These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Understanding the knowledge acquisition process about Earth and Space concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exist two main theoretical views concerning the knowledge acquisition process in science. Those views are still in debate in the literature. On the one hand, knowledge is considered to be organized into coherent wholes (mental models). On the other hand knowledge is described as fragmented sets with no link between the fragments. Mental models have a predictive and explicative power and are constrained by universal presuppositions. They follow a universal gradual development in three steps from initial, synthetic to scientific models. On the contrary, the fragments are not organised and development is seen as a situated process where cultural transmission plays a fundamental role. After a presentation of those two theoretical positions, we will illustrate them with examples of studies related to the Earth Shape and gravity performed in different cultural contexts in order to enhance both the differences and the invariant cultural elements. We will show how those problematic are important to take into account and to question for space concepts, like gravity, orbits, weightlessness for instance. Indeed capturing the processes of acquisition and development of knowledge concerning specific space concepts can give us important information to develop relevant and adapted strategies for instruction. If the process of knowledge acquisition for Space concepts is fragmented then we have to think of how we could identify those fragments and help the learner organise links between them. If the knowledge is organised into coherent mental models, we have to think of how to destabilize a non relevant model and to prevent from the development of initial and synthetic models. Moreover the question of what is universal versus what is culture dependant in this acquisition process need to be explored. We will also present some main misconceptions that appeared about Space concepts. Indeed, additionally to the previous theoretical consideration, the collection and awareness of the main misconceptions is also a relevant tool to develop or adapt teaching strategies. Indeed it can help the leaner to refute those misconceptions in a constructivist way.

Frappart, Soren

2

Understanding Student Cognition about Complex Earth System Processes Related to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth's climate system includes complex behavior and interconnections with other Earth spheres that present challenges to student learning. To better understand these unique challenges, we have conducted experiments with high-school and introductory level college students to determine how information pertaining to the connections between the Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth spheres (e.g., hydrosphere and cryosphere) are processed. Specifically, we include psychomotor tests (e.g., eye-tracking) and open-ended questionnaires in this research study, where participants were provided scientific images of the Earth (e.g., global precipitation and ocean and atmospheric currents), eye-tracked, and asked to provide causal or relational explanations about the viewed images. In addition, the students engaged in on-line modules (http://serc.carleton.edu/eslabs/climate/index.html) focused on Earth system science as training activities to address potential cognitive barriers. The developed modules included interactive media, hands-on lessons, links to outside resources, and formative assessment questions to promote a supportive and data-rich learning environment. Student eye movements were tracked during engagement with the materials to determine the role of perception and attention on understanding. Students also completed a conceptual questionnaire pre-post to determine if these on-line curriculum materials assisted in their development of connections between Earth's atmospheric system and the other Earth systems. The pre-post results of students' thinking about climate change concepts, as well as eye-tracking results, will be presented.

McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.; Ledley, T. S.; Dutta, S.; Templeton, M. C.; Geroux, J.; Blakeney, G. A.

2011-12-01

3

Understanding Earth: Coal Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplementary material from Understanding Earth (4th ed.), this short animation guides viewers through the formation of coal and its pathway through different grades. The animation is annotated with labels.

W.H. Freeman & Co. Publishing

4

Natural analogs for improved understanding of coupled processes in engineered earth systems: examples from karst system evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need to understand the behav- iour of engineered earth systems, from the viewpoint of safe waste disposal and exploration of renewable energy sources. Often, human activities lead to signifi- cant perturbations of the earth systems, involving hy- drologic, mechanical, thermal and chemical processes. Prediction of the long-term response of earth systems to large perturbations is critical

Harihar Rajaram; Wendy Cheung; Abhijit Chaudhuri

2009-01-01

5

Do Young Children's Ideas about the Earth's Structure and Processes Reveal Underlying Patterns of Descriptive and Causal Understanding in Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its "geological" aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earths structure and processes held by individual children from…

Blake, Anthony

2005-01-01

6

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

7

Understanding Venus to understand the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

2012-12-01

8

Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more straightforward through common interfaces and standardization of time-stepping, model domains and model parameters. At the same time major steps forward require an interdisciplinary approach, wherein the source to sink system contains ecological feedbacks and human actors.

Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

2013-12-01

9

Understanding Earth's Changes Over Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students compare the magnitude of geologic time with spans of time in a person's lifetime, which is often difficult for many students. They use a long paper strip and a reasonable scale to represent visually all of geologic time, including significant events in the development of life on earth as well as recent human events. This activity provides students with an opportunity to develop understandings of the age of the earth compared to the various events in the history of earth systems. The site contains a list of materials and all of the information required to conduct this activity.

10

Coastal DEMs integrate seafloor bathymetry and land topography to depict Earth's solid surface, and help us better understand a variety of ocean processes.  

E-print Network

Sheet What is a coastal DEM? A coastal DEM depicts Earth's land surface and ocean bottom. It is madeCoastal DEMs integrate seafloor bathymetry and land topography to depict Earth's solid surface, and help us better understand a variety of ocean processes. Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Fact

11

To better understand the processes that connect the Earth environment to the Sun,  

E-print Network

and lay audiences alike. Yet, rela- tively little is known about the fundamental processes taking place equals the solar wind speed itself). Helpful optical and radio wave observations of solar wind compo

Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

12

Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

1999-01-01

13

Observing and understanding the Earth system variations from space geodesy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction and coupling of the Earth system components that include the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and other fluids in Earth's interior, influence the Earth's shape, gravity field and its rotation (the three pillars of geodesy). The effects of global climate change, such as sea level rise, glacier melting, and geoharzards, also affect these observables. However, observations and models of Earth's system change have large uncertainties due to the lack of direct high temporal-spatial measurements. Nowadays, space geodetic techniques, particularly GNSS, VLBI, SLR, DORIS, InSAR, satellite gravimetry and altimetry provide a unique opportunity to monitor and, therefore, understand the processes and feedback mechanisms of the Earth system with high resolution and precision. In this paper, the status of current space geodetic techniques, some recent observations, and interpretations of those observations in terms of the Earth system are presented. These results include the role of space geodetic techniques, atmospheric-ionospheric sounding, ocean monitoring, hydrologic sensing, cryosphere mapping, crustal deformation and loading displacements, gravity field, geocenter motion, Earth's oblateness variations, Earth rotation and atmospheric-solid earth coupling, etc. The remaining questions and challenges regarding observing and understanding the Earth system are discussed.

Jin, Shuanggen; van Dam, Tonie; Wdowinski, Shimon

2013-12-01

14

Femtosecond spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthesis{emdash}towards an understanding of the most important energy conversion process on earth  

SciTech Connect

Reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis are ideal systems to study photosynthetic energy conversion. Femtosecond spectroscopy has delivered extensive information on the molecular mechanisms of the primary electron transfer. The data show, that primary electron transfer is an ultrafast stepwise reaction, where the electron is transferred via closely spaced pigments with reaction times as fast as 0.9 ps and 3.5 ps. Experiments on mutated and modified reaction centers allow to determine the energetics of the various intermediates in the reaction center. Recently, femtosecond experiments with light pulses in the mid infrared have shown, that an additional fast process occurs on the 200 fs timescale in the initially excited special pair. Only afterwards the well established electron transfer reactions take place. This fast process may be of importance for the optimization of the primary reaction. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Zinth, W.; Hamm, P.; Arlt, T.; Wachtveitl, J. [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Optik, Barbarastr.1 6, 80797 Muenchen (Germany)

1996-04-01

15

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

Ireton, Shirley W.; Gilbert, Steven W.

2003-01-01

16

Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper considers the technology requirements needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth concept, which will consist of several sun synchronous polar platforms; a series of low-earth orbit equatorial missions, such as Space Shuttle payloads, Space-Station-attached payloads, and the Explorer-class Earth Probes; and five geostationary platforms. In particular, the technology requirements in the areas of space-based observation, data/information, and spacecraft operation are examined.

Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

1989-01-01

17

The Poles of Mars: A Key to Understanding Earth's  

E-print Network

snow cover on Earth, lies a permanent, residual polar cap #12;Ice Age made mainly of water iceThe Poles of Mars: A Key to Understanding Earth's by Bruce C. Murray ANYTHING HAVING TO DO of Mars; they're scientifically interesting and may have some relevance to Earth. But my discussion

Faraon, Andrei

18

Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

Genio, Anthony Del

2013-01-01

19

Toward an understanding of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present models of the evolution of isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle to develop an understanding of the relationship between modern geochemical observables and physical processes through time. Our basic model is an extension of the conventional geochemical reservoir model for the evolution of the Earth's crust-mantle system in which we calculate not only the mean isotopic ratios, but

James Brewster Kellogg

2004-01-01

20

Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

2012-01-01

21

AGU and Earth Science Women's Network sign memorandum of understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In furtherance of our strategic goal to be a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science, AGU signed a memorandum of understanding with the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) in spring 2012. Under the agreement, AGU will provide ESWN with an online platform through which to better connect its members. The agreement will allow AGU to further its strategic goal and help ESWN enhance cooperation and collaboration among women in Earth and space science. ESWN is a community of scientists dedicated to supporting collaborations and providing mentorship for its members, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. The new online platform should help ESWN to connect with more individuals and create a stronger network of dedicated women pursuing research in Earth and space science.

McEntee, Chris

2012-06-01

22

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 12551269 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1255­1269 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1813 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

Johnson, Edward A.

23

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291304 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291­304 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1725 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

California at Santa Barbara, University of

24

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 13931407 (2009)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1393­1407 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1828 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMSEarth Surface Processes and LandformsThe Journal of the British

Canberra, University of

25

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 27, 667672 (2002)  

E-print Network

Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 27, 667­672 (2002) Published-based research (fluvial processes and landforms, riparian, drainage basin) dominates well-cited papers publish well-cited papers, but Earth Surface Processes and Landforms hosts the largest number of well

Dorn, Ron

26

Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

Righter, Kevin

2007-01-01

27

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78101 (2010)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78­101 (2010) Copyright future research are identified: (1) co-evolution of landforms and biological communities; and (2) humans

Cardinale, Bradley J.

28

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

Ireton, Shirley W.; Gilbert, Steven W.

2003-01-01

29

Science data processing in the Mission to Planet Earth era  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data-processing systems developed to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) are described in an overview of the system architectures. The MPE program is discussed in terms of flight segments and data types to examine the required elements of the information systems. The data-processing segments are described for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the Earth Observing System, and the Geostationary Earth Observatory. The data and information systems for the separate segments provide some redundant processing services. Distributed active archive centers are employed for each segment composed of three subelements: (1) a product-generation system, (2) a data archive and distribution system, and (3) an information management system. The data processing design for the MPE is expected to facilitate the understanding of the entire earth system on a global scale.

Goodman, H. M.

1992-01-01

30

Destinations Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are  

E-print Network

Destinations ­ Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences #12;#12;An understanding of Earth and Ocean and biological resources.The Earth and Ocean Sciences are also the key to predicting and managing natural hazards such as floods, earthquakes, tsunami, landslides and volcanic eruptions. Earth and Ocean Sciences

Waikato, University of

31

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Understanding Carbon Storage in Forests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: Forest Inventory and Analysis data, TOOLS: isee Player, Spreadsheet application. SUMMARY: Compare field collected data with results produced by a forest biomass model to understand the process and challenges scientists face when doing terrestrial carbon cycle research.

32

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively  

E-print Network

SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

Liu, Paul

33

Adsorption processing - Optimization through understanding  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption processes used in the natural gas industry for dehydration, sweetening and liquids recovery are batch systems, very similar to laboratory chromatographs. For continuous processing a plant must contain multiple adsorbers, so that while one column adsorbs, another or others can be desorbed and prepared for their next turn at adsorption. Variations in the cycle, the number of adsorbers and the way multiple towers may be sequenced; in series, in parallel, etc. are so numerous that an entire presentation could be devoted to the reasons and results of the various arrangements. For a consideration of the process fundamentals and the way they can be manipulated, this discussion concentrates on a simple two tower system typical of what is frequently used to dehydrate gas ahead of a cryogenic plant; a turboexpander unit or a peak shaving LNG facility.

Not Available

1986-01-01

34

Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth?s deep mantle  

SciTech Connect

Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} in the CaIrO{sub 3}-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

Duffy, T.S. (Princeton)

2008-12-09

35

Understanding the Military Medical Evaluation Process  

MedlinePLUS

... how!. Apply Now Home » Casualty Assistance Understanding the Military Medical Evaluation Process The military’s medical evaluation process ... WEBINAR All Webinars Dec. 10, 2014 Medicaid and Military Families: An Introduction Learn more and register for ...

36

Edmund Russell. Evolutionary History: Uniting History and Biology to Understand Life on Earth. Evolutionary History: Uniting History and Biology to Understand Life on Earth by Edmund  

E-print Network

Edmund Russell. Evolutionary History: Uniting History and Biology to Understand Life on Earth. Evolutionary History: Uniting History and Biology to Understand Life on Earth by Edmund Russell Review by: John M. Lynch Isis, Vol. 104, No. 2 (June 2013), pp. 422-423 Published by: The University of Chicago

Lynch, John M.

37

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 284293 (2010)  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 284­293 (2010) Copyright the general evolution of intertidal landforms. In muddy coastlines, the morphology of tidal channels terrestrial and intertidal landforms. As a result, salt marshes and chenier plains are the shoreline main

Fagherazzi, Sergio

38

The history of Earth climate In order to understand the history of the  

E-print Network

first understand something about the age of the Earth and how various events have been dated. Some fundamental questions: .How old is the Earth? . How do we know the age of the Earth?? . What was the origin over geologic time? #12;The Radiometric Time Scale: Key to age of Earth and geologic time . 1896

McCready, Mark J.

39

Understanding the emergence of life on Earth and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of the emergence of Life on Earth it has been showed that in suitable environments, components typical of both extraterrestrial (iperstenic chondrites and siderites) [1] and terrestrial minerals and rocks containing iron (magnetite and olivine), in spite of extreme sterilization procedures, may catalyze inorganic and organic reactions leading to self-assembly metallorganic entities having a complex and composite chemical structure able to perform several catalytic activities typical of modern biology [2], [3]. In light of evidence accumulated during several years on viable microorganisms - including bacteria, archaea and fungi - found in mineral-associated environments, such as different kind of sediments and rocks (among which evaporites) as well as deep drillings and space vacuum exposure experiments, the aim of this work is to present and discuss the results of past [4] recent [1], [2], [5], and ongoing (molecular and catalytic) studies supporting the multiple root genesis hypothesis (MuRoGe) already proposed [4] in order to approach the problem of the origin of life. According to this hyphothesis, taking into account energetic, evolutionary, pre-biometabolic and environmental aspects, emergence of life on Earth accomplished through multiple origins, in different times, environments and selective contexts in whichusing terrestrial and extraterrestrial materialcooperative/ competitive, synergistic, interactive processes, life may be appeared or will emerge and survived or will survive to possible "mass extintion" due to cosmic impacts.

del Gaudio, R.

2013-09-01

40

Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 11 UnderstandingGlobalClimateChange 2  

E-print Network

and the house would end up either being too hot or too cold. #12;Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 13 Notes1Looking at Earth as a System Chapter 11 #12;UnderstandingGlobalClimateChange 2 A Systems Approach to Look at Earth 1.1 AdifferentwayofunderstandingEarth Notes1.1.1 If we are going to look at Earth

Howat, Ian M.

41

Understanding the Near-Earth Object Population: the 2004 Perspective  

E-print Network

to as "near-Earth objects" (NEOs). By convention, NEOs have perihelion dis- tances q 1.3AU and aphelion distances Q 0.983AU (e.g.Rabinowitz et al.1994).Sub- categories of the NEO population include the Apollos of the "formal" NEO population are the IEOs, or those objects located inside Earth's orbit (Q

Bottke, William F.

42

Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

Rickman, Doug

2010-01-01

43

EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the  

E-print Network

EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused this understanding to read the record of earth history written in rocks and sediments, and on developing models by humans. Opportunities for Students Sigma Gamma Epsilon: The Omega Chapter of the national honorary earth

Krylov, Anna I.

44

The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

2002-01-01

45

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-08

46

Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

2012-06-28

47

are exploring planet Earth is the part of earth science dealing with the physical processes and  

E-print Network

GeoKids are exploring planet Earth Geophysics is the part of earth science dealing with the physical processes and characteristics of the Earth and its environment. Volcanism, earthquakes structure of our planet are constantly changing, driven by enormous energies in and outside the Earth

Brückl, Ewald

48

How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification or falsification and conclusions that must be well grounded and argued. The intelligibility of theories is improved by the combination of these two types of understanding. This is also attested by the fact that both theoretical and embodied skills are considered essential for the training of university students at all levels. However, from surprised and confounded reactions of the public to natural disasters it appears that just showing scientific results is not enough to convey the scientific understanding to the public. By using the tools used by earth scientists to develop explanations and achieve understanding, laymen could achieve understanding as well without rigorous theoretical training. We are presently investigating in science musea whether engaging the public in scientific activities based on embodied skills leads to understanding of earth-scientific phenomena by laymen.

Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

2010-12-01

49

Children's Cosmographies: Understanding the Earth's Shape and Gravity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed Nussbaum's developmental model (SE 024 045) using a new sample given no special instructions in spherical earth/gravity concepts. Also identified distribution of notions among students (N=159 in grades three to eight), compared distribution of notions at each age level with those in other studies, and explored role of individual…

Sneider, Cary; Pulos, Steven

1983-01-01

50

Rules for understanding rare-earth magnetic compounds.  

E-print Network

??Results of spin density functional theory (SDFT) calculations were used to construct and check features of a generally applicable semi-quantitative approach to understanding magnetic coupling… (more)

Roy, Lindsay Elizabeth

2009-01-01

51

Non-Linear Processes in the Resonator Earth-Ionosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work is connected with studying electromagnetic fields in the resonator Earth-Ionosphere. There is studied the interconnection of tide processes of geophysical and astrophysical origin with the Earth electromagnetic fields.

Grunskaya, L. V.

2011-12-01

52

Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in Global Circulation Models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth System Models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for up-scaling from the local to global. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of tele-connections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.

Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.

2013-08-01

53

Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in global circulation models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision-making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth system models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for upscaling from the local to global scale. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of teleconnections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global-scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.

Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.

2014-02-01

54

To advance understanding of the Earth system, describe the consequences of  

E-print Network

To advance understanding of the Earth system, describe the consequences of climate change, and evaluate and inform policy on the outcomes of climate change responses. -CCSI Mission Statement Climate...........................................................................31 Climate Change ­ Terrestrial Ecosystem Science SFA

55

Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

Not Available

1994-02-01

56

Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

Ronney, Paul D.

1998-01-01

57

Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

Thesenga, David; Town, James

2014-05-01

58

The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

2012-01-01

59

Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

2013-06-01

60

What similar physical processes occur on both Earth and Mars?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Module investigation compares and contrasts physical processes that occur on Both Earth and Mars. Students are given unidentified images of Earth and Mars. Their task is to arrange the images into pairs that show evidence of similar physical processes. Then they identify each image as one of Earth or of Mars by comparing and contrasting physical features that they observe in the image pairs. It includes teacher background materials and an answer key where appropriate.

2002-05-26

61

Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapter: Using Satellite Images to Understand Earth's Atmosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DATA: NASA Satellite Images. TOOLS: ImageJ and Image Composite Explorer (ICE) of NASA Earth Observations (NEO). SUMMARY: Use ImageJ to create an animation showing the change in monthly concentration of aerosols over the course of a year and compare it to a similar animation showing change in carbon monoxide concentration. Then use NEO ICE to create histograms and scatter plots, investigating the relationship between aerosol concentration and carbon monoxide concentration.

62

The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules will be developed for middle school classrooms to enrich earth science curricula by taking students into the field, and by providing opportunities to interact with scientists using real EarthScope data and research results. Curriculum modules will take advantage of Denali's new "Nature Area Network", an IEEE 802.11b wireless network serving the backcountry areas of the Park where students can engage in hands on learning about geology and geophysics and share their experiences with students worldwide via the Internet. Curricula will also focus on the new field of digital story telling, in which students will develop their own understanding of solid earth processes by creating digital stories using readily available digital moviemaking technology. A training course will be developed to enhance K-12 educators' ability to teach earth science utilizing real data and research results. And a series of public lectures both at Denali and in communities across Alaska will engage Geophysical Institute researchers with the public and foster wider participation in the EarthScope Experiment. The anticipated benefits of this project are many. An increase in public awareness and understanding of solid earth processes will lead to better preparedness, and improved decision making regarding the mitigation of risk from seismic and volcanic hazards. Earth science education will be made more vital and engaging for both students and teachers. And Alaska's visitors and residents will gain a better understand and greater appreciation for the dynamic tectonic processes that have created the rugged landscape of the state and its national parklands.

Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

2003-12-01

63

North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

Turner, G. M.

2010-12-01

64

Microbe-mineral interactions: understanding biomarker formation in modern Earth systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of a microbial cell beyond Earth is often viewed as the proverbial "smoking gun" required for demonstrating beyond a doubt the existence of extraterrestrial life. However, studies of modern Earth systems have shown that the preservation of bacterial cells is a rare phenomenon that requires very specific physicochemical conditions. Similarly, many presumed remains of microbial cells observed in the rock record are now thought to be abiogenic mineral structures. More commonly, the complex interactions between microorganisms and their environment lead to the formation of physical, chemical and isotopic biomarkers that are more readily preserved in the rock record. This is especially true for microbe-mineral interactions whereby minerals with characteristic textures, crystal structure, chemistry or isotopic composition are produced, often in combination with specific biochemical signatures. Such mineral biomarkers not only provide information about the organisms that created them, but also help to elucidate the environmental conditions under which they were created and the biogeochemical processes involved in their formation and preservation. The discovery of a suite of robust biomarkers on Mars would therefore not only provide proof of the existence of extraterrestrial life, but would also help in understanding the geological and chemical context of past life on Mars. Hence, studies of modern systems on Earth are essential for elucidating how these biomarkers are formed and ultimately preserved in the rock record. This information can in turn be applied directly to the development of planetary exploration strategies and science instrument payloads. Here, a number of recent examples of microbe-mineral interactions in modern systems, from terrestrial and subsurface basalts to deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, are reviewed and the key mineralogical, molecular, isotopic and elemental signatures formed in these systems are summarized.

Leveille, R. J.

2005-12-01

65

Timing And Processes Of Earth's Core Differentiation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small 182W abundance excess of terrestrial W relative to W in bulk chondrites has been recently established (Yin et al. 2002, Kleine et al. 2002, Schoenberg et al. 2002). Rapid terrestrial accretion and early core formation, with completion of the bulk metal-silicate separation within less than 30 Myr have been proposed on this basis. These studies underline how much this 182W/182Hf time scale agrees with dynamic accretion models (Wetherill, 1986) that predict a ˜10 Myr interval for the main growth stage of Earth's formation. This W model time scale for terrestrial accretion is shorter than current estimates based on Pb isotope systematics of mantle-derived basalts and terrestrial Xe isotope systematics. The end of metal-silicate differentiation and large scale mantle degassing has been defined ˜100 My after beginning of the accretion. These studies also indicate agreement of this time scale with dynamic accretion models that predict 100 My for the end of Earth's accretion. The Hf-W time scale for accretion and core formation assumes total equilibration of incoming metal and silicate of impactors with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) during planet's growth. Recently, the assumption of incomplete equilibration of metal and silicate components with BSE has been investigated (Halliday, 2004). It is proposed that impacting core material has not always efficiently mixed with the silicate portions of the Earth before being added to the Earth's core Our approach also considers that equilibration between metal and silicate has not been complete in BSE during Earth's growth, and we argue that early part of the Earth's core has segregated through unmelted silicate material. When the baby Earth was large enough, the increase of the temperature induced Fe-FeS eutectic melting. The liquid metal segregated through the crystalline silicate matrix and formed the early part of the Earth's core. Experimental study (Yoshino et al. 2003) indicates the percolation threshold for molten iron-sulphur compounds of 5 vol% solid olivine, through channel on triple junction between minerals. This study allows us to reconsider the precedent proposition (Stevenson, 1990) based on experimental and theoretical considerations suggesting that percolation of metallic iron rich liquid through a mostly solid silicate matrix is largely prevented because of the high surface tension of iron. During formation and segregation of the Fe-FeS eutectic, W isotopic equilibration is limited by the diffusion through the solid silicate matrix. During the further Earth's growth, impact melting increased and has induced a progressive melting of BSE up to the formation of magma ocean at the end of the planet's accretion. Before the occurrence of the magma ocean, W equilibration between impactors and BSE has not been complete This incomplete isotopic exchange between terrestrial metal and metal originating from impactors with solid part of BSE during early accretion of the Earth leads to the observed excess of 182W of present BSE. It occurs when the 182W production in BSE is most significant, due to the short half-life of 182Hf. The change of segregation mechanisms of Earth's core during planet's growth and short-sightedness of Hf-W chronometer focused to the early segregation of Earth's core make the divergence with the U-Pb and I-Xe terrestrial records. Yin et al. 2002, Nature 418, 949-952. Kleine et al. 2002, Nature 418, 952-955. Schoenberg et al. 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3151-3160. Wetherill 1986, in Origin of the Moon, eds Hartmann et al., LPI, 519-550. Yoshino et al. 2003, Nature 422, 154-157. Stevenson 1990, in Origin of the Earth, eds Newson et al., LPI, 231-249.

Allegre, C. J.; Manhes, G.; Gopel, C.

2004-12-01

66

Toward an understanding of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present models of the evolution of isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle to develop an understanding of the relationship between modern geochemical observables and physical processes through time. Our basic model is an extension of the conventional geochemical reservoir model for the evolution of the Earth's crust-mantle system in which we calculate not only the mean isotopic ratios, but also the distribution of those ratios within the reservoirs. Owing to low chemical diffusion rates, subreservoirs that are created by mass transport into and out of the mantle effectively exist as distinct geochemical entities for all time. By tracking these subreservoirs, we obtain a model of the full range of isotopic values represented in the mantle. Using results from numerical calculations of mixing, we also track the length scales associated with each subreservoir. Applying simple statistics, we obtain the distribution of expected measurements as a function of the stirring time, effective melt fraction, sampling volume, and mass transport history. In developing the model, we focus on the samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium parent-daughter systems, as these are the best behaved of the commonly-used systems. We then focus on the uranium-thorium-lead system, which introduces a significant degree of complexity not present in the simpler systems. We find that the removal of lead from the oceanic crust by subduction zone processes is critical in obtaining the observed slopes in lead-isotopic space. We derive an internally consistent model of the Earth's isotopic evolution both in the bulk and statistical sense. We obtain a model of the Earth's mantle, heterogeneous on all length scales, which successfully reproduces the spectrum of heterogeneity observed in mid-ocean ridge basalts. This model leads us to a new version of the plum-pudding mantle in which relatively young, (<1 Gyr) depleted residua from continental crustal extraction form the plums and everything else mixes to form the pudding. This latter component may be identified with FOZO or C, the intermediate mixing endmember suggested previously by other authors.

Kellogg, James Brewster

67

ALGORITHMS FOR UNDERSTANDING MOTOR CORTICAL PROCESSING AND NEURAL PROSTHETIC SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

ALGORITHMS FOR UNDERSTANDING MOTOR CORTICAL PROCESSING AND NEURAL PROSTHETIC SYSTEMS A DISSERTATION understanding of cortical processing and a much improved ability to control neural prosthetic devices (also for understanding cortical processing and for prosthetic systems. The first part focuses on our signal processing

Columbia University

68

Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides  

SciTech Connect

Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalcogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalcogen losses in the melting step.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)] [Ames Lab., IA (United States); [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Sciences and Engineering

1998-10-01

69

Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative

Azalie Cecile Pulling

2001-01-01

70

Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly better performance than the local machine. Much of the difference was due to newer equipment in the Nebula than the legacy computer, which is suggestive of a potential economic advantage beyond elastic power, i.e., access to up-to-date hardware vs. legacy hardware that must be maintained past its prime to amortize the cost. In addition to a trade study of advantages and challenges of porting complex processing to the cloud, a tutorial was developed to enable further progress in utilizing the Nebula for Earth Science applications and understanding better the potential for Cloud Computing in further data- and computing-intensive Earth Science research. In particular, highly bursty computing such as that experienced in the user-demand-driven Giovanni system may become more tractable in a Cloud environment. Our future work will continue to focus on migrating more GES DISC's applications/instances, e.g. Giovanni instances, to the Nebula platform and making matured migrated applications to be in operation on the Nebula.

Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

2011-12-01

71

Understanding Computer Architectures and Processing Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lectures on computer architectures held at the University of Rostock indicate that a growing number of students is lacking a firm understanding of the fundamentals in the design, configuration, and programming of micro- processors. Nowadays, advanced programming techniques and design principles as well as sophisticated tools and compilers hide those basic elements. Furthermore, the faculty cannot afford to extent the

RALF JOOST; RALF SALOMON; MATTHIAS SCHNEIDER

72

North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The story of the quest to understand Earth's magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with

G. M. Turner

2010-01-01

73

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect to the conceptions

William R. Penuel; Lawrence P. Gallagher

2009-01-01

74

Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

2006-01-01

75

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science | Service | Stewardship Understand the earth  

E-print Network

Understand the earth Survey Mark Hunting National Geodetic Survey Satellite Triangualtion Program be rediscovering long-neglected objects of American history! Searching for survey marks is called "mark recov- ery" and is a lot like a treasure hunt (you may hear this activity called "benchmarking" but the correct term

76

Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

2009-01-01

77

Missing the Hockey Season? Come to this Briefing! Understanding Changes in Earth's Temperature and Climate  

E-print Network

Missing the Hockey Season? Come to this Briefing! Understanding Changes in Earth's Temperature and Climate: The Science Behind the Hockey Stick Graphs and Model Simulations LUNCHEON BRIEFING Wednesday, April 6 11:30 a.m., Room 253, Senate Russell Building The NHL may have cancelled their season

78

From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record  

E-print Network

of future conditions. Research The Department of Earth and Space Sciences has four broad and overlappingFrom the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record and on rigorous

Anderson, Richard

79

The Rare Earth Peak : An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic  

E-print Network

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high entropy r-process (S>100k_B) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

M. Mumpower; G. McLaughlin; R. Surman

2012-02-08

80

THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC  

SciTech Connect

The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Surman, Rebecca, E-mail: mrmumpow@ncsu.edu, E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu, E-mail: surmanr@union.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

2012-06-20

81

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1994-08-09

82

Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

DOEpatents

The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

1992-01-01

83

Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

Black, Alice A. (Jill)

84

Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

85

A Decade of Progress in Earth's Internal Properties and Processes.  

PubMed

A major component of the Inter-Union Commission on Geodynamics Project, labeled "Internal Properties and Processes," included certain experimental and theoretical research in tectonophysics, seismology, geochemistry, petrology, volcanology, and planetology. This review focuses on a few research areas in which there have been surprises and reversals. In particular, attention is given to the attempts to quantify the thermal profile in the earth's interior and the material properties of the earth's interior. PMID:17741172

Anderson, O L

1981-07-01

86

The surface temperatures of Earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information, which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

2013-12-01

87

The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

2013-04-01

88

Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

1972-01-01

89

Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwel

Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

2008-09-01

90

Internal wave coupling processes in Earth's atmosphere  

E-print Network

This paper presents a contemporary review of vertical coupling in the atmosphere and ionosphere system induced by internal waves of lower atmospheric origin. Atmospheric waves are primarily generated by meteorological processes, possess a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and can propagate to the upper atmosphere. A brief summary of internal wave theory is given, focusing on gravity waves, solar tides, planetary Rossby and Kelvin waves. Observations of wave signatures in the upper atmosphere, their relationship with the direct propagation of waves into the upper atmosphere, dynamical and thermal impacts as well as concepts, approaches, and numerical modeling techniques are outlined. Recent progress in studies of sudden stratospheric warming and upper atmospheric variability are discussed in the context of wave-induced vertical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere.

Yi?it, Erdal

2014-01-01

91

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface  

E-print Network

Agents for Development of Earth's Surface · Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface · Roles and consumption) · Internal Dynamic Processes · Driven by the Earth's radioactive heat · Energy release of the Earth? G302 Development of the Global Environment The Face of the EarthThe Face of the Earth Thematic

Polly, David

92

Earth System Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding climate requires understanding that Earth is a holistic system of dynamic, interacting components. Furthermore, understanding how the Earth system works is essential for making informed decisions about how to manage, protect, and sustain our planet and its natural resources. This EarthLabs module helps students understand their world as an interconnected living system. Students learn to identify the parts of the Earth system and the processes that connect them, starting locally and gradually expanding their view to regional and global scales.

Bardar, Erin; Haddad, Nick

93

Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dancing glow of the aurorae, the long tendrils of light that seem to reach up into space, has mesmerized scientists for centuries. More than a beautiful display, the aurorae tell us about the Earth—about its atmosphere, its magnetic field, and its relationship with the Sun. As technology developed, researchers looking beyond Earth's borders discovered an array of auroral processes on planets throughout the solar system. In the AGU monograph Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets, editors Andreas Keiling, Eric Donovan, Fran Bagenal, and Tomas Karlsson explore the many open questions that permeate the science of auroral physics and the relatively recent field of extraterrestrial aurorae. In this interview, Eos talks to Karlsson about extraterrestrial aurorae, Alfvén waves, and the sounds of the northern lights.

Schultz, Colin

2013-07-01

94

Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and

Ralph Bernstein

1976-01-01

95

Ultrasonic sensors for lunar and Earth resource processing and manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic feasibility of a sustained human presence on the Moon (and later Mars) requires the use of resources in a manner that is minimally or not dependent on material or energy support from Earth, To that end, a prototype processing plant is being built to demonstrate the capability of extracting silicon, iron, titanium and aluminum metals and oxides to

J. S. Schoenwald; E. D. McCullough

1993-01-01

96

Stone's code reveals Earth's processes August 27, 2013  

E-print Network

- 1 - Stone's code reveals Earth's processes August 27, 2013 � Return to homepage Coding for simulations to help capture carbon dioxide Although Los Alamos geophysicist Ian Stone studies his namesake gas that increases global warming. An evocative nature photographer, Stone is also a magazine art

97

Terrestrial manganese-53 --A new monitor of Earth surface processes  

E-print Network

Terrestrial manganese-53 -- A new monitor of Earth surface processes Joerg M. Schaefer a,, Thomas of the terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide manganese-53 (T1/2 =3.7 Ma) measured in thirteen samples from nine dolerite surfaces in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The terrestrial manganese-53 concentrations correlate

Winckler, Gisela

98

Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

O'Mara, Joanne

2002-01-01

99

Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students  

E-print Network

The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study...

Henry, Linda Mary

2011-05-31

100

INTRODUCTION Understanding the aging process is central to preventing  

E-print Network

age-related disease burden and premature mortality. Many different measures have been suggested INTRODUCTION Understanding the aging process is central to preventing as having prognostic value for mortality. Cellular aging may offer insights into organismic aging relevant

Derisi, Joseph

101

Understanding of processes of surface water dynamics causing storm surge  

E-print Network

Understanding of processes of surface water dynamics causing storm surge and groundwater due to storm surges and SLR? ­ First, can we predict SLR or storm surges in open coastal water bodies? ­ How do we go about transla

Kirby, James T.

102

Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

Ott, C. Mark

2014-01-01

103

Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. 1998 Fact Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a comprehensive program to study the earth as an environmental system. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of earth-observing satellites; (2) an advanced data system; and (3) teams of scientists who will study the data. Contents include: (1) "The Earth

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight Center.

104

Understanding Arctic Ocean Processes Under Changing Ice Cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Arctic sea ice declines, heat transport into and through the upper ocean plays an increasing role in the highly coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean system. The processes by which the ocean affects sea ice are, however, poorly understood. Understanding processes controlling delivery, storage, and release of heat by the Arctic Ocean is an urgent task.

Polyakov, Igor; Padman, Laurence; Hutchings, Jennifer

2014-09-01

105

Understanding software defect detection in the Personal Software Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general need to understand software defects and the ability to detect defects during different activities. This is particularly important in relation to software process improvement, where one objective may be to decrease the number of defects. The Personal Software Process (PSP) has gained attention during the last couple of years as a way to individual improvement in

Claes Wohlin; Anders Wesslén

1998-01-01

106

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

1995-01-01

107

The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

2010-01-01

108

Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.  

PubMed

This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research. PMID:19100995

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-09-01

109

Editorial 917 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 917921 (2005)  

E-print Network

Editorial 917 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 917­921 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 917­921 (2005) Published Processes and Landforms we highlight new applications of geochemical, field and modelling methods applied

Heimsath, Arjun M.

110

Understanding underlying processes in formic acid fuel cells.  

PubMed

A basic understanding of electrode structure and the characteristics of its components can be powerfully utilized in fuel cell applications such as direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) system integration and HCOOH concentration controlled systems. There have been, thus, tremendous efforts made to elucidate theoretical aspects of electrochemical processes involving new anode catalysts and put them into practical effect on formic acid fuel cells. Herein, we highlight recent studies for better understanding of the underlying processes in DFAFC: (i) a systematic approach for developing cost-effective and stable anode catalysts and electrode structures that incorporate mass transport characteristics of HCOOH; (ii) a clear evaluation of the HCOOH crossover rate based on its physicochemical properties; and (iii) a theoretical assessment process of individual electrodes and related components during DFAFC operation using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a reversible hydrogen reference electrode, which can potentially detect subtle changes in the DFAFC mechanism and provide useful information pertaining to rate-limiting processes. PMID:19830313

Uhm, Sunghyun; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaeyoung

2009-11-01

111

Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

2010-12-01

112

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 11971205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION AND ERROR  

E-print Network

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, VOL 22, 1197­1205 (1997) RING PERMEAMETRY: DESIGN, OPERATION of permeability estimates is illustrated. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth surf. process. landforms, 22, 1197

Chappell, Nick A

113

Dynamic Noise and its Role in Understanding Epidemiological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of dynamic noise in understanding epidemiological systems, such as influenza or dengue fever by deriving stochastic ordinary differential equations from markov processes for discrete populations. This approach allows for an easy analysis of dynamical noise transitions between co-existing attractors.

Stollenwerk, Nico; Aguiar, Maíra

2010-09-01

114

Super Star Meets the Plucky Planet... Or, how Earth and Sun come to mutual understanding and respect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an animated and narrated storybook about the Sun and its effects on Earth. Learners will read or hear about characteristics of the Sun and Earth that influence their interaction. Topics touched upon include star sizes, star life cycle, stellar core nuclear processes, plasma, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, solar wind, electromagnetic spectrum, Earthâs magnetosphere, and electromagnetic energy.

115

MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

2010-12-01

116

Regents Competency Testing Program in Science. A Guide to the Core Process Skills and Content Understandings. Information Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Regents competency test in science is a survey test of the core process skills and core understandings taken from the 10 blocks of the "Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools." The life, earth, and physical sciences are covered equally. Questions testing knowledge (recall and recognition), comprehension, application, and the…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Science Education.

117

Naval EarthMap Observer: overview and data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) spacecraft and then focus on the processing of NEMO data both on-board the spacecraft and on the ground. The NEMO spacecraft provides for Joint Naval needs and demonstrates the use of hyperspectral imagery for the characterization of the littoral environment and for littoral ocean model development. NEMO is being funded jointly by the U.S. government and commercial partners. The Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer (COIS) is the primary instrument on the NEMO and covers the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm at 10-nm resolution with either 30 or 60 m work GSD. The hyperspectral data is processed on-board the NEMO using NRL's Optical Real-time Automated Spectral Identification System (ORASIS) algorithm that provides for real time analysis, feature extraction and greater than 10:1 data compression. The high compression factor allows for ground coverage of greater than 106 km2/day. Calibration of the sensor is done with a combination of moon imaging, using an onboard light source and vicarious calibration using a number of earth sites being monitored for that purpose. The data will be atmospherically corrected using ATREM. Algorithms will also be available to determine water clarity, bathymetry and bottom type.

Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Carney, Megan; Clamons, Dean; Gao, Bo-Cai; Gillis, David; Kappus, Mary E.; Lamela, G.; Montes, Marcos J.; Palmadesso, Peter J.; Rhea, J.; Snyder, William A.

1999-12-01

118

Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ?1 min.

Gladysheva, O. G.

2013-09-01

119

Improving our understanding of clouds in the Earth's climate using polarimetry (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water and ice clouds play a fundamental role in the radiative balance (and therefore climate) of the Earth, so understanding their distribution and optical properties is crucial. Recently, new data products from the ground-based NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) have been created. These products expand the scope of AERONET to provide data about clouds in addition to atmospheric aerosols for which the network was originally designed. The main AERONET cloud data product is the Cloud Optical Depth (COD), which describes the amount of light extinction due to clouds in a vertical atmospheric column. AERONET measurements of COD must rely, however, on assumptions about the cloud thermodynamic phase. If the thermodynamic phase can be identified, AERONET COD errors can be significantly reduced. AERONET sun photometers determine aerosol and cloud optical properties by observing both the direct solar beam and sky scattered radiation at a variety of wavelengths. Newer instruments are also sensitive to light polarization, which we show can be used to determine cloud thermodynamic phase and therefore improve AERONET cloud data products. This work has two components. First, we performed atmospheric radiative transfer simulations to verify that polarization does contain information about cloud phase, and how to best exploit this in an algorithm. Observations were then compared to theoretical simulations. The second component of this research is to build our own polarization sensitive radiometer that is optimized for cloud observations. Initial results from both of these efforts will be presented.

Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Dunagan, S.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Marshak, A.; Holben, B. N.

2013-12-01

120

Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

Carr, M. H.

1984-01-01

121

Formation Of The Rare Earth Peak: Gaining Insight Into Late-Time r-Process Dynamics  

E-print Network

We study the formation and final structure of the rare earth peak ($A\\sim160$) of the $r$-process nucleosynthesis. The rare earth peak forms at late times in the $r$-process after neutron exhaustion (neutron-to-seed ratio unity or R=1) as matter decays back to stability. Since rare earth peak formation does not occur during \

Matthew Mumpower; Gail McLaughlin; Rebecca Surman

2011-09-16

122

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

1991-01-01

123

Tuning optoelectronic properties and understanding charge transport in nanocrystal thin films of earth abundant semiconducting materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the capability of producing nearly 600 TW annually, solar power is one renewable energy source with the potential to meet a large fraction of the world's burgeoning energy demand. To make solar technology cost-competitive with carbon-based fuels, cheaper devices need to be realized. Solution-processed solar cells from nanocrystal inks of earth abundant materials satisfy this requirement. Nonetheless, a major hurdle in commercializing such devices is poor charge transport through nanocrystal thin films. The efficiency of charge transport through nanocrystal thin films is strongly dependent on the quality of the nanocrystals, as well as their optoelectronic properties. Therefore, the first part of this dissertation is focused on synthesizing high quality nanocrystals of Cu2ZnSnS4, a promising earth abundant photovoltaic absorber material. The optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals were tuned by altering the copper to zinc ratio, as well as by introducing selenium to create Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSe x)4 solid solutions. Photoelectrochemical characterization was used to test the Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(S 1-xSex)4 nanocrystal thin films. The results identify minority carrier diffusion and recombination via the redox shuttle as the major loss mechanisms hindering efficient charge transport through the nanocrystal thin films. One way to solve this issue is to sinter the nanocrystals together, creating large grains for efficient charge transport. Although this may be quick and effective, it can lead to the formation of structural defects, among other issues. To this end, using a different copper-based material, namely Cu2Se, and simple surface chemistry treatments, an alternative route to enhance charge transport through nanocrystals thin films is proposed.

Riha, Shannon C.

124

A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

Ashmann, Scott

2012-01-01

125

Earth Science: It's All about the Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

King, Chris

2013-01-01

126

Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

2009-01-01

127

Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome  

SciTech Connect

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

Shaffer, L.R.

1994-12-31

128

LAMONT-DOHERTY EARTH OBSERVATORY IS RENOWNED IN THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY FOR its success and innovation in advancing understanding of the Earth, for its unique geological and climatological archives and  

E-print Network

of the past, monitor the present and seek to foresee Earth's future. From global climate change to earthquakes#12;LAMONT-DOHERTY EARTH OBSERVATORY IS RENOWNED IN THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY FOR its success and innovation in advancing understanding of the Earth, for its unique geological

129

Earth Sciences Geology Option  

E-print Network

courses, core Earth Sciences courses, and focused coursework in the option. A graduation checklistEarth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its composition and internal structure to its history and the processes that shape its surface. Our planet

Kurapov, Alexander

130

Patterns and processes in landscapes: Surprises from Earth and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns in landscapes have enthralled geologists for more than a century, for both their visual appeal and the expectation that they record the underlying processes that shape Earth's surface. Until recently, however, direct comparisons between theory and topographic observations have been rare due to a scarcity of high-resolution topographic measurements, a lack of constraints on long-term process rates, and the difficulty of describing the nonlinear dynamics of evolving landscapes in a way that is both flexible enough and simple enough to make testable predictions. New developments are changing this situation. Acquisition of meter-resolution topographic data for a growing number of sites has allowed measurements of patterns and characteristic scales in landscapes, providing a clear target for models of landscape evolution. Models are efficient enough to make predictions of landscape form under simplified but reasonable combinations of processes and boundary conditions. And measurements of long-term erosion rates make it possible to calibrate some models. I will describe several surprising results that have emerged from these recent developments. First, topography driven by incising river networks often appears fractal, but some of the most revealing characteristics of landscapes are features that break this scale invariance, such as quasi-periodic landforms, tributary networks that form at a characteristic minimum scale, and asymmetric landforms generated by climate gradients. Second, studies of transient landscape evolution are revealing the mechanisms by which these patterns emerge, and some of the mechanisms are strikingly similar to conceptual models proposed many decades ago. Principles drawn from fluid dynamics provide a unifying framework for comparing landscape patterns with model predictions across landscapes with similar landforms but varied climatic and geological contexts. Third, both models and measurements suggest that landforms can have multiple equilibrium states, which can lead to hysteresis in properties as basic as drainage density. There may be fundamental limits to how much we can read from a landscape. Finally, spacecraft missions have revealed planetary landscapes apparently shaped by erosional mechanisms that also occur on Earth, which provide a far-reaching test of our ability to connect landscape patterns with processes. Analyses of drainage networks on Titan show how even images of landforms, when combined with theory constrained by measurements on Earth, can be used to estimate characteristics ranging from short-term rainfall rates to long-term erosional exhumation. One of the most substantial challenges that remains is to close the gap between the bulk parameters typically used in models, which we are now beginning to relate to topographic patterns, and measurable landscape characteristics such as rock type, rainfall distribution, and species composition. Field and laboratory studies are narrowing this gap, and the efforts I will describe provide a framework for exploring more direct connections among local characteristics, external forcing, and emergent patterns in landscapes.

Perron, T.

2011-12-01

131

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

132

Toward understanding dynamic annealing processes in irradiated ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy particle irradiation inevitably generates defects in solids in the form of collision cascades. The ballistic formation and thermalization of cascades occur rapidly and are believed to be reasonably well understood. However, knowledge of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic an- nealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable post-irradiation disorder in ion-beam-processed semiconductors and determines the "radiation tolerance" of many nuclear materials. The purpose of this dissertation is to further our understanding of the processes involved in dynamic annealing. In order to achieve this, two main tasks are undertaken. First, the effects of dynamic annealing are investigated in ZnO, a technologically relevant material that exhibits very high dynamic defect annealing at room temper- ature. Such high dynamic annealing leads to unusual defect accumulation in heavy ion bombarded ZnO. Through this work, the puzzling features that were observed more than a decade ago in ion-channeling spectra have finally been explained. We show that the presence of a polar surface substantially alters damage accumulation. Non-polar surface terminations of ZnO are shown to exhibit enhanced dynamic an- nealing compared to polar surface terminated ZnO. Additionally, we demonstrate one method to reduce radiation damage in polar surface terminated ZnO by means of a surface modification. These results advance our efforts in the long-sought-after goal of understanding complex radiation damage processes in ceramics. Second, a pulsed-ion-beam method is developed and demonstrated in the case of Si as a prototypical non-metallic target. Such a method is shown to be a novel experimental technique for direct extraction of dynamic annealing parameters. The relaxation times and effective diffusion lengths of mobile defects during the dynamic annealing process play a vital role in damage accumulation. We demonstrate that these parameters dominate the formation of stable post-irradiation disorder. In Si, a defect lifetime of ˜ 6 ms and a characteristic defect diffusion length of ˜ 30 nm are measured. These results should nucleate future pulsed-beam studies of dynamic defect interaction processes in technologically relevant materials. In particular, un- derstanding length- and time-scales of defect interactions are essential for extending laboratory findings to nuclear material lifetimes and to the time-scales of geological storage of nuclear waste.

Myers, Michael Thomas

133

Elemental processes of transport and energy conversion in Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 5 years observations from several missions and ground based observatories have honed in on the most elemental aspects of flux transport and energy conversion. Dipolarization fronts and their counterpart in the distant magnetotail "anti-dipolarization" fronts, which together are refered to herein as "reconnection fronts", usher the recently reconnected flux tubes from the near-Earth X-points and in the process convert magnetic energy to particle energy and wave radiation. On the tailward side they are responsible for plasmoid formation and acceleration. On the earthward side they result in elemental substorm current wedges or wedglets, which were initially postulated from ground observations alone. Recent observations have revealed how the interaction of wedgelets and the inner magnetosphere takes place. Questions remain with regards to the physics of the energy transfer process from global magnetic energy to local heating and waves, and with regards to the initiation of the X-point activations in space. Observations indicate that the latter may be induced by polar cap or dayside activity, suggesting a direct link between dayside reconnection and nightside phenomena. The likely causal sequence of events and open questions in light of these recent observations, and the field's outlook in anticipation of upcoming coordinated observations from the international Heliophysics System Observatory will be discussed.

Angelopoulos, Vassilis

134

Understanding the thermal annealing process on metallic thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal annealing is an usual process used for intrinsic stress liberation, structural improving, and surface roughness control in materials. In a qualitative way, annealing modifies the surface morphology of materials with temperature and time. In this work, a methodology to explain the surface modification of thin films when they are submitted to an annealing process is discussed. Two thermally evaporated Au films with 200 nm-thicknesses were post-annealed in a vacuum chamber at 100 °C with an argon atmosphere, and annealing times from 0 to 1000 minutes. Each Au film grown at different rate deposition was cyclical annealed and imaged under different annealing times. Data obtained from high quality AFM images after different annealing times of Au samples were used to calculate surface parameters such as roughness, grain size, and slope at the border, also the respective exponents as a function of the annealing time. The experimental results allow understanding the temporal evolution of the annealing process, as a rearrangement of the surface protrusions.

Alonzo-Medina, G. M.; González-González, A.; Sacedón, J. L.; Oliva, A. I.

2013-06-01

135

VHF Radar Sounding of Europa's Subsurface Properties and Processes: The View from Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary objective of future Europa studies will be to characterize the distribution of shallow subsurface water as well as to identify any ice-ocean interface. Other objectives will be to understand the formation of surface and subsurface features associated with interchange processes between any ocean and the surface as well as regional and global heat flow variations. Radar sounding will be a critical tool for understanding these processes. Airborne ice penetrating radar is now a mature tool in terrestrial studies of Earth's ice sheets, and orbital examples have been successfully deployed at Earth's Moon and Mars. Recent terrestrial examples include the University of Texas's High Capability Airborne Radar Sounder (HiCARS), the British Antarctic Survey's PASIN system, and the University of Kansas's IPR and MCords systems. Spaceborne demonstrations include NASA's Apollo 17's ALSE, JAXA's LRS system on the Kaguya lunar orbiter; as well as MARSIS onboard ESA's Mars Express, and SHARAD onboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, which both operate at HF frequencies. Many of the key scientific problems at Europa will require high resolution and global coverage to resolve, implying for the Jupiter system a system operating at a carrier frequency above 40 MHz to complement lower frequency sounders interrupted by Jovian emissions. We explore the challenges of such a system, including surface scatting, in the context of likely science targets and using recent Earth analog studies at 60 MHz using the HiCARS system to define the radar imaging approach for Europa's subsurface that will be useful for testing the hypotheses for the formation of major features.

Young, Duncan; Blankenship, Donald

2010-05-01

136

Using narratives to understand older people's decision-making processes.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of health and social care services designed to support people in their own homes, older people often underuse or refuse these services. It is now acknowledged that this phenomenon contributes to older people being admitted to hospital and long-term care in circumstances that could be avoided. To understand how the uptake of supportive and preventative services can be improved, the first author, supervised by the second and third authors, developed a constructivist inquiry to explore what factors enhance or bar service use. This article describes how narratives were used not only to help identify decision- and choice-making influences, but also as a way of enhancing the hermeneutic processes associated with constructivism. PMID:19641040

Tetley, Josephine; Grant, Gordon; Davies, Susan

2009-09-01

137

Observing geologic processes and landforms using Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the assignment, the students are given a series of placemarks in Google Earth. Using Google Earth, the students 'fly' to various areas around the world. They examine the landforms at each placemark and answer questions regarding the formation of these features. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Brock, Amy L.

138

Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time as Piaget's system of time (e.g., chronological ordering of events, before and after relationships, duration or evolutionary time) was a necessary conceptual framework for students to develop a scientific understanding of deep time. An examination of students, worldviews and the interface of science and religion indicated that students often successfully applied a demarcation between science and religion in their public thinking (e.g., the formal classroom setting), but in their private thinking, the demarcation was often blurred.

Pulling, Azalie Cecile

139

Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: understanding trials using the normalization process model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Normalization Process Model is a conceptual tool intended to assist in understanding the factors that affect implementation processes in clinical trials and other evaluations of complex interventions. It focuses on the ways that the implementation of complex interventions is shaped by problems of workability and integration. METHOD: In this paper the model is applied to two different complex

Carl R May; Frances S Mair; Christopher F Dowrick; Tracy L Finch

2007-01-01

140

Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with 20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

2013-04-01

141

Importance of using complementary process analyzers for the process monitoring, analysis, and understanding of freeze drying.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the importance of using complementary process analyzers (PAT tools) for the process monitoring, analysis, and understanding of freeze drying. A mannitol solution was used as a model system. Raman spectroscopic, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic, plasma emission spectroscopic, and wireless temperature measurements (TEMPRIS) were simultaneously performed in-line and real-time during each freeze-drying experiment. The combination of these four process analyzers to monitor a freeze-drying process is unique. The Raman and NIR data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR), while the plasma emission spectroscopic and wireless temperature measurement data were analyzed using univariate data analysis. It was shown that the considered process analyzers do not only complement but also mutually confirm each other with respect to process step end points, physical phenomena occurring during freeze drying (process understanding), and product characterization (solid state). Furthermore and most important, the combined use of the process analyzers helped to identify flaws in previous studies in which these process analyzers were studied individually. Process analyzers might wrongly indicate that some process steps are fulfilled. Finally, combining the studied process analyzers also showed that more information per process analyzer can be obtained than previously described. A combination of Raman and plasma emission spectroscopy seems favorable for the monitoring of nearly all critical freeze-drying process aspects. PMID:19681620

De Beer, T R M; Wiggenhorn, M; Veillon, R; Debacq, C; Mayeresse, Y; Moreau, B; Burggraeve, A; Quinten, T; Friess, W; Winter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

2009-09-15

142

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

2008-10-03

143

A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.  

SciTech Connect

AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper, slurry injection rate, via prewetting, slurry injection angle, filter paper prewetting, and slurry mixing time. Many of these factors did not have an influence on defect formation. In order of decreasing importance, critical factors for defect formation by slurry filling are vacuum time (20 sec. optimal), slurry solids loading (20.0 g of cermet with 13.00 g of DGBEA solvent (21.2 vol%)), filling with the pipette in a vertical position, and faster injection rates (~765 l/s) as preferable to slower. No further recommendations for improvement to this process can be suggested. All findings of the slurry filling process have been transferred to CeramTec, the supplier. Paste filling methods appear to show more promise of increasing production yields. The types of flaws commonly found in slurry-filled vias were identified and followed throughout the entire source feedthru process. In general, all sizes of cracks healed during isopressing and firing steps. Additionally, small to medium sized voids (less than 1/3 the via diameter) can be healed. Porosity will usually lead to via necking, which may cause the part to be out of specification. Large voids (greater 4 than 1/3 of the diameter) and partial fills are not healed or produce significant necking. 2.Viability of High-Solids-Loading-Cermet Paste for Filling Source Feedthru ViaThe paste-filling process is easy to implement and easier to use. The high solids loading (>40 vol %) reduces the incidence of drying defects, which are seen in slurry filled (~23 vol %) vias. Additionally, the way in which the vias are filled (the paste is pushed from entrance to exit, displacing air as the paste front progresses), reduces the chance of entrapped voids, which are common in the slurry filling process. From the fair number of samples already filled, the likelihood of this process being a viable and reliable process is very good. Issues of concern for the paste process, as with any new process, are any problems that may arise in subsequent manufacturing stages of the neutron tube that may be affected by subtle changes in

Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

2006-04-01

144

Developing a Simple Unified Web API for Earth Science Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) Core System (ECS) has, for over a decade, provided a vast catalog of remote sensing data to the scientific community. This data is invaluable to increasing the understanding of our dynamic planet. Over time, technological advances and changes in user demands have brought about huge changes. While data was originally stored in huge tape silos, requiring complicated software and a sizeable lag time for delivery to end users, data is now available on network connected storage devices and can be downloaded in real time. The online access to ECS data opens the door to a wide array of possible applications which were not previously feasible. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, ECS set out to develop an API for accessing and processing Earth Science data in real time. This API was designed to provide the most common types of data processing in a simple and straightforward fashion. Many options, such as Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPenDAP), were considered as starting points to develop this API, but in the end, a mostly customized interface based on EOSDIS' Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) was chosen. The ECS implementation of the API was designed in such a way as to allow EOSDIS data centers to plug in their own desired processing tools in such a way that end users can get the most appropriate type of processing for each datatype without any need to know what specific tool is being used and via a single API. Thus, the focus is on the end result of processing, not the tools and processes used to get there. In the past, in order to have ECS data processed (e.g. subsetted or reprojected), users were required to download data and tools to their own systems and perform the processing there. This often required detailed knowledge of the specifics of the data involved and of Geospatial data concepts. Alternatively, users could submit processing requests via the ECS DataPool Web Access interface, which offered limited options and made it very easy for user error to result in long processing times or useless data. DataPool Web Access processing was not however available in real time and required the submission of asynchronous requests. The new API, entitled EOSDIS Service Interface (ESI), provides an interface via which users can request data with the processing they desire using a simple and intuitive method. Combined with a next generation user interface such as Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO)'s Reverb, ESI widely increases the level of access to Earth Science data. In the process of developing this system, many hurdles were encountered, which will be discussed. These include: -Weighing existing versus custom APIs to determine suitability. -Developing an mapping between community and custom APIs. -Defining a set of request valids from a sea of competing syntaxes. In addition, the reasons for settling on a custom API will be discussed. ESI provides a interface for Earth Science data processing which should prove useful for other data providers. The lessons learned in the ESI development process should be very useful for other providers faced with similar problems.

Goff, T. D.

2011-12-01

145

Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

Frey, Herbert

2012-01-01

146

Oxygen vacancies in transition metal and rare earth oxides: Current state of understanding and remaining challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defects at transition metal (TM) and rare earth (RE) oxide surfaces, neutral oxygen vacancies in particular, play a major role in a variety of technological applications. This is the motivation of numerous studies of partially reduced oxide surfaces. We review, discuss, and compare theoretical data for structural and electronic properties and energetic quantities related to the formation of oxygen defects

M. Verónica Ganduglia-Pirovano; Alexander Hofmann; Joachim Sauer

2007-01-01

147

A Roast-Leach Process for Extraction of Rare Earths from Complex Monazite-Xenotime Concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed process approaches the problem of solubilizing rare-earth phosphates (monazite and xenotime) found at the Pea Ridge iron mine in Sullivan, MO, from both a pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical point of view. It utilizes a roasting operation that converts the rare-earth phosphates to rare-earth oxides (REOs), which eliminates some costly and hazardous processing steps currently in practice. Different combinations of

K. M. Franken

1995-01-01

148

Project EARTH-11-GMH3: Cadmium isotopes as a modern and paleo tracer of ocean processes  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-11-GMH3: Cadmium isotopes as a modern and paleo tracer of ocean processes Supervisor, including chemistry, oceanography, or earth sciences, with an interest in ocean chemistry and the workings of enzymes controlling biological processes in the ocean (e.g. Cullen et al. 1999). Its distribution

Henderson, Gideon

149

Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

2012-12-01

150

Improved Understanding of ice and dust processes using Data Assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the DART Data Assimilation (DA) framework to ingest radiance observations from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) into the PlanetWRF Mars General Circulation Model (GCM) and measure the skill of the model in reproducing the observations, and hence to test and improve understanding of the aerosol processes at the heart of Martian climate. The DA framework is used to constrain the surface ice properties in the model using the TES radiance observations and lander pressure measurements as independent constraints on the ice properties. We compare the skill of two ice models in reproducing the TES radiance observations while simultaneously matching lander pressure observations. In one model the effect of subsurface ice is contained within the surface albedo and emissivity parameterization, in the second model subsurface ice is parameterized based on Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) data. Both models reproduce the pressure cycle observed by the Viking Lander instruments, but the model with subsurface ice performs significantly better at reproducing the TES radiance observations over the ice-covered poles. We also use the DA framework to investigate the model skill using the Conrath vertical dust profile (with a near surface maximum dust abundance) and a modified dust profile with high altitude maximum that has been inferred from limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES). The GCM using the modified dust profile produces an atmosphere with thermal lapse rate closer to that measured using nadir observations from TES.

Lee, C.; Richardson, M. I.

2013-12-01

151

Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

152

Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image quality, one of these methods will perform better than the others. Because our software requires minimal user input in the form of command line arguments and has no graphical user interface (GUI), it is uniquely adept for clustering computer environments as well as normal workstations. Users can run multiple stereo sessions simultaneously to process a large number of stereo pairs. We also provide a tool called ';parallel_stereo' which utilizes GNU's parallel command to split a single stereo pair session across multiple nodes that have a shared file system. This greatly reduces the processing time of a single stereo pair. Our primary system of testing was NASA's Pleiades super computer that is freely available to NASA sponsored scientists and engineers via the High End Computing Capability (HECC) project. ASP is freely available for download from our website at irg.arc.nasa.gov/ngt/stereo. Source code for all releases and current development code is available from our Github account at github.com/NeoGeographyToolkit/StereoPipeline. In addition to being free, ASP is Apache 2 licensed which offers free license to copy, redistribute, and sell the software and results pending the license of the input imagery. It is our goal that this software will make DEMs and the processing of satellite imagery more accessible to scientists of all fields.

Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

2013-12-01

153

Recognition of topographic signature of Earth-surface processes in high altitude regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding Earth-surface processes relies on modern digital terrain representations, and depends strongly on the quality and resolution of the topographic data. From digital terrain data it is possible to derive topographic attributes, that are useful in recognizing different topographic signatures. The challenge then is to relate these signatures with different processes such as slope instabilities, floods, tectonic and volcano activity, and to understand the effect of human activity. In this work we considered a headwater alpine catchment located in the Dolomites, a mountainous region in the Eastern Italian Alps, affected by several surface processes. Within the study area several field surveys were conducted during the past few years including lidar surveys (data acquired during snow-free conditions in October 2006). Recent campaigns (September-October 2008, August 2009, June 2010) have provided new detailed data of field-mapped alluvial and colluvial channels, channel heads, and landslide scars. A high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of 1 m served as the basis upon which local slope and landform curvature were computed. The PDFs of these topographic attributes were derived for 200 m by 200 m areas with different morphology, and the surfaces were classified based on their characteristic PDF. The results suggested that this methodology could be used as a useful tool for automatic classification of different landscapes.

Dalla Fontana, G.; Tarolli, P.; Passalacqua, P.

2010-12-01

154

Understanding the Costs of Business Process Management Technology  

E-print Network

. In response to this need, a variety of process support paradigms, process specification standards, process costs for redesigning business processes. Another challenge deals with the many dependencies existing between the different cost factors. Activities for business process redesign, for ex- ample, can

Ulm, Universität

155

Rare earth permanent magnets and energy conversion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally in magnetoelectric devices the stator has been the massive and static part of the device and the dynamic element has been a moving coil. With improvements in the volumetric efficiency of permanent magnets it is possible to rearrange magnetic circuit elements and invert devices. Rare earth permanent magnets exhibit a high magnetic moment per unit volume and have extreme

R. J. Parker

1977-01-01

156

Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

2014-01-01

157

SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

2011-01-01

158

UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS  

E-print Network

the formation of tornadoes near strong frontal boundaries, and understanding the translation of drought across. For example, a thunderstorm evolves over time and may eventually produce a tornado through the spatiotemporal

McGovern, Amy

159

Science data processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth observing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be generated by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System

H. Michael Goodman; Kathryn Regner; Helen Conover; Peter Ashcroft; Frank Wentz; Dawn Conway; Elena Lobl; Bruce Beaumont; Lamar Hawkins; Steve Jones

2004-01-01

160

Earth Observation application development based on the Grid oriented ESIP satellite image processing platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite images supply important information on earth surface, weather, clime, geographic areas, vegetation, and natural phenomena. Processing of satellite data requires high computation resources and flexible tools in order to search, discover, and reveal the main information, to experiment new algorithms, and to include them into new Earth Observation applications. This paper describes the features and the architectures of the

Dorian Gorgan; Victor Bacu; Teodor Stefanut; Denisa Rodila; Danut Mihon

161

Grid based satellite image processing platform for Earth observation application development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite images supply important information on Earth surface, weather, clime, geographic areas, vegetation, and natural phenomena. Processing of satellite data requires high computation resources and flexible tools in order to search, discover, and reveal the main information, to experiment new algorithms, and to include them into new Earth Observation applications. This paper describes the features and the architectures of the

Dorian Gorgan; Victor Bacu; Teodor Stefanut; Denisa Rodila; Danut Mihon

2009-01-01

162

Geomaterials under extreme conditions: Recent advances and implications for modeling deep Earth processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under these extreme pressure-temperature conditions remain challenging, and many fundamental properties are poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Recent years have witnessed a number of new developments in experiment and theory, with prospects for substantial future improvements. An overview of these recent developments and their implications for modeling deep Earth geochemical and geophysical processes is presented here. Advances in x-ray methods at synchrotron facilities have expanded the P-T range accessible to direct measurements all the way up to 200 GPa and 3000 K, while at the same time leading to improved resolution that has resulted in dramatically better ability to recover physical and chemical properties. As one example, the properties of silicate liquids are essential for understanding a wide range of geochemical phenomena related to the deep Earth and its origin and evolution. Synchrotron-based experimental methods for studying silicate liquids and glasses are advancing along several fronts and yielding new insights into compression curves, liquid structure, melting behavior, and transport properties, albeit mostly at restricted P-T conditions. Shock wave methods also provide key insights, and a new generation of laser-based capabilities is emerging in this area. Theoretical studies using either first principles techniques or model potentials will also be discussed. Ab initio theoretical studies have made major strides in the scope of problems that can be addressed. Our recent results from first principles molecular dynamics simulations on MgSiO3 liquid at 90-135 GPa and 3500-5000 K provide a good example of the capabilities of first-principles theory (Wan et al., 2007). We find that MgSiO3 liquid remains less dense than the corresponding solid at core-mantle boundary conditions. We also determine the diffusivity from the mean square displacements of the atoms as a function of time and estimate the liquid viscosity under these conditions. In comparison with studies at lower P and T, our results indicate there is a significant increase in viscosity due to compression to the core-mantle boundary. Our current ability to model and understand complex geomaterials at deep Earth conditions requires careful integration of experimental, ab initio , and potential model studies, all of which have complementary strengths and limitations.

Duffy, T. S.

2009-12-01

163

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

2009-12-01

164

Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

165

Linking the Wilson Cycle to deep Earth processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century description of the movement and deformation of the Earth's outer layer has evolved from the hypothesis of Continental Drift into Sea-Floor Spreading and thence to the theory of Plate Tectonics. This theory is as fundamentally unifying to the Earth Sciences as Darwin's Evolution Theory is to Life Science. By 1968 Tuzo Wilson had identified three basic elements of geodynamics: plate tectonics, mantle plumes of deep origin and the Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing, which provides evidence of plate tectonic behavior in times before quantifiable plate rotations. We have recently shown that deep-seated plumes of the past have risen only from narrow plume generation zones (PGZs) at the Core Mantle Boundary and mostly on the edges of two Large Low Shear wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) that have been stable, antipodal and equatorial in their present positions for hundreds of millions of years and perhaps for much longer. Even though links between mantle activity and plate tectonics are becoming more evident, notably through subsurface tomographic images, advances in mineral physics and much improved absolute plate motion reference frames, a need now is to generate a new Earth model embodying plate tectonics, shallow and deep mantle convection, including such elements as deeply subducted slabs and stable LLSVPs with plumes that rise only from PGZs on the CMB.

Torsvik, T. H.; Burke, K. C.

2010-12-01

166

Understanding Business Process Quality Matthias Lohrmann and Manfred Reichert  

E-print Network

provide fundamental in- sights into business process quality, and contribute to obtain a clear grasp implicitly by employing cer- tain quality characteristics (e.g. related to business process input) without

Ulm, Universität

167

Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis  

E-print Network

to watch the television in a country of which you do not know the language. While you cannot understand what is being said, you can still catch a good deal of infor- mation about social interactions taking the interaction is tense or relaxed, guess the kind of relationships people on the video have in their The work

Vinciarelli, Alessandro

168

Developments in Genetic Understanding: Time To Engage with the Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This editorial outlines how developments in our understanding of genetic information may raise new challenges for people with learning disabilities, their parents, and professionals working in learning disability services. It concludes by highlighting some key aspects professionals need to consider if they are to support effectively people who…

Barr, Owen

2002-01-01

169

Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR's) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate

Scott R. Chubb

170

Mathematical Understanding: Analyzing Student Thought Processes while Completing Mathematical Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shares the findings of an exploratory, qualitative investigation of elementary school students' problem solving strategies. Twelve fourth-grade students were given three mathematical tasks about fractions and interviewed during task completion about their problem solving strategies, and their understanding of how to solve the problems. Students were selected to provide variance across their mathematical achievement on the state-wide test

Drew Polly

171

Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

1992-01-01

172

1424 M. Stoffel et al. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 14241437 (2006)  

E-print Network

1424 M. Stoffel et al. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 1424­1437 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms in mountain regions, where their repeated occurrence may result in characteristic landforms, such as cone

Stoffel, Markus

173

Rock fragment embedding 443 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 443460 (2005)  

E-print Network

Rock fragment embedding 443 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 443­460 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 443 as well as on depositional landforms (Poesen and Lavee, 1994a), may partly or completely cover

Ahmad, Sajjad

174

Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and

Scott R. Chubb

2006-01-01

175

Visual analytics for built-up area understanding from metric resolution Earth observation data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale archives can benefit the application of visual analytics methodologies aimed at characterizing their contents by the effective inclusion of the human analyst in the interpretation loop. Exploiting the knowledge of users that are not remote sensing experts requires the design of easy to use applications. Applied analytical reasoning by visual representations involves methodological aspects dealing with both the design of multiple interactive visualizations as well as data representation and transformation considerations. We present examples of such methodological aspects aiming at the understanding and characterization of metric resolution datasets acquired on urban environments.

Lozano, J.; Quartulli, M.; Tamayo, I.; Laka, M.; Olaizola, I.

2013-10-01

176

Hot plasma and energetic particles in the earth's outer magnetosphere: new understandings during the IMS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we review the major accomplishments made during the IMS period in clarifying magnetospheric particle variations in the region from roughly geostationary orbit altitudes into the deep magnetotail. We divide our review into three topic areas: (1) acceleration processes; (2) transport processes; and (3) loss processes. Many of the changes in hot plasmas and energetic particle populations are often found to be related intimately to geomagnetic storm and magnetospheric substorm effects and, therefore, substantial emphasis is given to these aspects of particle variations in this review. The IMS data, taken as a body, allow a reasonably unified view as one traces magnetospheric particles from their acceleration source through the plasma sheet and outer trapping regions and, finally, to their loss via ionospheric precipitation and ring current formation processes. It is this underlying, unifying theme which is pursued here. 52 references, 19 figures.

Baker, D.N.; Fritz, T.A.

1984-01-01

177

Understanding the Special Education Process. Alliance Action Information Sheets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chart presented in this paper offers an overview of the special education process. It is not designed to show all steps or the specific details. It shows what happens from the time a child is referred for evaluation and is identified as having a disability, through the development of an individualized education program (IEP). The process

Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

2006-01-01

178

Understanding farmers' decision making processes and improving managerial assistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have been made of how farmers make decisions. Most research and teaching has focused on the decision event, not the whole process. Current knowledge of the decision making process is reviewed and described as a set of eight functions or elements: values and goals, problem detection, problem definition, observation, analysis, development of intention, implementation, and responsibility bearing. The

Bo Öhlmér; Kent Olson; Berndt Brehmer

1998-01-01

179

Understanding Other Worlds with Spitzer: From Hot Jupiters to Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intense study of transiting exoplanets over the past decade has begun to unveil the vast diversity of planetary systems in the Milky Way and to place our own solar system in perspective. Notably, ground-based Doppler and transit surveys are finding at an increasing pace planets suitable for detailed characterization. These planets around bright stars fall into two distinct families providing exciting new avenues at the frontiers of exoplanetary science. On one hand are the numerous highly irradiated gas giants whose atmospheres can be studied in great detail with a wide range of existing instruments from space and ground, notably their temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy transport efficiencies, and atmospheric circulation patterns. On the other hand are the small but growing list of `super-Earths' around bright stars for which the first detections of transits and atmospheric signatures are becoming available. The Spitzer space telescope has played a prominent role in both these areas through a plethora of ground-breaking results, many involving members of our team. Our proposed Exploration Science program with Spitzer aims to pursue major advancements in the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology with a two-pronged approach focused on these two exoplanet families. On the one hand, we will use Spitzer to thoroughly characterize a large and diverse sample of new giant exoplanets, chosen for their ability to place unprecedented constraints on the classification of irradiated giant planets, and stringent constraints on the planets' atmospheric thermal, chemical, and dynamical properties. On the other hand, we will search for the transits of 15 low-mass planets detected by our HARPS Doppler survey, both to constrain their compositions and to increase the small sample of low-mass planets amenable for atmospheric studies with future facilities like JWST. Together, these two complementary parts of our program will form a new major legacy of Spitzer in the study of other worlds.

Gillon, Michael; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Queloz, Didier; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Pollacco, Don; Wheatley, Peter; Rostron, John; Smalley, Barry; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre; Mahtani, Deepak; Smith, Alexis; Bonfils, Xavier; Dragomir, Diana

2012-09-01

180

Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of

James Anderson Lacefield

1998-01-01

181

Earth materials and earth dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

2000-11-01

182

Understanding Requirements Engineering Process: a Challenge for Practice and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews of the state of the professional practice in Requirements Engineering (RE) stress that the RE process is both complex and hard to describe, and suggest there is a significant difference between competent and \\

Lemai Nguyen; Jocelyn Armarego; Paul Swatman

183

Unified understanding of the valence transition in the rare-earth monochalcogenides under pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valence instability is a key ingredient of the unusual properties of f electron materials, yet a clear understanding is lacking as it involves a complex interplay between f electrons and conduction states. Here we propose a unified picture of pressure-induced valence transition in Sm and Yb monochalcogenides, considered as a model system for mixed valent 4f-electron materials. Using high-resolution x-ray-absorption spectroscopy, we show that the valence transition is driven by the promotion of a 4f electron specifically into the lowest unoccupied (LU) 5d t2g band. We demonstrate with a promotional model that the nature of the transition at low pressures is intimately related to the density of states of the LU band, while at high pressures it is governed by the hybridization strength.

Jarrige, I.; Yamaoka, H.; Rueff, J.-P.; Lin, J.-F.; Taguchi, M.; Hiraoka, N.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Imura, K.; Matsumura, T.; Ochiai, A.; Suzuki, H. S.; Kotani, A.

2013-03-01

184

Understanding Kepler's super-Earths and sub-Neptunes: Insights from thermal evolution and photo-evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extrasolar planet surveys have identified an abundant new population of highly irradiated planets with sizes that are in between that of the Earth and Neptune. Such planets are unlike anything found in our own Solar System, and many of their basic properties are not understood. As such, these planets provide a fundamental test for models of planets formation and evolution with important implications for the formation of the Earth and planet habitability. In order to understand these new classes of planets, we have developed planetary structure and evolution models that can be used both to answer questions about individual planetary systems and to study populations of planets as a whole. In brief, these models allow us to follow a planet's mass, size, internal structure, and composition as it ages; from the time it finishes formation until it is detected billions of years later. These evolution models are critical because a planet's composition can change substantially over its lifetime. Close-in planets, like most of those found so far, are bombarded by large amounts of ionizing radiation, which over time can completely strip away a planet's atmosphere; even turning a gas-rich Neptune sized planet into a barren rocky super-Earth. Using these models, we explore the structure, composition, and evolution of sub-Neptune sized extrasolar planets found by NASA's Kepler mission. We examine the relationships between planetary masses, radii, and compositions. We show how these compositions have been sculpted by photo-evaporation, and we examine the interplay between thermal and evaporative evolution.

Lopez, Eric David

185

Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.  

PubMed

Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

2012-07-01

186

Towards understanding dominant processes in complex dynamical systems: Case of precipitation extremes  

E-print Network

Towards understanding dominant processes in complex dynamical systems: Case of precipitation to characterize the effect of dominant processes on precipitation extremes, annually and seasonally, and from themselves may generalize beyond climate. Keywords Precipitation Extremes, Dominant Processes, Predictive

Obradovic, Zoran

187

The influence of riparian vegetation on near-bank turbulence: a flume experiment 2019 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 20192037 (2007)  

E-print Network

© 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 2019­2037 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 2019­2037 (2007) Published online 17

Vermont, University of

188

Dust Emission from Wet and Dry Playas in the Mojave Desert, USA 1811 Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 18111827 (2007)  

E-print Network

Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1811­1827 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1811­1827 (2007) Published online 19 April 2007

189

Steppool formation models and associated step spacing 1611 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 16111627 (2007)  

E-print Network

. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1611­1627 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1611­1627 (2007) Published online 18 September 2007 in Wiley

Curran, Joanna C.

190

GEOMORPHIC DYNAMICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF A FLOODPLAIN TRACT 1235 Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 12351258 (2004)  

E-print Network

Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 1235­1258 (2004) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 1235­1258 (2004) Published online 18 August 2004 in Wiley Inter

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

191

Memory-Based Processing in Understanding Causal Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the role of cognitive structures in the reader's knowledge. Argues that causality is an important category in structuring human knowledge and that this property has consequences for text processing. Discusses research illustrating that the more the information in the text reflects causal categories, the more easily the information is…

Noordman, Leo G. M.; Vonk, Wietske

1998-01-01

192

Toward an Intersectional Understanding of Process Causality and Social Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maxwell and Donmoyer both argue in this issue of "Qualitative Inquiry" that narrow definitions of causality in educational research tend to disqualify qualitative research from influence (and funding) among policy makers. They propose a process view of causality that would allow qualitative researchers to make causal claims more grounded in the…

Anderson, Gary L.; Scott, Janelle

2012-01-01

193

Understanding the Microstructure of High Temperature Processed X80  

E-print Network

.Weld of the X80 steel #12;Op@cal Microscopy: Irregular shaped ferrite resulted from thermomechanical processing RD ND #12;Scanning electron microscopy Average grain size Density is estimated at 1.4X1014 m-2 (Takahashi & Bhadeshia, 1990; Bhadeshia, 1997) #12;Transmission

Cambridge, University of

194

Interviewing International Students to Understand the Process of Expatriate Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization is the most influential trend of the early twenty-first century. However, many students have had limited direct contact with cultures other than their own. The following teaching innovation targets such students to give them an experiential learning opportunity about the process of acculturation for expatriates. This is accomplished…

Peterson, Mark

2014-01-01

195

Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue

M. E. Barber; M. Beutel; B. Lamb; R. Watts

2004-01-01

196

Demonstrations of Geophysical Principles Applicable to the Properties and Processes of the Earth's Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These demonstrations are designed to help students develop a conceptual understanding of geophysical principles. The concepts covered in these demonstrations include rheology, seismic waves, reflection, standing waves, velocity, earthquakes, Earth density, magnetic field, resonance, precession, the shadow zone, and Curie temperature. Each demonstration provides background information and a complete explanation of how to use and discuss the demo in class.

Barker, Jeffrey

197

Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Precipitation Processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (size about 2-200 km). The CRMs also allow explicit interaction between out-going longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation with clouds. Observations can provide the initial conditions and validation for CRM results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model, a cloud-resolving model, has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past two decades. Dr. Joanne Simpson played a central role in GCE modeling developments and applications. She was the lead author or co-author on more than forty GCE modeling papers. In this paper, a brief discussion and review of the application of the GCE model to (1) cloud interactions and mergers, (2) convective and stratiform interaction, (3) mechanisms of cloud-radiation interaction, (4) latent heating profiles and TRMM, and (5) responses of cloud systems to large-scale processes are provided. Comparisons between the GCE model's results, other cloud-resolving model results and observations are also examined.

Tao, Wei-Kuo

2002-01-01

198

Using multiscale behavior of hydrological systems for improving process understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape properties and climatic inputs are strongly heterogeneous in space and time resulting in hydrological processes that show multi scale or even fractal properties and behavior (Rodriguez-Iturbe and Rinaldo, 2000). Considerable effort is invested in finding the most appropriate approaches to represent hydrological processes across different scales and to produce reliable hydrological predictions. Hydrological predictions have been mainly improved in the recent decades by increasing the complexity of hydrological models, e.g. by including different type of hydrological processes and landscape compartments and by considering feedbacks between different compartments. Nevertheless, because of information constraints that e.g. result in high parameter uncertainties, complex hydrological models also show limitations to provide reliable hydrological predictions. In other words, hydrological model predictions are and probably also will stay uncertain. Spatially distributed hydrological models produce big amount of data depending on driving data, spatially distributed model parameters but also spatial and temporal model resolution. This talk will introduce multi scale investigation techniques to explore the probabilistic behavior of hydrological states and fluxes across different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the question is addressed if catchments show self-averaging behavior.

Attinger, Sabine

2014-05-01

199

Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.  

PubMed

Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability. PMID:19046362

Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

2008-12-01

200

Understanding the Generation Process of High Impact Floods in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floods in Germany are the costliest natural disasters. The 2002 and the 2013 floods in the Danube and the Elbe river basins caused a havoc, with economic losses surpassing in each event the mark of 11 billion Euros. Considering the high impact of these events and the hydrometeorological records reached in both cases, it is worth trying to disentangle the impact of contributing factors of the flood generation process that lead to the development of these extreme events. Both summer events were caused by heavy rainfall triggered by low pressure systems over middle Europe (Vb and Tm circulation patterns respectively) that carry moist air from the Adriatic northeastward. Rainfall was intensified even further by orographic effects in mountainous regions. Preliminary evidence indicates that antecedent soil moisture conditions might have played a crucial role in the flood generating processes, specifically in the case of the 2013 event. To test this hypothesis, the process based hydrologic model mHM was used to estimate the top soil moisture and the surface runoff over whole Germany at a spatial resolution of 4x4 km2. mHM was forced with gridded daily precipitation and temperature, further disaggregated into hourly values. The gridded daily forcings were obtained with external drift Kriging from a dense network of meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service. Resampling techniques were used to test the null hypothesis that the runoff generation of these two flood events is independent from antecedent soil moisture conditions. Results indicated that the soil moisture antecedent conditions, up to five days before the peak have had a statistically significant impact (p-value less than 5%) on flood generation processes. Moreover, the elasticity of the surface runoff to antecedent soil moisture exhibited a marked difference between events and basins. These differences are more pronounced in wet conditions rather than on dry ones, which in turn highlights that soil moisture is a key factor in the generation process. Soil moisture antecedent conditions before two high impact floods in Germany.

Samaniego, L. E.; Zink, M.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.

2013-12-01

201

Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

2001-12-01

202

Dear Colleague Letter - Earth Sciences  

NSF Publications Database

... Sections: Surface Earth Processes Section and Deep Earth Processes Section. The Surface Earth ... and human interactions with the geosphere. The Deep Earth Processes Section will support research on ...

203

Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

1990-01-01

204

Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

1978-01-01

205

Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

1972-01-01

206

Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition, because precipitation patterns in this semi-arid region tend to be temporally distributed, storage and global climate change issues are significant.

Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

2004-12-01

207

Understanding earthquake source processes with spatial random field models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake rupture is a complex mechanical process that can be formulated as a dynamically running shear crack on a frictional interface embedded in an elastic continuum. This type of dynamic description of earthquake rupture is often preferred among researchers because they believe the kinematic description is likely to miss physical constraints introduced by dynamic approaches and to lead to arbitrary and nonphysical kinematic fault motions. However, dynamic rupture modeling, although they produce physically consistent models, often uses arbitrary input parameters, e.g., stress and fracture energy, partially because they are more difficult to constrain with data compared to kinematic ones. I propose to describe earthquake rupture as a stochastic model with a set of random variables (e.g., random field) that represent the spatial distribution of kinematic source parameters such as slip, rupture velocity, slip duration and velocity. This is a kinematic description of earthquake rupture in the sense that a model is formulated with kinematic parameters, but since the model can be constrained by both rupture dynamics and data, it may have both physical and observational constraints inside. The stochastic model is formulated by quantifying the 1-point and 2-point statistics of the kinematic parameters. 1-point statistics define a marginal probability density function for a certain source parameter at a given point on a fault. For example, a probability distribution for earthquake slip at a given point can control a possible range of values taken by earthquake slip and their likelihood. In the same way, we can control the existence of supershear rupture with a 1-point variability of the rupture velocity. Two point statistics, i.e. auto- and cross-coherence between source parameters, control the heterogeneity of each source parameter and their coupling, respectively. Several interesting features of earthquake rupture have been found by investigating cross-coherence structure of both kinematic and dynamic rupture models. For instance, the correlation maximum between slip and rupture velocity can be shifted from zero offset, i.e. large slip may generate faster rupture velocity ahead of the current rupture front, which may be important for rupture directivity. This type of statistical analysis may too much simplify actual rupture processes, but it could be an efficient tool to provide a simplified view of otherwise complex rupture processes. The remaining issue is how well we can constrain the stochastic model by dynamic rupture modeling, kinematic source inversion, and laboratory experiments, etc. In practice, this stochastic model can be used as a physics-based rupture model generator for ground motion simulation. By simply drawing samples, e.g., Monte Carlo sampling, following a target stochastic model, we can generate physically consistent rupture scenarios in the sense that the target stochastic model is constrained by both rupture dynamics and data. Additionally since this model constrains a possible range of rupture scenarios for future events and quantify their variability within the range, it can be used as a basis to develop an extended earthquake rupture forecast model (eERF) for full-waveform-simulation-based hazard analysis.

Song, S.

2011-12-01

208

Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

Chubb, Scott

2005-03-01

209

Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades.  

PubMed

Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web-varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic 'top-down' cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled 'bottom-up' cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H

2014-01-01

210

Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes  

E-print Network

reveal information on redox conditions within the solar nebula and alteration of meteorites in the early solar nebula, ii) the redox processes occurring in the solar nebula and meteorites and iii) the CrProject EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D

Henderson, Gideon

211

EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

212

TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This directly affects local geo- ecosystems and human settlements. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of erosion and even desertification. Similar examples could be given for groundwater, early life and climate change. Studying these aspects in an integrated way is essential to forward solid Earth Sciences in response to the needs of society (see http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/). To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the Scandinavian Continental Margin. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities and know- how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists. An important step has been the selection in early 2008 by the European Science Foundation (ESF) of TOPO-EUROPE as one of its large scale European collaborative research initiatives (EUROCORES). In response to the ESF call for proposals, 42 outline proposals were submitted, resulting in 22 full proposals submitted for international peer-review. Out of these, ten collaborative research projects (CRP's) were selected for the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE, with a total funding of 13 million Euro (M 18) and new research positions for more than 50 PhD students and post-doctoral researchers.

Cloetingh, S.; Topo-Europe Science Community, The

2009-04-01

213

Student Understanding Of The Physics And Mathematics Of Process Variables In P-V Diagrams  

E-print Network

Student Understanding Of The Physics And Mathematics Of Process Variables In P-V Diagrams Evan B on the paired questions shows evidence of isolated understanding of physics and mathematics. Some difficulties may affect understanding of physics concepts in thermodynamics. We have presented results

Maine, University of

214

EAS 2600 Spring 2009: Earth Processes Laboratory Information for Students  

E-print Network

Software 20 ­ 22 January. Plate Tectonics/Earthquakes, Earthquake Risk Assessment 27 ­ 29 January and Absolute dating. #12;3 31 March ­ 2 April: Shoreline Processes 7 ­ 9 April: Introduction to Computer-based and Online Resources for Geoscience Study 14 ­ 16 April: Introduction to Arcview 9 ­ A case study 21 ­ 23

Black, Robert X.

215

EAS 2600 Spring 2010: Earth Processes Laboratory Information for Students  

E-print Network

to Topographic Maps and Mapping Software 26 ­ 29 January. Plate Tectonics/Earthquakes, Earthquake Risk Assessment: Relative and Absolute dating. 6 ­ 9 April: Shoreline Processes 13 ­ 16 April: Introduction to Computer-based and Online Resources for Geoscience Study 20 ­ 23 April: Introduction to Arcview 9 ­ A case study 27 ­ 30

Frankel, Kurt L.

216

Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

2009-12-01

217

Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process  

DOEpatents

A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

218

Image data processing of earth resources management. [technology transfer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various image processing and information extraction systems are described along with the design and operation of an interactive multispectral information system, IMAGE 100. Analyses of ERTS data, using IMAGE 100, over a number of U.S. sites are presented. The following analyses are included: investigations of crop inventory and management using remote sensing; and (2) land cover classification for environmental impact assessments. Results show that useful information is provided by IMAGE 100 analyses of ERTS data in digital form.

Desio, A. W.

1974-01-01

219

Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

Blau, Gary

2007-01-01

220

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

2004-01-01

221

Integrating high-precision U-Pb geochronologic data with dynamic models of earth processes  

E-print Network

Radioisotopic dating can provide critical constraints for understanding the rates of tectonic, dynamic and biologic processes operating on our planet. Improving the interpretation and implementation of geochronologic data ...

Blackburn, Terrence (Terrence Joseph)

2012-01-01

222

The image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS), which will process video-tape recordings received from the satellite into imagery and digitized video data suitable for earth-resource study and analysis. The system is made up of three subsystems. The bulk processor produces 70-mm images and digitized records, corrected for systematic geometric and radiometric errors as well as for sensor-calibration and other errors. The precision processor modifies the bulk images to significantly increase geometric precision. The special processor transfers either bulk or precision data to computer-compatible tape.

Johnson, R. H.

1972-01-01

223

NASA's future Earth observation plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Science Mission Directorate, working with its domestic and international partners, provides accurate, objective scientific data and analysis to advance our understanding of Earth system processes. Learning more about these processes will enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards. Earth interactions occur on a continuum of spatial and temporal scales ranging from short-term weather to long-term climate,

Steven P. Neeck; Granville E. Paules; J. D. McCuistion Ramesh

2004-01-01

224

Integrated planning and scheduling for Earth science data processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several current NASA programs such as the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) have data processing and data management requirements that call for an integrated planning and scheduling capability. In this paper, we describe the experience of applying advanced scheduling technology operationally, in terms of what was accomplished, lessons learned, and what remains to be done in order to achieve similar successes in ECS and other programs. We discuss the importance and benefits of advanced scheduling tools, and our progress toward realizing them, through examples and illustrations based on ECS requirements. The first part of the paper focuses on the Data Archive and Distribution (DADS) V0 Scheduler. We then discuss system integration issues ranging from communication with the scheduler to the monitoring of system events and re-scheduling in response to them. The challenge of adapting the scheduler to domain-specific features and scheduling policies is also considered. Extrapolation to the ECS domain raises issues of integrating scheduling with a product-generation planner (such as PlaSTiC), and implementing conditional planning in an operational system. We conclude by briefly noting ongoing technology development and deployment projects being undertaken by HTC and the ISTB.

Boddy, Mark; White, Jim; Goldman, Robert; Short, Nick, Jr.

1995-01-01

225

Student Project Teams: Understanding Team Process through an Examination of Leadership Practices and Team Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student projects teams are widely-used by agricultural education faculty; but do we really understand the process that students experience as a result of participation on a student-led team? This study sought to develop understanding related to the team process by examining leadership practices exhibited by assigned leaders and team culture that evolved during the process of a semester-long team project.

Penny Pennington; Kathleen D. Kelsey

226

Understanding the Effects of Environmental Factors on Human Health and Well-Being Through NASA Earth Science Research Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the twelve areas of national priority for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Applied Sciences Program (http:\\/\\/science.hq.nasa.gov\\/earth- sun\\/applications\\/index.html), the Public Health Program Element (http:\\/\\/science.hq.nasa.gov\\/earth-sun\\/applications\\/theme11.htm) extends the benefits of increased knowledge and capabilities resulting from NASA research and development of Earth-Sun spacecraft observations, model predictive capabilities, and technology, into partners' decision support systems for public health, medical,

John A. Haynes; Robert A. Venezia

2006-01-01

227

Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth.

Carruthers, George R.; Lee, Robert B., III

1989-01-01

228

Mission to Planet Earth - The Earth Observing System  

SciTech Connect

The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a major component of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth initiative. It seeks to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the earth as a system, including its various components (solid earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere) and its various processes (hydrologic cycle, biogeochemical cycles, and climatic processes). This is to be achieved by space-based remote sensing, using a variety of instrumentation and observing techniques, operating simultaneously, and providing continuous and complete global coverage over a long time period. A few of the investigations to be carried out with EOS, in areas of (1) imagery of the earth from space, and (2) investigations of the earth's radiation budget are described. EOS is expected to make major contributions to the basic earth sciences (geology, meteorology, etc.), but its results also will have important immediate or near-term practical applications which will improve the quality of life on earth. 18 refs.

Carruthers, G.R.; Lee, R.B. III (E. O. Hulburt Center for Space Research, Washington, DC (USA) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (USA))

1989-01-01

229

Visualization of Earth and Space Science Data at JPL's Science Data Processing Systems Section  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation will provide an overview of systems in use at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing data returned by space exploration and earth observations spacecraft. Graphical and visualization techniques used to query and retrieve data from large scientific data bases will be described.

Green, William B.

1996-01-01

230

A COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACH FOR EARTH RESOURCE SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING, CLASSIFICATION AND DECISION-MAKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent system for processing images obtained by earth resource satellites is presented in this paper. This hybrid computational intelligent approach merges neural and fuzzy approaches in a neurofuzzy decision system for visual perception and pattern recognition. This intelligent hybrid system for visual-driven decision making employs, fi rst, a neural system for image classification in charge of extracting information through

Ernesto Araujo; Marcelo Henrique; Essado de Morais

231

Evaluating and improving CLM hydrologic processes for integrated earth system modeling at regional scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being

M. Huang; L. Leung; M. S. Wigmosta; A. M. Coleman; Y. Ke; T. K. Tesfa; H. Li

2010-01-01

232

Bacteria and Archaea have an essential role in earth system processes. They are  

E-print Network

Bacteria and Archaea have an essential role in earth system processes. They are ubiquitous, possess as ecological theory arose from natural his- tory to draw generalized conclusions from specific observations of organisms in their environment, so microbiologists need theory to interpret the plethora of observations

Bruns, Tom

233

Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

2000-01-01

234

Reconsidering the Role of Artifacts in Reasoning: Children's Understanding of the Globe as a Model of the Earth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the effect of the presentation of a globe--the culturally accepted artifact representing the earth--on children's reasoning in elementary astronomy. Forty-four children from grades 1 and 3 were interviewed individually. First, the children were asked to make their own representations of the earth (i.e., drawings and…

Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini; Ikospentaki, Kalliopi

2005-01-01

235

Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

2012-12-01

236

Process understanding on high shear granulated lactose agglomerates during and after drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 the FDA launched the Process Analytical Technology initiative as a response to the growing public and industrial awareness that there is a lack of process understanding required to have an optimal control of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The current research project was initiated based upon the insight that critical process and product attributes can only be acknowledged upon a thorough

F. J. S. Nieuwmeyer

2009-01-01

237

LINKING NEARSHORE PROCESSES AND MORPHOLOGY MEASUREMENTS TO UNDERSTAND LARGE SCALE COASTAL CHANGE  

E-print Network

LINKING NEARSHORE PROCESSES AND MORPHOLOGY MEASUREMENTS TO UNDERSTAND LARGE SCALE COASTAL CHANGE and morphology change. For the first time, process and nearshore bottom change measurements are being coupled to progradational conditions (Spring 2001 experiment). Process-based morphological models are tested with field

238

SESE 2009 Faculty Retreat 1 Earth Surface Processes Surface Process Studies in SESE  

E-print Network

on quantifying how climate, mountain building, volcanic activity, and human activity impact the co-evolution geology, geochronology, and soil science to better constrain human evolution. 3. Paleoclimate evolution. 3. Co-evolution of humans and the Earth's surface with lessons of the anticipating future effects

Rhoads, James

239

Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional reservoirs: the Upper Jurassic Vaca  

E-print Network

Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional as to the scale of sedimentological variability within mudstone successions, and how related diagenetic alteration by Profs Taylor and Flint, to document the scale of sedimentological and diagenetic variability

Henderson, Gideon

240

Mission to Planet Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

1992-01-01

241

Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form of hydrides) in the Earth's core are also not limitless. When they are exhausted, then naturally, the thermonuclear reactions cease along with all tectonic activity and magnetic field. This study gives a theoretical justification of a possible non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. Surely, if there is degassing of hydrogen from deep areas of the planet, hydrogen once present in the carbon rich areas would result in the hydrogenising reactions potentially forming layers rich with hydrocarbons. Respectively, hydrocarbons (non-organic) could be formed now and will be formed until the source of hydrogen would cease in the Earth's core. Moreover, the pure hydrogen (coming from the Earth's core) could find its way to the surface during some rare and catastrophic evens. However, this is another problem of new methods of how to detect, explore and even produce hydrocarbons including pure hydrogen. Full paper: www.springerlink.com/content/jn2576q7727q0034

Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

2011-12-01

242

ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific

J. Achache

2003-01-01

243

A roast-leach process for extraction of rare earths from complex monazite-xenotime concentrates  

SciTech Connect

The proposed process approaches the problem of solubilizing rare-earth phosphates (monazite and zenotime) found at the Pea Ridge iron mine in Sullivan, MO, from both a pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical point of view. It utilizes a roasting operation that converts the rare-earth phosphates to rare-earth oxides (REOs), which eliminates some costly and hazardous processing steps currently in practice. Different combinations of roasting temperatures and acid concentrations have been investigated to selectively extract the rare-earth values. Cerium is selectively solubilized by roasting at 427{degrees}C and leaching with a sulfuric acid concentration of 265 g/L. After the cerium is removed, the neodymium and lanthanum can be solubilized at a roasting temperature of 500{degrees}C and a sulfuric acid concentration of 88 g/L. Finally, neodymium, praseodymium, and yttrium are solubilized at a roasting temperature of 871{degrees}C and a sulfuric acid concentration of 265 g/L. Alternative leaching media, such as thiourea, sulfuric acid-doped thiourea mixtures, ammonium thiosulfate, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid have also been investigated along with the addition of ultrasonic agitation. Using ultrasonics in addition to mechanical agitation, hydrochloric acid proved to be the best leaching medium. The best roasting temperatures for selective solubilization remained the same, but all of the leaching steps were conducted at 64 g/L hydrochloric acid.

Franken, K.M. [Bureau of Mines, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-04-01

244

MT+, integrating magnetotellurics to determine earth structure, physical state, and processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As one of the few deep-earth imaging techniques, magnetotellurics provides information on both the structure and physical state of the crust and upper mantle. Magnetotellurics is sensitive to electrical conductivity, which varies within the earth by many orders of magnitude and is modified by a range of earth processes. As with all geophysical techniques, magnetotellurics has a non-unique inverse problem and has limitations in resolution and sensitivity. As such, an integrated approach, either via the joint interpretation of independent geophysical models, or through the simultaneous inversion of independent data sets is valuable, and at times essential to an accurate interpretation. Magnetotelluric data and models are increasingly integrated with geological, geophysical and geochemical information. This review considers recent studies that illustrate the ways in which such information is combined, from qualitative comparisons to statistical correlation studies to multi-property inversions. Also emphasized are the range of problems addressed by these integrated approaches, and their value in elucidating earth structure, physical state, and processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

Bedrosian, P. A.

2007-01-01

245

The Earth Science Vision: Space Technology to Meet Human Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Earth Sciences Vision seeks to define a new paradigm in which the understanding of the Earth's climate--including short and long term climate, severe weather, the biosphere and ecosystems, and the Earth surface processes--is sufficiently accurate that we can accurately predict climate changes and the effects of climate changes on human habitability of Earth. Science issues include long term

Granville Paules; Jack Kaye

2002-01-01

246

Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication  

E-print Network

. The efficacy of multiple representations and inquiry was tested as the pedagogical strategy in upper and lower level undergraduate courses to support students’ conceptual model development of complex Earth systems. Comparisons in student performance were based...

McNeal, Karen Sue

2009-05-15

247

Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet?  

NASA Video Gallery

Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

248

TAILINGS FANS AND VALLEY-SPUR CUTOFFS 869 Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 869882 (2004)  

E-print Network

. Process. Landforms 29, 869­882 (2004) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms evolution dominated by ingrown meanders. The large volumes of mining sediment stored in these landforms

James, L. Allan

249

Earth Changes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These activities give students a hands-on feeling for the relationships between the Earth's structural layers and aid them in understanding the world around them. They will be able to identify (by modeling) the Earth's structure (core, mantle and crust) and also (by experiment and demonstration) the forces within the Earth that cause constant changes on the surface (earthquakes).

1998-01-01

250

From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

1999-01-01

251

A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Help-Seeking Processes Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a conceptual framework for understanding the processes of help-seeking among survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). A cognitive theory from general literature on help-seeking in “stigmatizing” situations suggests three relevant processes or stages of seeking help in the IPV context: defining the problem, deciding to seek help, and selecting a source of support. Individual, interpersonal, and sociocultural

Belle Liang; Lisa Goodman; Pratyusha Tummala-Narra; Sarah Weintraub

2005-01-01

252

Identifying, understanding, and describing spatial processes in agricultural landscapes four case studies  

E-print Network

variability is a major factor. Four case studies in which problems associated with landscape analysis processes in agricultural land- scapes. For example, a time series of soil water content at a certain depthIdentifying, understanding, and describing spatial processes in agricultural landscapes � four case

van Kessel, Chris

253

Modeling as a Teaching Learning Process for Understanding Materials: A Case Study in Primary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modeling is being used in teaching learning science in a number of ways. It will be considered here as a process whereby children of primary school age exercise their capacity of organizing recognizable and manageable forms during their understanding of complex phenomenologies. The aim of this work is to characterize this process in relation to…

Acher, Andres; Arca, Maria; Sanmarti, Neus

2007-01-01

254

Understanding the physical processes of pollutant build-up and wash-off on roof surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutants originating with roof runoff can have a significant impact on urban stormwater quality. This signifies the importance of understanding pollutant processes on roof surfaces. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant processes on roof surfaces is important as roofs are used as the primary catchment surface for domestic rainwater harvesting. In recent years, rainwater harvesting has become one of the primary sustainable

Prasanna Egodawatta; Evan Thomas; Ashantha Goonetilleke

2009-01-01

255

Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

McCurdy, K. M.

2005-12-01

256

Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

1978-01-01

257

Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten

S. P. Fusselman; J. J. Roy; D. L. Grimmett

1999-01-01

258

The Earth as a living planet: human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The Earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the Earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture-induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic features of the critical point of a thermal second-order phase transition. A dramatic breakdown of critical characteristics appears in the tail of the fracture process of heterogeneous system and the injured heart's electrical action. Analyses by means of Hurst exponent and wavelet decomposition further support the hypothesis that a dynamical analogy exists between the geological and biological systems under study.

Contoyiannis, Y. F.; Potirakis, S. M.; Eftaxias, K.

2013-01-01

259

Treatment of a waste salt delivered from an electrorefining process by an oxidative precipitation of the rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the reuse of a waste salt from an electrorefining process of a spent oxide fuel, a separation of rare earth elements by an oxidative precipitation in a LiCl-KCl molten salt was tested without using precipitate agents. From the results obtained from the thermochemical calculations by HSC Chemistry software, the most stable rare earth compounds in the oxygen-used rare earth

Yung-Zun Cho; Hee-Chul Yang; Gil-Ho Park; Han-Soo Lee; In-Tae Kim

2009-01-01

260

Towards better process understanding: chemometrics and multivariate measurements in manufacturing of solid dosage forms.  

PubMed

The manufacturing of tablets involves many unit operations that possess multivariate and complex characteristics. The interactions between the material characteristics and process related variation are presently not comprehensively analyzed due to univariate detection methods. As a consequence, current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim to achieve a thorough understanding and control over the production process. PAT includes the frames for measurement as well as data analyzes and controlling for in-depth understanding, leading to more consistent and safer drug products with less batch rejections. In the optimal situation, by applying these techniques, destructive end-product testing could be avoided. In this paper the most prominent multivariate data analysis measuring tools within tablet manufacturing and basic research on operations are reviewed. PMID:23423769

Matero, Sanni; van Den Berg, Frans; Poutiainen, Sami; Rantanen, Jukka; Pajander, Jari

2013-05-01

261

NASA Remote Sensing Data in Earth Sciences: Processing, Archiving, Distribution, Applications at the GES DISC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) archiving and distributing remote sensing data from the NASA's Earth Observing System. In addition to providing just data, the GES DISC/DAAC has developed various value-adding processing services. A particularly useful service is data processing a t the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data). The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from data subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. Shifting processing and data management burden from users to the GES DISC, allows scientists to concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the data management and data processing at a lower cost. Several examples of successful partnerships with scientists in the area of data processing and mining are presented.

Leptoukh, Gregory G.

2005-01-01

262

Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

2013-01-01

263

Characteristics of the solar signal on the Earth's surface through stratosphere-troposphere coupled process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar influence on climate has been discussed since long time on the assumption that the total solar irradiance (TSI) directly affects Earth's surface. Recent measurements from the space revealed that the variation of the TSI associated with the 11-year solar cycle is about 0.1%, which cannot produce little effect on Earth's climate without a feedback from the atmosphere-ocean system. Several amplifying mechanism are proposed for different variation of solar origin, cosmic ray, visible light, solar ultra violet. To determine which process is actually operating in the Earth's atmosphere, it needs to investigate not only the global mean temperature, but also its spatial structure. Observed 11-year solar signals in surface temperature can be characterizes by warming in midlatitudes and the absence of warming (or even slight cooling) in the tropics. Midlatitudes warming of the surface temperature occurs in associated with a downward penetration of stratospheric polar-night jet or the polar-night jet oscillation. Little change in tropical surface temperature is consistent with dynamical nature. Meridional circulation change produces a warming in the tropical lower stratosphere, but little effect on the tropospheric temperature. Such characteristics of solar signal can be expected from that produced through change of the solar ultraviolet. Change of the solar heating in the middle atmosphere modulates wave mean-flow interaction in the stratosphere through two processes: one is the polar-night jet oscillation, and the other is a modulation of the meridional circulation.

Kodera, Kunihiko

2014-05-01

264

Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as  

E-print Network

Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals physical disintegration of earth materials. Soil is an amalgamation of decaying organic matter

Li, X. Rong

265

Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet  

PubMed Central

The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

2011-01-01

266

Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

Matsuyama, T.

1987-05-01

267

The Influence Of Neutron Capture Rates On The Rare Earth Region Of The r-Process Abundance Pattern  

E-print Network

We study the sensitivity of the r-process abundance pattern to neutron capture rates along the rare earth region (A~150 to A~180). We introduce the concepts of large nuclear flow and flow saturation which determine the neutron capture rates that are influential in setting the rare earth abundances. We illustrate the value of the two concepts by considering high entropy conditions favorable for rare earth peak production and identifying important neutron capture rates among the rare earth isotopes. We also show how these rates influence nuclear flow and specific sections of the abundance pattern.

M. R. Mumpower; G. C. McLaughlin; R. A. Surman

2012-04-02

268

Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

2007-12-01

269

Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

1989-01-01

270

The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

2013-01-01

271

Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

2011-01-01

272

Improving Students' Learning by Developing their Understanding of Assessment Criteria and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a two-year research project focused on developing students' understanding of assessment criteria and the assessment process through a structured intervention involving both tacit and explicit knowledge transfer methods. The nature of the intervention is explained in detail, and the outcomes are analysed and discussed. The conclusions drawn from the evidence are that student learning

CHRIS RUST; MARGARET PRICE; BERRY ODONOVAN

2003-01-01

273

The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative

Vaille Dawson; Christina Soames

2006-01-01

274

Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…

Guiffrida, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

275

The process of soot formation in a DI Diesel engine is very challenging to understand and  

E-print Network

Background The process of soot formation in a DI Diesel engine is very challenging to understand and describe. But with respect to the demand for much lower particulate emissions (Tab.1) of Diesel engines emissi- ons of a medium duty DI Diesel engine which is certified for the TIER 3 norm should be evaluated

Sandoghdar, Vahid

276

Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based  

E-print Network

made from inexpensive papers like paper towels ($0.2/m2 ).2 The features made using wax printingUnderstanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

Prentiss, Mara

277

Understanding dieting: A social cognitive analysis of hedonic processes in self-regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper introduces a novel approach to understanding failures of self-regulation in chronic dieters. Traditional approaches to this problem have focused on consciously controlled processes of eating regulation, such as the realisation that one has overeaten, or the experience of food cravings. We argue, however, that dieters' problem might rather lie in their sensitivity to the hedonic aspects of

Esther K. Papies; Wolfgang Stroebe; Henk Aarts

2009-01-01

278

Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

2012-01-01

279

Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

2011-01-01

280

How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

2012-01-01

281

INFLUENCE OF TIDAL FORCES (THE EARTH - MOON SUN SYSTEM) ON SOME GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN THE EARTH'S CRUST  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that oscillating regime of tidal evolution in the Earth - Moon - Sun system results in periodical changes of velocity rotation and incline angle of the axis rotation. According to geological data it has been distinguished epoch intervals of maximum Phanerozoic sedimentation, magmatism and folding stages. These are compared with calculated changes of velocities and orientation of

Yu. N. Avsjuk; S. Genshaft; F. Sokolova; S. P. Svetlosanova

282

Role of bedrock landslides in erosion of a glaciated basin 1111 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 11111125 (2005)  

E-print Network

, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 1111­1125 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 1111­1125 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www/or deposited in landforms (Figure 1). Sediment volumes are typically measured as fluvially transported

Kurapov, Alexander

283

New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements  

E-print Network

Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110 earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r-nuclei with A > 140.

S. Goriely; J. -L. Sida; J. -F. Lemaitre; S. Panebianco; N. Dubray; S. Hilaire; A. Bauswein; H. -Thomas Janka

2013-11-22

284

Earth Science System of the Future: Observing, Processing, and Delivering Data Products Directly to Users  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advancement of our predictive capabilities will require new scientific knowledge, improvement of our modeling capabilities, and new observation strategies to generate the complex data sets needed by coupled modeling networks. New observation strategies must support remote sensing from a variety of vantage points and will include "sensorwebs" of small satellites in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in Geostationary orbits, and sentinel satellites at L1 and L2 to provide day/night views of the entire globe. Onboard data processing and high speed computing and communications will enable near real-time tailoring and delivery of information products (i.e., predictions) directly to users.

Crisp, David; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

285

Publishing your work in a journal: understanding the peer review process.  

PubMed

Manuscripts have been subjected to the peer review process prior to publication for over 300 years. Currently, the peer review process is used by almost all scientific journals, and The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy is no exception. Scholarly publication is the means by which new work is communicated and peer review is an important part of this process. Peer review is a vital part of the quality control mechanism that is used to determine what is published, and what is not. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a description of the peer review process, both generally, and as utilized by The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. It is the hope of the authors that this will assist those who submit scholarly works to understand the purpose of the peer review process, as well as to appreciate the length of time required for a manuscript to complete the process and move toward publication. PMID:23091777

Voight, Michael L; Hoogenboom, Barbara J

2012-10-01

286

The Discovery of Global Warming: A Hypertext History of How Scientists Came to (Partly) Understand What People Are Doing to Change the Earth's Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive website provides "a hypertext history of how scientists came to (partly) understand what people are doing to change the Earth's climate." Students and researchers can learn about climate trends -- both modern and past cycles -- the various factors and chemicals influencing the climate, and much more. Visitors will find a concise timeline describing the major discoveries throughout the years. The website is supplemented with various links where interested users can find more information. Those who would like a copy of the website can download the file onto their hard drive.

287

Geophysical Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes of Earth Crust of Central Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present methods of monitoring are widely used and implemented in the different fields of science to receive non stop information about the observed object in time. The method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust is developed in Garny Geophysical Observatory. It is based on the abilities of geophysical and hydrogeological indicators to react to the changes of stressedly deformative state of earth crust. The study of variations of magnetic observations connected with the deformation processes which took place during the preparation of earthquake source or of other tectonic movements will significantly increase the informational and effective character of monitoring. The changes of hydrogeological indicators depending on the deformation of water-bearing rocks are defined by the parameters of deformational fields and by the elastic and filtration characters of rocks. Methodological means of monitoring are brought to the signal appearing which reflects the deformation of rock massive. The methods of noise elimination and singling out 'deformational signals' allow to delete or mention the trend, to compensate the influence of variations on atmospheric pressure on time rows of geophysical rows and underground water level, to allocate earth tide induced fluctuations of level. But not all the noise may be deleted by calculation. The following is included in the group of non-controlled noise: the influence of infiltration on atmospheric precipitations, effects of certain technogenic influences. Deformation indicators may be not only the deflection of geophysical indicators from certain phone values but also the parametres of variations of these indicators. There exists data on the changes of parameters of barometric effectiveness and saw tooth fluctuations of underground water level before seismic events. In some cases the noise which hinders the appearance of deformational signal may itself carry useful information. Method of geophysical monitoring of earth crust was applied which allows with the help of hydrogeodynamic observations, observations of geochemistry of underground water, module of full vector of magnetic field and seismic regime of the region to carry out the monitoring of modern geodynamic processes of Armenia. The character of distribution of hydrogeodeformational processes in time and space was studied. The character of time-spatial distribution of geodynamic stress was defined. Key Words: Deformation , Geophysical Monitoring, Earthqukae Source

Pashayan, R.

2012-12-01

288

A multi-faceted approach to characterize acid-sulfate alteration processes in volcanic hydrothermal systems on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid-sulfate alteration is a dominant weathering process in high temperature, low pH, sulfur-rich volcanic environments. Additionally, hydrothermal environments have been proposed as locations where life could have originated on Earth. Based on the extensive evidence of flowing surface water and persistent volcanism, similar locations and processes could have existed on early Mars. Globally observed alteration mineral assemblages likely represent relic Martian hydrothermal settings. Yet the limited understanding of environmental controls, limits the confidence of interpreting the paleoconditions of these hydrothermal systems and assessing their habitability to support microbial life. This thesis presents a series of laboratory experiments, geochemical models, analog fieldwork, and Martian remote sensing to characterize distinguishing features and controls of acid-sulfate alteration. The experiments and models were designed to replicate alteration is a highly acidic, sulfurous, and hot field sites. The basaltic minerals were individually reacted in both experimental and model simulations with varying initial parameters to infer the geochemical pathways of acid-sulfate alteration on Earth and Mars. It was found that for a specific starting material, secondary mineralogies were consistent. Variations in pH, temperature and duration affected the abundance, shape, and size of mineral products. Additionally evaporation played a key role in secondary deposits; therefore, both alteration and evaporitic processes need to be taken into consideration. Analog volcanic sites in Nicaragua were used to supplement this work and highlight differences between natural and simulated alteration. In situ visible near-infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that primary lithology and gas chemistry were dominant controls of alteration, with secondary effects from environmental controls, such as temperature and pH. The spectroscopic research from the field was directly related to Mars observations in Noctis Labyrinthus, Terra Sirenum, Syrtis Major, and Mawrth Vallis to help interpret ancient conditions in those settings. To further apply the results from experiments, models, and fieldwork, Coprates Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris was studied using mineralogical and morphological data. Emplacement of alteration minerals indicated both pre- and post-rifting hydrothermal activity. Smaller southern grabens appeared to have experienced a unique alteration. In summary, this dissertation presents research that contributes to the understanding of the geological evolution of Mars and potentially habitability.

Marcucci, Emma Cordts

289

Onboard processing of multispectral and hyperspectral data of volcanic activity for future Earth-orbiting and planetary missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of

Ashley Gerard Davies; Steve A. Chien; Daniel Q. Tran; Joshua Doubleday

2010-01-01

290

ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

2012-12-01

291

Toward theoretical understanding of the fertility preservation decision-making process: Examining information processing among young women with cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Young women with cancer now face the complex decision about whether to undergo fertility preservation. Yet little is known about how these women process information involved in making this decision. Objective The purpose of this paper is to expand theoretical understanding of the decision-making process by examining aspects of information processing among young women diagnosed with cancer. Methods Using a grounded theory approach, 27 women with cancer participated in individual, semi-structured interviews. Data were coded and analyzed using constant-comparison techniques that were guided by five dimensions within the Contemplate phase of the decision-making process framework. Results In the first dimension, young women acquired information primarily from clinicians and Internet sources. Experiential information, often obtained from peers, occurred in the second dimension. Preferences and values were constructed in the third dimension as women acquired factual, moral, and ethical information. Women desired tailored, personalized information that was specific to their situation in the fourth dimension; however, women struggled with communicating these needs to clinicians. In the fifth dimension, women offered detailed descriptions of clinician behaviors that enhance or impede decisional debriefing. Conclusion Better understanding of theoretical underpinnings surrounding women’s information processes can facilitate decision support and improve clinical care. PMID:24552086

Hershberger, Patricia E.; Finnegan, Lorna; Altfeld, Susan; Lake, Sara; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

2014-01-01

292

Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2°C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

Aalto, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

2014-06-01

293

Characterization of magnetization processes in nanostructured rare earth-transition metal films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We synthesize rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) amorphous films using the electrodeposition method (RE=Nd, Gd and TM=Co). Nanocrystructured RE-TM films are prepared by thermal treatment of as-synthesized films below the glass-crystal transition temperature. Based on the magnetoelastic effect, the magnetization processes in nanostructured samples are characterized by acoustic internal friction measurements using the vibrating-reed technique. Since internal friction and the Young's modulus are sensitive to grain boundary and magnetic domains movement, this technique seems to characterize the effects of nanostructures on the magnetization processes in RE-TM films well. We find that the magnetoelastic effect in nanostructured RE-TM film increases with an increase in grain size.

Zheng, Guang-ping; Zhan, Yangwen; Liu, Peng; Li, Mo

2003-05-01

294

[Runoff and sediment processes and anti-erosion effects of grass-covered earth road in loess hilly region].  

PubMed

A laboratory simulation test with slope-adjustable steel tank and artificial rainfall was conducted to study the runoff and sediment processes of uncovered and Poa pratensis L.-planted earth roads, and the anti-erosion effects of P. pratensis-planted earth road. At the same rainfall intensity and slope, the runoff coefficient of P. pratensis-planted earth road was larger than that of uncovered earth road. For the two kinds of earth roads, their runoff coefficients all increased with increasing rainfall intensity and slope. At the same slope but different rainfall intensity, the runoff coefficient had a logarithmic relationship with rainfall duration, and a quadratic relationship with slope or rainfall intensity. Soil erosion rate increased with increasing rainfall intensity or slope, and was smaller on the P. pratensis-planted earth road at the same rainfall intensity. The average antierosion efficacy of P. pratensis-planted earth road was 47.22% at different rainfall intensity, and was 26.24% at different slope. Because of its higher roughness and higher road surface resistance coefficient, P. pratensis-planted earth road had a lower sediment yield and a decreased sediment transport. PMID:20879538

Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shi-qing; Tian, Feng-xia; Ma, Chun-yan

2010-07-01

295

A subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth system model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in Earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchanges. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models may lead to inadequate representation of subgrid heterogeneity and lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes. Here a subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented in each subbasin on a pseudo-grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART). The framework is implemented in two topographically and climatically contrasting regions of the US: the Pacific Northwest and the Midwest. The relative merits of this modeling framework, with greater emphasis on scalability (i.e., ability to perform consistently across spatial resolutions) in streamflow simulation compared to the grid-based modeling framework are investigated by performing simulations at 0.125°, 0.25°, 0.5°, and 1° spatial resolutions. Comparison of the two frameworks at the finest spatial resolution showed that a small difference between the averaged forcing could lead to a larger difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear processes. More systematic comparisons conducted using statistical metrics calculated between each coarse resolution and the corresponding 0.125°-resolution simulations showed superior scalability in simulating both peak and mean streamflow for the subbasin based over the grid-based modeling framework. Scalability advantages are driven by a combination of improved consistency in runoff generation and the routing processes across spatial resolutions.

Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.-Y.; Leung, L. R.; Huang, M.; Ke, Y.; Sun, Y.; Liu, Y.

2014-05-01

296

Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.  

PubMed

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. PMID:23416180

Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

2013-05-01

297

Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United

M. A. Pella-Donnelly; B. Daley; B. Crawford

2010-01-01

298

Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase the quality of climate model projections and inform DOE's energy decisions  

E-print Network

Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase results are incorporated into Earth system models to improve climate projections. e overarching goal of TES is to improve the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models

299

Prospects for projecting the impact of Earth system processes on Integrated Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the prospects for advancing the quantitative exploration of climate mitigation strategies using the integrated Earth System Model (iESM). The iESM leverages existing investments by DOE in community simulation capabilities including the Community Earth System Model (CESM) together with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) and the Global Land-use Model (GLM). GCAM and GLM are the foundation for one of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) evaluated in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The distinguishing features of iESM are the incorporation of integrated assessment capabilities into a full ESM and the provision for two-way interactions between the energy sector and climate change. Initial experiments using this new modeling system have demonstrated the need to revisit the conceptual design of the RCP scenarios [Moss, et al., 2010]. The iESM team has shown that feedbacks from climate change to the energy sector, an important class of interactions omitted from the current IPCC scenarios, can significantly alter the future allocation of land for energy and food production. Because human and biogeophysical Earth systems are closely coupled in the iESM, it is now possible to rapidly explore climate implications of new scenarios for future assessments and likewise to quantify the effects of improved treatments of major climatic processes on those scenarios. We discuss the progress towards significantly enhanced treatments of aerosols, carbon cycles, and methane feedbacks in CESM. We conclude with the potential applications of these capabilities in integrated assessment on decadal to centennial timescales using iESM.

Collins, W.; Edmonds, J. A.; Thornton, P. E.; Craig, A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Janetos, A. C.; Jones, A.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Truesdale, J.

2012-12-01

300

Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.  

PubMed

The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

2013-12-12

301

Why geography? Geographers study the earth's landscapes,  

E-print Network

Why geography? Geographers study the earth's landscapes, people and environment and the interactions between them. Geography bridges the social sciences (human geography) and natural sciences (physical geography). It is concerned with understanding the interactions between natural processes

Sussex, University of

302

Effects of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Human Neural Processing of Light on the Apparent Colors of Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop a mathematical description of the perceived colors of stars as viewed from the surface of the Earth across a wide range of possible atmospheric conditions. These results are then to be compared to the colors of the stars as seen in space. In this paper we focus on the apparent color of the Sun as viewed from Earth. Starting from a known solar spectrum taken in space, corrections for atmospheric scattering and absorption are calculated through the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). This corrected spectrum is then weighted against the CIE 1931 XYZ color matching functions to produce tristimulus values. These values are then mapped onto the sRGB color space so that the apparent color of the Sun can be accurately displayed on a calibrated computer monitor or printed page. As a check on these calculations, an observational experiment is underway to compare the observed color of the Sun against the apparent color calculated through this model. We report on preliminary results, which are promising.

Savino, Michael; Comins, N. F.

2013-01-01

303

Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

SciTech Connect

The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

2009-07-01

304

Microstructure in the extreme environment: understanding and predicting dynamic damage processes  

SciTech Connect

The future of materials science: strategic application for functionally controlled materials properties is emphasized by the need to control material performance in extreme environments. To this end, this study examines the separate effects of kinetics (in the form of dynamic loading rate and shock wave shape) from that of length-scale effects (in the form of microstructural defect distributions). Recently available mesoscale modeling techniques are being used to capture a physical link between kinetic and length-scale influences on dynamic loading. This work contributes innovative new tools in the form of shock-wave shaping techniques in dynamic experimentation, materials characterization, lending insight into 3D damage field analysis at micron resolution, and the physics necessary to provide predictive capabilities for dynamic damage evolution. Experimental results tailored for the discreet understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects during dynamic loading are obtained to provide the basis for the development of process-aware material performance models. The understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects in extreme environments of dynamic loading advances the understanding of current emerging issues relevant to phenomena such as inclusion related failure in metals, grain size dependence on ejecta, and benefits of interfaces in mitigating defect development specifically driven by the need to tailor material response. Finally, the coupling of experimental techniques with theory and simulation is aimed at advancing process-aware damage modeling as well as transitioning materials science from observation to property control.

Dennis-koller, Darcie L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo-diaz, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-21

305

[10-386] Assessing and Improving the Scale Dependence of Ecosystem Processes in Earth System Models  

E-print Network

. Goodale Cornell U. *Overall Project Lead *Lead Institution Intellectual Merit: Earth system models include policies. Our research assesses and improves Earth system model simulations of the carbon cycle, ecosystem of the Community Climate System Model/Community Earth System Model, which includes statistical meteorological

306

Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

1997-01-01

307

Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

Balter, B. M.

1979-01-01

308

The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Predictions of Extreme Rainfall Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across the rest of Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations. Particularly during the summer a large proportion of the precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. Given the deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall by climate models, even in the current generation of high-resolution RCMs, the CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed that brings together observations, basic understanding and models. This should go hand in hand with a change from a focus on traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes of model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales. It is particularly true for localised intense summer convection. CONVEX therefore aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. This includes the running of new RCM simulations undertaken by the UK Meteorological Office at 50km and 12km resolutions (parameterised convection) and comparing these with new 1.5km resolution (convection-permitting) model simulations for the southern UK. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales to provide improved understanding of the strengths and limitations of climate models and uncertainty estimates derived from model ensembles. It is also believed that this could also lead to an improved estimation of changes to local scale convective rainfall and thus flash floods. Current results from the simulation of a "baseline" climate and future work undertaken by CONVEX will allow us to understand which extreme rainfall situations benefit from higher resolution. It is envisaged that this will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. Further, as well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change predictions.

Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel; Stephenson, David; Jones, Richard; Sessford, Pat

2013-04-01

309

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences  

E-print Network

Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

Royal Holloway, University of London

310

Science Sampler : The sweet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A great number of geologic processes either take unimaginable lengths of time to complete, or happen in places that cannot be directly observed, such as under the Earth's crust. It is, therefore, necessary for an Earth science teacher to find a connection between students' experiences and the geologic process they are studying to help them better understand that which is often unobservable. One Earth science topic with a tendency to be beyond the reach of direct observation for students is rock formation. This activity compares different kinds of candy to the different types of rocks based on direct observation.

Spurr, Aaron; Johnson, Lisa

2005-01-01

311

NASA's Earth science missions overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth is a complex and dynamic system we do not yet fully understand. The Earth system, like the human body, is comprised of diverse components that interact in complex ways. We need to understand the Earth's atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and biosphere as a single connected system. Our planet is changing on all spatial and temporal scales. The purpose of NASA's Earth science program is to develop a scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes, and to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. NASA's role is unique and highly complements those of other U.S. Federal agencies (such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) by continually advancing Earth system science from space, creating new remote sensing capabilities, and enhancing the operational capabilities of other agencies and collaborating with them to advance national Earth science goals. International collaborations are also a feature of many of these NASA Earth science activities. Continuous global observations of variability and change are required to reveal natural variability and the forces involved, the nature of the underlying processes and how these are coupled within the Earth system. NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) provides these observations through its orbital and suborbital flight programs. Currently, NASA has 15 operating Earth science space missions with 6 more in development and 9 under study. In the next decade, ESD will develop and demonstrate new sensors and interacting constellations of satellites to address critical science questions and enable advances in operational capabilities in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey of Earth Science and Applications.

Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

2009-09-01

312

Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

Peters, N.E.

2008-01-01

313

A dynamic fed batch strategy for a Pichia pastoris mixed feed system to increase process understanding.  

PubMed

Mixed substrate feeding strategies are frequently investigated to enhance the productivity of recombinant Pichia pastoris processes. For this purpose, numerous fed batch experiments or time-consuming continuous cultivations are required to optimize control parameters such as the substrate mixing ratio and the applied methanol concentration. In this study, we decoupled the feeding of methanol and glycerol in a mixed substrate fed batch environment to gain process understanding for a recombinant P. pastoris Muts strain producing the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Specific substrate uptake rates (qs) were controlled separately, and a stepwise increased qGly-control scheme was applied to investigate the effect of various substrate fluxes on the culture. The qs-controlled strategy allowed a parallel characterization of the metabolism and the recombinant protein expression in a fed batch environment. A critical-specific glycerol uptake rate was determined, where a decline of the specific productivity occurred, and a time-dependent acceleration of protein expression was characterized with the dynamic fed batch approach. Based on the observations on recombinant protein expression, propositions for an optimal feeding design to target maximal productivities were stated. Thus, the dynamic fed batch strategy was found to be a valuable tool for both process understanding and optimization of product formation for P. pastoris in a mixed substrate environment. PMID:22505140

Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

2012-01-01

314

Student Understanding of the Physics and Mathematics of Process Variables in P-V Diagrams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in an upper-level thermal physics course were asked to compare quantities related to the First Law of Thermodynamics along with similar mathematical questions devoid of all physical context. We report on a comparison of student responses to physics questions involving interpretation of ideal gas processes on P-V diagrams and to analogous mathematical qualitative questions about the signs of and comparisons between the magnitudes of various integrals. Student performance on individual questions combined with performance on the paired questions shows evidence of isolated understanding of physics and mathematics. Some difficulties are addressed by instruction.

Pollock, Evan B.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

2009-06-24

315

Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

1984-01-01

316

The compact electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electromagnetically equivalent device model [1]-[2] is extended as considering the whole Earth like a complete system in this paper. The crustal structures are considered as a complex network of distributed circuits involving slot antenna arrays, open waveguides, cavities, transmission strip lines, attenuators, frequency converters, dividers, couplings in the electromagnetically equivalent device model of the complete system of Earth (EEDMCSE). The variations at the geo-data taken at any port of the EEDMCSE give some functional relationships on the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network explained above. The mappings said here are based on the transformations among both the temporal and the spatial variations of both geo-data and the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network [2]. The Finite Difference Time Domain Method is used at the evaluations. The temporal variations at the mappings of EEDMCSE at specific locations extract the mechanisms explaining the relationships among the characteristics of the distributed complex network and seismic phenomena of Earth in the future. A mapping is established between the parameter space of the geo-data and the characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent device model. The temporal variations of the geo-data are correlated to the self-optimizing the specific characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent device. The relationships said here give a possibility of predicting the geo-data. Using the inverses of the mappings generates the evaluations giving the predictability conditions involving restrictions. The inversion of the mapping exploits a fine model at predicting the natural iterations of the geo-data at future on both the region connected the port and some locations non-related to the port either geologically or seismically or phenomenologically relating to the earth [1] - [5]. 2 References [1] T. Sengor,"The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor,"The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic Processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU Vienna 2008. [3] T. Sengor,"On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," HelsinkiUniv. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor,"The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

Sengor, T.

2009-04-01

317

Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students' anticipated response as a motivator to deepen their understanding of the environment. SEAS depends on the contributions of many scientists within the Ridge 2000 community, and serves as an outreach channel for the whole community. Scientists can help field student questions during the Ask-a- Scientist email forum, serve as Report Reviewers, be featured in Scientist Spotlights, and help develop new Classroom to Sea labs and curricular materials. In the next four years, SEAS will integrate with the international GLOBE education program (www.globe.gov), and help our community reach even more students and teachers, worldwide.

Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

2006-12-01

318

Discover Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

Steele, Colleen

1998-01-01

319

Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.

Estefan, J. A.

1995-01-01

320

Understanding Planetesimals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planetesimals represent turning points in planetary formation, when the materials required for building planets are first incorporated into bodies with radii from tens to hundreds of kilometers or larger, and are sometimes differentiated into metallic cores and silicate mantles. These early celestial bodies are the accretionary step between the dust of the planetary nebula and the cadre of rocky planets. Thus, planetesimals hold the keys to understanding how Earth was formed, when water was deposited on Earth, and why Earth and other rocky planets may differ in composition.

Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

2014-03-01

321

Treatment of a waste salt delivered from an electrorefining process by an oxidative precipitation of the rare earth elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the reuse of a waste salt from an electrorefining process of a spent oxide fuel, a separation of rare earth elements by an oxidative precipitation in a LiCl-KCl molten salt was tested without using precipitate agents. From the results obtained from the thermochemical calculations by HSC Chemistry software, the most stable rare earth compounds in the oxygen-used rare earth chlorides system were oxychlorides (EuOCl, NdOCl, PrOCl) and oxides (CeO 2, PrO 2), which coincide well with results of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction. In this study, similar to the thermochemical results, regardless of the sparging time and molten salt temperature, oxychlorides and oxides were formed as a precipitant by a reaction with oxygen. The structure of the rare earth precipitates was divided into two shapes: small cubic (oxide) and large plate-like (tetragonal) structures. The conversion efficiencies of the rare earth elements to their molten salt-insoluble precipitates were increased with the sparging time and temperature, and Ce showed the best reactivity. In the conditions of 650 °C of the molten salt temperature and 420 min of the sparging time, the final conversion efficiencies were over 99.9% for all the investigated rare earth chlorides.

Cho, Yung-Zun; Yang, Hee-Chul; Park, Gil-Ho; Lee, Han-Soo; Kim, In-Tae

2009-02-01

322

Multiple stable oxygen isotopic studies of atmospheric sulfate: A new quantitative way to understand sulfate formation processes in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate is an important trace species in the Earth's atmosphere because of its roles in numerous atmospheric processes. In addition to its inherent light-scattering properties, sulfate can serve as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN), affecting cloud formation as well as microphysical properties of clouds. Consequently, atmospheric sulfate species influence the global radiative energy balance. Sulfate is known to increase acidity of rainwater with negative consequences in both natural and urban environments. In addition, aerosol sulfate (<=2.5 ?m) is respirable and poses a threat to human health as a potential carrier of toxic pollutants through the respiratory tract. Despite intense investigative effort, uncertainty regarding the relative significance of gas and aqueous phase oxidation pathways still remains. Acquisition of such information is important because the lifetime and transport of S(IV) species and sulfate aerosols are influenced by the oxidative pathways. In addition, sulfate formation processes affect the aerosol size distribution, which ultimately influences radiative properties of atmospheric aerosols. Therefore, the budgetary information of the sulfur cycle, as well as the radiative effects of sulfate on global climate variation, can be attained from better quantitative understanding of in situ sulfate formation processes in the atmosphere. Multiple stable oxygen isotopic studies of atmospheric sulfate are presented as a new tool to better comprehend the atmospheric sulfate formation processes. Coupled with isotopic studies, 35S radioactivity measurements have been utilized to assess contribution of sulfate from high altitude air masses. Atmospheric sulfate (aerosols and rainwater) samples have been collected from diverse environments. Laboratory experiments of gas and aqueous phase S(IV) oxidation by various oxidants, as well as biomass burning experiments, have also been conducted. The main isotopic results from these studies are as follows: (1)Atmospheric (aerosol and rainwater) sulfate has a mass independent oxygen isotopic composition; (2)Aqueous phase S(IV) oxidation by atmospheric ozone and hydrogen peroxide are the source of the mass independent anomaly in atmospheric sulfate; (3)The mass independent oxygen isotopic anomaly appears to enhance with increasing altitude, suggesting a stratospheric contribution; (4)Primary sulfate from biomass burning has a mass dependent oxygen isotopic composition.

Lee, Charles Chi-Woo

2000-11-01

323

UNDERSTANDING OLIVINE CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

Carbonation of Mg-rich minerals offers an intriguing candidate carbon sequestration process technology, which can provide large-scale CO{sub 2} disposal. Such disposal bypasses many long-term storage problems by (i) providing containment in the form of mineral carbonates that have proven stable over geological time, (ii) generating only environmentally benign materials, and (iii) essentially eliminating the need for continuous site monitoring. The primary challenge for viable process development is reducing process cost. This is the primary focus of the CO{sub 2} Mineral Sequestration Working Group managed by Fossil Energy at DOE, which includes members from the Albany Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, Penn State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the University of Utah, as well as from our research group at Arizona State University. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a leading process candidate, which converts CO{sub 2} into the mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). As olivine carbonation is exothermic, it offers intriguing low-cost potential. Recent studies at the Albany Research Center have found aqueous-solution carbonation is a promising approach. Cost effectively enhancing carbonation reactivity is central to reducing process cost. Many of the mechanisms that impact reactivity occur at the solid/solution interface. Understanding these mechanisms is central to the ability to engineer new and modified processes to enhance carbonation reactivity and lower cost. Herein, we report the results of our UCR I project, which focused on exploring the reaction mechanisms that govern aqueous-solution olivine carbonation using model olivine feedstock materials. Carbonation was found to be a complex process associated with passivating silica layer formation, which includes the trapping of magnesite nanocrystals within the passivating silica layers, cracking and exfoliation of the layers, silica surface migration, olivine etch pit formation, transfer of the Mg and Fe in the olivine into the product carbonate, and the nucleation and growth of magnesite crystals on/in the silica/olivine reaction matrix. These phenomena occur in concert with the large solid volume changes that accompany the carbonation process, which can substantially impact carbonation reactivity. Passivating silica layer formation appears to play a major role in inhibiting carbonation reactivity. New approaches that can mitigate the effectiveness of passivating layer formation may offer intriguing potential to enhance carbonation reactivity and lower process cost.

M.J. McKelvy; H. Bearat; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter

2003-08-01

324

Understanding processes governing water quality in catchments using principal component scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe analysis of spatial-temporal patterns of scores, including their association with supplementary data, can refine a principal component analysis of water quality data. We hypothesized that this type of analysis could considerably improve the understanding of processes governing water quality at catchment scales. To test this, water quality data from the 180 km2 Ammer catchment in south-western Germany was investigated using principal component analysis. We analyzed data for (a) surface water from the Ammer River and its tributaries, (b) spring water from the main aquifers and (c) deep groundwater from wells. Using the analysis of scores, we found that the quality of both surface and groundwater primarily reflected the input of solutes determined by land use and geology. For water quality in the Ammer catchment, the conservative mixing of water of different origins and ages was more important than reactive transport processes along the flow paths. These results demonstrate the potential of our analysis of principal component scores to identify dominant processes at catchment scales.

Selle, Benny; Schwientek, Marc; Lischeid, Gunnar

2013-04-01

325

Geophysical signatures of disseminated iron minerals: A proxy for understanding subsurface biophysicochemical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

studies have linked biogeophysical signatures to the presence of iron minerals resulting from distinct biophysicochemical processes. Utilizing geophysical methods as a proxy of such biophysicochemical processes requires an understanding of the geophysical signature of the different iron minerals. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility signatures of five iron minerals disseminated in saturated porous media under variable iron mineral content and grain size. Both pyrite and magnetite show high quadrature and inphase conductivities compared to hematite, goethite, and siderite, whereas magnetite was the highly magnetic mineral dominating the magnetic susceptibility measurements. The quadrature conductivity spectra of both pyrite and magnetite exhibit a well-defined characteristic relaxation peak below 10 kHz, not observed with the other iron minerals. The quadrature conductivity and magnetic susceptibility of individual and a mixture of iron minerals are dominated and linearly proportional to the mass fraction of the highly conductive (pyrite and magnetite) and magnetic (magnetite) iron minerals, respectively. The quadrature conductivity magnitude increased with decreasing grain size diameter of magnetite and pyrite with a progressive shift of the characteristic relaxation peak toward higher frequencies. The quadrature conductivity response of a mixture of different grain sizes of iron minerals is shown to be additive, whereas magnetic susceptibility measurements were insensitive to the variation in grain size diameters (1-0.075 mm). The integration of complex conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements can therefore provide a complimentary tool for the successful investigation of in situ biophysicochemical processes resulting in biotransformation or secondary iron mineral precipitation.

Abdel Aal, Gamal Z.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Revil, A.

2014-09-01

326

Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.  

SciTech Connect

A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

Goussis, Dimitris A. (Ploutonos 7, Palaio Faliro, Greece); Najm, Habib N.

2006-01-01

327

Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM 579 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 579588 (2006)  

E-print Network

Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM 579 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 579­588 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/esp Soil erosion modelling with EUROSEM at Embori The applicability of the European Soil Erosion Model (EUROSEM) in Kenya was tested on two subcatchments: Embori

Quinton, John

328

Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 507525 (2006)  

E-print Network

Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Gullying and erosion control at archaeological sites in Grand Canyon, Arizona Joel L. Pederson1 *, Paul A, USA Abstract Gully erosion of cultural sites in Grand Canyon National Park is an urgent management

Pederson, Joel L.

329

Examining the construction process: A study of changes in level 10 students' understanding of classical mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study explored students' conceptual understanding and conceptual growth regarding classical mechanics in the natural context of a Grade-level 10 science classroom. The purpose of the study was to determine the pervasiveness of a pattern observed in an earlier study in which learners initially gave evidence of scientifically valid knowledge structures but then returned or regressed to an earlier, primitive level of understanding. In the current study, concept mapping and interview methods were used to capture students' construction of knowledge patterns across a survey course designed to focus on some big ideas in physics. The analyses of mean ratings of student-generated concept maps and interview transcripts over three data collections did not consistently reveal the progression-regression patterns across the instruction as observed in the earlier study. The students' knowledge structures remained stable across the 10 weeks and remained unchanged 4 weeks after instruction ceased, suggesting that very little construction or restructuring of knowledge was taking place, and possibly worse, that the students' existing knowledge was not challenged sufficiently to promote the construction or reconstruction process. Implications of the alternative interpretations are discussed.

Shymansky, James; Yore, Larry; Treagust, David; Thiele, R. B.; Harrison, A.; Waldrip, L. D.

2005-11-23

330

Progress in understanding the assembly process of bacterial O-antigen.  

PubMed

The discovery that the surfaces of Gram-negative bacteria often carry unique polysaccharide signatures pre-dates most seminal discoveries of molecular biology and biochemistry of the 20th century. The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide has been one of the most intensely studied bacterial polysaccharide surface structures for over 80 years. Yet, many questions about the mechanism of biosynthesis of the O-antigen and its transport to the cell surface remain unanswered. In this review we provide an overview of how the molecular basis of the O-antigen assembly and trafficking were unraveled in a historical context. We pay particular attention to the emergence of novel technological approaches and how they fueled the elucidation of the O-antigen maturation process. Moreover, we provide a brief perspective on the biosynthesis of enterobacterial common antigen and underline the similarities and differences between the pathways used to assemble these two surface polysaccharides. Finally, we highlight key discoveries that led to the understanding of the mechanistic basis of bacteriophage-induced O-antigen modifications. We place special emphasis on the regulation of the length of O-antigen polymers and provide a detailed overview of the models explaining the O-antigen length determination. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that need to be addressed both structurally and functionally to advance our understanding of the O-antigen assembly, trafficking and export within cellular and molecular contexts. PMID:24617522

Kalynych, Sergei; Morona, Renato; Cygler, Miroslaw

2014-09-01

331

Understanding the Formation Process of Exceptionally Long Fullerene-Based Nanowires  

SciTech Connect

In a recent study [1], it was demonstrated that exceptionally long fullerene nanowires, with a length-to-width aspect ratio as large as approx3000-5000, can be grown from 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene solution of C{sub 60}. We have performed a thorough theoretical analysis, aiming at gaining an in-depth understanding of the exceptionally large aspect ratio of C{sub 60}-based nanowires. By accounting for different interactions in the system we have calculated the structures of the unit cell and determined the role of the fullerene and of the solvent molecules in the crystallization process of the nanowires. We have calculated the adhesion energy of C{sub 60} molecules to the nanowire surface, and on the basis of this explained the growth anisotropy of the crystal. To get a more profound understanding of the nanowire growth mechanism we have also considered the influence of electron polarization on the growth anisotropy and studied the possible polymerization reactions occurred between the C{sub 60} and the solvent molecules.

Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Solov'yov, Andrey V. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Politechnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Geng, Junfeng; Johnson, Brian F. G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

2009-12-03

332

Understanding the Formation Process of Exceptionally Long Fullerene-Based Nanowires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent study [1], it was demonstrated that exceptionally long fullerene nanowires, with a length-to-width aspect ratio as large as ~3000-5000, can be grown from 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene solution of C60. We have performed a thorough theoretical analysis, aiming at gaining an in-depth understanding of the exceptionally large aspect ratio of C60-based nanowires. By accounting for different interactions in the system we have calculated the structures of the unit cell and determined the role of the fullerene and of the solvent molecules in the crystallization process of the nanowires. We have calculated the adhesion energy of C60 molecules to the nanowire surface, and on the basis of this explained the growth anisotropy of the crystal. To get a more profound understanding of the nanowire growth mechanism we have also considered the influence of electron polarization on the growth anisotropy and studied the possible polymerization reactions occurred between the C60 and the solvent molecules.

Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Geng, Junfeng; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Johnson, Brian F. G.

2009-12-01

333

Extended principle component analysis - a useful tool to understand processes governing water quality at catchment scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality of ground and surface waters in catchments is typically driven by many complex and interacting processes. While small scale processes are often studied in great detail, their relevance and interplay at catchment scales remain often poorly understood. For many catchments, extensive monitoring data on water quality have been collected for different purposes. These heterogeneous data sets contain valuable information on catchment scale processes but are rarely analysed using integrated methods. Principle component analysis (PCA) has previously been applied to this kind of data sets. However, a detailed analysis of scores, which are an important result of a PCA, is often missing. Mathematically, PCA expresses measured variables on water quality, e.g. nitrate concentrations, as linear combination of independent, not directly observable key processes. These computed key processes are represented by principle components. Their scores are interpretable as process intensities which vary in space and time. Subsequently, scores can be correlated with other key variables and catchment characteristics, such as water travel times and land use that were not considered in PCA. This detailed analysis of scores represents an extension of the commonly applied PCA which could considerably improve the understanding of processes governing water quality at catchment scales. In this study, we investigated the 170 km2 Ammer catchment in SW Germany which is characterised by an above average proportion of agricultural (71%) and urban (17%) areas. The Ammer River is mainly fed by karstic springs. For PCA, we separately analysed concentrations from (a) surface waters of the Ammer River and its tributaries, (b) spring waters from the main aquifers and (c) deep groundwater from production wells. This analysis was extended by a detailed analysis of scores. We analysed measured concentrations on major ions and selected organic micropollutants. Additionally, redox-sensitive variables and environmental tracers indicating groundwater age were analysed for deep groundwater from production wells. For deep groundwater, we found that microbial turnover was stronger influenced by local availability of energy sources than by travel times of groundwater to the wells. Groundwater quality primarily reflected the input of pollutants determined by landuse, e.g. agrochemicals. We concluded that for water quality in the Ammer catchment, conservative mixing of waters with different origin is more important than reactive transport processes along the flow path.

Selle, B.; Schwientek, M.

2012-04-01

334

Invited commentary: understanding brain mechanisms of pain processing in adolescents' non-suicidal self-injury.  

PubMed

Whereas non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) is reported in 13-23% of adolescents and is an increasingly studied topic, there has been little investigation into the pathophysiology behind self-injury. This commentary examines recent research into pain and emotional distress to discuss implications for the manner we should understand, research, and treat NSSI in the future. Research indicates that adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to NSSI behaviors due to neurodevelopmental changes in the processing of distress and pain. Additionally, emotional distress and physical pain neural pathways may have been altered in these individuals, leading to the development of NSSI behaviors during adolescence when changes in ongoing brain development may lead to further emotional dysregulation and poor impulse control. Further studies that directly characterize the relationship between emotional distress and physical pain in adolescence, as well as the neural differences between self-injurers and non-self-injurers, are needed. PMID:19830534

Ballard, Elizabeth; Bosk, Abigail; Pao, Maryland

2010-04-01

335

Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

SciTech Connect

The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-06-01

336

Rock Cycle in the Lab: Earth Products and the Processes That Link Them  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will become familier with the rock cycle. During the first part of the lesson, students work in small groups, each group having a copy of the rock cycle on a sheet of paper and a selection of small-scale samples and photographs that represent the products of the rock cycle. The students lay out their samples and photographs next to what they consider to be the correct boxes on their copy of the rock cycle. In the second part, the teacher constructs a large scale rock cycle throughout the room while the students check their efforts. Students discover that all the parts of the rock cycle are linked together into a sort of global machine and that this machine is driven by energy from the sun and from inside the Earth. They will also realize that the rock cycle involves physical, chemical and biological processes. Copies of both the large scale and student size rock cycles are available at this site.

337

Crew Earth Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

Runco, Susan

2009-01-01

338

Earth Force  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Earth Force engages young people as active citizens who improve the environment and their communities now and in the future." Educators can learn about Earth Force's three programs: Community Action and Problem solving (CAPS), the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), and Earth Force After School. Users can discover students' many accomplishments such as creating reusable fabric grocery bags, recycling cell phones and ink cartridges to earn money, and cleaning up litter. The Tools for Teachers section offers evaluation results, a quality rubric, and a description of the six-step Earth Force community action and problem-solving process.

339

Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

2011-01-01

340

Contributions of TRMM to Our Understanding of Precipitation Processes and Climate Variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan effort, has completed seven and a half years in orbit. This successful research mission studying precipitation processes and climatology has also become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first rain radar and microwave radiometer combination in space, continues to function perfectly, and the satellite has the capability to operate for a number of additional years, providing a unique, long-term record of global tropical precipitation characteristics. A summary of research highlights will be presented covering topics ranging over climate analysis, improving forecasts, and storm and precipitation processes. A focus of the talk will be the important role of TRMM data in multi-satellite precipitation analyses at fine time scales and in improving our understanding of the validity of climate-scale variations through comparison with, and eventual improvement of, the GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 25-year data set.

Adler, Robert F.

2005-01-01

341

Advances in understanding the coupling of DNA base modifying enzymes to processes involving base excision repair.  

PubMed

This chapter describes some of the recent, exciting developments that have characterized and connected processes that modify DNA bases with DNA repair pathways. It begins with AID/APOBEC or TET family members that covalently modify bases within DNA. The modified bases, such as uracil or 5-formylcytosine, are then excised by DNA glycosylases including UNG or TDG to initiate base excision repair (BER). BER is known to preserve genome integrity by removing damaged bases. The newer studies underscore the necessity of BER following enzymes that deliberately damage DNA. This includes the role of BER in antibody diversification and more recently, its requirement for demethylation of 5-methylcytosine in mammalian cells. The recent advances have shed light on mechanisms of DNA demethylation, and have raised many more questions. The potential hazards of these processes have also been revealed. Dysregulation of the activity of base modifying enzymes, and resolution by unfaithful or corrupt means can be a driver of genome instability and tumorigenesis. The understanding of both DNA and histone methylation and demethylation is now revealing the true extent to which epigenetics influence normal development and cancer, an abnormal development. PMID:23870509

Wyatt, Michael D

2013-01-01

342

Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools for understanding the extreme complexity of the aging process. Moreover, the generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological and social networks and ecosystems, which may generate novel concepts for curing age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (inter-actomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs that aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of possible research options to further explore the potential of the network concept in this important field, and show that multi-target drugs (representing 'magic-buckshots' instead of the traditional 'magic bullets') may become an especially useful class of age-related drugs in the future. PMID:19804610

2009-01-01

343

Understanding hydroclimate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin for natural resources management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolating the causes of extreme variations or changes in the hydroclimate is difficult due to the complexities of the driving mechanisms, but it is crucial for effective natural resource management. In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), ocean-atmosphere processes causing hydroclimatic variations occur on time scales from days to centuries, all are important, and none are likely to act in isolation. Instead, interactions between all hydroclimatic drivers, on multiple time scales, are likely to have caused the variations observed in MDB instrumental records. A simplified framework is presented to assist natural resource managers in identifying the potential causes of hydroclimatic anomalies. The framework condenses an event into its fundamental elements, including its spatial and temporal signal and small-scale evolution. The climatic processes that are potentially responsible are then examined to determine possible causes. The framework was applied to a period of prolonged and severe dry conditions occurring in the southern MDB from 1997-2010, providing insights into possible causal mechanisms that are consistent with recent studies. The framework also assists in identifying uncertainties and gaps in our understanding that need to be addressed.

Gallant, A. J. E.; Kiem, A. S.; Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Stone, R. C.; Karoly, D. J.

2012-07-01

344

Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

2014-05-01

345

Using process drama to enhance pre-service teachers' understanding of science and religion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a course, Philosophy of Science, taught by the researcher in Semester A, academic year 2007. Process drama is the teaching strategy employed. The students were fully engaged in the process drama; doing research, producing, distributing, and criticizing the drama. Focus group, student journal, and observation were used to gather the data and the data was analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. The focus groups revealed that the drama could help students reflect on the complexity and sensitivity of the issue. They found there was no inherent conflict between science and religion since they answered different questions and used different methods to achieve their results. However, the conflicts occurred when people were not aware of the basic differences between the two so they justified one on the basis of purpose and method of one another. The pre-service teachers also found consistency between science and Buddhism. They thought that the teachers of science should respond to the conflicts in a respectful, compromising, and neutral manner.[InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

Pongsophon, Pongprapan

2010-03-01

346

Teachers as Learners: A Case Study of Teachers' Understanding of Astronomy Concepts and Processes in An ACE Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here investigates the efficacy of a module in an Advanced Certificate in Education course in promoting conceptual understanding in Astronomy. The research attempted to find out how teachers' understanding of astronomy concepts and processes change after completing this module as well as the reasons for such changes, if any.…

Stears, M.; James, A.; Good, M-A.

2011-01-01

347

Toward understanding the Sun-to-Earth evolution of the 2012 July 12-16 Coronal Mass Ejection Using Three-dimensional MHD Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic process of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the heliosphere is the key information for us to evaluate the CMEs' geo-effectiveness and to improve the accurate prediction of CME induced Shock Arrival Time (SAT) at Earth's environment. We present a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the evolution of the CME in a realistic ambient solar wind for the July 12-16, 2012 event by using the 3D COIN-TVD MHD code. The influence of the background solar wind speed to the SAT is analyzed. The influence of the initial position and polarity of the plasma blob to IMF Bz is also studied. In the validation study of this CME event (July 12-16, 2012), we find that this 3D COIN-TVD MHD model, with the magnetized plasma blob as CME model, provide a relatively satisfactory comparison with the ACE spacecraft observations at the L1 point.

Shen, F.; Feng, X.; Shen, C.

2013-12-01

348

Understanding Earth's Climate: Virtual Bookshelf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of children's books recommends nonfiction titles that supplement basic information found in lessons and activities of this themed issue of the online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle. The books are grouped by topic -- water, weather and climate, and atmosphere. Each book is described by its content, reading level, and possible uses in the classroom. Covers are pictured. The online magazine is produced for elementary school teachers and is structured around the essential principles of climate sciences and climate literacy.

Hastings, Kate

2011-03-01

349

Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northwest, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. Since 1) and 3) are 10-minute intervals and 2) is hourly data, we are developing hourly gridded data and using 1-3) to verify and quantify the rain rate observed by the Fukushima University X-band data.

Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

2012-04-01

350

Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections as they communicate what they know

Christine M. Knaggs; Rebecca M. Schneider

2011-01-01

351

MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

2012-04-01

352

Stellar Magnetic Activity, the Earth and Exoplanets: How Future Space Missions Can Contribute to Understanding Solar Activity and Solar-terrestrial Influences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar spectral and particle output varies over time scales of minutes to eons; some of those variations are documented or claimed to have influenced the terrestrial environment. The origins of solar variability include the progress of fusion through time and the complex interaction of the interior gas and magnetic fields. The Mount Wilson HK Project has yielded information on stellar magnetic activity on more than 2,000 stars going as far back as 38 years in order to put solar magnetic activity in a physical perspective unavailable from theory and models alone. We discuss how future space missions like Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) and Stellar Imager (SI) would contribute to understanding solar variability that has influenced -- and should continue to influence -- life and the environment on earth. This research funded in part by MIT-MSG 5710001241, JPL 1236821, AF 49620-02-1-0194, a grant from NASA HQ and GSFC to SAO for the SI Vision Mission Study, NASA NAG5-7635, NRC COBASE, CRDF 322, Richard Lounsberry Foundation, Langley-Abbot, Rollins, Scholarly Studies and James Arthur Funds (Smithsonian Institution) and several generous individuals.

Baliunas, S. L.; Soon, W. W.-H.

2004-05-01

353

Understanding leachate transport in a variably saturated zone using ERT and process based modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding spatio-temporal variation of solute distribution in subsurface is a challenging assignment, in particular, when there is only limited number of observation wells in the area of interest. In this study, in order to overcome the spatial limitation of monitoring observation wells, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) of subsurface is measured over a period of time and solute distribution is inferred from those ERT results. ERT has been performed several times between March 2011 and February 2012 to observe leachate transport from a livestock mortalities burial in a rural area of Korea. Groundwater had been sampled in an observation well near the burial. A process based model describing flow and transport in a variably saturated zone has been built to represent the burial site of this study. The ERT results show abnormal resistivity zones which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. The results of sampling, modeling and ERT are used in combination to obtain quantitative analysis of leachate distribution. Electrical conductivity was converted to concentration using a function relating the solute content in the groundwater sample with the corresponding electrical conductivity. Under a limited knowledge of subsurface characteristics and unfavorable sampling conditions, the method provided improved insight in leachate distribution of the study site.

Lim, J.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.

2012-12-01

354

Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing  

PubMed Central

For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Helene; Guichard, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

355

UV spectra of the icy Saturnian satellites: Understanding exogenic processes and NH3 in the system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing data from Cassini and HST inform us that the icy satellites of Saturn exhibit unidentified UV absorptions - an overall reddish slope in the ~200-400 nm range, with additional spectral features superimposed. We are unable to solve these mysteries surrounding the source(s) of these absorptions using Cassini datasets due to a gap in spectral coverage in the 190-350 nm range (broadband coverage is available to wavelengths as short as 260 nm). HST/STIS data are critical to understanding the spectra of these moons, and to resolving the sources and processes that cause the absorptions. We suspect that ammonia, with its distinctive and strong absorption near 200 nm, plays a role in the spectra of these moons, which has implications for geologic activity. These observations will provide the first-ever NUV observations of Mimas, improved coverage on Enceladus, and the first-ever STIS observations on Dione and Rhea. We base our observation strategy and estimated SNRs on existing high-quality STIS spectra of Tethys (from program 7316).

Hendrix, Amanda

2014-10-01

356

Mission to Planet Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These four written and computer activities cover concepts of remote sensing in general and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The first is a written activity asking students to consider what about the earth they would want to study. The second combines a written activity on the Galileo spacecraft with a computer activity. Students will view images of the earth taken from the spacecraft. In the third activity, students receive their first introduction to image processing programs as they view two earth images and are asked to detect differences. They work with several software tools and become comfortable opening files and applying various image processing techniques. In the final section, students work with whole earth optical images and then open up their first radar image, seeing first an image of Los Angeles and then a close-up view of Elysium Park and Dodger Stadium taken at the same time, and derive an understanding of the various advantages and limitations of the remote sensing platforms.

357

The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

358

On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development environment with encapsulated low-level drivers, HW support and testing environment). Furthermore Space PDP presents an advanced processing system to be fully adopted both as on-board module for EO spacecrafts and extra-planetary exploration rovers. The main innovative aspects are: • HW and SW modularity - scalability for the Payload Data Processing and AOC S/S • Complex processing capabilities fully available onboard (on spacecrafts or rovers) • Reduced effort in mission SW design, implementation, verification and validation tasks • HW abstraction level comparable to present multitasking Unix-like systems allowing SW and algorithms re-use (also from available GS applications). The development approach addressed by SpacePDP is based both on the re-use and resources sharing with flexible elements adjustable to different missions and to different tasks within the same mission (e.g. shared between AOCS and data management S/S) and on a strong specialization in the system elements that are designed to satisfy specific mission needs and specific technological innovations. The innovative processing system is proven in many possible scenarios of use from standard compression task up to the most complex one as the image classification directly on-board. The first one is just useful for standard benchmark trade-off analysis of HW and SW capabilities respect to the other common processing modules. The classification is the ambitious objective of that system to process directly on board the data from sensor (by down-sampling or in no-full resolution acquisition modality if necessary) to detect at flight time any features on ground or observed phenomenas. For Earth application it could be the cloud coverage (to avoid the acquisition and discard the data), burning areas or vessels detection and similar. On Planetary o Universe exploration mission it could be the path recognition for a rover, or high power energy events in outbound galaxies. Sometimes it could be need to review the GS algorithms to approach the problem in the Space scenario, i.e. for Synthetic Aperture Rad

Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

2013-09-01

359

Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific\\u000a ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating\\u000a scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections\\u000a as they communicate what they know

Christine M. Knaggs; Rebecca M. Schneider

360

MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

Clifford, Stephen M. (editor); Haberle, Robert M. (editor)

1988-01-01

361

An innovative polymer processing method, "solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP)": Intimate mixing, compatibilization and basic understanding of the process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic and kinetic limitations inherent in conventional melt mixing limit its ability to produce finely-dispersed immiscible polymer blends and achieve compatibilization. Solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP), which relies on a modified twin screw extruder to process materials in the solid state, is designed to overcome these limitations. Repeated fragmentation and fusion steps accompanying SSSP lead to intimate mixing and compatibilization which are difficult to be achieved in conventional melt mixing. This novel process method, SSSP, has been shown for the first time to be capable of forming quasi-nanostructured polymer blends. When an 80/20 wt% polystyrene (PS)/poly (methyl methacrylate) PMMA blend is made by SSSP, the blend exhibits many irregular, minor-phase domains with length scales of ˜ 100 nm or less. However, the dispersed-phase domain size in an analogous blend made by melt mixing is one order of magnitude larger. The addition of styrene (S)/methyl methacrylate (MMA) gradient copolymer into the PS/PMMA blend during SSSP compatibilizes the blend and can largely maintain the nanostructure during high temperature annealing. Compatibilization 4 can also be achieved with the addition of block copolymer during SSSP of PS/high density polyethylene (HDPE); in particular, the addition of 5 wt% styrene/ethylene-butylene/styrene (SEBS) block copolymer to a 90/10 wt% PS/HDPE blend during SSSP yields a reduction in coarsening rate by a factor of thirty relative to a melt-mixed blend without copolymer. The understanding of the basic principles associated with SSSP has been advanced. Polymer materials accumulate, and pressure is built up in the region of bi-lobe and tri-lobe kneading disk blocks, in which repeated fragmentation and fusion steps can occur. The development of polymer blend morphology along a screw during SSSP was shown to be blend specific. The attainment during SSSP of the final microstructure in PS/poly (n-butyl methacrylate) blends and the final quasi-nanostructure in PS/PMMA blends is evident after the initial mixing zone and before the high-shear pulverization zone in the SSSP screw design. However, in the case of PS/HDPE blends, the HDPE dispersed phase size continues to decrease along the total screw length. Finally, the first residence time study for SSSP has shown a distribution typical of twin-screw melt extrusion.

Tao, Ying

362

NASA Earth science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans and current status will be presented.

Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

2013-10-01

363

The Significance of Land-Atmosphere Processes in the Earth System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The land-atmosphere interface is where humans primarily operate. Humans modify the land surface in many ways that influence the fluxes of energy and trace gases between land and atmosphere. Their emissions change the chemical composition of the atmosphere and anthropogenic aerosols change the radiative balance of the globe directly by scattering sunlight back to space and indirectly by changing the properties of clouds. Feedback loops among all these processes, land, the atmosphere, and biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and trace gases extend the human influence even further. Over the last decade, the importance of land-atmosphere processes and feedbacks in the Earth System has been shown on many levels and with multiple approaches, and a number of publications have shown the crucial role of the terrestrial ecosystems as regulators of climate [1-6]. Modellers have clearly shown the effect of missing land cover changes and other feedback processes and regional characteristics in current climate models and recommended actions to improve them [7-11]. Unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation have also been provided [12-14]. Land-cover change has been emphasized with model intercomparison projects that showed that realistic land-use representation was essential in land surface modelling [11, 15]. Crucially important tools in this research have been the networks of long-term flux stations and large-scale land-atmosphere observation platforms that are also beginning to combine remote sensing techniques with ground observations [16-20]. Human influence has always been an important part of land-atmosphere science but in order to respond to the new challenges of global sustainability, closer ties with social science and economics groups will be necessary to produce realistic estimates of land use and anthropogenic emissions by analysing future population increase, migration patterns, food production allocation, land management practices, energy production, industrial development, and urbanization. Emphasis should be placed on, for instance, new observation networks incorporating remote sensing techniques with ground-based observations; the role of land-cover changes in modulating carbon, nitrogen, and hydrological cycles and, consequently, atmospheric chemistry, aerosol dynamics, and climate; regional (high-latitude) processes and their influence on global simulations; and interactions among anthropogenic and biogenic aerosols, clouds, and climate. 1. Ciais Ph 2005 Nature 2. Kulmala M et al 2004 Atmos Chem Phys 3. Philippon N et al 2005 J Geophys Res 4. Arneth A et al 2010a Nature Geoscience 5. Ganzeveld L et al 2010 J Geophys Res 6. Teuling A et al. 2010 Nature Geoscience 7. Arneth A et al 2010b Biogeosciences 8. Bonan GB et al. 2011 J Geophys Res 9. Davin EL and Seneviratne SI 2011 Biogeosciences 10. Pitman AJ et al 2011 Int J Clim 11. de Noblet-Ducoudré N et al 2012 J Clim 12. Rosenfeld D et al. 2008 Science 13. Stevens B and Feingold G 2009 Nature 14. Li Z et al 2011 Nature Geoscience 15. Pitman AJ et al 2009 Geophys Res Let 16. Baldocchi DD et al. 2005 Int J Biomet 17. Hari P et al 2009 Bor Env Res 18. Guenther A et al 2011 Bor Env Res 19. de Leeuw G et al. 2011 Biogeosciences 20. Jung M et al 2011 J Geophys Res

Suni, T.; Kulmala, M. T.; Guenther, A. B.

2012-12-01

364

The Electromagnetically Equivalent Complex Network Modeling of Compact Seismo-Climatic Processes for the Complete Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns itself with modeling both the seismicity and climate related geo-data as the self-optimization process of an electromagnetically equivalent complex network and developing less accurate but fast models. There are maps established between the parameter spaces of the geo-data and the characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent system models. The temporal variations of the geo-data are correlated to the self-optimizing the specific characteristics of the electromagnetically equivalent complex systems in the models will be discussed in this paper. The relationships said here give the possibility of predicting the geo-data. Using the inverses of the mapping said above generates the evaluations giving the predictability conditions involving some certain restrictions. The crustal structures are considered as a complex network of distributed circuits; i.e., systems involving slot antenna arrays, open waveguides, cavities, transmission strip lines, attenuators, frequency converters, dividers, couplings, etc. in the electromagnetically equivalent complex system model (EECSM) [1]-[2]. The variations at the geo-data related to the geo and/or climatic data alter the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network explained above. The mapping said in previous paragraph is based on the transformations among both the temporal and the spatial variations of both geo and/or climatic data and the electromagnetic characteristics of the distributed complex network; i.e., phase velocity, attenuation factor, phase constant, input impedance, output impedance, relaxation factor, etc. The Finite Difference Time Domain method is used at the evaluations. The temporal variations at the mapping of EECSM at specific locations extract the mechanisms explaining the relationships among the characteristics of the distributed complex network and seismic and/or climatic phenomena at future. The inversion of the mapping exploits a fine model at predicting the natural iterations of the geo-data at future on both the region under the observation and some locations non-related to the observation region either geologically or seismically or climatically or phenomenologically relating to the earth. The inversion processes from the electromagnetically equivalent complex system models, which are called EECSMs in short, will be discussed in this paper [1] - [5]. The fine model of 13D-hypersurface is generated by using the geophysical EQ data set. The coarse model of 10D-hypersurface is generated by using the data set of waveforms of electromagnetic quantities. The method is applied to both seismic and climatic phenomena at the Marmara Sea region and useful extractions for the prediction of both whether and seismicity are given. 2 References [1] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU 2008. [3] T. Sengor, "On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," Helsinki Univ. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor, "The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

Sengor, T.

2009-04-01

365

Art Therapy and the Brain: An Attempt to Understand the Underlying Processes of Art Expression in Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of new techniques in brain imaging has expanded the understanding of the different functions and structures of the brain involved in information processing. This paper presents the main areas and functions activated in emotional states, the formation of memories, and the processing of motor, visual, and somatosensory information.…

Lusebrink, Vija B.

2004-01-01

366

An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

Dawson, Vaille

2007-01-01

367

A Laboratory Search for the Carrier Molecules of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands; Rare Earths and the Neutron Capture Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identity of the carrier molecules of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) is the most durable mystery of spectroscopic astronomy. The DIBs comprise over 400 mostly broad, weak absorption features observed along many lines of sight throughout the Milky Way. Though large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be the source of the DIBs, no definitive matches have yet been made to laboratory PAH spectra. The Diffuse Interstellar Band Synchrotron Radiation Carrier Hunt (DIBSyRCH) experiment has been built at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) to test this hypothesis by conducting a spectroscopic survey of a broad range of low-temperature, gas phase PAH molecules and ions. The key elements of this experiment are the synchrotron radiation continuum from the SRC White Light beamline, a custom echelle spectrograph and the Cryogenic Circulating Advective Multi-Pass (CCAMP) absorption cell. The development and results of this experiment are described in detail. Recent abundance determinations of heavy n(eutron)-capture elements in very old, very metal-poor Galactic halostars have yielded new insights on the roles of the r(apid)- and s(low)-processes in the initial burst of Galactic nucleosynthesis. The Rare Earth (RE) elements are an important part of such efforts. The results of this ongoing work are reshaping our understanding of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Absolute atomic transition probabilities are necessary for quantitative spectroscopy in astronomy and applied fields such as lighting. I performed lifetime measurements, accurate to +/-5%, for 8 even parity and 72 odd parity levels of singly ionized erbium. These radiative lifetimes were used to determine absolute transition probabilities for 418 lines of Er II, enabling new Er abundance measurements for the sun and 5 r-process rich, metal poor stars. I performed absorption experiments using synchrotron radiation to assess the impact of possible unobserved infrared branches on transition probabilities in neutral neodymium. I began an ongoing investigation of infrared absorption oscillator strength of singly ionized cerium in support of the APOGEE collaboration, a part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

Stockett, Mark H.

368

Testbed for development of a DSP-based signal processing subsystem for an Earth-orbiting radar scatterometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future scatterometer instruments. Construction of the testbed also facilitated identification of an appropriate software development environment and the skills mix necessary to perform the work.

Clark, Douglas J.; Lux, James P.; Shirbacheh, Mike

2002-01-01

369

Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early Precambrian (Archean, Early Paleoproterozoic) tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth was rather different from the Phanerozoic: the major features then were huge granite-greenstone terranes (GGTs) and their separating granulite belts; mantle melts were derived from a depleted source. The GGTs consisting of greenstone belts with komatiite-basaltic magmatism in Archean, "submerged" in granite gneiss matrix, probably, strong reworked primordial sialic crust, and by siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) in early Paleoproterozoic. GGTs were areas of extension, uplifting and denudation, whereas the granulite belts were dominated by compression, sinking and sedimentation. Generally, the Early Precambrian geological pattern was rather different from the modern plate tectonics and can be described in plumetectonics terms. A drastic change of the tectonomagamtic and ecology processes on it's surface occurred at ca. 2.3-2.0 Ga: instead of high-Mg magmas appeared geochemical enriched Fe-Ti pucrites and basalts, and the plume tectonic was changed by plate tectonics, which is still active now, as well as ecologic situation on the surface. Since that time the primordial sialic continental crust has been gradually replaced by the secondary basaltic oceanic crust. Systematic consumption of the ancient crust in subduction zones obviously started at ~2 Ga and led to gradually replacing it by the secondary mafic (oceanic) crust. The crustal materials has stored in the "slab cemeteries", revealed in the mantle by seismic tomography. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Moon began4.4-4.0 Ga in lunar highlands with low-Ti magnesium suite, analogous to the terrestrial Paleoproterozoic SHMS. Cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes, close to that on the Earth, happed on the Moon ~3.9 Ga to form large depressions of lunar maria with thinned crust and vast basaltic volcanism with signatures of plume magmatism (high-Ti basalts). The lunar maria were, probably, specific analogues of Earth's oceans. On Venus and Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basal

Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

2009-04-01

370

The Grieving Process in Children: Strategies for Understanding, Educating, and Reconciling Children's Perceptions of Death.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of how young children understand death, and offers concrete strategies for talking to children about death and suggestions for teachers about how to help children of various ages through grief and mourning. Highlights developmental differences in four components of children's understanding of death: irreversibility, finality,…

Willis, Clarissa A.

2002-01-01

371

An Information Processing Analysis of the Function of Conceptual Understanding in the Learning of Arithmetic Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children learn arithmetic procedures by rote, rather than by constructing them with an understanding of numbers. Rote learning produces lack of flexibility, nonsensical errors, and other difficulties. Proposed is a theory of conceptual understanding and its role in learning and executing arithmetic procedures. The basic hypothesis is that…

Ohlsson, Stellan; Rees, Ernest

372

Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help…

Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

2012-01-01

373

Constraining land carbon cycle process understanding with observations of atmospheric CO2 variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate our understanding of the land biospheric carbon cycle by benchmarking a model and its variants to atmospheric CO2 observations and to an atmospheric CO2 inversion. Though the seasonal cycle in CO2 observations is well simulated by the model (RMSE/standard deviation of observations <0.5 at most sites north of 15N and <1 for Southern Hemisphere sites) different model setups suggest that the CO2 seasonal cycle provides some constraint on gross photosynthesis, respiration, and fire fluxes revealed in the amplitude and phase at northern latitude sites. CarbonTracker inversions (CT) and model show similar phasing of the seasonal fluxes but agreement in the amplitude varies by region. We also evaluate interannual variability (IAV) in the measured atmospheric CO2 which, in contrast to the seasonal cycle, is not well represented by the model. We estimate the contributions of biospheric and fire fluxes, and atmospheric transport variability to explaining observed variability in measured CO2. Comparisons with CT show that modeled IAV has some correspondence to the inversion results >40N though fluxes match poorly at regional to continental scales. Regional and global fire emissions are strongly correlated with variability observed at northern flask sample sites and in the global atmospheric CO2 growth rate though in the latter case fire emissions anomalies are not large enough to account fully for the observed variability. We discuss remaining unexplained variability in CO2 observations in terms of the representation of fluxes by the model. This work also demonstrates the limitations of the current network of CO2 observations and the potential of new denser surface measurements and space based column measurements for constraining carbon cycle processes in models.

Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, F.; Ivanoff, A.

2013-12-01

374

Building an understanding of water use innovation adoption processes through farmer-driven experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smallholder farmers in Southern Africa are faced with the challenge of securing their livelihoods within the context of a wide variety of biophysical and socio-economic constraints. Agriculture is inherently risky, particularly in regions prone to drought or dry spells, and risk-averse farmers may be viewed by researchers or extension agents as reluctant to invest in agricultural innovations that have potential to improve their livelihoods. However, farmers themselves are more interested in personal livelihood security than any other stakeholder and it is the farmers’ perceptions of needs, investment options and risks that drive their decision-making process. A holistic approach to agricultural innovation development and extension is needed to address both socio-economic and biophysical dynamics that influence adoption and dissemination of innovations. This paper, presents a methodology for involving farmers from the Bergville district of South Africa in the process of innovation development through facilitation of farmer-driven gardening experiments. Facilitating farmer-driven experimentation allows farmers to methodically assess the value of innovations they choose to study while providing researchers with a venue for learning about socio-economic as well as biophysical influences on farmers’ decisions. With this knowledge, researchers can focus on developing innovations that are socially and economically appropriate and therefore, more readily adoptable. The participatory process gave farmers the tools they needed to make informed decisions through critical thinking and analysis and improved their confidence in explaining the function of innovations to others. Researchers were able to use farmers’ manually collected data and observations to supplement laboratory generated and electronically recorded information about soil water dynamics to understand water balances associated with different garden bed designs, and to investigate whether trench beds, drip irrigation and water harvesting with run-on ditches tended to improve water use efficiency. Wetting front detectors (WFD) were shown to have some potential as management tools for farmers, provided certain limitations are addressed, while drip irrigation was found to be impractical because the available drip kits were prone to malfunction and farmers believed they did not provide enough water to the plants. Farmers participating in a series of monthly, hands-on workshops that encouraged individual experimentation tended to adopt and sustain use of many introduced garden innovations. Farmers who were also seriously involved in a formalized research and experimentation process at their own homesteads became more proficient with gardening systems in general, through continual trial-and-error comparisons and making decisions based on observations, than those who were not involved. This suggests that the practice of on-going experimentation, once established, reaches beyond the limits of facilitation by researchers or extension agents, into the realm of sustainable change and livelihood improvement through adoption, adaptation and dissemination of agricultural innovations.

Sturdy, Jody D.; Jewitt, Graham P. W.; Lorentz, Simon A.

375

Effect of Processing on Permanent Magnet Materials Containing Rare-Earth Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is established that the new rare-earth permanent magnet alloys containing copper show precipitation effects during heat treatment. Alloys drastically quenched from a high temperature had a comparatively low value of coercive force which increased substantially upon aging at a lower temperature. Also, upon aging, it was observed optically that a precipitate formed. These effects permit considerable latitude in the

E. A. Nesbitt; G. Y. Chin; R. C. Sherwood; J. H. Wernick

1969-01-01

376

or more than 50 years, NOAA has operated earth-observing satellites and collected, processed, and  

E-print Network

, and distributed the data from these satellites to provide life-saving weather forecasts, measure ocean resilient to the increasing vulnerabilities to extreme weather. Sentinels in the Sky To help us become. These satellites, orbiting together at the same rate as the Earth's rotation, beam down images and other

377

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

378

Spaceship Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

Science Netlinks;

2002-09-10

379

Rare-earth-doped materials with application to optical signal processing, quantum information science, and medical imaging technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique spectroscopic properties of isolated rare earth ions in solids offer optical linewidths rivaling those of trapped single atoms and enable a variety of recent applications. We design rare-earth-doped crystals, ceramics, and fibers with persistent or transient "spectral hole" recording properties for applications including high-bandwidth optical signal processing where light and our solids replace the high-bandwidth portion of the electronics; quantum cryptography and information science including the goal of storage and recall of single photons; and medical imaging technology for the 700-900 nm therapeutic window. Ease of optically manipulating rare-earth ions in solids enables capturing complex spectral information in 105 to 108 frequency bins. Combining spatial holography and spectral hole burning provides a capability for processing high-bandwidth RF and optical signals with sub-MHz spectral resolution and bandwidths of tens to hundreds of GHz for applications including range-Doppler radar and high bandwidth RF spectral analysis. Simply stated, one can think of these crystals as holographic recording media capable of distinguishing up to 108 different colors. Ultra-narrow spectral holes also serve as a vibration-insensitive sub-kHz frequency reference for laser frequency stabilization to a part in 1013 over tens of milliseconds. The unusual properties and applications of spectral hole burning of rare earth ions in optical materials are reviewed. Experimental results on the promising Tm3+:LiNbO3 material system are presented and discussed for medical imaging applications. Finally, a new application of these materials as dynamic optical filters for laser noise suppression is discussed along with experimental demonstrations and theoretical modeling of the process.

Cone, R. L.; Thiel, C. W.; Sun, Y.; Böttger, Thomas; Macfarlane, R. M.

2012-02-01

380

Simulating the Fate of an Earth-like Planet Inclined to the Ecliptic Plane to Improve Understanding of Planetary System Formation  

E-print Network

its dynamics will continue to vary over time. For the Sun-Earth-Jupiter system simulated in this paper (run over 119,000 years), orbits inclined to the ecliptic plane greater than 50° became unstable, with Earth ejection after 62,000 years (85...

Nichols, Kristin

2013-02-01

381

Earth: Earth Science and Health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

Maynard, Nancy G.

2001-01-01

382

The process of design : a tool in the exploration and understanding of place  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the understanding and representation of an urban fabric. This document is not a historical essay nor a thematical critique of the design of an architectural form but an analysis and an attempt to ...

Colom Alejandro

1996-01-01

383

Students' Understanding of Large Numbers as a Key Factor in Their Understanding of Geologic Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of geologic time is comprised of 2 facets. Events in Earth's history can be placed in relative and absolute temporal succession on a vast timescale. Rates of geologic processes vary widely, and some occur over time periods well outside human experience. Several factors likely contribute to an understanding of geologic time, one of…

Cheek, Kim A.

2012-01-01

384

Earth System History  

NSF Publications Database

... a comprehensive understanding of Earth's changing climate with regard to forcing mechanisms ... periods of rapid changes in climate and ecosystems, changes in ocean and atmospheric composition and ...

385

Excited states structure and processes: Understanding organic light-emitting diodes at the molecular level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo- or electro-excited states in polyatomic molecules, aggregates, and conjugated polymers are at the center of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These can decay radiatively or non-radiatively, determining the luminescence quantum efficiency of molecular materials. According to Kasha’s rule, light-emission is dictated by the lowest-lying excited state. For conjugated polymers, the electron correlation effect can lead the lowest-lying excited state to the even-parity 2Ag state which is non-emissive. To understand the nature of the low-lying excited state structure, we developed the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) theory and its symmetrization scheme for quantum chemistry applied to calculate the excited states structure. We found there are three types of 1Bu/2Ag crossover behaviors: with electron correlation strength U, with bond length alternation, and with conjugation length. These directly influence the light-emitting property. For the electro-excitation, carriers (electron and hole) are injected independently, forming both singlet and triplet excited bound states with statistically 25% and 75% portions, respectively. We found that the exciton formation rate can depend on spin manifold, and for conjugated polymers, the singlet exciton can have larger formation rate leading to the internal electroluminescence quantum efficiency larger than the 25% spin statistical limit. It is originated from the interchain electron correlation as well as intrachain lattice relaxation. For the dipole allowed emissive state, the radiative decay process via either spontaneous emission or stimulated emission can be computed from electronic structure plus vibronic couplings. The challenging issue lies in the non-radiative decay via non-adiabatic coupling and/or spin-orbit coupling. We developed a unified correlation function formalism for the excited state radiative and non-radiative decay rates. We emphasized the low-frequency mode mixing (Duschinsky rotation) effect on the non-radiative decay. We further combined the non-adiabatic coupling and spin-orbit coupling for the triplet state decay (phosphorescence) quantum efficiency. All the formalisms have been developed analytically, which have been applied to optical spectroscopy, aggregation-induced emission phenomena, and polymer photovoltaic property.

Shuai, Zhigang; Peng, Qian

2014-04-01

386

The contribution of ice core studies to the understanding of environmental processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained from the studies of polar ice cores supplement the records available from tree rings, peat bogs, lake and ocean sediments, and provide a relatively new data source to understand processes of the complex climatic and global cycles. The main sources of ice core data are stable and radioactive isotopes, soluble and particulate matter, and the composition of the gases occluded in the ice. Such information can be used to investigate the history and the variability of carbon dioxide and the climate system. Temperature and other climatic data obtained from ?18O measurements of polar ice cores can be correlated with similar information obtained from carbonate lake sediments. Comparison of the ?18O profiles of the Dye 3 ice core and central European lake sediments show distinct similarities such as the identification of the Older Dryas-Bolling/Allerød-Younger Dryas-Preboreal sequence. Measurements of the cosmic ray produced isotope 10Be on only 1 kg polar ice samples are possible by accelerator mass spectrometry. The resulting data reveals the 11-year solar modulation cycle and the Maunder Minimum of solar activity from 1645 to 1745 AD. The 10Be concentration values for the Maunder Minimum are a factor 1.6 higher than the average for the past 800 years. Using a carbon cycle model these 10Be variations can be compared to the 14C variations found in tree rings. The relatively good correlation suggests a common origin of the 10Be and 14C fluctuations and serves as a check of carbon cycle models. During the Wisconsin stage all of the Dye 3 ice core parameters measured to date (?18O, CO2/air, SO4-, NO3-, Cl-, dust) show values fluctuating between two different boundary conditions. This suggests that the climate system existing at that time oscillated between a cold and a warm state, probably strongly influenced by different ocean circulations and ice cover. During the Wisconsin stage a cold system dominated; the transition to the Holocene is considered as the final transition to a warm state. Thereafter the boundary conditions did not allow the systems to switch back to a cold state.

Oeschger, H.

387

How Irreversible Heat Transport Processes Drive Earth's Interdependent Thermal, Structural, and Chemical Evolution Providing a Strongly Heterogeneous, Layered Mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because magmatism conveys radioactive isotopes plus latent heat rapidly upwards while advecting heat, this process links and controls the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth. We present evidence that the lower mantle-upper mantle boundary is a profound chemical discontinuity, leading to observed heterogeneities in the outermost layers that can be directly sampled, and construct an alternative view of Earth's internal workings. Earth's beginning involved cooling via explosive outgassing of substantial ice (mainly CO) buried with dust during accretion. High carbon content is expected from Solar abundances and ice in comets. Reaction of CO with metal provided a carbide-rich core while converting MgSiO3 to olivine via oxidizing reactions. Because thermodynamic law (and buoyancy of hot particles) indicates that primordial heat from gravitational segregation is neither large nor carried downwards, whereas differentiation forced radioactive elements upwards, formation of the core and lower mantle greatly cooled the Earth. Reference conductive geotherms, calculated using accurate and new thermal diffusivity data, require that heat-producing elements are sequestered above 670 km which limits convection to the upper mantle. These irreversible beginnings limit secular cooling to radioactive wind-down, permiting deduction of Earth's inventory of heat-producing elements from today's heat flux. Coupling our estimate for heat producing elements with meteoritic data indicates that Earth's oxide content has been underestimated. Density sorting segregated a Si-rich, peridotitic upper mantle from a refractory, oxide lower mantle with high Ca, Al and Ti contents, consistent with diamond inclusion mineralogy. Early and rapid differentiation means that internal temperatures have long been buffered by freezing of the inner core, allowing survival of crust as old as ca.4 Ga. Magmatism remains important. Melt escaping though stress-induced fractures in the rigid lithosphere imparts a lateral component and preferred direction to upper mantle circulation. Mid-ocean magma production over ca. 4 Ga has deposited a slab volume at 670 km that is equivalent to the transition zone, thereby continuing differentiation by creating a late-stage chemical discontinuity near 400 km. This ongoing process has generated the observed lateral and vertical heterogeneity above 670 km.

Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

2013-12-01

388

From Idea to Realization - Understanding the Compositional Processes of Electronic Musicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the compositional process of creating electronic music. 18 electronic musicians were interviewed with focus on discussing their compositional approach, how ideas were realized, and how musical tools were utilized throughout the process. Results show that the process changes signicantly from the beginning of the compositional process to the end. Freedom and control are not

Steven Gelineck; Stefania Seran

389

Rare earth metal salts as potential alternatives to Cr(VI) in the chlorate process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromate is today added to industrial chlorate electrolyte, where it forms a thin cathode film of chromium hydroxide that\\u000a hinders unwanted reduction of hypochlorite and chlorate. The aim of this study was to investigate rare earth metal (REM) ions\\u000a as an environmentally friendly alternative to the toxic chromate addition. Potential sweeps and iR-corrected polarisation\\u000a curves were recorded using rotating disc

J. GustavssonL; L. Nylén; A. Cornell

2010-01-01

390

The function of bleaching earths in the processing of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results presented in the literature, which attempt to elucidate the mechanisms by which triglyceride oils are bleached\\u000a by earths, are reviewed. The impact of this work and how the mechanistic proposals affect changes in oil properties are considered,\\u000a with particular emphasis on the needs of the palm oil processor. Important properties include color, metals and phosphorus\\u000a content and oxidative

D. A. Morgan; D. B. Shaw; M. J. Sidebottom; T. C. Soon; R. S. Taylor

1985-01-01

391

Process-based understanding of the morphological evolution of embayed beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Embayed beaches are well-known for the curvature of their shorelines and are often observed in states of dynamic or static equilibrium. These equilibrium states are typically assumed to be influenced by headland geometry, cellular circulation patterns, wave obliquity at the shoreline and diffraction in and around the shadow zone. A comprehensive understanding of the role of (i) wave forcing, (ii) environmental conditions and (iii) the geological setting in embayed beach evolution has not yet been established due to limited observations, scale effects in laboratory experiments and inherent limitations of one-line coastal models. The aim of this study is to highlight the effect of systematically varying (i), (ii) and (iii) and to synthesize the results. State-of-the-art 2DH morphological models are currently sufficiently advanced that they can be used to obtain greater insight into the interaction between hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes over large spatial and temporal scales. As such, morphodynamic simulations of the evolution of a schematic embayment from an initially straight beach under idealized wave forcing conditions were done. The beach lies between two headland structures and has a large, highly curved shadow zone. Simulations are typically run for 3 years for a bay width of 150 m. Wave forcing is varied between a mixture of time-invariant and time-varying cases. Environmental conditions are varied by changing sediment size, tidal amplitude and mean wave height. The geological setting is varied by changing the angle of obliquity of the waves and the bay width. Several wave climate variables influence the distribution of wave energy throughout the bay and in the shadow zone: wave direction, directional spreading and wave height. Diffraction is shown to be dominant only when the wave conditions are both narrow-banded and when the incoming waves are highly oblique. Nevertheless, time varying wave directions (as little as 6%) can account for shoreline curvature in the shadow zone. Changes in environmental conditions and geological setting generally affect the rate of development of the bay as well as the equilibrium size of the bay. For example: increased tidal amplitude enhances the size of the shadow zone due to modulation of the wave energy in this area, and wider bays require an exponentially larger period of time to attain equilibrium (~1200 years for a bay width of 600 m). For all simulations, changes in flow and transport patterns are noted as the bay develops and are shown to be consistently related to long-term, non-uniform shoreline cutback (beach rotation) which progressively weakens the residual long-shore current and sediment transport. Thus, the curvature of the shoreline is primarily a remnant of decaying erosion processes resulting from beach rotation. Therefore, from the wide range of simulations, a robust explanation of how embayed beaches attain their equilibrium planform shape can be given.

Daly, C. J.; Bryan, K. R.; Winter, C.

2013-12-01

392

Teachers as Researchers: Using Estuarine Processes to Learn and Teach Earth System Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One component of the University of New Hampshire's Transforming Earth System Science Education (TESSE) project provides a research immersion experience (RIE) for middle and high school science teachers. The chief goal of this component of the program is to provide teachers with authentic research experiences that will sharpen their research skills by providing guidance in designing projects and in the gathering and interpreting of data. This intensive research experience provides a springboard for approaching authentic research in the classroom. A subset of the teachers participating in the TESSE project, many of them second-year participants, enrolled in a course providing Research Techniques in the Earth System Sciences for Teachers (ESST-2). Estuaries provide an ideal teaching laboratory for emphasizing interactions between the components of the Earth system. Accordingly, the course was centered around an estuary cruise in which teacher participants took air and water samples, measured parameters in the water column, and took several sediment cores. Onshore, the teacher teams carried out follow-up work, including gas analyses in air samples, gas and trace metal content analyses in collected water samples, grain size and related sedimentalogical analyses of the core samples, and extractable metal contents from the cores. The research experience culminated in a poster presentation of the results. The participants will use this field trip-based model to bring authentic research into their classrooms. The ESST-2 teachers also plan to present their results at a regional Geoscience society meeting.

Johnson, J.; Varner, R. K.; Bryce, J.; Finkel, L.; Froburg, E.; Graham, K.; Hale, S. R.; von Damm, K.; Scientific Crew, T.

2008-12-01

393

Basic technologies of web services framework for research, discovery, and processing the disparate massive Earth observation data from heterogeneous sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both development and application of remote sensing involves a considerable expenditure of material and intellectual resources. Therefore, it is important to use high-tech means of distribution of remote sensing data and processing results in order to facilitate access for as much as possible number of researchers. It should be accompanied with creation of capabilities for potentially more thorough and comprehensive, i.e. ultimately deeper, acquisition and complex analysis of information about the state of Earth's natural resources. As well objective need in a higher degree of Earth observation (EO) data assimilation is set by conditions of satellite observations, in which the observed objects are uncontrolled state. Progress in addressing this problem is determined to a large extent by order of the distributed EO information system (IS) functioning. Namely, it is largely dependent on reducing the cost of communication processes (data transfer) between spatially distributed IS nodes and data users. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of data exchange processes is the creation of integrated EO IS optimized for running procedures of distributed data processing. The effective EO IS implementation should be based on specific software architecture.

Savorskiy, V.; Lupyan, E.; Balashov, I.; Burtsev, M.; Proshin, A.; Tolpin, V.; Ermakov, D.; Chernushich, A.; Panova, O.; Kuznetsov, O.; Vasilyev, V.

2014-04-01

394

Call for Papers Generations of Change: Understanding Post Socialism and Transition Processes  

E-print Network

include but are not limited to: Mobility and Migration: internal and international migration, commuter migration, labour migration, national integration processes, European integration processes, etc parties, revival of Socialist political concepts, "new patriotism", Human rights associations

Moeller, Ralf

395

Understanding the Zongo : processes of socio-spatial marginalization in Ghana  

E-print Network

The spatial processes of marginalization and ghettoization have been described, labeled, and theorized extensively in the United States and Europe, yet there has been little research dedicated to these processes in the ...

Williamson, Emily Anne

2014-01-01

396

Understanding ‘sensorimotor understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensorimotor theories understand perception to be a process of active, exploratory engagement with the environment, mediated\\u000a by the possession and exercise of a certain body of knowledge concerning sensorimotor dependencies. This paper aims to characterise\\u000a that exercise, and to show that it places constraints upon the content of sensorimotor knowledge itself. Sensorimotor mastery\\u000a is exercised when it is put to

Tom Roberts

2010-01-01

397

Invited Commentary: Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Pain Processing in Adolescents' Non-Suicidal Self-Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) is reported in 13-23% of adolescents and is an increasingly studied topic, there has been little investigation into the pathophysiology behind self-injury. This commentary examines recent research into pain and emotional distress to discuss implications for the manner we should understand, research, and…

Ballard, Elizabeth; Bosk, Abigail; Pao, Maryland

2010-01-01

398

Children's understanding of events and criminal justice processes in police programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television viewing may provide input to children's knowledge of crime and law enforcement, but little is known of how young viewers interpret such material. The study reported here investigates how children and adults represent the content of police programs, their understanding of the various scenes, their temporal organization and the various models of criminal justice. Using the script framework of

Jason Low; Kevin Durkin

1997-01-01

399

Understanding Decimal Proportions: Discrete Representations, Parallel Access, and Privileged Processing of Zero  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results…

Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R.

2013-01-01

400

The reorganization of higher education through information technology: understanding the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to understand the multidimensional effects of information technology on the organizational structure of higher education institutions. It is well documented that universities and colleges are spending millions of dollars on purchasing technology for their campuses (Green, 1991). Hawkins, 1989, 1991, and Penrod and Doliner, 1991 cite examples that the explosion of technology and its

Sheri L. Prupis

1992-01-01

401

Understanding and Improving Cloud and Radiation Processes Using YearLong Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The representation of subgrid cloud variability and its impact on radiation has been a challenge in general circulation model (GCM) simulations. To improve the representation of cloud and radiative variability and their interactions within a GCM grid, it is essential to understand subgrid cloud structures and their statistics based on long-term cloud and radiation data for various climate regions. In

2010-01-01

402

Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models  

PubMed Central

There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

2014-01-01

403

Using Process Drama to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Science and Religion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a…

Pongsophon, Pongprapan

2010-01-01

404

Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further decrease bed-material supply by an unknown amount because they limit bank erosion and entrainment of stored sediment. The rivers, geomorphic floodplain, and vegetation within the study area have changed noticeably in response to the alterations in floods and coarse sediment and wood transport. Widespread decreases have occurred in the rates of meander migration and avulsions and the number and diversity of landforms such as gravel bars, islands, and side channels. Dynamic and, in some cases, multi-thread river segments have become stable, single-thread channels. Preliminary observations suggest that forest area has increased within the active channel, further reducing the area of unvegetated gravel bars. Alterations to floods and sediment transport and ongoing channel, floodplain, and vegetation responses result in a modern Willamette River Basin. Here, the floodplain influenced by the modern flow and sediment regimes, or the functional floodplain, is narrower and inset with the broader and older geomorphic floodplain. The functional floodplain is flanked by higher elevation relict floodplain features that are no longer inundated by modern floods. The corridor of present- day active channel surfaces is narrower, enabling riparian vegetation to establish on formerly active gravel bar surfaces. The modern Willamette River Basin with its fundamental changes in the flood, sediment transport, and large wood regimes has implications for future habitat conditions. System-wide future trends probably include narrower floodplains and a lower diversity of landforms and habitats along the Willamette River and its major tributaries compared to historical patterns and today. Furthermore, specific conditions and future trends will probably vary between geologically stable, anthropogenically stable, and dynamic reaches. The middle and lower segments of the Willamette River are geologically stable, whereas the South Santiam and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers were historically dynamic, but are now largely stable in response to flow regulation and revetment construction. The upper Willa

Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

2013-01-01

405

A strategy for Earth science from space in the 1980s. Part 1: Solid earth and oceans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report develops a ten-year science strategy for investigating the solid earth and dynamics of world oceans from Earth orbit. The strategy begins from the premise that earth studies have proceeded to the point where further advances in understanding Earth processes must be based on a global perspective and that the U.S. is technically ready to begin a global study approach from Earth orbit. The major areas of study and their fundamental problems are identified. The strategy defines the primary science objectives to be addressed and the essential measurements and precision to achieve them.

1982-01-01

406

The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

2010-01-01

407

Why Is Evolution Important? The discovery and understanding of the processes of evolution represent one of the most  

E-print Network

#12;Why Is Evolution Important? The discovery and understanding of the processes of evolution represent one of the most powerful achievements in the history of science. Evolution successfully explains education in our schools is being undermined by efforts to introduce non-scientific concepts about evolution

Lanterman, Aaron

408

Understanding Metal Oxide Surfaces at the Atomic Scale: STM Investigations of Bulk-defect Dependent Surface Processes  

E-print Network

for elemental semiconductors or metals. Local imperfections such as point or line defects, step edges focuses on two aspects of bulk-dependent processes, the high-temperature re-oxidation of reduced singleUnderstanding Metal Oxide Surfaces at the Atomic Scale: STM Investigations of Bulk-defect Dependent

Diebold, Ulrike

409

UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES IN eGOVERNMENT: INTEGRATING HIGHER EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING IN AN INTERNATIONAL BLENDED LEARNING PROGRAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

eGovernment seems to be a popular answer to the tough demands for change on the public administration of today. But eGovernment cannot be efficiently and effectively be integrated into the public institution, if there is no understanding of the underlying processes and the ways of enhancing them with modern Information and Communication Technologies. Hence, public administration institutions have a high

Steffen Gilge; Eric Schoop; Dalia Kriksciuniene; Michael Breidung

410

Advances in understanding and parameterization of small-scale physical processes in the marine Arctic climate system: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate system includes numerous highly interactive small-scale physical processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. During and since the International Polar Year 2007-2008, significant advances have been made in understanding these processes. Here these advances are reviewed, synthesized and discussed. In atmospheric physics, the primary advances have been in cloud physics, radiative transfer, mesoscale cyclones, coastal and fjordic processes, as well as in boundary-layer processes and surface fluxes. In sea ice and its snow cover, advances have been made in understanding of the surface albedo and its relationships with snow properties, the internal structure of sea ice, the heat and salt transfer in ice, the formation of super-imposed ice and snow ice, and the small-scale dynamics of sea ice. In the ocean, significant advances have been related to exchange processes at the ice-ocean interface, diapycnal mixing, tidal currents and diurnal resonance. Despite this recent progress, some of these small-scale physical processes are still not sufficiently understood: these include wave-turbulence interactions in the atmosphere and ocean, the exchange of heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface, and the mechanical weakening of sea ice. Many other processes are reasonably well understood as stand-alone processes but challenge is to understand their interactions with, and impacts and feedbacks on, other processes. Uncertainty in the parameterization of small-scale processes continues to be among the largest challenges facing climate modeling, and nowhere is this more true than in the Arctic. Further improvements in parameterization require new year-round field campaigns on the Arctic sea ice, closely combined with satellite remote sensing studies and numerical model experiments.

Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Renfrew, I. A.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernström, M.; Nygård, T.; Fer, I.; Lüpkes, C.; Notz, D.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Cheng, B.; Birnbaum, G.; Gerland, S.; Chechin, D.; Gascard, J. C.

2013-12-01

411

Advances in understanding and parameterization of small-scale physical processes in the marine Arctic climate system: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate system includes numerous highly interactive small-scale physical processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. During and since the International Polar Year 2007-2009, significant advances have been made in understanding these processes. Here, these recent advances are reviewed, synthesized, and discussed. In atmospheric physics, the primary advances have been in cloud physics, radiative transfer, mesoscale cyclones, coastal, and fjordic processes as well as in boundary layer processes and surface fluxes. In sea ice and its snow cover, advances have been made in understanding of the surface albedo and its relationships with snow properties, the internal structure of sea ice, the heat and salt transfer in ice, the formation of superimposed ice and snow ice, and the small-scale dynamics of sea ice. For the ocean, significant advances have been related to exchange processes at the ice-ocean interface, diapycnal mixing, double-diffusive convection, tidal currents and diurnal resonance. Despite this recent progress, some of these small-scale physical processes are still not sufficiently understood: these include wave-turbulence interactions in the atmosphere and ocean, the exchange of heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface, and the mechanical weakening of sea ice. Many other processes are reasonably well understood as stand-alone processes but the challenge is to understand their interactions with and impacts and feedbacks on other processes. Uncertainty in the parameterization of small-scale processes continues to be among the greatest challenges facing climate modelling, particularly in high latitudes. Further improvements in parameterization require new year-round field campaigns on the Arctic sea ice, closely combined with satellite remote sensing studies and numerical model experiments.

Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Fer, I.; Renfrew, I. A.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernström, M.; Lüpkes, C.; Nygård, T.; Notz, D.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Cheng, B.; Birnbaum, G.; Gerland, S.; Chechin, D.; Gascard, J. C.

2014-09-01

412

Investigating Earth Changes-Looking at Weathering and Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this classroom activity students will learn about changes that occur in the earth's surface by investigating the process of weathering and erosion. Through interactive lectures and experiments students will understand how weathering and erosion take place and change the earth.

Gutknecht, Stafford

413

Earth-based radar and LRO Diviner constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many large craters on the lunar nearside show radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) signatures consistent with the presence of blocky ejecta blankets, to distances of 0.5 to 1.5 crater radii. However, most of these surfaces show very low surface rock concentration values and only limited enhancements in regolith temperatures calculated from Diviner nighttime infrared observations. Because the radar signal is integrated over the radar penetration depth (up to several meters), but the Diviner signal is sensitive only to rocks within the upper meter of the surface, this indicates that ejecta blocks on the surface and in the shallow subsurface are quickly removed by continued bombardment. Deeper subsurface rocks, which are clearly evident in radar CPR maps but are covered by a sufficiently thick layer of thermally insulating regolith material to render them invisible to Diviner, persist for much longer. By matching the results of one-dimensional thermal models to Diviner nighttime temperatures, we can constrain the thermophysical properties of the upper 1 meter of regolith. We find that Diviner nighttime cooling curves are best fit by a density profile that varies exponentially with depth, consistent with a mixture of rocks and regolith fines, with increasing rock content with depth. Using this density profile together with the surface rock abundance, we can estimate the excess rock mass represented by rocks on the surface and within the upper meter of regolith for individual craters. We find that for craters of known age younger than ~1.7Ga, a robust correlation exists between ejecta mass and crater age, which yields the first observational estimate of the rate of lunar ejecta processing. Our results show that crater ejecta are initially removed very quickly (perhaps up to ~1cm / m.y.), with the rate slowing over a short period of time to less than 1 mm / m.y., as the number of blocks on the surface decreases and the volume of protective regolith material increases, shielding subsurface rocks from the effects of bombardment. In principle, this relationship could be used to constrain the ages of other young lunar craters for which age dating by other means (e.g., counting craters on the continuous ejecta) is not possible. This is important because it has the potential to constrain the recent impactor flux, which in turn bears on our understanding of the evolution of the asteroid belt.

Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hayne, Paul O.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Allen, Carlton

2013-04-01

414

Thermal Conduction - A Tool for Exploring Geological Processes on the Earth and Other Bodies in our Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process, one which controls many aspects of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of bodies within our solar system. Using transmission of thermal energy through the crust of the Earth as an initial, physically intuitive conceptual model, the module's background material will (a) help students deduce the thermal conduction equation-a second order differential which can be constructed from first principles, (b) evaluate volume-adjusted conduction incorporating internal heat generation and temperature change, and (c) explore special forms of the equation such as steady state conduction and thermal diffusion.

Grosfils, Eric

415

Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.  

PubMed Central

We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739

Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.

1997-01-01

416

Designating marine protected areas in the United States and Ecuador: understanding the decision-making process  

E-print Network

developed my interest in the protection of marine and coastal habitats. For the information used in this thesis I am grateful to various persons. For my understanding of the Flower Gardens story, I thank the staff of the Marine and Estuarine Management... designed to protect the public, i. e. public resources, by setting the conditions under which various private activities can and cannot take place. Ripley (1985) also divides the flow of policy into four stages: (1) agenda- setting, (2) formulation...

Kendrick, Amrit Work

2012-06-07

417

Chlorine Partitioning Between Mantle and Core: Implications for Early Earth Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ratio of chlorine in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) to primitive carbonaceous chondrites (or solar abundance) is an order of magnitude below that expected for a moderately volatile element. Given that crustal and mantle concentrations of Cl are fairly well constrained, the enormous Cl depletion can be attributed to any of three possible explanations: 1) a missing sink on Earth, 2) a ~500K overestimate of the 50% condensation temperature of Cl from the solar nebula or 3) an early volatile loss of Cl during Earth formation. Accepting the Cl concentrations of mantle and crust, McDonough (Treatise Geochem. 2003) proposed a core sink, with a Cl concentration of 200 ppm. We tested this hypothesis by conducting high pressure Cl partitioning experiments. Two experiments, one (A503) with equal proportions of primitive basalt (10.4 wt% MgO, Mg# 67) and pure Fe with 0.4 wt% FeCl2, and the second (A505) with equal proportions of basalt and Fe95.5S4.5 with 1.56 wt% FeCl2, were run in graphite capsules at 5 GPa and 1800° C in a Walker-style multianvil press. Both experiments produced homogeneous quenched silicate and metallic liquid. Average Cl contents in the quenched silicate melts were 5300±700 ppm for A503 and 10500±1000 ppm for A505 (2?, n=6). Cl conten