bird, D.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth's surface and interior cooled following the moon-forming impact. The oceans passed through conditions favored by thermophile organisms before becoming clement. Ocean pH was ~6 and bars of CO2 existed in the atmosphere. Subduction removed the CO2 into the mantle before the time of rock record. Serpentinite likely existed in land, tidal, and marine environments as it does today. Seafloor spreading and arc volcanism likely drove hydrothermal circulation. The late heavy bombardment occurred after ca. 4.1 Ga; low heat flow environments and hence habitable subsurface refugia existed. It is conceivable that one or a few ocean-boiling impacts left thermophile survivors in their wake. Overall, the molecular biology of extant life likely conserves features that relate to its earliest abodes.

  9. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

  10. An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burckin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual…

  11. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  12. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  13. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

  14. Caries process on occlusal surfaces: evolving evidence and understanding.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J C

    2014-01-01

    Management of the caries process on occlusal surfaces of permanent molars has proven a major challenge. The onset of caries on these surfaces takes place soon after their eruption, and the permanent first molars, followed by the second molars, remain the sites in the dentition which show the highest caries prevalence. This paper is structured in the form of questions and answers in which traditional concepts of caries susceptibility of occlusal surfaces are appraised and confronted with the current evidence. Then, research studies examining the role of biological determinants on the development and arrest of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are discussed. Finally, the contribution of these studies in terms of developing the available scientific evidence and our understanding of the caries process on occlusal surfaces is analyzed. The current evidence does not support the concept that the early onset and high prevalence of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are due to a particularly low inherent resistance of the occlusal surface or due to the presence of inaccessible fissure-like structures on these surfaces. Evidence is provided to show that the most influential biological determinants of the development and arrest of occlusal caries are thick plaque accumulation on the groove-fossa system and the stage of tooth eruption limiting mechanical oral function. Consequently, active occlusal lesions are significantly more prevalent in erupting than in fully erupted teeth. The major contribution of this review is to provide updated knowledge about the biological principles determining the development and arrest of caries on occlusal surfaces of erupting teeth. PMID:24577073

  15. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  16. Improved Understanding of ice and dust processes using Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    We use the DART Data Assimilation (DA) framework to ingest radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) into the PlanetWRF Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) and measure the skill of the model in reproducing the observations, and hence to test and improve understanding of the aerosol processes at the heart of Martian climate. The DA framework is used to constrain the surface ice properties in the model using the TES radiance observations and lander pressure measurements as independent constraints on the ice properties. We compare the skill of two ice models in reproducing the TES radiance observations while simultaneously matching lander pressure observations. In one model the effect of subsurface ice is contained within the surface albedo and emissivity parameterization, in the second model subsurface ice is parameterized based on Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data. Both models reproduce the pressure cycle observed by the Viking Lander instruments, but the model with subsurface ice performs significantly better at reproducing the TES radiance observations over the ice-covered poles. We also use the DA framework to investigate the model skill using the Conrath vertical dust profile (with a near surface maximum dust abundance) and a modified dust profile with high altitude maximum that has been inferred from limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The GCM using the modified dust profile produces an atmosphere with thermal lapse rate closer to that measured using nadir observations from TES.

  17. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

  18. Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

  19. Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

  20. Understanding and Tuning the Intrinsic Hydrophobicity of Rare-Earth Oxides: A DFT+U Study.

    PubMed

    Carchini, Giuliano; Garca-Melchor, Max; ?odziana, Zbigniew; Lpez, Nria

    2016-01-13

    Rare-earth oxides (REOs) possess a remarkable intrinsic hydrophobicity, making them candidates for a myriad of applications. Although the superhydrophobicity of REOs has been explored experimentally, the atomistic details of the structure at the oxide-water interface are still not well understood. In this work, we report a density functional theory study of the interaction between water and CeO2, Nd2O3, and ?-Al2O3 to explain their different wettability. The wetting of the metal oxide surface is controlled by geometric and electronic factors. While the electronic term is related to the acid-base properties of the surface layer, the geometric factor depends on the matching between adsorption sites and oxygen atoms from the hexagonal water network. For all the metal oxides considered here, water dissociation is confined to the first oxide-water layer. Hydroxyl groups on ?-Al2O3 are responsible for the strong oxide-water interaction, and thus, both Al- and hydroxyl-terminated wet. On CeO2, the intrinsic hydrophobicity of the clean surface disappears when lattice hydroxyl groups (created by the reaction of water with oxygen vacancies) are present as they dominate the interaction and drive wetting. Therefore, hydroxyls may convert a intrinsic nonwetting surface into a wetting one. Finally, we also report that surface modifications, like cation substitution, do not change the acid-base character of the surface, and thus they show the same nonwetting properties as native CeO2 or Nd2O3. PMID:26652180

  1. Understanding Other Worlds with Spitzer: From Hot Jupiters to Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillon, Michael; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Queloz, Didier; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Pollacco, Don; Wheatley, Peter; Rostron, John; Smalley, Barry; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre; Mahtani, Deepak; Smith, Alexis; Bonfils, Xavier; Dragomir, Diana

    2012-09-01

    The intense study of transiting exoplanets over the past decade has begun to unveil the vast diversity of planetary systems in the Milky Way and to place our own solar system in perspective. Notably, ground-based Doppler and transit surveys are finding at an increasing pace planets suitable for detailed characterization. These planets around bright stars fall into two distinct families providing exciting new avenues at the frontiers of exoplanetary science. On one hand are the numerous highly irradiated gas giants whose atmospheres can be studied in great detail with a wide range of existing instruments from space and ground, notably their temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy transport efficiencies, and atmospheric circulation patterns. On the other hand are the small but growing list of `super-Earths' around bright stars for which the first detections of transits and atmospheric signatures are becoming available. The Spitzer space telescope has played a prominent role in both these areas through a plethora of ground-breaking results, many involving members of our team. Our proposed Exploration Science program with Spitzer aims to pursue major advancements in the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology with a two-pronged approach focused on these two exoplanet families. On the one hand, we will use Spitzer to thoroughly characterize a large and diverse sample of new giant exoplanets, chosen for their ability to place unprecedented constraints on the classification of irradiated giant planets, and stringent constraints on the planets' atmospheric thermal, chemical, and dynamical properties. On the other hand, we will search for the transits of 15 low-mass planets detected by our HARPS Doppler survey, both to constrain their compositions and to increase the small sample of low-mass planets amenable for atmospheric studies with future facilities like JWST. Together, these two complementary parts of our program will form a new major legacy of Spitzer in the study of other worlds.

  2. As "Process" As It Can Get: Students' Understanding of Biological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Judith; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes students' understanding of biological phenomena via the ontological categories of processes and matter. Analysis is based on tenth-grade students' explanations of biological phenomena such as photosynthesis, energy resources, temperature regulation, and the interrelationships between living and nonliving things. (Author/WRM)

  3. Review of Understanding of Earth's Hydrological Cycle: Observations, Theory and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Water is our most precious and arguably most undervalued natural resource. It is essential for life on our planet, for food production and economic development. Moreover, water plays a fundamental role in shaping weather and climate. However, with the growing global population, the planet's water resources are constantly under threat from overuse and pollution. In addition, the effects of a changing climate are thought to be leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather causing floods, landslides and drought. The need to understand and monitor our environment and its resources, including advancing our knowledge of the hydrological cycle, has never been more important and apparent. The best approach to do so on a global scale is from space. This paper provides an overview of the major components of the hydrological cycle, the status of their observations from space and related data products and models for hydrological variable retrievals. It also lists the current and planned satellite missions contributing to advancing our understanding of the hydrological cycle on a global scale. Further details of the hydrological cycle are substantiated in several of the other papers in this Special Issue.

  4. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  5. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  6. Irregular phenomena in the Earth pole oscillation process and temporal variations of geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, V.; Perepelkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    The observed irregular effects in the oscillatory process of the Earth Pole are of significant variability. They may be caused by the hydrosphere oscillations as well as the perturbations associated with the process of excitation and maintenance of the main oscillations components. Previously while carrying out the modeling of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) in short time intervals (interyear periods) the tidal coefficients correction procedure, which took into account high-frequency unstable fluctuations with small amplitudes, was considered alongside with the regular model components. Such a short-period variations caused by geophysical processes don't make a significant influence on the quasi-periodical Earth motion and can be presented in the model as the additional components - residuals. According to the modeling results and the processing of the high-precise series of the IERS observations in the oscillation process of the Earth Pole "irregular effects" can be defined, that are associated with intrayear variation of the main oscillation components. That sort of effects that are registered by IERS, are significantly different than the ones in earlier researches. They are presented as "anomalous" fluctuations of the Earth Pole coordinates, which have a negative impact on the interpolation and prognosis of the mathematical model.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

  8. Understanding Kepler's Super-Earths and Sub-Neptunes: Insights from Thermal Evolution and Photo-Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Eric

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Kepler mission has discovered a large new population of super-Earth and sub-Neptune sized planets. Although we have no analogous planet in our own solar system, such planets are incredibly common. Understanding the nature and formation of systems of these planets is one of the key challenges for theories of planet formation. We use models of thermal evolution and photo-evaporation to constrain the structure, composition, and evolution of low-mass planets. Over time Neptune-like planets with large H/He envelopes can be transformed into rocky super-Earths. We show that differences in mass loss history provide a natural explanation for many features of the Kepler multi-planet systems, such as large density contrast between Kepler-36b and Kepler-36c. For the broader population of Kepler planets, we find that there is a threshold in bulk planet density, mass, and incident flux above which no low-mass transiting planets have been observed. We suggest that this threshold is due to XUV-driven photo-evaporation and show that it is well-reproduced by our evolution models

  9. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  10. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  11. EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  12. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  13. Earth observing SAR data processing systems at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Seasat to EOS SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, David A.; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of SAR digital data processing and management ground systems developed at the JPL for earth science missions is discussed. Attention is given to the SAR ground data system requirements, the early data processing systems, the Seasat SAR system, and the SIR-B data processing system. Special consideration is given to two currently operational SAR data systems: the JPL aircraft SAR processing system that flies on the NASA DC-8 and the Alaska SAR Facility at Fairbanks.

  14. TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.; Team, T.

    2008-12-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This directly affects local geo- ecosystems and human settlements. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of erosion and even desertification. Similar examples could be given for groundwater, early life and climate change. Studying these aspects in an integrated way is essential to forward solid Earth Sciences in response to the needs of society (see http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/). To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the Scandinavian Continental Margin. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities and know- how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists. An important step has been the selection in early 2008 by the European Science Foundation (ESF) of TOPO-EUROPE as one of its large scale European collaborative research initiatives (EUROCORES). In response to the ESF call for proposals, 42 outline proposals were submitted, resulting in 22 full proposals submitted for international peer-review. Out of these, ten collaborative research projects (CRP's) were selected for the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE, with a total funding of 13 million Euro (M$ 18) and new research positions for more than 50 PhD students and post-doctoral researchers.

  15. TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.; Topo-Europe Science Community, The

    2009-04-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This directly affects local geo- ecosystems and human settlements. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of erosion and even desertification. Similar examples could be given for groundwater, early life and climate change. Studying these aspects in an integrated way is essential to forward solid Earth Sciences in response to the needs of society (see http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/). To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the Scandinavian Continental Margin. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities and know- how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists. An important step has been the selection in early 2008 by the European Science Foundation (ESF) of TOPO-EUROPE as one of its large scale European collaborative research initiatives (EUROCORES). In response to the ESF call for proposals, 42 outline proposals were submitted, resulting in 22 full proposals submitted for international peer-review. Out of these, ten collaborative research projects (CRP's) were selected for the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE, with a total funding of 13 million Euro (M 18) and new research positions for more than 50 PhD students and post-doctoral researchers.

  16. Google Earth in the middle school geography classroom: Its impact on spatial literacy and place geography understanding of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgard, Kerri S. W.

    Success in today's globalized, multi-dimensional, and connected world requires individuals to have a variety of skill sets -- i.e. oracy, numeracy, literacy, as well as the ability to think spatially. Student's spatial literacy, based on various national and international assessment results, indicates that even though there have been gains in U.S. scores over the past decade, overall performance, including those specific to spatial skills, are still below proficiency. Existing studies focused on the potential of virtual learning environment technology to reach students in a variety of academic areas, but a need still exists to study specifically the phenomenon of using Google Earth as a potentially more useful pedagogical tool to develop spatial literacy than the currently employed methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which graphicacy achievement scores of students who were immersed in a Google Earth environment were different from students who were provided with only two-dimensional instruction for developing spatial skills. Situated learning theory and the work of Piaget and Inhelder's Child's Conception of Space provided the theoretical grounding from which this study evolved. The National Research Council's call to develop spatial literacy, as seen in Learning to Think Spatially , provided the impetus to begin research. The target population (N = 84) for this study consisted of eighth grade geography students at an upper Midwest Jr. High School during the 2009-2010 academic year. Students were assigned to the control or experimental group based on when they had geography class. Control group students ( n = 44) used two-dimensional PowerPoint images to complete activities, while experimental group students (n = 40) were immersed in the three-dimensional Google Earth world for activity completion. Research data was then compiled and statistically analyzed to answer five research questions developed for this study. One-way ANOVAs were run on data collected and no statistically significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. However, two of the five research questions yielded practically significant data that indicates students who used Google Earth outperformed their counterparts who used PowerPoint on pattern prediction and spatial relationship understanding.

  17. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executivesemantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executivesemantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipitaltemporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  18. Integrated planning and scheduling for Earth science data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Several current NASA programs such as the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) have data processing and data management requirements that call for an integrated planning and scheduling capability. In this paper, we describe the experience of applying advanced scheduling technology operationally, in terms of what was accomplished, lessons learned, and what remains to be done in order to achieve similar successes in ECS and other programs. We discuss the importance and benefits of advanced scheduling tools, and our progress toward realizing them, through examples and illustrations based on ECS requirements. The first part of the paper focuses on the Data Archive and Distribution (DADS) V0 Scheduler. We then discuss system integration issues ranging from communication with the scheduler to the monitoring of system events and re-scheduling in response to them. The challenge of adapting the scheduler to domain-specific features and scheduling policies is also considered. Extrapolation to the ECS domain raises issues of integrating scheduling with a product-generation planner (such as PlaSTiC), and implementing conditional planning in an operational system. We conclude by briefly noting ongoing technology development and deployment projects being undertaken by HTC and the ISTB.

  19. Earth Rotation and Global Dynamic Processes - An Inter-disciplinary Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Jrgen; Kutterer, Hansjrg; Soffel, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For the integrated study of Earth rotation and related global dynamic processes, a joint research initiative with partners from Germany, Austria and Switzerland has now been working for almost 4 years. There, 10 inter-related sub-projects (with 12.5 co-workers from 11 universities and research institutions) are funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Goal is the consistent modelling, analysis and interpretation of all relevant features related to Earth rotation (observation techniques, data processing, the geophysical processes in the Earth system, etc.). The inter-disciplinary research group comprises competences from geodesy, geophysics, meteorology and oceanography. The complete project with a funding line of 3 + 3 years has now entered the second phase. This paper gives an overview about the various research activities and presents a few exemplary results. Further achievements of the research group are given in several oral and poster presentations during this EGU meeting.

  20. Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

  1. Deaf Children's Understanding of Other People's Thought Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the ability of deaf children to predict the behaviours of other people, based on an understanding of their beliefs. An unexpected transfer task and a deceptive box task were used with a group of 55 severely/profoundly deaf children. Results reiterate the findings of other studies that many deaf children are grossly delayed in

  2. Inverse modelling of surface subsidence to better understand the Earth's subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, A. G.; Fokker, P. A.; Kroon, I. C.; de Lange, G.

    2007-12-01

    Surface subsidence can have major repercussions. A classic example is the seabed above the Ekofisk oil field, offshore Norway, where excessive subsidence made it necessary to raise the production platform by 6 m in the 1980s. On land, subsidence may significantly increase the risk of damage to buildings and infrastructure. But, observations of subsidence can also give us a better handle on the subsurface processes like compaction behaviour of a reservoir, (un)drained compartments, or the strength of the aquifer. However, to get this information from subsidence data, you have to carefully follow an inversion procedure. This inversion exercise is a big challenge in which all the available knowledge has to be used to the fullest possible extent. Without the use of this prior knowledge the solution will be non-unique or very ill-conditioned. In our method we distinguish and quantify shallow and deep causes of subsidence in a time-resolved procedure. We take full advantage of all the available knowledge in the form of a prior model, the prior model covariance matrix, and the data covariance matrix. The covariances quantify the expected spatial and temporal relationships between the model points and the data points. As an example, the incorporation of the model covariance implicitly guarantees smoothness of the model estimate, while maintaining specific geological features like sharp boundaries. In two examples we demonstrate the strength of the method. The first example shows that prior knowledge in the form of a correct model parameterization (deep and shallow compaction) is crucial for a reliable result. The second example demonstrates the significant added value of fully accounting for the geology and the reservoir engineering information. Probabilistic information is entered using Monte Carlo simulations with a standard reservoir simulator, with several driving parameters being uncertain. The Monte Carlo runs deliver the prior model estimate and its covariance matrix. The inversion results in a good approximation of the driving parameters, even while their effects in terms of subsidence are highly correlated.

  3. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    JENS, J.

    2003-10-31

    This document presents a process description for the retrieval of earth-covered, contact handled (CH) suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers located in the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The specific trenches include those in Burial Ground 218-W-4C (trenches 1, 4, 7, 20, and 29) and 218-W-4B (Trench 7 and TV-7). It describes the process planned for retrieval of the CH suspect TRU waste containers currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site.

  4. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    CAHILL, M.A.

    2003-07-30

    This document presents a process description for the retrieval of earth-covered, contact handled (CH) suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers located in the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The specific trenches include those in Burial Ground 218-W-4C (trenches 1,4,7,20, and 29) and 21 8-W-4B (Trench 7 and TV-7). It describes the process planned for retrieval of the CH suspect TRU waste containers currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site.

  5. New Advances in Understanding Northern Seasonal Processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Byrne, S.; Bourke, M.; Bridges, N.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; McEwen, A.; Mellon, M.; Pommerol, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.

    2014-07-01

    The sublimation of the seasonal CO2 polar caps is an active surface process in today's martian climate. Seasonal processes are responsible for changes in the morphology of the dunes of the north polar erg detected from one Mars year to the next.

  6. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local vegetation and snow conditions as affecting active layer depths and top permafrost thermal regimes are discussed. An overview of other important periglacial processes such as weathering, rock glacier, pingo and palsa dynamics and their climatic and/or local condition controls are given. Finally an overall discussion on how periglacial processes can affect rock slope stability in periglacial environments close to the permafrost boundary is introduced, with an example from northern Norway.

  7. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

  8. Understanding mid-level representations in visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that early visual processing provides an image-based representation of the visual scene: Neurons in Striate cortex (V1) encode nothing about the meaning of a scene, but they do provide a great deal of information about the image features within it. The mechanisms of these “low-level” visual processes are relatively well understood. We can construct plausible models for how neurons, up to and including those in V1, build their representations from preceding inputs down to the level of photoreceptors. It is also clear that at some point we have a semantic, “high-level” representation of the visual scene because we can describe verbally the objects that we are viewing and their meaning to us. A huge number of studies are examining these “high-level” visual processes each year. Less well studied are the processes of “mid-level” vision, which presumably provide the bridge between these “low-level” representations of edges, colors, and lights and the “high-level” semantic representations of objects, faces, and scenes. This article and the special issue of papers in which it is published consider the nature of “mid-level” visual processing and some of the reasons why we might not have made as much progress in this domain as we would like. PMID:26053241

  9. Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

  10. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils.

    PubMed

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A; Miura, Yayoi N

    2008-11-18

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth-Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  11. Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2008-12-01

    New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically- changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. In our presentation, we will demonstrate how new software tools like Uniview can be used to dramatically enhance and accelerate public comprehension of complex, multi-scale geospatial phenomena.

  12. Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

  13. Primary School Children's Understanding of Municipal Waste Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazar, S. A.; Vrtacnik, M.; Bacnik, A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the basic features and goals of environmental education incorporated into curricula in Slovenia. Findings suggest that waste-processing products are not well known and that Slovene children should be taught about environmental problems that are part of everyday life. (DDR)

  14. Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished

  15. Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at

  16. Understanding the Writing Process through Brain Hemisphere Neurology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogge, Joan Ellet

    Acknowledging that ordering, spatial orientation, and synthesis are important properties in achieving clarity in writing, a study investigated the biological influences on students' writing processes and ways to help writers produce more coherent written products. Subjects, two males and four females ranging in age from 19 to 40, were tested using

  17. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Judith F; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  18. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  19. Establishment and Implementation of a Close Approach Evaluation and Avoidance Process for Earth Observing System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri; Duncan, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, the Earth Science Mission Operations Project tasked the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSPC) Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch with establishment of a process to protect the high-value Earth Observing System (EOS) missions (Terra, Aqua, and Aura) from close approaches with space debris and other orbiting objects. An agreement between GSFC and the United States Strategic Command was put in place so that close approach predictions would be routinely generated. This paper describes the ESMO conjunction assessment process for the EOS satellites. Process details, including tools and algorithms developed, are discussed. Particular details for a predicted close approach between Terra and a piece of space debris that resulted in the execution of a debris avoidance maneuver are included. This close approach example is described in detail fiom the first screening identification through execution of the mitigation maneuver to illustrate both the process and lessons learned fiom its implementation.

  20. Understanding the impact of upscaling THM processes on performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Zhou, Q.; Rutqvist, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-06-10

    The major objective of Benchmark Test 2 (BMT2) is to quantitatively examine the reliability of estimates of repository host rock performance, using large-scale performance assessment (PA) models that are developed by upscaling small-scale parameters and processes. These small-scale properties and processes can be investigated based on either discrete-fracture-network (DFN) models or heterogeneous-porous-medium (HPM) models. While most research teams use DFN, we employ fractal-based HPM for upscaling purposes. Comparison of results based on fundamentally different approaches is useful for evaluating and bounding the uncertainties in estimating repository host rock performance. HPM has both advantages and limitations when compared with DFN. DFM is conceptually more appealing because it explicitly describes fractures and the flow and transport processes that occur within them. However, HPM is more consistent with approaches used to derive field measurements of hydraulic properties (such as permeability). These properties are generally determined based on assumptions related to the continuum approach. HPM is also more straightforward in describing spatial-correlation structures of measured hydraulic properties. For example, potential flow features in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) were found to show marked spatial clustering (Nirex, 1997), which is expected to result in a long range correlation in measured permeability distributions. This important behavior may not be captured with conventional DFNs, in which random distribution (or similar distributions) of individual fractures is assumed. The usefulness of HPM will be partially demonstrated in this report by a satisfactory description of the short interval testing data using Levy-stable fractals. (Recently, Jackson et al. (2000) also showed that equivalent HPMs could approximately describe flow processes within subgrid fracture networks.) We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine flow and transport parameters at different scales. Since we have used a fractal-based approach supported by field measurements, effective properties will be scale-dependent. Effects of mechanical processes on flow and transport properties will be also considered in the upscaling procedure. Then, large-scale thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) and transport processes will be modeled.

  1. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  2. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  3. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  4. Understanding the Generation Process of High Impact Floods in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Zink, M.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-12-01

    Floods in Germany are the costliest natural disasters. The 2002 and the 2013 floods in the Danube and the Elbe river basins caused a havoc, with economic losses surpassing in each event the mark of 11 billion Euros. Considering the high impact of these events and the hydrometeorological records reached in both cases, it is worth trying to disentangle the impact of contributing factors of the flood generation process that lead to the development of these extreme events. Both summer events were caused by heavy rainfall triggered by low pressure systems over middle Europe (Vb and Tm circulation patterns respectively) that carry moist air from the Adriatic northeastward. Rainfall was intensified even further by orographic effects in mountainous regions. Preliminary evidence indicates that antecedent soil moisture conditions might have played a crucial role in the flood generating processes, specifically in the case of the 2013 event. To test this hypothesis, the process based hydrologic model mHM was used to estimate the top soil moisture and the surface runoff over whole Germany at a spatial resolution of 4x4 km2. mHM was forced with gridded daily precipitation and temperature, further disaggregated into hourly values. The gridded daily forcings were obtained with external drift Kriging from a dense network of meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service. Resampling techniques were used to test the null hypothesis that the runoff generation of these two flood events is independent from antecedent soil moisture conditions. Results indicated that the soil moisture antecedent conditions, up to five days before the peak have had a statistically significant impact (p-value less than 5%) on flood generation processes. Moreover, the elasticity of the surface runoff to antecedent soil moisture exhibited a marked difference between events and basins. These differences are more pronounced in wet conditions rather than on dry ones, which in turn highlights that soil moisture is a key factor in the generation process. Soil moisture antecedent conditions before two high impact floods in Germany.

  5. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  6. Development of geological processes on the Earth and their impact on the early biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    2012-09-01

    Though life has been already existed in the Paleoarchean, biosphere started rapid development only in Paleoproterozoic from about 2.4-2.3 Ga. It was practically coincided with period of irreversible change of tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth, when high-Mg magmatism of the early Precambrian, derived from depleted mantle, gave place to the geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti basalts [12]. New type of magmas was characterized by elevated and high contents of elements which are required for metabolism and fermentation. It suggests that this event acted as a trigger for environmental changes and rapid evolution of biosphere, supplying a qualitatively new biophilic material to the Earth's surface. Venus and Mars developed at the same scenario; very likely, that at the beginning liquid water occurred on them; however, processes of the planetary development were favorable for the biosphere evolution only on the Earth.

  7. Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: understanding trials using the normalization process model

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl R; Mair, Frances S; Dowrick, Christopher F; Finch, Tracy L

    2007-01-01

    Background The Normalization Process Model is a conceptual tool intended to assist in understanding the factors that affect implementation processes in clinical trials and other evaluations of complex interventions. It focuses on the ways that the implementation of complex interventions is shaped by problems of workability and integration. Method In this paper the model is applied to two different complex trials: (i) the delivery of problem solving therapies for psychosocial distress, and (ii) the delivery of nurse-led clinics for heart failure treatment in primary care. Results Application of the model shows how process evaluations need to focus on more than the immediate contexts in which trial outcomes are generated. Problems relating to intervention workability and integration also need to be understood. The model may be used effectively to explain the implementation process in trials of complex interventions. Conclusion The model invites evaluators to attend equally to considering how a complex intervention interacts with existing patterns of service organization, professional practice, and professional-patient interaction. The justification for this may be found in the abundance of reports of clinical effectiveness for interventions that have little hope of being implemented in real healthcare settings. PMID:17650326

  8. Simulation approach to understanding the processes that structure food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, H.I.; Gardner, R.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Post, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    A simulation model of food web dynamics, WEB, was constructed and used in Monte Carlo experiments to study the relationship between structure and function in food webs. Four main experiments were designed using WEB. The first tested the robustness of food web structures at equilibrium to variations in the functional response of predators in the food web to the densities of their prey. The second experiment clarified the roles of predation and resource limitation in the process of structuring food webs. A third experiment studied the influence of productivity on food web structure and function using simulated food webs. The final experiment was designed to study the differential successes of generalists and specialists. The main advantage gained by using a simulation approach in each of these experiments was the ability to assess the roles played by processes of predation and competition in structuring model food webs. This was accomplished by interpreting the order of extinction events that occurred in the simulations and relating these to the species configurations at equilibrium. 61 references, 23 figures.

  9. From Genomes to Biomes: Understanding Biogeochemical Processes via Environmental Genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delong, E. F.

    2002-12-01

    Microbial life regulates most of the key redox transformations that occur in natural biogeochemical cycles. Genomics-enabled approaches in microbial ecology can now significantly advance current knowledge of the genome content, diversity, population biology and evolution in natural microbial ecosystems. Cultivation-independent genomic approaches provide direct, generic access to the genome content, functional diversity, and population biology of naturally occurring microbial communities. One advantage of applying genomic approaches is that they are not reliant on a priori assumptions about the specific organisms, biochemical pathways, or biogeochemical processes that are present and active in any particular habitat or community. Therefore, the community composition, genetic character, and biochemical pathways present can be evaluated in a more unbiased fashion. Discoveries concerning the genetic properties of uncultivated microbes, as well as novel genes and biochemical pathways, are now resulting from environmentally-oriented genomic studies. Examples include the discovery of novel phototrophs in marine plankton, and the genetic dissection of uncultivated methane-oxidizing consortia from anoxic deep-sea methane seeps. Results from these early studies indicate that genomic dissection of naturally occurring microbes is extremely useful for characterizing the microorganisms, biochemical pathways and biogeochemical processes that occur in natural environments.

  10. Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

    2011-12-01

    A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form of hydrides) in the Earth's core are also not limitless. When they are exhausted, then naturally, the thermonuclear reactions cease along with all tectonic activity and magnetic field. This study gives a theoretical justification of a possible non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. Surely, if there is degassing of hydrogen from deep areas of the planet, hydrogen once present in the carbon rich areas would result in the hydrogenising reactions potentially forming layers rich with hydrocarbons. Respectively, hydrocarbons (non-organic) could be formed now and will be formed until the source of hydrogen would cease in the Earth's core. Moreover, the pure hydrogen (coming from the Earth's core) could find its way to the surface during some rare and catastrophic evens. However, this is another problem of new methods of how to detect, explore and even produce hydrocarbons including pure hydrogen. Full paper: www.springerlink.com/content/jn2576q7727q0034

  11. Understanding processes contributing to regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Gregory, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    WCRP/IOC Workshop on Regional Sea-Level Change; Paris, France, 7-9 February 2011 . A joint World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) workshop was held to discuss regional changes of sea level. The workshop was attended by 41 experts from the world over who compared observed regional sea level changes with those inferred from numerical simulations and compared future predictions and their analyses in terms of processes. Satellite altimetry observations continue to be essential in revealing that sea level is changing prominently on a regional scale. However, existing climate models are largely in disagreement about patterns and magnitudes of observed sea level variability, and it is unclear how accurate they may be in predicting regional sea level.

  12. Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

    2004-12-01

    Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition, because precipitation patterns in this semi-arid region tend to be temporally distributed, storage and global climate change issues are significant.

  13. Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.; Lee, Robert B., III

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System

    SciTech Connect

    Carruthers, G.R.; Lee, R.B. III NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA )

    1989-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth. 18 refs.

  15. Using concentrated solar radiation to process orbital debris in low earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Bruce Russell

    Orbital debris is a growing concern for all space applications. Specifically, the ASPOD concept has been proposed to help eliminate the debris population. This dissertation focuses on the characterization and feasibility of processing (cutting) structural metals in low earth orbit using concentrated solar energy as they pertain to the ASPOD concept. In characterizing the process, both experimental and analytical techniques were utilized. Analytically, a non-linear explicit finite difference model was created that examined how the heat transfer and physical parameters affect metal processing in low earth orbit. In addition, the model was used to develop a thermal criterion under which processing of aluminum debris can be accomplished with concentrated solar radiation. The experimental investigation entailed designing and constructing two experimental apparatuses. The first experimental apparatus was utilized to demonstrate the control of radiative surface properties on simulated orbital debris and to allow for the conceptual testing of physical parameters. The second experimental apparatus was constructed to demonstrate the entire cutting process. The feasibility of cutting structural members in low earth orbit with concentrated solar is discussed and demonstrated. Finally, the effect of these results on the ASPOD concept and threat of orbital debris is addressed.

  16. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  17. Understanding earthquake source processes with spatial random field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquake rupture is a complex mechanical process that can be formulated as a dynamically running shear crack on a frictional interface embedded in an elastic continuum. This type of dynamic description of earthquake rupture is often preferred among researchers because they believe the kinematic description is likely to miss physical constraints introduced by dynamic approaches and to lead to arbitrary and nonphysical kinematic fault motions. However, dynamic rupture modeling, although they produce physically consistent models, often uses arbitrary input parameters, e.g., stress and fracture energy, partially because they are more difficult to constrain with data compared to kinematic ones. I propose to describe earthquake rupture as a stochastic model with a set of random variables (e.g., random field) that represent the spatial distribution of kinematic source parameters such as slip, rupture velocity, slip duration and velocity. This is a kinematic description of earthquake rupture in the sense that a model is formulated with kinematic parameters, but since the model can be constrained by both rupture dynamics and data, it may have both physical and observational constraints inside. The stochastic model is formulated by quantifying the 1-point and 2-point statistics of the kinematic parameters. 1-point statistics define a marginal probability density function for a certain source parameter at a given point on a fault. For example, a probability distribution for earthquake slip at a given point can control a possible range of values taken by earthquake slip and their likelihood. In the same way, we can control the existence of supershear rupture with a 1-point variability of the rupture velocity. Two point statistics, i.e. auto- and cross-coherence between source parameters, control the heterogeneity of each source parameter and their coupling, respectively. Several interesting features of earthquake rupture have been found by investigating cross-coherence structure of both kinematic and dynamic rupture models. For instance, the correlation maximum between slip and rupture velocity can be shifted from zero offset, i.e. large slip may generate faster rupture velocity ahead of the current rupture front, which may be important for rupture directivity. This type of statistical analysis may too much simplify actual rupture processes, but it could be an efficient tool to provide a simplified view of otherwise complex rupture processes. The remaining issue is how well we can constrain the stochastic model by dynamic rupture modeling, kinematic source inversion, and laboratory experiments, etc. In practice, this stochastic model can be used as a physics-based rupture model generator for ground motion simulation. By simply drawing samples, e.g., Monte Carlo sampling, following a target stochastic model, we can generate physically consistent rupture scenarios in the sense that the target stochastic model is constrained by both rupture dynamics and data. Additionally since this model constrains a possible range of rupture scenarios for future events and quantify their variability within the range, it can be used as a basis to develop an extended earthquake rupture forecast model (eERF) for full-waveform-simulation-based hazard analysis.

  18. Understanding the impact of high temperature processes on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zihms, S. G.; Switzer, C.

    2012-04-01

    High temperature processes such as in situ smouldering and thermal remediation processes can achieve rapid removal of organic contaminants from soils in much shorter time periods than traditional remediation technologies. Remediation goals tend to focus on the removal of contaminants and do not consider the end state of the soil. Exposure to elevated temperature causes changes to physical soil characteristics and has been linked to undesirable effects such as erosion and subsidence. High temperatures affect the particle size distribution, mass loss, mineralogy and permeability of the soil. The particle size decreases with increasing temperature due to a mobilisation of fines. Likely to be due to the bond of fines to the sand grains being affected by temperature. Mass loss and silica sand mineralogy show links to temperature. For temperatures above 500C the mass loss exceeds the initial moisture content of the soil, which is linked to the dehydration reaction of iron-oxides and other mineral changes. The iron-oxide reaction is also reflected in a colour change of the silica sand from yellow to red with increasing temperature. Dynamic properties of soil such as permeability seem to be affected by treatment type rather than temperature alone. Soil exposed to smouldering remediation showed an increase of permeability by an order of magnitude in comparison to heat-treated and untreated soils. These results for silica sand as a simple model soil show that soil properties are affected by temperature to various degrees which can lead to a change in dynamic behaviour. It is therefore important to move from a simple model soil, such as silica sand to a more complex realistic model soil. This study therefore compares the above mentioned results for silica sands with sandy clay loam. Due to the content of silt and clay-sized particles the particle size distribution is more affected by aggregation due to fusion of silt and clay-sized particles with increased temperatures. Mass loss and mineralogy changes are dependent on the initial mineralogy of the soil but similar relations have been found. This study suggests that elevated temperatures affect soil properties. Monitoring during and after remediation is advised.

  19. MT+, integrating magnetotellurics to determine earth structure, physical state, and processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    As one of the few deep-earth imaging techniques, magnetotellurics provides information on both the structure and physical state of the crust and upper mantle. Magnetotellurics is sensitive to electrical conductivity, which varies within the earth by many orders of magnitude and is modified by a range of earth processes. As with all geophysical techniques, magnetotellurics has a non-unique inverse problem and has limitations in resolution and sensitivity. As such, an integrated approach, either via the joint interpretation of independent geophysical models, or through the simultaneous inversion of independent data sets is valuable, and at times essential to an accurate interpretation. Magnetotelluric data and models are increasingly integrated with geological, geophysical and geochemical information. This review considers recent studies that illustrate the ways in which such information is combined, from qualitative comparisons to statistical correlation studies to multi-property inversions. Also emphasized are the range of problems addressed by these integrated approaches, and their value in elucidating earth structure, physical state, and processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  20. A roast-leach process for extraction of rare earths from complex monazite-xenotime concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Franken, K.M.

    1995-04-01

    The proposed process approaches the problem of solubilizing rare-earth phosphates (monazite and zenotime) found at the Pea Ridge iron mine in Sullivan, MO, from both a pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical point of view. It utilizes a roasting operation that converts the rare-earth phosphates to rare-earth oxides (REOs), which eliminates some costly and hazardous processing steps currently in practice. Different combinations of roasting temperatures and acid concentrations have been investigated to selectively extract the rare-earth values. Cerium is selectively solubilized by roasting at 427{degrees}C and leaching with a sulfuric acid concentration of 265 g/L. After the cerium is removed, the neodymium and lanthanum can be solubilized at a roasting temperature of 500{degrees}C and a sulfuric acid concentration of 88 g/L. Finally, neodymium, praseodymium, and yttrium are solubilized at a roasting temperature of 871{degrees}C and a sulfuric acid concentration of 265 g/L. Alternative leaching media, such as thiourea, sulfuric acid-doped thiourea mixtures, ammonium thiosulfate, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid have also been investigated along with the addition of ultrasonic agitation. Using ultrasonics in addition to mechanical agitation, hydrochloric acid proved to be the best leaching medium. The best roasting temperatures for selective solubilization remained the same, but all of the leaching steps were conducted at 64 g/L hydrochloric acid.

  1. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  2. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web-varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic 'top-down' cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled 'bottom-up' cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

  3. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H; Lafferty, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascadesthat is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food webvaries widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic top-down cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled bottom-up cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

  4. Understanding pattern collapse in photolithography process due to capillary forces.

    PubMed

    Chini, S Farshid; Amirfazli, A

    2010-08-17

    Photolithography is the most widely used mass nanoproduction process. Technology requirements demand smaller nanodevices. However, smaller features risk collapse during the drying of rinse liquid because of capillary forces. In the present study, progress is made on two fronts: (i) The importance of surface tension force (STF) on three-phase line on the pattern collapse is investigated. The STF was ignored in previous pattern collapse studies. It is found that inclusion of STF increases the pattern deformation. The calculated deformation error from neglecting STF increases by increasing contact angle, pattern height to width ratio, and trough to width ratio. The deformation error decreases with an increase in elasticity module of pattern. (ii) A more accurate representation for the interface curvature (and related Laplace pressure), that is, using Surface Evolver (SE) simulation rather than cylindrical interface model (CIM), is presented. Curvature values of two-line parallel and box-shaped patterns are derived from SE and compared with the curvature values from CIM. It was found that CIM for the case of two-line parallel overestimates the curvature value and for the case of box-shaped underestimates it. SE simulations also showed that the error of calculating curvature values using CIM for both shapes is only a function of LAR (ratio of pattern length to trough width). For LAR values less than 20, the curvature values from CIM are not accurate for calculating pattern deformation. PMID:20695624

  5. Make Earth science education as dynamic as Earth itself

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenbacher, Conrad C.; Groat, Charles G.

    2004-12-01

    The images of rivers spilling over their banks and washing away entire towns, buildings decimated to rubble by the violent shaking of the Earth's plates, and molten lava flowing up from inside the Earth's core are constant reminders of the power of the Earth. Humans are simply at the whim of the forces of Mother Natureor are we? Whether it is from a great natural disaster, a short-term weather event like El Nino, or longer-term processes like plate tectonics, Earth processes affect us all. Yet,we are only beginning to scratch the surface of our understanding of Earth sciences. We believe the day will come when our understanding of these dynamic Earth processes will prompt better policies and decisions about saving lives and property. One key place to start is in America's classrooms.

  6. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current can be significantly reduced due to diffusional limitation of the transport of gaseous reactants through inerts such as water vapor and nitrogen gas. A non-uniform current distribution across the membrane electrode assembly can cause pinhole formation and ultimately, fuel cell failure.

  7. Bridging the gap between omics and earth system science to better understand how environmental change impacts marine microbes.

    PubMed

    Mock, Thomas; Daines, Stuart J; Geider, Richard; Collins, Sinead; Metodiev, Metodi; Millar, Andrew J; Moulton, Vincent; Lenton, Timothy M

    2016-01-01

    The advent of genomic-, transcriptomic- and proteomic-based approaches has revolutionized our ability to describe marine microbial communities, including biogeography, metabolic potential and diversity, mechanisms of adaptation, and phylogeny and evolutionary history. New interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from this descriptive level to improved quantitative, process-level understanding of the roles of marine microbes in biogeochemical cycles and of the impact of environmental change on the marine microbial ecosystem. Linking studies at levels from the genome to the organism, to ecological strategies and organism and ecosystem response, requires new modelling approaches. Key to this will be a fundamental shift in modelling scale that represents micro-organisms from the level of their macromolecular components. This will enable contact with omics data sets and allow acclimation and adaptive response at the phenotype level (i.e. traits) to be simulated as a combination of fitness maximization and evolutionary constraints. This way forward will build on ecological approaches that identify key organism traits and systems biology approaches that integrate traditional physiological measurements with new insights from omics. It will rely on developing an improved understanding of ecophysiology to understand quantitatively environmental controls on microbial growth strategies. It will also incorporate results from experimental evolution studies in the representation of adaptation. The resulting ecosystem-level models can then evaluate our level of understanding of controls on ecosystem structure and function, highlight major gaps in understanding and help prioritize areas for future research programs. Ultimately, this grand synthesis should improve predictive capability of the ecosystem response to multiple environmental drivers. PMID:25988950

  8. Transfer of New Earth Science Understandings to Classroom Teaching: Lessons Learned From Teachers on the Leading Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, R.; Ault, C.; Bishop, E.; Southworth-Neumeyer, T.; Magura, B.; Hedeen, C.; Groom, R.; Shay, K.; Wagner, R.

    2006-05-01

    Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE) provided a field-based teacher professional development program that explored the active continental margin geology of the Pacific Northwest during a two-week field workshop that traversed Oregon from the Pacific Coast to the Snake River. The seventeen teachers on this journey of geological discovery experienced regional examples of subduction-margin geology and examined the critical role of geophysics in connecting geologic features with plate tectonic processes. Two examples of successful transfer of science content learning to classroom teaching are: (1) Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis. This topic was addressed through instruction on earthquake seismology; field observations of tsunami geology; examination of tsunami preparedness of a coastal community; and interactive learning activities for children at an Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) Science Camp. Teachers at Sunnyside Environmental School in Portland developed a story line for middle school students called "The Tsunami Hotline" in which inquiries from citizens serve as launch points for studies of tsunamis, earthquakes, and active continental margin geology. OMSI Science Camps is currently developing a new summer science camp program entitled "Tsunami Field Study" for students ages 12-14, based largely on TOTLE's Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis Day. (2) The Grand Cross Section. Connecting regional geologic features with plate tectonic processes was addressed many times during the field workshop. This culminated with teachers drawing cross sections from the Juan de Fuca Ridge across the active continental margin to the accreted terranes of northeast Oregon. Several TOTLE teachers have successfully transferred this activity to their classrooms by having student teams relate earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics through artistic renderings of The Grand Cross Section. Analysis of program learning transfer to classroom teaching (or lack thereof) clearly indicates the importance of pedagogical content knowledge and having teachers share their wisdom in crafting new earth science content knowledge into learning activities. These lessons and adjustments to TOTLE program goals and strategies may be valuable to other Geoscience educators seeking to prepare K-12 teachers to convey the discoveries of EarthScope's USArray and Plate Boundary Observatory experiments to their students.

  9. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  10. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific experiments such as EarthScope, provide great opportunities to gather new data to further enhance our current understanding of the seismicity and tectonics of the CEUS region, there is also a heightened need for continuation of small-scale scientific missions geared toward understanding of seismic sources in low-seismicity regions. Although such regions are not high-priority areas of research and they do not usually receive the needed attention of funding agencies and the larger scientific community, extensive studies in these areas are still needed. Creating awareness and interest of the needs for seismic studies in such regions is a critical issue from a regulatory perspective. The U.S. NRC's open government philosophy based processes provide excellent opportunities for the involvement of research and educational communities in the regulatory processes related to seismic hazards in the US. This presentation will discuss the available processes for public participation in the US NRC new reactor licensing decisions and highlight some key research areas that will benefit seismic hazard estimations in the CEUS.

  11. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  12. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

  13. The Earth's core formation and development: evidence from evolution of tectonomagmatic processes and paleomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.

    2011-12-01

    Many geologists confident that the core provides modern tectonic and magmatic activity on the Earth, which explains our interest in this topic, and vice versa we can use evolution of tectonomagmatic processes throughout the Earth's (and other terrestrial planetary bodies) history for reconstruction of the core formation and evolution. Most researchers, follow to V. Safronov (1972) and A. Ringwood (1979), confident that the Earth has occurred due to accumulation of hypothetical chemically homogeneous planetesimals, composed by chondrite material, ie, as a result of homogeneous accretion. However, this single-stage chondrite model of accretion is inconsistent with fact of cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes on the terrestrial planets in the middle stages of their development. For example, the critical irreversible change of the Earth's tectonomagmatic evolution occurred in range 2.35-2.0 Ga, when geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts firstly appeared in large quantities and first geological evidence of plate tectonics showed up (Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2010). We suggest that these changes were linked with ascending of mantle superplumes of the second generation (thermochemical), originated at the the boundary of liquid iron core and silicate mantle, in similar way as the modern plumes. All terrestrial planetary bodies (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury, and the Moon) have a similar structure, consist of iron core and silicate envelope, and developed at the same scenario, which provide for drastic irreversible change in character of tectonomagmatic processes at the middle stages of their evolution (Sharkov, Bogatikov, 2009). Such a situation can be realized only in case: (1) the terrestrial planetary bodies originally had heterogeneous structure, and (2) their heating occurred from the top down accompanied by cooling of outer shells. As a result, material of the primordial cores, where enriched material survived, were remained a long time untouched. It assumes the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) occurred by heterogeneous accretion from the material that existed in the early Solar system with primordial iron cores as embryos. Material of this core can be activated only as a result of its melting which fit with paleomagnetic data on the Earth, where magnetic field strength culminated practically simultaneously with beginning of the tectonomagmatic activity change. However, magnetic field on the Earth was existed at least from 3.5 Ga (Tardino et al., 2010) evidence about liquid iron in its deep interior, considered with separation of low-temperature Fe+FeS eutectic from the chondritic primordial mantle. It sank through silicate matrix and accumulated on surface of still cool primordial core. However, it was not affected on tectonomagmatic processes, which occurred essential later. So, the modern (secondary) Earth's core is formed by mixture of the iron of chondrite origin and material of the primordial core which were intermixed by convection after melting of the latter. It agrees with Walker (2010) data that part of material of the terrestrial planets cores was not related to chondrite.

  14. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  15. NASA Remote Sensing Data in Earth Sciences: Processing, Archiving, Distribution, Applications at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) archiving and distributing remote sensing data from the NASA's Earth Observing System. In addition to providing just data, the GES DISC/DAAC has developed various value-adding processing services. A particularly useful service is data processing a t the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data). The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from data subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. Shifting processing and data management burden from users to the GES DISC, allows scientists to concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the data management and data processing at a lower cost. Several examples of successful partnerships with scientists in the area of data processing and mining are presented.

  16. Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model

  17. A satellite data processing and analysis software system for earth's atmosphere and surface research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dealy, B.; Gautier, C.; Frouin, R.; Bates, J.; Lingner, D.

    1988-01-01

    The OASIS (Oceanic and Atmospheric Satellite Imaging System) is a satellite data processing and analysis software system being developed by the California Space Institute (Cal Space) for support of interdisciplinary and integrated earth sciences research programs. The system's software applications are integrated under a common executive, NASA's Transportable Application Executive (TAE). In this paper, TAE and the system software and hardware are described, and specific techniques used for ingesting, processing, analyzing, and graphically displaying data from many of the sensors presently being flown are presented. Scientific uses of these capabilities that are, or will shortly be, running under TAE at Cal Space are described.

  18. Bioprotection explored: the story of a little known earth surface process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, N. E. A.; Viles, H. A.

    2005-04-01

    Bioprotection is identified as an earth surface process. However, it has been little studied, little acknowledged and yet may have major implications for the operation and management of geomorphic systems. Key early observations are traced back to Darwin's 'Voyage of the Beagle', Geikie in the natural environment and Watson for the built environment. Recent field observations and experimental work examining bioprotection are reviewed, with a specific focus on lichens and the landscape, as are its complex interactions with other processes. A conceptual model of bioprotection is presented for the case of an epilithic lichen on a limestone surface.

  19. Marking Tests to Certify Part Identification Processes for Use in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose for the MISSE marking tests was to define Data Matrix symbol marking processes that will remain readable after exposure to Low Earth Orbit environments. A wide range of different Data Matrix symbol marking processes and materials, including some still under development, were evaluated. The samples flown on MISSE 1 and 2 were in orbit for 3 years and 348 days, MISSE 3 and 4 were in orbit for 1 year and 15 days, MISSE 6 was in orbit for 1 year and 130 days, and MISSE 8 was in orbit for 2 years and 55 days. The initial MISSE marking tests clearly reflected that intrusive marking processes can be successfully used for this purpose. All of the intrusive marking processes tested exceeded program expectations and met 100 percent of the principle investigators objectives. However, subsequent tests demonstrated that some additive marking processes will also satisfy the requirements. This was an unexpected result.

  20. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

  1. Understanding surface processes 3D imaging from micro-scale to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin; Guerin, Antoine; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Michoud, Clément; Nicolet, Pierrick; Penna, Ivanna; Rudaz, Benjamin; Voumard, Jeremie; Wyser, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The production of topography using remote sensing techniques has considerably been improved during the last fifteen years due to the advances in electronics and to the increase of computing power. The earth surface is monitored at all the scales using Space Shuttle Missions (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), or using laser scanner (LS), both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS), with accuracies that can reach up to less than 50 microns for observations of objects at meter scale. Recently, photogrammetry has been pushed by the progress of LiDAR and thanks to the advance in image recognition. It led to the development of new techniques such as structure-from-motion (SFM), which allows obtaining 3D point cloud based on several pictures of the same object taken from several point of views. Both LiDAR and Photogrammetry produce 3D point clouds. One of the current 3D applications is the surface changes, which is often based simply on the subtraction of DEM at different time intervals, leading to a simple superficial description of the natural processes without information on the mass transport. However, a point cloud has much more information than a simple surface. For instance, shape recognition can be used to track objects or deformations such as a rock mass toppling, either using the shape of the point cloud or a specific moving element. Such method permits, for instance, to study in detail pre-failure accelerations, and are now routinely used in mining industry. Other methods are coupling images and DEMs and are used, for example, to capture the surface vectors of displacements in order to deduce the surface deformations of landslides. These types of surveys have now broad applications to all kinds of erosional processes. The coastal retreat can be monitored, and it displays in some places several centimetres per year of retreat on average. The sediment transports in torrent are now better constraint showing clearly pulses. The seasonal cycles can as well be detected either for debris-flows prone catchments or at the level of the soil erosion such as in black marls context. In addition, the application of these methods to micro-scale erosional processes such as raindrop erosion permits to open new perspective in the understanding of the soil erosion that is a major threat. Last but not least, these fine topographies can be used to map geology not only by the morphometric attribute but also by the intensity of the laser or by images from other sources, providing useful tools for lithological mapping. Therefore, the erosion processes are even better tackled, as it has been demonstrated for instance on granite cliffs. Furthermore, the use of surface information such as slope aspect etc. can give information on the ground structure. Large domains of research are now being opened, providing great perspectives in earth surface dynamics.

  2. Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

    2007-12-01

    The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

  3. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was also collected from a larger bank of test questions. Discrimination indices across the full bank showed variation and additional work is underway to refine and field test in other settings these questions in the absence of InTeGrate curricula. When complete, faculty will be able to assemble sets of questions to track progress toward meeting literacy goals. In addition to covering geoscience content knowledge and understanding, a complementary attitudinal pre/post survey was also developed with the intent to probe InTeGrate students' ability and motivation to use their geoscience expertise to address problems of environmental sustainability. The final instruments will be made available to the geoscience education community as an assessment to be used in conjunction with InTeGrate teaching materials or as a stand-alone tool for departments to measure student learning and attitudinal gains across the major.

  4. Final Report Collaborative Project. Improving the Representation of Coastal and Estuarine Processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; MacCready, Parker; Whitney, Michael

    2015-11-20

    This project aimed to improve long term global climate simulations by resolving and enhancing the representation of the processes involved in the cycling of freshwater through estuaries and coastal regions. This was a collaborative multi-institution project consisting of physical oceanographers, climate model developers, and computational scientists. It specifically targeted the DOE objectives of advancing simulation and predictive capability of climate models through improvements in resolution and physical process representation. The main computational objectives were: 1. To develop computationally efficient, but physically based, parameterizations of estuary and continental shelf mixing processes for use in an Earth System Model (CESM). 2. To develop a two-way nested regional modeling framework in order to dynamically downscale the climate response of particular coastal ocean regions and to upscale the impact of the regional coastal processes to the global climate in an Earth System Model (CESM). 3. To develop computational infrastructure to enhance the efficiency of data transfer between specific sources and destinations, i.e., a point-to-point communication capability, (used in objective 1) within POP, the ocean component of CESM.

  5. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  6. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

  7. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  8. Environmental seismology: What can we learn on earth surface processes with ambient noise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Eric; Carrire, Simon; Voisin, Christophe; Bottelin, Pierre; Baillet, Laurent; Guguen, Philippe; Walter, Fabian; Jongmans, Denis; Guillier, Bertrand; Garambois, Stphane; Gimbert, Florent; Massey, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Environmental seismology consists in studying the mechanical vibrations that originate from, or that have been affected by external causes, that is to say causes outside the solid Earth. This includes for instance the coupling between the solid Earth and the cryosphere, or the hydrosphere, the anthroposphere and the specific sources of vibration developing there. Environmental seismology also addresses the modifications of the wave propagation due to environmental forcing such as temperature and hydrology. Recent developments in data processing, together with increasing computational power and sensor concentration have led to original observations that allow for the development of this new field of seismology. In this article, we will particularly review how we can track and interpret tiny changes in the subsurface of the Earth related to external changes from modifications of the seismic wave propagation, with application to geomechanics, hydrology, and natural hazard. We will particularly demonstrate that, using ambient noise, we can track 1) thermal variations in the subsoil, in buildings or in rock columns; 2) the temporal and spatial evolution of a water table; 3) the evolution of the rigidity of the soil constituting a landslide, and especially the drop of rigidity preceding a failure event.

  9. CZ-Tope: Using Measurements of Multiple Isotopes in One Setting to Understand Critical Zone Processes Occurring over Different Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) science includes the study of the inter-related chemical, physical, and biological processes happening at the earth surface. CZ science differs from watershed science or other similar initiatives in that it not only incorporates many disciplinary approaches and crosses spatial scales, but it also aims to understand processes occurring at timescales varying from those characterizing fast chemical reactions to the slow responses of surficial systems to tectonic change. Isotope systems are an important tool that can be used to assess processes at different timescales. Some isotopic systems are used as chronometers. Synthesizing isotopic data from different elemental systems to understand processes as complex as weathering at a ridgetop, hillslope transformation, or watershed evolution is a difficult task but is essential toward deciphering the complex coupling that characterizes surficial systems. A good example where isotopes are elucidating CZ processes is the analysis of weathering at ridgetops, along hillslopes, and in watersheds. Targetting these three types of study sites at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, we have used Mg, Fe, Li, Ca, Be, Sr, U and other isotopes to understand the effects of weathering in one-dimension (1D), 2D and 3D, respectively. Some of the systems such as Fe yield information about elemental losses due to biogeochemical weathering. Other isotopes such as U yield information about the development of particles from bedrock. In this talk I will synthesize data from many different researchers working at the CZO to show how disparate isotopic data for one set of sites can answer questions of how landforms develop and change. This effort to use many isotopes on the same CZ setting -- which we call "CZ-tope" science -- requires sharing of sites, samples, and data in team research. CZ-tope science delineates which processes control which features at each timescale of interest.

  10. Zonal concentration of some geophysical process intensity caused by tides and variations in the Earth's rotation velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B.; Domanski, A.; Sasorova, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed what kind of fundamental physical phenomena can be responsible for the generation of the anomalous latitudinal zones of the seismic activity, and the hotspots, and some other geophysical processes. The assessment of tidal effect contribution to the earthquake preparation process is discussed. A disk model of the Earth's rotation was proposed. The model is acceptable for the homogeneous Earth and for the heterogeneous one. The disk model explains the nucleation of two maximums of the gradient of the moment of inertia over latitude with respect to the Equator. Effects of the variations in the Earth's rotation angular velocity were estimated and the possible features caused by the rotation velocity instability were described. The variations in the relative velocity of the Earth's rotation (dimensionless value ? ? (T - P)/P) are approximately equal upon the average to 10-8, where T is the observed length of day for the Earth, and P is the astronomical day. These variations lead to the occurrence of the additional energy estimated as 1020 J. The authors proposed the hypothesis of a pulsating geoid based on effects of the Earth's rotation features, and tidal forces, and conception of critical latitudes in the solid Earth. This hypothesis may highlight the phenomenon of zonal intensification of some geological processes in the solid Earth (the seismic activity, and hotspot location, and major ore deposit locations).

  11. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOEpatents

    Epperly, William R.; Deane, Barry C.; Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  12. The evolution of the earth's crust and of ore-formation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugarinov, A. I.

    Special attention is given to various aspects of the Precambrian geochronology of various regions. A geochronological scale of the Precambrian is discussed, noting that correlations between continents that have been carried out with this scale are recognized internationally. Attention is also given to various problems concerning the evolution of the crust during the earth's geological history. Studies on the formation of ore deposits are included which deal not only with the origin of the ore but also with determining the exact physicochemical parameters of the ore-formation process.

  13. Earth Science System of the Future: Observing, Processing, and Delivering Data Products Directly to Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Advancement of our predictive capabilities will require new scientific knowledge, improvement of our modeling capabilities, and new observation strategies to generate the complex data sets needed by coupled modeling networks. New observation strategies must support remote sensing from a variety of vantage points and will include "sensorwebs" of small satellites in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in Geostationary orbits, and sentinel satellites at L1 and L2 to provide day/night views of the entire globe. Onboard data processing and high speed computing and communications will enable near real-time tailoring and delivery of information products (i.e., predictions) directly to users.

  14. Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

    2013-01-01

    A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

  15. An image-processing system applied to earth-resource imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, P.; Gardner, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Harwell Image Processing System (HIPS) has been adapted for processing earth-resource imagery in either film or tape format. Data from film are obtained using a computer-controlled flying-spot scanner. Local rapid interactive processing is based on a PDP 11/20 minicomputer which has suitable display facilities for immediate visual appraisal of results and also a fast data link to an IBM 370/168 computer complex. An extensive subroutine library is being assembled for data preprocessing and feature extraction. This chapter includes a discussion of the basic principles of image analysis, a description of the HIPS system, and finally, for illustrative purposes, a description of several simple software routines.

  16. Application of CERES Energy Budget Data to Improve Understanding of the Dynamic Role of Clouds in the Earth's Planetary Albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. T.; Garrett, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud fraction has a large influence on the top of the atmosphere global energy balance through its control of the Earth's planetary albedo. Radiative-dynamic interaction of clouds occur at scales unresolved by GCMs so mechanistic models are needed for what controls the global response of cloud fraction to external forcings from changes in insolation. There is a periodic oscillation of globally averaged solar insolation due to the elliptical orbit of the earth of 11 Watts per meter squared or ~3.5% of its mean value of 340 Watts per meter squared. What is interesting is that analysis of CERES data shows that the northern hemisphere winter increase in global solar insolation is concurrent with an increase in the Earth's planetary albedo of ~0.01, which is also ~3.5% of the mean value of 0.29. However, the albedo declines from its maximum value approximately one month earlier than the solar maximum, concurrent with a decline in net energy deposition in the Earth's atmosphere, defined as the difference of the albedo-adjusted solar input and the outgoing longwave TOA flux. In prior work, we have shown that the radiative temperature difference between cloud base and the surface and below cloud air controls the potential energy that is available to be supplied to the cloud for driving dynamic motions and the extent of cloud cover spreading. We propose a speculative mechanism for the observed relationships between solar insolation and the Earth's planetary albedo. When there is net positive energy deposition in the Earth's atmosphere, this drives atmospheric convection and cloud spreading, which increases planetary albedo. A higher albedo acts as a negative feedback on increasing energy deposition from the Earth being closer to the sun, diminishing the solar input. This in turn acts as a negative feedback on cloud cover. Thus, the impact of solar eccentricity on net energy deposition is regulated by the response and control of cloud cover on planetary albedo. This interplay between cloud cover and solar eccentricity acts as a shortwave global-scale "iris".

  17. What Processes Have Shaped Basalt Boulders on Earth and Mars? Studies of Feature Persistence Using Facet Mapping and Fractal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viles, H. A.; Brearley, A. J.; Bourke, M. C.; Holmlund, J.

    2005-03-01

    Facet mapping at Ephrata Fan suggest a potentially high persistence of fluvially-created features on basalt boulders on Earth. The absence of any such features at Gusev Crater imply that fluvial processes have not affected the boulders there.

  18. Uderstanding Snowball Earth Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbot, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Earth, a normally clement planet comfortably in its star's habitable zone, suffered global or nearly global glaciation at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (at about 635 and 710 million years ago). Viewed in the context of planetary evolution, these pan-global glaciations (Snowball Earth events) were extremely rapid, lasting only a few million years. The dramatic effect of the Snowball Earth events on the development of the planet can be seen through their link to rises in atmospheric oxygen and evolutionary innovations. These potential catastrophes on an otherwise clement planet can be used to gain insight into planetary habitability more generally. Since Earth is not currently a Snowball, a sound deglaciation mechanism is crucial for the viability of the Snowball Earth hypothesis. The traditional deglaciation mechanism is a massive build up of CO2 due to reduced weathering during Snowball Earth events until tropical surface temperatures reach the melting point. Once initiated, such a deglaciation might happen on a timescale of only dozens of thousands of years and would thrust Earth from the coldest climate in its history to the warmest. Therefore embedded in Snowball Earth events is an even more rapid and dramatic environmental change. Early global climate model simulations raised doubt about whether Snowball Earth deglaciation could be achieved at a CO2 concentration low enough to be consistent with geochemical data, which represented a potential challenge to the Snowball Earth hypothesis. Over the past few years dust and clouds have emerged as the essential missing additional processes that would allow Snowball Earth deglaciation at a low enough CO2 concentration. I will discuss the dust and cloud mechanisms and the modeling behind these ideas. This effort is critical for the broader implications of Snowball Earth events because understanding the specific deglaciation mechanism determines whether similar processes could happen on other planets.

  19. Increased complexity modeling provides new physical understanding of landscape-forming processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Supercomputer resources are increasingly available and affordable to geomorphologists. Significant computational time on a supercomputer is often less expensive than a single trip to a research conference. Perhaps more importantly, massively-parallel, open source codes for solving fluid and particle mechanics and surface evolution, albeit with some modification, are available at no expense. Complex, reductionist modeling approaches, resolving a large range of scales while conserving mass, momentum, and energy, are under-utilized within the surface processes research community. Highly-resolved models provide a richness of data that generally cannot be gained from field or laboratory experiments. Fluid pressure, for example, is difficult to measure except at a few discrete points. The data richness of resolved models can provide physical insight that is not otherwise possible. In such circumstances, lab and field experiments can be designed to validate new physics. Validation itself is a challenge when the primary goal is to confirm new physical insight rather than to compare predicted and actual outcomes. Monte Carlo simulation of sampling distributions is quite useful for statistical inference in such situations where fields are almost always correlated in space and time. A number of highly-resolved modeling efforts of landscape forming processes, the physical insights learned, and attempts to validate them will be presented. Turbulence- and particle-resloving simulations of bedload and suspended sediment transport in water will be presented. New physical insights from this model involve direct computation of the suspended sediment boundary condition, stratification effects on momentum and mass diffusivity, a new understanding of bedload entrainment by turbulence, and a reduced importance of bedload saltation relative to other motions. Turbulence-resolving simulations of flow and suspended sediment transport in meander bends and lateral separation eddies in rivers reveal the importance of large-scale turbulence structures produced because of secondary circulation and flow separation. Turbulence-resolving and Reynolds-averaged models of flow and formation of aeolian dunes on earth and in Martian craters, and a water, air, and particle model of raindrop impacts will also be briefly presented.

  20. Putting the Cart before the Horse: Understanding the Family Assessment Process in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Votava, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of six state-wide policies and procedures used in the family assessment process within early intervention services. This study looked at the administrative understanding of the family assessment federal regulations, state policies and procedures, and local implementation from the perspective

  1. A Pre-Lab Guide for General Chemistry: Improving Student Understanding of Chemical Concepts and Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Marla K.; Layman, John W.

    This study investigated perceptions of 56 students in 4 general chemistry labs regarding their understanding of chemical concepts and processes. Conceptual understanding of scientific investigation was the focus. Students using a pre-lab guide for lab preparation were compared with students completing a traditional pre-lab assignment. Data sources…

  2. Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Earth Crust of Central Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashayan, R.

    2012-12-01

    At present methods of monitoring are widely used and implemented in the different fields of science to receive non stop information about the observed object in time. The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust is developed in Garny Geophysical Observatory. It is based on the abilities of geophysical and hydrogeological indicators to react to the changes of stressedly deformative state of earth crust. The study of variations of magnetic observations connected with the deformation processes which took place during the preparation of earthquake source or of other tectonic movements will significantly increase the informational and effective character of monitoring. The changes of hydrogeological indicators depending on the deformation of water-bearing rocks are defined by the parameters of deformational fields and by the elastic and filtration characters of rocks. Methodological means of monitoring are brought to the signal appearing which reflects the deformation of rock massive. The methods of noise elimination and singling out 'deformational signals' allow to delete or mention the trend, to compensate the influence of variations on atmospheric pressure on time rows of geophysical rows and underground water level, to allocate earth tide induced fluctuations of level. But not all the noise may be deleted by calculation. The following is included in the group of non-controlled noise: the influence of infiltration on atmospheric precipitations, effects of certain technogenic influences. Deformation indicators may be not only the deflection of geophysical indicators from certain phone values but also the parametres of variations of these indicators. There exists data on the changes of parameters of barometric effectiveness and saw tooth fluctuations of underground water level before seismic events. In some cases the noise which hinders the appearance of deformational signal may itself carry useful information. Method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was applied which allows with the help of hydrogeodynamic observations, observations of geochemistry of underground water, module of full vector of magnetic field and seismic regime of the region to carry out the monitoring of modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. The character of distribution of hydrogeodeformational processes in time and space was studied. The character of time-spatial distribution of geodynamic stress was defined. Key Words: Deformation , Geophysical Monitoring, Earthqukae Source

  3. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  4. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  5. ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

    2012-12-01

    The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

  6. Effects of the Earths atmosphere and human neural processing of light on the apparent colors of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, Michael; Comins, Neil Francis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical algorithm for quantifying the perceived colors of stars as viewed from the surface of the Earth across a wide range of possible atmospheric conditions. These results are then used to generate color-corrected stellar images. As a first step, optics corrections are calculated to adjust for the CCD bias and the transmission curves of any filters used during image collection. Next, corrections for atmospheric scattering and absorption are determined for the atmospheric conditions during imaging by utilizing the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). These two sets of corrections are then applied to a series of reference spectra, which are then weighted against the CIE 1931 XYZ color matching functions before being mapped onto the sRGB color space, in order to determine a series of reference colors against which the original image will be compared. Each pixel of the image is then re-colored based upon its closest corresponding reference spectrum so that the final image output closely matches, in color, what would be seen by the human eye above the Earth's atmosphere. By comparing against the reference spectrum, the stellar classification for each star in the image can also be determined. An observational experiment is underway to test the accuracy of these calculations.

  7. The precision-processing subsystem for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapelle, W. E.; Bybee, J. E.; Bedross, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the precision processor, a subsystem in the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). This processor is a special-purpose image-measurement and printing system, designed to process user-selected bulk images to produce 1:1,000,000-scale film outputs and digital image data, presented in a Universal-Transverse-Mercator (UTM) projection. The system will remove geometric and radiometric errors introduced by the ERTS multispectral sensors and by the bulk-processor electron-beam recorder. The geometric transformations required for each input scene are determined by resection computations based on reseau measurements and image comparisons with a special ground-control base contained within the system; the images are then printed and digitized by electronic image-transfer techniques.

  8. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Lgstrup

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The creative processes of understanding patients experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Lgstrup (19051981), this article aims to illustrate Lgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients experiences. We suggest that Lgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Lgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Lgstrup stresses that an flash of insight is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Lgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience. PMID:22076123

  9. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leconte, Jrmy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alize

    2013-12-01

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can `run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m-2, which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars.

  10. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375 W m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

  11. A multi-faceted approach to characterize acid-sulfate alteration processes in volcanic hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcucci, Emma Cordts

    Acid-sulfate alteration is a dominant weathering process in high temperature, low pH, sulfur-rich volcanic environments. Additionally, hydrothermal environments have been proposed as locations where life could have originated on Earth. Based on the extensive evidence of flowing surface water and persistent volcanism, similar locations and processes could have existed on early Mars. Globally observed alteration mineral assemblages likely represent relic Martian hydrothermal settings. Yet the limited understanding of environmental controls, limits the confidence of interpreting the paleoconditions of these hydrothermal systems and assessing their habitability to support microbial life. This thesis presents a series of laboratory experiments, geochemical models, analog fieldwork, and Martian remote sensing to characterize distinguishing features and controls of acid-sulfate alteration. The experiments and models were designed to replicate alteration is a highly acidic, sulfurous, and hot field sites. The basaltic minerals were individually reacted in both experimental and model simulations with varying initial parameters to infer the geochemical pathways of acid-sulfate alteration on Earth and Mars. It was found that for a specific starting material, secondary mineralogies were consistent. Variations in pH, temperature and duration affected the abundance, shape, and size of mineral products. Additionally evaporation played a key role in secondary deposits; therefore, both alteration and evaporitic processes need to be taken into consideration. Analog volcanic sites in Nicaragua were used to supplement this work and highlight differences between natural and simulated alteration. In situ visible near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that primary lithology and gas chemistry were dominant controls of alteration, with secondary effects from environmental controls, such as temperature and pH. The spectroscopic research from the field was directly related to Mars observations in Noctis Labyrinthus, Terra Sirenum, Syrtis Major, and Mawrth Vallis to help interpret ancient conditions in those settings. To further apply the results from experiments, models, and fieldwork, Coprates Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris was studied using mineralogical and morphological data. Emplacement of alteration minerals indicated both pre- and post-rifting hydrothermal activity. Smaller southern grabens appeared to have experienced a unique alteration. In summary, this dissertation presents research that contributes to the understanding of the geological evolution of Mars and potentially habitability.

  12. From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic

  13. Preparation of Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, William C.

    A preliminary draft of a "Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science" has been prepared on the basis of a careful analysis of the current practice of science. This manuscript attempts to formulate guidelines for an explanation of communicative processes of scientific inquiry to students without rigorous background

  14. Earth Wisdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Matre, Steve

    1985-01-01

    In our human-centered ignorance and arrogance we are rapidly destroying the earth. We must start helping people understand the big picture of ecological concepts. What these concepts mean for our own lives and how we must begin to change our lifestyles in order to live more harmoniously with the earth. (JHZ)

  15. Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Buchholz, J.; Tost, H.; Sander, R.; Pozzer, A.

    2007-11-01

    The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, herein after referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it is possible to define a multitude of tracer sets, depending on the spatio-temporal representation (i.e., the grid structure) of the model. The required information about a specific chemical species is split into the static meta-information about the characteristics of the species, and its (generally in time and space variable) abundance in the corresponding representation. TRACER moreover includes two submodels. One is TRACER_FAMILY, an implementation of the tracer family concept. It distinguishes between two types: type-1 families are usually applied to handle strongly related tracers (e.g., fast equilibrating species) for a specific process (e.g., advection). In contrast to this, type-2 families are applied for tagging techniques, in which specific species are artificially decomposed and associated with additional information, in order to conserve the linear relationship between the family and its members. The second submodel is TRACER_PDEF, which corrects and budgets numerical negative overshoots that arise in many process implementations due to the numerical limitations (limited precision, rounding errors). The submodel therefore guarantees the positive definiteness of the tracers and stabilises the integration scheme. As a by-product, it further provides a global tracer mass diagnostic. Last but not least, we present the submodel PTRAC for the definition of prognostic tracers via a Fortran95 namelist. TRACER with its submodels and PTRAC can readily be applied to a variety of models without further requirements. The code and a documentation is included in the electronic supplement.

  16. Onboard Processing of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data of Volcanic Activity for Future Earth-Orbiting and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of eruption parameters and maps of thermal structure, has allowed these products to be delivered rapidly to volcanologists to aid them in assessing eruption risk and hazard. Such applications will enhance science return from future Earth-orbiting spacecraft and also from spacecraft exploring the Solar System, or beyond, which hope to image dynamic processes. Especially in the latter case, long communication times between the spacecraft and Earth exclude a rapid response to what may be a transient process - only using onboard autonomy can the spacecraft react quickly to such an event.

  17. Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika

    2013-01-01

    To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

  18. History of Earth's magnetic field and possible connections to core-mantle boundary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Phillip L.; Merrill, Ronald T.

    1995-01-01

    The core-mantle boundary (CMB) sets boundary conditions for processes occurring within the core. Thus the history of the geomagnetic field is intimately connected with the history of the CMB: information about one can often provide information about the other. It is a simple matter to separate sources of external origin from those of internal origin, but there is no uique way to specify the location of the internal sources. Indirect arguments suggest that sources within Earth's outer core strongly dominate the field for spherical harmonic terms with degree less than about 14 and that crustal sources play an increasing role in harmonics with higher degrees. Building on the pioneering studies of Roberts and Scott and of Backus in the 1960s, the velocity field of the core fluid at the top of the outer core can be estimated from geomagnetic secular variation data. However, even with appropriate assumptions about location of the magnetic field source, there is a serious nonuniqueness in inversion of the secular variation data to velocity field because magnetic field lines are not changed by movement of conductive fluid parallel to those field lines. Additional assumptions about the flow are therefore required, sometimes leading to quite different estimates in the pattern of fluid flow. The resulting velocity field estimates appear to be sensitive to conditions at the CMB. Consideration of mantle dynamics suggests that large changes in the CMB conditions probably occur on a 10- to 100-m.y. timescale. Secular variations with periods shorter than a million years, but longer than several years, almost certainly originate from processes operating in the outer core; unfortunately, there is not yet consensus as to what those processes are. Longer-period variations in the paleomagnetic record, including nonstationarities in the rates of magnetic field reversals, in paleointensities, and in paleosecular variation, may reflect changes in CMB conditions. Because these boundary conditions are controlled primarily by mantle dynamics, there have been several speculations regarding causal links between changes in Earth's lithosphere and changes in Earth's magnetic field. Finally, the evidence linking lateral variations at the CMB to perceived systematics in polarity transition data is found to be intriguing, but insufficient.

  19. Glacial Processes on Earth and Mars: New Perspectives from Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Alicia Marie

    Chemical and physical interactions of flowing ice and rock have inexorably shaped planetary surfaces. Weathering in glacial environments is a significant link in biogeochemical cycles --- carbon and strontium --- on Earth, and may have once played an important role in altering Mars' surface. Despite growing recognition of the importance of low-temperature chemical weathering, these processes are still not well understood. Debris-coated glaciers are also present on Mars, emphasizing the need to study ice-related processes in the evolution of planetary surfaces. During Earth's history, subglacial environments are thought to have sheltered communities of microorganisms from extreme climate variations. On Amazonian Mars, glaciers such as lobate debris aprons (LDA) could have hosted chemolithotrophic communities, making Mars' present glaciers candidates for life preservation. This study characterizes glacial processes on both Earth and Mars. Chemical weathering at Robertson Glacier, a small alpine glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, is examined with a multidisciplinary approach. The relative proportions of differing dissolution reactions at various stages in the glacial system are empirically determined using aqueous geochemistry. Synthesis of laboratory and orbital thermal infrared spectroscopy allows identification of dissolution rinds on hand samples and characterization of carbonate dissolution signals at orbital scales, while chemical and morphological evidence for thin, discontinuous weathering rinds at microscales are evident from electron microscopy. Subglacial dissolution rates are found to outpace those of the proglacial till plain; biologically-mediated pyrite oxidation drives the bulk of this acidic weathering. Second, the area-elevation relationship, or hypsometry, of LDA in the midlatitudes of Mars is characterized. These glaciers are believed to have formed 500 Ma during a climate excursion. Hypsometric measurements of these debris-covered glaciers enable insight into past flow regimes and drive predictions about past climate scenarios. The LDA in this study fall into three major groups, strongly dependent on basal elevation, implying regional and climatic controls on ice formation and flow. I show that biologically-mediated mineral reactions drive high subglacial dissolution rates, such that variations within the valley can be detected with remote sensing techniques. In future work, these insights can be applied to examining Mars' glacial regions for signs of chemical alteration and biosignatures.

  20. The Earth`s magnetosphere is 165 R{sub E} long: Self-consistent currents, convection, magnetospheric structure, and processes for northward interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, J.A.; Lyon, J.G.

    1995-03-01

    The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth`s magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a `ground state` for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a `tadpole` shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.

  1. Earth, atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1991-01-01

    Present understanding of the earth's atmosphere is briefly reviewed. The structure and composition of the atmosphere are described. The origin of the atmosphere and the factors involved in global atmospheric change are addressed.

  2. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipfs law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x)?x??, where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from ?=2 to ?. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipfs law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  3. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-04-28

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipf's law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x) ~ x(-?), where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from ? = 2 to ?. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipf's law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  4. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1) shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., suboxic) waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become more oxygenated. We show that the rise in dissolved oxygen in the tropical Pacific is associated with a drop in ventilation time. A term-by-term analysis within the least oxygenated waters shows an increased supply of dissolved oxygen due to lateral diffusion compensating an increase in remineralization within these highly hypoxic waters. This lateral diffusive flux is the result of an increase of ventilation along the Chilean coast, as a drying of the region under global warming opens up a region of wintertime convection in our model. The results highlight the potential sensitivity of suboxic waters to changes in subtropical ventilation as well as the importance of constraining lateral eddy transport of dissolved oxygen in such waters.

  5. The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mgane; Macari, Frdrique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Herv

    2012-05-01

    The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150?h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

  6. Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    1999-01-01

    This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

  7. Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balter, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

  8. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: Contributions of automatic decision-making processes

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P.

    2015-01-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse, and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  9. Gestalt Processing in Autism: Failure to Process Perceptual Relationships and the Implications for Contextual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark J.; Scott, Fiona J.; Fox, Simone; Pye, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    Background: Deficits in autism have been characterised as a bias towards local over global processing. This paper examines whether there is a deficit in gestalt grouping in autism. Method: Twenty-five low-functioning children with autism and 25 controls who were matched for chronological age and verbal mental age took part in the study. Results:

  10. Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  11. Comprehensive understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Youn, Sungmin; Zhu, Tongren; Kim, Ijung; Lau, Boris L T

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes has been limited by difficulties of nanoparticle characterization. In this study, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was deployed to evaluate the absolute particle size distributions in laboratory scale flocculation and filtration experiments with silver nanoparticles. The results from NTA were consistent with standard theories of particle destabilization and transport. Direct observations of changes in absolute particle size distributions from NTA enhance both qualitative and quantitative understanding of particle separation processes of nano-sized particles. PMID:26676021

  12. Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

  13. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Blankson, A. Nayena; OBrien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological measures of emotion control. Participants were 263 children (42% non-White) and their mothers. Results indicated that the three approaches of measuring emotion control were unrelated. Regardless of the measurement method, a four-factor solution differentiating emotion control and understanding and cognitive control and understanding fit the data better than did either of two 2-factor models, one based on domains of emotion and cognition across processes, and one based on processes of control and understanding across domains. Results of this research replicate those of Leerkes et al. (2008) in describing a differentiated underlying structure of emotion and cognition processes in early childhood while also extending these conclusions across samples and across measurement approaches for assessing emotion control. PMID:22328805

  14. Technical Note: Coupling of chemical processes with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) submodel TRACER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, P.; Kerkweg, A.; Buchholz-Dietsch, J.; Tost, H.; Sander, R.; Pozzer, A.

    2008-03-01

    The implementation of processes related to chemistry into Earth System Models and their coupling within such systems requires the consistent description of the chemical species involved. We provide a tool (written in Fortran95) to structure and manage information about constituents, hereinafter referred to as tracers, namely the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) generic (i.e., infrastructure) submodel TRACER. With TRACER it is possible to define a multitude of tracer sets, depending on the spatio-temporal representation (i.e., the grid structure) of the model. The required information about a specific chemical species is split into the static meta-information about the characteristics of the species, and its (generally in time and space variable) abundance in the corresponding representation. TRACER moreover includes two submodels. One is TRACER_FAMILY, an implementation of the tracer family concept. It distinguishes between two types: type-1 families are usually applied to handle strongly related tracers (e.g., fast equilibrating species) for a specific process (e.g., advection). In contrast to this, type-2 families are applied for tagging techniques. Tagging means the artificial decomposition of one or more species into parts, which are additionally labelled (e.g., by the region of their primary emission) and then processed as the species itself. The type-2 family concept is designed to conserve the linear relationship between the family and its members. The second submodel is TRACER_PDEF, which corrects and budgets numerical negative overshoots that arise in many process implementations due to the numerical limitations (e.g., rounding errors). The submodel therefore guarantees the positive definiteness of the tracers and stabilises the integration scheme. As a by-product, it further provides a global tracer mass diagnostic. Last but not least, we present the submodel PTRAC, which allows the definition of tracers via a Fortran95 namelist, as a complement to the standard tracer definition by application of the TRACER interface routines in the code. TRACER with its submodels and PTRAC can readily be applied to a variety of models without further requirements. The code and a documentation are included in the electronic supplement.

  15. Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Grimmett, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten LiCl-KCl and activity coefficients for Cd and Bi. Data were obtained between 400 and 500 C. Results for the rare earth chlorides using an improved experimental technique were consistent with theory, with standard free energy of formation values somewhat more negative than those found in the literature. Special attention was given to Am in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system because it can exist as the +2 and/or +3 ion in this system. Americium ions existed only as the +3 ion in LiCl-KCl/Bi. Standard electrochemical potentials for Am/Am{sup +2} in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 400, 450, and 500 C were {minus}2.893, {minus}2.853, and {minus}2.838 V, respectively, relative to Cl{sup 2}/Cl{sup {minus}}. Standard electrochemical potentials vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup {minus}} for Am/Am{sup +3} in LiCl-KCl eutectic were {minus}2.83 V at 450 C and {minus}2.78 V at 500 C. Activity coefficients for Am in molten Cd were 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} at 450 and 500 C.

  16. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  17. John Lubbock's early contribution to the understanding of river terraces and their importance to Geography, Archaeology and Earth Science

    PubMed Central

    Bridgland, David R.

    2014-01-01

    In his writings John Lubbock expounded views on the understanding of past climates, prehistoric faunas, early humans, and the evolution of landscape and river systems. His contributions on some of these related topics are scarcely remembered, despite comparison with modern thinking showing them frequently to have been prescient. He visited the Somme valley, observing river terrace gravels and Palaeolithic artefacts in the company of the leading geologists and archaeologists of his day, visits that furnished knowledge of the early archaeological record and were also formative in terms of his understanding of river-valley and landscape evolution. He noted that terraces represented former valley-floor levels and that rivers had deepened their valleys in response to uplift of the land, something that is often not fully grasped at the present time. He was also an early believer in interglacialglacial climatic fluctuation, an idea not widely accepted in Britain until after his death.

  18. Microprobe Monazite Geochronology: Understanding Geologic Processes by Integrating Composition and Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael L.; Jercinovic, Michael J.; Hetherington, Callum J.

    2007-05-01

    Monazite is a light rare earth element (LREE)-bearing phosphate mineral that is present in a wide variety of rock types, has an extremely variable composition reflecting host rock conditions, and is a robust geochronometer that can preserve crystallization ages through a long history of geological events. Monazite crystals typically contain distinct compositional domains that represent successive generations of monazite, which in turn, can provide a detailed record of the geologic history of its host rocks. The electron microprobe can be used to characterize the geometry of compositional domains, analyze the composition of each domain, and, when carefully configured, determine the U-Th-total Pb age for domains as small as 5 ?m in width. These data allow the monazite to be linked with, and place timing constraints on, silicate processes in the host rocks. Current applications span a broad range of geologic processes in igneous, metamorphic, hydrothermal, and sedimentary rocks.

  19. The Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory: A web-based system for modeling multi-scale earthquake processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Fox, G.; Rundle, J.; McLeod, D.; Tullis, T.; Grant, L.; Parker, J.; Pierce, M.; Lyzenga, G.; Chen, A.; Lou, J.

    2002-12-01

    We are building a new Problem Solving Environment for use by the seismological, crustal deformation, and tectonics communities for developing an understanding of active tectonic and earthquake processes. The top-level operational architecture of our solid earth research virtual observatory (SERVO) shows science users interacting with interface programs as well as modeling, simulation, and analysis tools. The general architecture follows the "Web Services" model being developed by business interests, but is applied to scientific applications and supporting software resources (such as databases). The system is divided into three tiers: a user interface layer (implemented as a browser interface), a system resource layer, and a middle control layer that maintains proxies (or brokers) to the system resources. The middle tier provides a uniform interface to the resource layer. Following the Web Services approach, we define XML interface abstractions (in WSDL) for basic services (such as File Management) and implement the interface with appropriate technologies (such as with a relational database). Communication between the services is done with an XML messaging architecture (SOAP). Our initial focus is to integrate time-dependent crustal deformation models into the system including both layered analytical and heterogeneous finite element models.

  20. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as

  1. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making

  2. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational

  3. Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

  4. Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three

  5. Understanding the Process of Science by Students Exposed to Different Science Curricula in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1972-01-01

    The contributions of Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Chemical Education Materials Study, and the Physical Science Study Committee courses to the understanding of science among Israeli students are compared. Changes in science process inventory scores in concurrent courses in grades 9-12 are examined. Common misunderstandings about the nature

  6. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from

  7. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  8. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.

  9. Videogame Construction by Engineering Students for Understanding Modelling Processes: The Case of Simulating Water Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretelín-Ricárdez, Angel; Sacristán, Ana Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We present some results of an ongoing research project where university engineering students were asked to construct videogames involving the use of physical systems models. The objective is to help them identify and understand the elements and concepts involved in the modelling process. That is, we use game design as a constructionist approach…

  10. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

  11. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  12. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of

  13. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  14. Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Chunxian

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,

  15. Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus

  16. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most

  17. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Bttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of

  18. Networking from the Inside Out: Understanding Learners' Processes, Activities, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina; Schmid, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    Research to date has demonstrated that networking can be an effective strategy for supporting meaningful learning. However, studies have shown that learners encounter difficulties using it. In an attempt to understand and thus reduce these difficulties, this study examined learners' underlying cognitive processes and activities while networking.

  19. Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a

  20. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  1. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  2. Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Chunxian

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

  3. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of

  4. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    PubMed Central

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  6. New developments in understanding the r-process from observations of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2015-04-01

    In their atmospheres, old metal-poor Galactic stars retain detailed information about the chemical composition of the interstellar medium at the time of their birth. Extracting such stellar abundances enables us to reconstruct the beginning of the chemical evolution shortly after the Big Bang. About 5% of metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < - 2 . 5 display in their spectrum a strong enhancement of neutron-capture elements associated with the rapid (r-) nucleosynthesis process that is responsible for the production of the heaviest elements in the Universe. This fortuity provides a unique opportunity of bringing together astrophysics and nuclear physics because these objects act as ``cosmic lab'' for both fields of study. The so-called r-process stars are thought to have formed from material enriched in heavy neutron-capture elements that were created during an r-process event in a previous generation supernova. It appears that the few stars known with this rare chemical signature all follow the scaled solar r-process pattern (for the heaviest elements with 56 <= Z <= 90 that is). This suggests that the r-process is universal - a surprising empirical finding and a solid result that can not be obtained from any laboratory on earth. While much research has been devoted to establishing this pattern, little attention has been given to the overall level of enhancement. New results will be presented on the full extent of r-process element enrichment as observed in metal-poor stars. The challenge lies in determining how the r-process material in the earliest gas clouds was mixed and diluted. Assuming individual r-process events to have contributed the observed r-process elements. We provide empirical estimates on the amount of r-process material produced. This should become a crucial constraint for theoretical nuclear physics models of heavy element nucleosynthesis.

  7. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Williama

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

  8. Adsorption of crystal violet with diatomite earth&carbon by a modification of hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Yanzhuo, Zhang; Jun, Li; Guanghui, Chen; Wei, Bian; Yun, Lu; Wenjing, Li; Zhaoming, Zheng; Xiaojie, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The high colority and difficulty of decolorization are the most important tasks on printing and dyeing wastewater. This study investigates the ability of diatomite earth&carbon (DE&C) as an adsorbent to removal crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results indicate the importance of functional groups during the adsorption of CV. The obtained N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm values accord with well IUPAC type II. Our calculations determined a surface area of 73.15 m(2) g(-1) for DE&C and an average pore diameter of 10.56 nm. Equilibrium data of the adsorption process fitted very well to the Langmuir model (R(2) > 0.99). The results of kinetics study showed that the pseudo-second-order model fitted to the experimental data well. The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. ΔH° <0, ΔS° > 0 and ΔG° < 0 demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic for dye. Furthermore the positive value of ΔS° reflected good affinity of the CV dye. PMID:27003089

  9. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents

    PubMed Central

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models’ isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  10. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents.

    PubMed

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models' isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  11. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  12. Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.

  13. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:26819083

  14. Innovative Application of Mechanical Activation for Rare Earth Elements Recovering: Process Optimization and Mechanism Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Quanyin; Deng, Chao; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding use of fluorescent lamps (FLs) and increasing interest in conservation and sustainable utilization of critical metals such as rare earth elements (REEs), the recovering of REEs from phosphors in waste FLs is becoming a critical environmental and economic issue. To effectively recycle REEs with metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the waste phosphors. This current study put the emphasis on the mechanical activation and leaching processes for REEs, and explored the feasibility of the method from both theoretical and practical standpoints. Results showed physicochemical changes of structural destruction and particle size reduction after mechanical activation, leading to the easy dissolution of REEs in the activated samples. Under optimal conditions, dissolution yields of 89.4%, 93.1% and 94.6% for Tb, Eu and Y, respectively, were achieved from activated waste phosphors using hydrochloric acid as the dissolution agent. The shrinking core model proved to be the most applicable for the leaching procedure, with an apparent activation energy of 10.96 ± 2.79 kJ/mol. This novel process indicates that mechanical activation is an efficient method for recovering REEs from waste phosphors, and it has promising potential for REE recovery with low cost and high efficiency.

  15. NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.; Ivans, Inese I. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 {<=} Z {<=} 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  16. Separation of technetium and rare earth metals for co-decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Catherine; Martin, Leigh

    2015-05-01

    Poster. In the US there are several technologies under consideration for the separation of the useful components in used nuclear fuel. One such process is the co-decontamination process to separate U, Np and Pu in a single step and produce a Np/ Pu and a U product stream. Although the behavior of the actinide elements is reasonably well defined in this system, the same is not true for the fission products, mainly Zr, Mo, Ru and Tc. As these elements are cationic and anionic they may interact with each other to extract in a manner not predicted by empirical models such as AMUSE. This poster presentation will discuss the initial results of batch contact testing under flowsheet conditions and as a function of varying acidity and flowsheet conditions to optimize recovery of Tc and minimize extraction of Mo, Zr and Ru with the goal of developing a better understanding of the behavior of these elements in the co-decontamination process.

  17. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  18. The roles of rare earth dispersoids and process route on the low cycle fatigue behavior of a rapidly solidified powder metallurgy titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gigliotti, M.F.X. ); Woodfield, A.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at 482C (900F) on forgings and extrusions of a rapidly solidified powder metallurgy titanium base alloy with and without rare earth additions. The variables studied were process temperature and heat treatment. Rare earth dispersions reduced fatigue life, and fracture surfaces indicated internal fatigue crack initiation at rare earth particles.

  19. NOAA's Science On a Sphere Education Program: Application of a Scientific Visualization System to Teach Earth System Science and Improve our Understanding About Creating Effective Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, C.; McLaughlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA has developed several programs aimed at facilitating the use of earth system science data and data visualizations by formal and informal educators. One of them, Science On a Sphere, a visualization display tool and system that uses networked LCD projectors to display animated global datasets onto the outside of a suspended, 1.7-meter diameter opaque sphere, enables science centers, museums, and universities to display real-time and current earth system science data. NOAA's Office of Education has provided grants to such education institutions to develop exhibits featuring Science On a Sphere (SOS) and create content for and evaluate audience impact. Currently, 20 public education institutions have permanent Science On a Sphere exhibits and 6 more will be installed soon. These institutions and others that are working to create and evaluate content for this system work collaboratively as a network to improve our collective knowledge about how to create educationally effective visualizations. Network members include other federal agencies, such as, NASA and the Dept. of Energy, and major museums such as Smithsonian and American Museum of Natural History, as well as a variety of mid-sized and small museums and universities. Although the audiences in these institutions vary widely in their scientific awareness and understanding, we find there are misconceptions and lack of familiarity with viewing visualizations that are common among the audiences. Through evaluations performed in these institutions we continue to evolve our understanding of how to create content that is understandable by those with minimal scientific literacy. The findings from our network will be presented including the importance of providing context, real-world connections and imagery to accompany the visualizations and the need for audience orientation before the visualizations are viewed. Additionally, we will review the publicly accessible virtual library housing over 200 datasets for SOS and any other real or virtual globe. These datasets represent contributions from NOAA, NASA, Dept. of Energy, and the public institutions that are displaying the spheres.

  20. The GLOBE Carbon Cycle Project: Using a systems approach to understand carbon and the Earth's climate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverberg, S. K.; Ollinger, S. V.; Martin, M. E.; Gengarelly, L. M.; Schloss, A. L.; Bourgeault, J. L.; Randolph, G.; Albrechtova, J.

    2009-12-01

    National Science Content Standards identify systems as an important unifying concept across the K-12 curriculum. While this standard exists, there is a recognized gap in the ability of students to use a systems thinking approach in their learning. In a similar vein, both popular media as well as some educational curricula move quickly through climate topics to carbon footprint analyses without ever addressing the nature of carbon or the carbon cycle. If students do not gain a concrete understanding of carbons role in climate and energy they will not be able to successfully tackle global problems and develop innovative solutions. By participating in the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project, students learn to use a systems thinking approach, while at the same time, gaining a foundation in the carbon cycle and it's relation to climate and energy. Here we present the GLOBE Carbon Cycle project and materials, which incorporate a diverse set of activities geared toward upper middle and high school students with a variety of learning styles. A global carbon cycle adventure story and game let students see the carbon cycle as a complete system, while introducing them to systems thinking concepts including reservoirs, fluxes and equilibrium. Classroom photosynthesis experiments and field measurements of schoolyard vegetation brings the global view to the local level. And the use of computer models at varying levels of complexity (effects on photosynthesis, biomass and carbon storage in global biomes, global carbon cycle) not only reinforces systems concepts and carbon content, but also introduces students to an important scientific tool necessary for understanding climate change.

  1. Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding womens information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

  2. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements.

    PubMed

    Goriely, S; Sida, J-L; Lemaître, J-F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2013-12-13

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A≳140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110≲A≲170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A≃278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A≃165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A≳140. PMID:24483647

  3. New Fission Fragment Distributions and r-Process Origin of the Rare-Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Sida, J.-L.; Lematre, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A?140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110?A?170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A?278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A?165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A?140.

  4. [Synergetics--a possible hypothetical approach to better understanding of pathologic processes].

    PubMed

    Hecht, A

    1991-01-01

    Modern understanding of the human disease cannot be reduced only on the disturbed biological processes of the living organism. Disease as the consequence of the disorders of a complex system needs in the same sense a complex view. It is necessary to take in consideration the theory of systems, the concept of layers and the idea of the deterministic chaos. A helpful clamp to coordinate these different views seems to be the synergetics, the teaching of the cooperation in complex systems. Synergetics investigate the mechanisms of the self-organization, too. The self-organization is of great significance in the phylogenetic and ontogenetic morphogenesis. Especially all diseases which are characterized by the disorders in the differentiation the processes forming "Gestalten" are to understand as processes of the disturbed self-organization. These refers the malformations, the malignant tumours and the chronic diseases. Self-organization being a system-internal mechanism is to understand as a process which determines the behaviour of complex organized living systems in confrontation with their environment. PMID:1771909

  5. Enhancing Earth Rotation Studies by Combining Earth Rotation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, R. S.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth rotates about its axis once a day, but does not do so uniformly. Instead, the rate of rotation fluctuates by up to a millisecond per day, and the Earth wobbles as it rotates. These changes in the Earth's orientation occur over a wide range of time scales, from subdaily to decadal and longer, reflecting the wide variety of geophysical processes that are causing the Earth's orientation to change. A number of different techniques have been and are currently being used to measure the Earth's changing orientation in space, including lunar occultation, optical astrometry, lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry, and the global positioning system. These different measurement techniques have their own unique strengths and weaknesses. They may be sensitive to a different subset and/or linear combination of the Earth orientation parameters, the averaging time for their determination may be different, as may be their duration, the interval between observations, and the precision with which they can be determined. By combining Earth orientation measurements that have been determined by these different techniques, a series of the Earth's orientation can be obtained that is potentially more accurate than that determined by any single technique and that spans a time interval greater than that spanned by any single technique. The improved accuracy and longer duration of such combined Earth orientation series enhance scientific studies of the Earth's rotation, enabling greater understanding of its causes and consequences.

  6. In service teachers' understanding of salt dissolution process through representational animations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkoc, Ummuhan

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are repeatedly applied to support student comprehension in the theoretical ideas of chemistry. However, students' understanding the dynamics of the phenomena is directly related to the understanding of teachers as instructors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how the features of three different molecular level animations are viewed and understood by the teachers who had more than 2 years experience. Participants (n=10) are in-service science teachers, mostly high school, grouped into three groups with four participants in the first group and three people in the other two. Each group viewed short different animations and one common animation demonstrating the salt dissolution process. Teachers were asked to take pre and post-tests to measure the influence of the animations in their understandings of the content in addition to a group discussion and an interview. The study suggests that the animations improved the content knowledge of the teachers slightly.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and processing of active rare earth-doped chalcohalide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debari, Roberto Mauro

    Applications for infrared-transmitting non-oxide glass fibers span a broad range of topics. They can be used in the military, the medical field, telecommunications, and even in agriculture. Rare earth ions are used as dopants in these glasses in order to stimulate emissions in the infrared spectral region. In order to extend the host glass transmission further into the infrared, selenium atoms were substituted for sulfur in the established Ge-S-I chalcohalide glass system and the fundamental properties of these latter glasses were explored. Over 30 different compositions in the Ge-Se-I glass system were investigated as to their thermal and optical properties. The resulting optimum host with a composition of Ge15Se80I5 has a broad transmission range from 0.7 mum to 17.0 mum and a high working range over 145C. The host glass also exhibited a Tg of 125C, making rotational casting of a cladding tube for rod-and-tube fiberization a possibility. The base glass was doped with 1000 to 4000 ppm/wt of erbium, dysprosium, or neodymium. When doped with Er3+-ions, absorptions at 1.54 mum and 3.42 mum were observed. Nd3+-doping resulted in an absorption peak near 4.24 mum and Dy3+ ions caused absorption at 1.30 mum. Fluorescence emissions were found for neodymium at 1.396 mum with a FWHM of 74 nm, and for dysprosium at 1.145 mum with a FWHM of 75 nm, at 1.360 mum with a FWHM of 98 rim and at 1.674 mum with a FWHM of 60 nm. High optical quality tubes of the host glass could be formed using rotational casting in silica ampoules. Glass tubes, 4 to 6 cm long with a 1 cm outer diameter and a tailored inner-hole diameter ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 cm could be synthesized by this process with excellent dimensional tolerances around the circumference as well as along the length. A preform of this size provided 25 continuous meters of unclad fiber with diameters ranging from 140 to 200 mum. A UV-curable acrylate cladding was applied via an external coating cup. An x-ray analysis of the resulting fiber verified the constituents of the fiber. Due to tradeoffs between thermal properties, optical properties and rare earth solubility, the Ge-Se-I glass system must still be optimized prior to use as an active fiber device. Nevertheless, the viability of this host system has been demonstrated in this investigation. Some very promising advantages to adding halides to chalcogenide glass systems have been confirmed, including the tailoring of glass transition temperatures, enhancement of rare earth solubility, expanded fluorescence emissions in the IR, and suppression of some impurity absorption bands. Also, the potential for rod-and-tube fiberization utilizing the rotational casting method for tube synthesis has been established along with its resulting pristine core-clad interface. This research provides a foundation for active fiber device applications in the 2 to 10 mum spectral region.

  8. Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    This talk addresses the policy structure in California for developing and approving carbon offset protocols, which rely on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities. In addition to providing an overview of the legal requirements of carbon offsets, we describe a series of case studies of how scientists can engage with policymakers. Based on those experiences, we suggest ways for the earth sciences community to become more involved in climate policy development. California's climate law, known as AB 32, requires that major sectors of the state's economy reduce their emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. As part of AB 32, the California Air Resources Board created a cap-and-trade market to ensure compliance with the statutory target. Under this system, regulated companies have to acquire tradable emissions permits (called 'compliance instruments') for the greenhouse gas emissions they release. The State allocates a certain number of allowances to regulated entities through a mixture of auctions and free transfers, with the total number equal to the overall emissions target; these allowances, along with approved offsets credits, are the compliance instruments that regulated entities are required to obtain by law. One of the key policy design issues in California's cap-and-trade market concerns the use of carbon offsets. Under AB 32, the Air Resources Board can issue offset credits to project developers who reduce emissions outside of the capped sectors (electricity, industry, and transportation)--or even outside of California--pursuant to approved offset protocols. Project developers then sell the credits to regulated companies in California. Essentially, offsets allow regulated entities in California to earn credit for emissions reductions that take place outside the scope of AB 32. Many regulated entities and economists are in favor of offsets because they view them as a source of low-cost compliance instruments. On the other hand, critics argue that some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

  9. Social Studies Concepts and Mother Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgrieve, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Examines an earth-focus in social studies as a means of fostering better understanding of the physical environment. Presents evidence that this type of study will improve students' knowledge of the economic, historical, and social processes of the earth's inhabitants. (DB)

  10. Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

  11. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

  12. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

  13. DRiPs Solidify: Progress in Understanding Endogenous MHC Class I Antigen Processing

    PubMed Central

    Yewdell, Jonathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Defective Ribosomal Products (DRiPs) are a subset of rapidly degraded polypeptides that provide peptide ligands for MHC class I molecules. Here, I review recent progress in understanding DRiP biogenesis. These findings place DRiPs at the center of the MHC class I antigen processing pathway, linking immunosurveillance of viruses and tumors to mechanisms of specialized translation and cellular compartmentalization. DRiPs enable the immune system to rapidly and sensitively detect alterations in cellular gene expression. PMID:21962745

  14. Neural Information Processing in Cognition: We Start to Understand the Orchestra, but Where is the Conductor?

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Research in neural information processing has been successful in the past, providing useful approaches both to practical problems in computer science and to computational models in neuroscience. Recent developments in the area of cognitive neuroscience present new challenges for a computational or theoretical understanding asking for neural information processing models that fulfill criteria or constraints from cognitive psychology, neuroscience and computational efficiency. The most important of these criteria for the evaluation of present and future contributions to this new emerging field are listed at the end of this article. PMID:26858632

  15. Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

    2013-05-01

    Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. PMID:23416180

  16. Applications of Future NASA Decadal Missions for Observing Earth's Land and Water Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon; Brown, Molly E.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Carroll, Mark; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Misson Objective: To collect altimetry data of the Earth's surface optimized to measure ice sheet elevation change and sea ice thickness, while also generating an estimate of global vegetation biomass.

  17. Novel solution processing of high-efficiency Earth-abundant Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenbing; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Bob, Brion; Zhou, Huanping; Lei, Bao; Chung, Choong-Heui; Li, Sheng-Han; Hou, William W; Yang, Yang

    2012-12-11

    A novel solution-based approach is presented to process earth-abundant Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) absorbers using fully dissolved CZTS precursors in which each of the elemental constituents intermix on a molecular scale. This method enables the low-temperature processing of chemically clean kesterite films with excellent homogeneity. The high performance of resulting optoelectronic devices represents a chance to extend the impact of CZTS into the next chapter of thin-film solar cells. PMID:22969055

  18. Understanding the decisive thermal processes in laser sintering of polyamide 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Andreas; Witt, Gerd

    2015-05-01

    Due to the advancements during the last decade, the laser sintering process has achieved a high technical level, which allows parts being used for Rapid Manufacturing applications. However, the processes still show a poor reproducibility of part quality. Furthermore, process interruptions or defective parts still occur regularly. The know-how and expertise needed to avoid these kind of problems is still insufficient. The temperature increase in the powder bed during laser exposure is the driving force in laser sintering of plastics. The resulting part properties strongly depend on the interaction of melt temperature and melt viscosity caused by the laser power input in the powder bed. Additionally, cooling conditions and temperature gradients in the powder bed significantly influence the accuracy and especially the warpage of parts. However, literature provides only little information on these decisive thermal processes. Therefore, additional information is necessary to improve process understanding as well as part properties in laser sintering. In a first approach, a high-speed thermal imaging system is implemented into a LS-machine in order to measure the melt temperatures during and after laser exposure as a function of different process parameters. The measured data show significant correlations between temperatures and part properties. It turns out that especially the melt temperature after laser exposure has a strong influence on the resulting part properties. In a second approach, detailed measurements of temperature distributions within the powder bed are performed while using wireless temperature sensors. In addition, the influence of different heater parameter settings on the cooling conditions is investigated by using a new Advanced Temperature Guiding system with 15 single heater cycles. The results of the study lead to an enhanced understanding of the thermal processes in laser sintering and enable a significant improvement of processing conditions.

  19. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  20. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  1. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  2. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  3. MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

  4. Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet? - Duration: 2 minutes, 36 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

  5. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  6. Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring Processes Using Reactive Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Surasani, V.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to oil reservoir souring. Souring typically occurs when (sea)water is injected into the oil reservoir to maintain pressure and sweep remnant oil through the reservoir. Because biogenesis of hydrogen sulfide has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems, we strive to develop predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recent laboratory sediment column experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. In this study, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that is based on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics revealed through the column experimental data. The model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes. The growth and inhibition dynamics of the sulfate reducing bacterial population are explicitly simulated and constrained by energetics. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results show that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Ongoing research is focusing on extending the reactive transport model to mechanistically understand, quantify, and predict souring and desouring processes within heterogeneous reservoirs as a step toward optimizing field scale souring control strategies.

  7. Understanding how replication processes can maintain systems away from equilibrium using Algorithmic Information Theory.

    PubMed

    Devine, Sean D

    2016-02-01

    Replication can be envisaged as a computational process that is able to generate and maintain order far-from-equilibrium. Replication processes, can self-regulate, as the drive to replicate can counter degradation processes that impact on a system. The capability of replicated structures to access high quality energy and eject disorder allows Landauer's principle, in conjunction with Algorithmic Information Theory, to quantify the entropy requirements to maintain a system far-from-equilibrium. Using Landauer's principle, where destabilising processes, operating under the second law of thermodynamics, change the information content or the algorithmic entropy of a system by ?H bits, replication processes can access order, eject disorder, and counter the change without outside interventions. Both diversity in replicated structures, and the coupling of different replicated systems, increase the ability of the system (or systems) to self-regulate in a changing environment as adaptation processes select those structures that use resources more efficiently. At the level of the structure, as selection processes minimise the information loss, the irreversibility is minimised. While each structure that emerges can be said to be more entropically efficient, as such replicating structures proliferate, the dissipation of the system as a whole is higher than would be the case for inert or simpler structures. While a detailed application to most real systems would be difficult, the approach may well be useful in understanding incremental changes to real systems and provide broad descriptions of system behaviour. PMID:26723233

  8. Prospective faculty developing understanding of teaching and learning processes in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareja, Jose I.

    Historically, teaching has been considered a burden by many academics at institutions of higher education, particularly research scientists. Furthermore, university faculty and prospective faculty often have limited exposure to issues associated with effective teaching and learning. As a result, a series of ineffective teaching and learning strategies are pervasive in university classrooms. This exploratory case study focuses on four biology graduate teaching fellows (BGF) who participated in a National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 Program. Such programs were introduced by NSF to enhance the preparation of prospective faculty for their future professional responsibilities. In this particular program, BGF were paired with high school biology teachers (pedagogical mentors) for at least one year. During this yearlong partnership, BGF were involved in a series of activities related to teaching and learning ranging from classroom teaching, tutoring, lesson planning, grading, to participating in professional development conferences and reflecting upon their practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in BGF understanding of teaching and learning processes in science as a function of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In addition, the potential transfer of this knowledge between high school and higher education contexts was investigated. The findings of this study suggest that understanding of teaching and learning processes in science by the BGF changed. Specific aspects of the BGF involvement in the program (such as classroom observations, practice teaching, communicating with mentors, and reflecting upon one's practice) contributed to PCK development. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that constant reflection is critical in the process of change. Concurrently, BGFs enhanced understanding of science teaching and learning processes may be transferable from the high school context to the university context. Future research studies should be designed to explore explicitly this transfer phenomenon.

  9. The modes of occurrence of rare-earths ores and the issues on their beneficiation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, T.

    2012-04-01

    Rare-earths (RE) ores can largely be divided into the following four types in terms of the modes of occurrence. In each type of RE ores, there are some issues on beneficiation processes, which should be resolved for their successful exploitation. 1. Fine-grained phosphates with iron oxides: This type ores are commonly found from weathered carbonatite and IOCG deposits. The former is Araxa (Brazil), Zandkopsdrift (South Africa), Mt. Weld (Australia) and Yen Phu (Vietnam), and the latter Bayan Obo (China), Vergenoeg (South Africa) and Olympic Dam (Australia). Main RE minerals are monazite, xenotime and florencite contained in the aggregates of iron oxides such as goethite, hematite and magnetite. Fluorite often occurs in the latter type ores. The phosphates and iron oxides occur commonly as very fine grains (< 10 micron meters), and thus they are not readily separated by conventional physical processing. 2. Fluorapatite veins: This type ores are found from the deposits related to alkaline igneous rocks. Nolans Bore (Australia), Palabora (South Africa) and Mushugai Khudag (Mongolia) are the examples. RE is contained mostly in fluorapatite and associated monazite. It is expected that RE can be produced as byproducts of phosphorus fertilizer. However, dissolution of fluorapatite by sulfuric acid causes the coprecipitation of RE with gypsum, which is a refractory material. 3. Silicates and niobium oxides: This type ores are found from hydrothermally altered alkaline plutonic rocks or pegmatitic veins related to alkaline magmatism. Nechalacho and Strange Lake (Canada), Kvanefjeld (Greenland), Bokan Mountain (US), Norra Karr (Sweden) and Dubbo (Australia) are the representative deposits. Main RE minerals are zircon, eudialyte, mosandrite, fergusonite and allanite. They are relatively enriched in heavy RE, and it is expected that part of RE can be produced as byproducts of zirconium. However, their acid dissolution often causes the coprecipitation of RE with silica gel, which is also a refractory material. 4. Medium- to coarse-grained carbonates: This type ores occur in less weathered carbonatite bodies. Mountain Pass (US), Maoniuping (China) and Dong Pao (Vietnam) are the representative deposits. Bastnasite is a main RE mineral. Though, the ores can readily be beneficiated by conventional flotation and dissolved by acid solution, they are always depleted in heavy RE.

  10. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-12-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

  11. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  12. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  13. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Predictions of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel; Stephenson, David; Jones, Richard; Sessford, Pat

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across the rest of Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations. Particularly during the summer a large proportion of the precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. Given the deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall by climate models, even in the current generation of high-resolution RCMs, the CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed that brings together observations, basic understanding and models. This should go hand in hand with a change from a focus on traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes of model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales. It is particularly true for localised intense summer convection. CONVEX therefore aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. This includes the running of new RCM simulations undertaken by the UK Meteorological Office at 50km and 12km resolutions (parameterised convection) and comparing these with new 1.5km resolution (convection-permitting) model simulations for the southern UK. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales to provide improved understanding of the strengths and limitations of climate models and uncertainty estimates derived from model ensembles. It is also believed that this could also lead to an improved estimation of changes to local scale convective rainfall and thus flash floods. Current results from the simulation of a "baseline" climate and future work undertaken by CONVEX will allow us to understand which extreme rainfall situations benefit from higher resolution. It is envisaged that this will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. Further, as well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change predictions.

  14. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl; Finch, Tracy; Mair, Frances; Ballini, Luciana; Dowrick, Christopher; Eccles, Martin; Gask, Linda; MacFarlane, Anne; Murray, Elizabeth; Rapley, Tim; Rogers, Anne; Treweek, Shaun; Wallace, Paul; Anderson, George; Burns, Jo; Heaven, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration). Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model. PMID:17880693

  15. Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

  16. The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land management practices, energy production, industrial development, and urbanization. Emphasis should be placed on, for instance, new observation networks incorporating remote sensing techniques with ground-based observations; the role of land-cover changes in modulating carbon, nitrogen, and hydrological cycles and, consequently, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol dynamics, and climate; regional (high-latitude) processes and their influence on global simulations; and interactions among anthropogenic and biogenic aerosols, clouds, and climate. 1. Ciais Ph 2005 Nature 2. Kulmala M et al 2004 Atmos Chem Phys 3. Philippon N et al 2005 J Geophys Res 4. Arneth A et al 2010a Nature Geoscience 5. Ganzeveld L et al 2010 J Geophys Res 6. Teuling A et al. 2010 Nature Geoscience 7. Arneth A et al 2010b Biogeosciences 8. Bonan GB et al. 2011 J Geophys Res 9. Davin EL and Seneviratne SI 2011 Biogeosciences 10. Pitman AJ et al 2011 Int J Clim 11. de Noblet-Ducoudr N et al 2012 J Clim 12. Rosenfeld D et al. 2008 Science 13. Stevens B and Feingold G 2009 Nature 14. Li Z et al 2011 Nature Geoscience 15. Pitman AJ et al 2009 Geophys Res Let 16. Baldocchi DD et al. 2005 Int J Biomet 17. Hari P et al 2009 Bor Env Res 18. Guenther A et al 2011 Bor Env Res 19. de Leeuw G et al. 2011 Biogeosciences 20. Jung M et al 2011 J Geophys Res

  17. The Electromagnetically Equivalent Complex Network Modeling of Compact Seismo-Climatic Processes for the Complete Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2009-04-01

    This paper concerns itself with modeling both the seismicity and climate related geo-data as the self-optimization process of an electromagnetically equivalent complex network and developing less accurate but fast models. There are maps established between the parameter spaces of the geo-data and the characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent system models. The temporal variations of the geo-data are correlated to the self-optimizing the specific characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent complex systems in the models will be discussed in this paper. The relationships said here give the possibility of predicting the geo-data. Using the inverses of the mapping said above generates the evaluations giving the predictability conditions involving some certain restrictions. The crustal structures are considered as a complex network of distributed circuits; i.e., systems involving slot antenna arrays, open waveguides, cavities, transmission strip lines, attenuators, frequency converters, dividers, couplings, etc. in the electromagnetically equivalent complex system model (EECSM) [1]-[2]. The variations at the geo-data related to the geo and/or climatic data alter the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network explained above. The mapping said in previous paragraph is based on the transformations among both the temporal and the spatial variations of both geo and/or climatic data and the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network; i.e., phase velocity, attenuation factor, phase constant, input impedance, output impedance, relaxation factor, etc. The Finite Difference Time Domain method is used at the evaluations. The temporal variations at the mapping of EECSM at specific locations extract the mechanisms explaining the relationships among the characteristics of the distributed complex network and seismic and/or climatic phenomena at future. The inversion of the mapping exploits a fine model at predicting the natural iterations of the geo-data at future on both the region under the observation and some locations non-related to the observation region either geologically or seismically or climatically or phenomenologically relating to the earth. The inversion processes from the electromagnetically equivalent complex system models, which are called EECSMs in short, will be discussed in this paper [1] - [5]. The fine model of 13D-hypersurface is generated by using the geophysical EQ data set. The coarse model of 10D-hypersurface is generated by using the data set of waveforms of electromagnetic quantities. The method is applied to both seismic and climatic phenomena at the Marmara Sea region and useful extractions for the prediction of both whether and seismicity are given. 2 References [1] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU 2008. [3] T. Sengor, "On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," Helsinki Univ. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor, "The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

  18. Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasil'nikov, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

  19. A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

    2011-04-01

    Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay. PMID:20556650

  20. Sol-gel process from heterometallic alkoxides to incorporate alkaline- and rare earths in alumina for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, C.K.

    1996-12-31

    The high cost of materials prepared by sol-gel processing and the loss of useful surface properties at elevated temperature has prevented the application of sol-gel processed materials in automotive exhaust reduction catalyst formulations. In this report, the authors briefly describe the important developments needed in the next generation automotive catalysts and the role of sol-gel processed materials. They will also discuss the application of heterometallic alkoxides as sol-gel precursors to achieve the molecular distribution of lanthanides and alkaline earths in alumina matrices needed for the stabilization of alumina based materials at elevated temperatures.

  1. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  2. Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant

  3. Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant…

  4. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development environment with encapsulated low-level drivers, HW support and testing environment). Furthermore Space PDP presents an advanced processing system to be fully adopted both as on-board module for EO spacecrafts and extra-planetary exploration rovers. The main innovative aspects are: HW and SW modularity - scalability for the Payload Data Processing and AOC S/S Complex processing capabilities fully available onboard (on spacecrafts or rovers) Reduced effort in mission SW design, implementation, verification and validation tasks HW abstraction level comparable to present multitasking Unix-like systems allowing SW and algorithms re-use (also from available GS applications). The development approach addressed by SpacePDP is based both on the re-use and resources sharing with flexible elements adjustable to different missions and to different tasks within the same mission (e.g. shared between AOCS and data management S/S) and on a strong specialization in the system elements that are designed to satisfy specific mission needs and specific technological innovations. The innovative processing system is proven in many possible scenarios of use from standard compression task up to the most complex one as the image classification directly on-board. The first one is just useful for standard benchmark trade-off analysis of HW and SW capabilities respect to the other common processing modules. The classification is the ambitious objective of that system to process directly on board the data from sensor (by down-sampling or in no-full resolution acquisition modality if necessary) to detect at flight time any features on ground or observed phenomenas. For Earth application it could be the cloud coverage (to avoid the acquisition and discard the data), burning areas or vessels detection and similar. On Planetary o Universe exploration mission it could be the path recognition for a rover, or high power energy events in outbound galaxies. Sometimes it could be need to review the GS algorithms to approach the problem in the Space scenario, i.e. for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) application the typical focalization of the raw image needs to be improved to be effectively in this context. Many works are actually available on that, the authors have developed a specific ones for neural network algorithms. By the information directly "acquired" (so computed) on-board and without intervention of typical ground systems facilities, the spacecraft can take autonomously decision regarding a re-planning of acquisition for itself (at high performance modalities) or other platforms in constellation or affiliated reducing the time elapse as in the nowadays approach. For no EO missions it is big advantage to reduce the large round trip flight of transmission. In general the saving of resources is extensible to memory and RF transmission band resources, time reaction (like civil protection applications), etc. enlarging the flexibility of missions and improving the final results. SpacePDP main HW and SW characteristics: Compactness: size and weight of each module are fitted in a Eurocard 3U 8HP format with Inter-Board connection through cPCI peripheral bus. Modularity: the Payload is usually composed by several sub-systems. Flexibility: coprocessor FPGA, on-board memory and support avionic protocols are flexible, allowing different modules customization according to mission needs Completeness: the two core boards (CPU and Companion) are enough to obtain a first complete payload data processing system in a basic configuration. Integrability: The payload data processing system is open to accept custom modules to be connected on its open peripheral bus. CPU HW module (one or more) based on a RISC processor (LEON2FT, a SPARC V8 architecture, 80Mips @100MHz on ASIC ATMEL AT697F) DSP HW module (optional with more instances) based on a FPGA dedicated architecture to ensure an effective multitasking control and to offer high numerical computation with huge memory availability. Real time OS RTEMS and SW libraries (with C/C++ external interfaces) acting as HW abstraction level SDK with a development environment, a tool chain and an integrated graphical user interface "Callbacks" management and support to HW events (interrupts, timer, ...), including external devices (via SpaceWire) and priority definition and management. Large amount of volatile memory on CPU board (64 Mb Flash Memory, 80 Mb SRAM and 2 Gb SDR-SDRAM) and non-volatile (up to 2 Mb EEPROM) Remote programmability of the LEON bootable code. Debug access point: for software debug and tuning with LEON serial port (DSU) or for in flight monitoring via SpaceWire-RMAP

  5. Exploring Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various activities to understand the nature of the earth as a spaceship and its impact on human life. A figure depicting a holocoenotic environmental complex is given which can be used to illustrate various interacting forces on earth. (PS)

  6. The Role of the Impulse Magnetic Fields in the Process of Earth-like Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, K.; Tunyi, I.; Csataryova, M.; Bocik, A.; Drga, J.

    2015-07-01

    The origin of the internal structure of planets is still an open question, with many details remaining to be understood. Heterogeneous accretion theory could explain the differentiation of the internal structure for Earth-like planets in a straightforward way. The possibility that the mantle may be formed by large planetesimals impacts onto the iron core is also actively debated.

  7. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  8. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Projections of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Chris; Roberts, Nigel; Sessford, Pat

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations and do not capture the properties of sub-daily events that may lead to flooding in urban areas. In the UK and Europe, particularly during the summer, a large proportion of precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. The CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed to provide improvements in estimates of change in extreme rainfall, particularly for summer convective events. As usable predictions require the synthesis of observations, understanding of atmospheric processes and models, a change in focus from traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes for model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales is needed. By adopting this new focus CONVEX aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change on timescales from days to decades. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. Under the project the UK Meteorological Office has run new RCM simulations at 50km and 12km resolutions and compared these with new 1.5km-resolution model simulations for the southern UK. At this fine resolution convection may be explicitly represented in the model rather than parameterised as at coarser resolutions. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales and in particular has investigated the links between temperature and extreme rainfall. A further key part of the project has been the simulation of a high-resolution climate change experiment using "baseline" climate and future simulations which are being compared with coarser model projections. It is thus envisaged that CONVEX will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. As well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change projections. Recommendations to the user community will also be provided by the project, including qualitative guidance for the use of projections from coarser resolution models.

  9. Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

  10. Understanding cognitive processes behind acceptance or refusal of phase I trials.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Mazzocco, Ketti; Gorini, Alessandra; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Participation in phase I trials gives patients the chance to obtain control over their disease by trying an experimental therapy. The patients' vulnerability, the informed consent process aiming at understanding the purpose and potential benefits of the phase I trial, and the complexity of the studies may impact the patient's final decision. Emotionally difficult health conditions may induce patients to succumb to cognitive biases, allocating attention only on a part of the provided information. Filling the gap in patients' information process can foster the implementation of strategies to help physicians tailor clinical trials' communication providing personalized support and tailored medical information around patients' need, so avoiding cognitive biases in patients and improving informed shared decision quality. The aim of the present review article focuses on the analysis of cognitive and psychological factors that affect patients' decision to participate or not to early phase clinical trials. PMID:26852078

  11. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  12. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  13. Beyond Engagement to Reflection and Understanding: Focusing on the process of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotchmoor, J. G.; Mitchell, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    We must engage the public and make science more accessible to all...It is important that the scientific community, in its outreach, help people not only to see the fun of science but also to understand what science is, what a scientific theory is, how science is done, that accepted scientific models or theories are based on evidence, that hypotheses are tested by experiment, and that theories change as new evidence emerges. Shirley Ann Jackson, AAAS Presidential Address, 2005 The nature of science is noted as a critical topic for science literacy; however, by all accounts, Americans' understanding of the nature of science is inadequate, and students and teachers at all grade levels have inaccurate understandings of what science is and how it works. Such findings do not bode well for the future of scientific literacy in the United States. In large part, the current confusions about evolution, global warming, stem cell research, and other aspects of science deemed by some as "controversial" are symptomatic of a general misunderstanding of what science is and what it is not. Too few of our citizens view science as a dynamic process through which we gain a reliable understanding of the natural world. As a result, the public becomes vulnerable to misinformation and the very real benefits of science are obscured. New opportunities are emerging for members of the scientific community to share their science with segments of the public - both informally through science cafs and science festivals, and more formally through science competitions and classroom visits. Each of these helps to make science more accessible and provides a critical first step toward connecting the public to the "fun and excitement" of science. Less often these activities focus on how science works - what science is, what it is not, and what is not science - as well as the creativity, curiosity, exploration, dead-ends, and a-ha moments that inspire scientists. This talk will share a teacher professional development project in which graduate students play a critical role not only in engaging elementary teachers in science, but also in making the process explicit, offering the opportunity to reflect, and increasing teacher understanding of how science really works. Teachers had the chance to do science themselves which went a long way toward reducing their fears of science and increasing their confidence to teach science more effectively. At the same time, the graduate students found that working with the teachers made them better realize their own strengths and revitalized their personal excitement about science.

  14. MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (Editor); Haberle, Robert M. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.