Sample records for understanding earth processes

  1. Project EARTH-13-DP1: Understanding biological processes controlling metal isotopes in the oceans

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-13-DP1: Understanding biological processes controlling metal isotopes in the oceans) on different plankton, diatoms, and other biological materials. Techniques using isotopic labelling of metals onto surfaces may also lead to isotopic fractionation, leading to isotopic shifts in the remaining

  2. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of teacher confidence when teaching global change content will continue to drive UGC resource development as the site expands in the future.

  3. Rare earth element patterns: A tool for understanding processes in remediation of acid mine drainage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Merten; Jörn Geletneky; Hans Bergmann; Götz Haferburg; Erika Kothe; Georg Büchel

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) was applied to study processes in remediation of acid mine drainage (AMD). The concentration of total REE is up to 3mgl?1 in AMD. Normalization of REE concentrations in seepage and surface waters to Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) shows strong enrichment of heavy REE. For the case of the studied AMD REE patterns are

  4. Understanding Venus to understand the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

  5. Understanding Earth's Changes Over Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students compare the magnitude of geologic time with spans of time in a person's lifetime, which is often difficult for many students. They use a long paper strip and a reasonable scale to represent visually all of geologic time, including significant events in the development of life on earth as well as recent human events. This activity provides students with an opportunity to develop understandings of the age of the earth compared to the various events in the history of earth systems. The site contains a list of materials and all of the information required to conduct this activity.

  6. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and…

  7. Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

  8. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John at the global scale, whether by agriculture or by more direct earth-moving operations (e.g. Hooke, 2000

  9. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1790 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  10. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009) Copyright © 2009 John.1764 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH SURFACE Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  11. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John , Abu Saleh Khan8 and A.K.M. Zeaul Hoque8 1 School of Earth Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus OH environments. First, repeat-pass interferometric SAR measurements from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite

  12. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010)

    E-print Network

    Lancaster, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2010) Copyright © 2010 John. Jefferson,1 * G.E. Grant,2 S.L. Lewis3 and S.T. Lancaster3 1 Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201 University City

  13. Visible Earth: Coastal Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin Ward

    This web page is part of Visible Earth, the National Atmospheric and Space Agency (NASA) web site, a searchable directory of images, visualizations, and animations of the Earth. Subtopics of Oceans: Coastal Processes are: Barrier Islands, Coral Reefs, Deltas, Estuaries, Fjords, Lagoons, Sea Level Rise, Sea Surface Height, Sediment Transport, Sedimentation, and Shoreline Displacement. At the time of cataloging, most items were images. For the Advanced search, users may search by Sensor (usually a satellite), Location, Other terms, or by Dates; they may also set retrieval for animations only. This database solicits additional material from users.

  14. Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shirley Watt Ireton

    2003-01-01

    It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

  15. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft, platform, and operations technologies are required to enable consistent long-term collection of data through increased system reliability and operations effectiveness. Development of automation technologies for ground-based planning and operations systems would enable more flexible spacecraft and inter-spacecraft operations. This paper summarizes the effort to identify these technology requirements.

  16. EAS 2600: EARTH PROCESSES Spring, 2010

    E-print Network

    Black, Robert X.

    , it is important that you understand the processes that shape the landscape, cause natural hazards, influence climate change, and produce natural resources. Knowledge of how the Earth works can also help you in your daily lives. For example, it is useful to be able to evaluate potential geologic hazards when buying

  17. Understanding Process Capability Indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Steiner; Bovas Abraham; Jock MacKay

    this article is answer such questions by providing an illustration of theimportant issues related to capability indices. In addition, this article makes suggestions regardingthe process information necessary to make appropriate use of capability indices. In the nextsection, the question of which capability index to use is addressed by contrasting the variouscommon indices. It is shown that the index P pk

  18. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 15071521 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1507­1521 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  19. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 11261135 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Briner, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1126­1135 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  20. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 11081120 (2009)

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1108­1120 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  1. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 13931407 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Canberra, University of

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 1393­1407 (2009) Copyright Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  2. Discovering and measuring a layered Earth: A foundational laboratory for developing students' understanding of Earth's interior structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; Braile, L. W.; Olds, S. E.; Taber, J.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysics research is continuously revealing new insights about Earth’s interior structure. Before students can grasp theses new complexities, they first must internalize the 1st order layered structure of Earth and comprehend how seismology contributes to the development of such models. Earth structure is of course covered in most introductory geoscience courses, though all too often instruction of this content is limited to didactic methods that make little effort to inspire or engage the minds of students. In the process, students are expected to blindly accept our understanding of the unseen and abstract. Thus, it is not surprising then that many students can draw a layered Earth diagram, yet not know that knowledge of Earth’s interior is based on information from earthquakes. Cognitive learning theory would suggest that what has been missing from instruction of Earth structure is a feasible method to present students with seismic evidence in a manner that allows students to become minds-on with the content; discovering or dispelling the presence of a layered Earth for themselves. Recent advances in serving seismic data to a non-seismologist audience have made the development of such laboratory investigations possible. In this exercise students use an inquiry approach to examine seismic evidence and determine that the Earth cannot have a homogeneous composition. Further they use the data to estimate the dimensions of Earth’s outer core. To reach these conclusions, students are divided into two teams, theoreticians and seismologists, to test the simplest hypothesis for Earth's internal structure; a homogeneous Earth. The theoreticians create a scale model of a homogeneous Earth and predict when seismic waves should arrive at various points on the model. Simultaneously, seismologists interpret a seismic record section from a recent earthquake noting when seismic waves arrive at various points around Earth. The two groups of students then compare the modeled arrivals to the observed data, and when plotted, a notable discrepancy is found. To help interpret the implications of this anomaly the students transfer the data to a second scale model. By extrapolating their data for additional earthquakes students are able to define and measure a boundary for Earth’s outer core. After completing this exercise, not only do students have an understanding of how we know about the structure of Earth, students are more prepared to understand the basics of seismic tomography and the interpretation and limitations of tomographic models.

  3. National Conclave on `Earth Systems and Climate Change Research' In recent years, the emphasis on understanding the exogenic and endogenic processes

    E-print Network

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    of climate change on the earth's resourses. The chief guest for the conclave was Prof. V. K. Gaur of connotations. #12;The final session of the conclave, coordinated by Prof. V. K. Gaur, focused on identifying

  4. Improved understanding of aerosol processes using satellite observations of aerosol optical properties 

    E-print Network

    Bulgin, Claire Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the largest remaining uncertainty in the Earth’s radiative budget and it is important that we improve our knowledge of aerosol processes if we are to understand current radiative forcing and ...

  5. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78101 (2010)

    E-print Network

    Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 35, 78­101 (2010) Copyright in Earth Science (MYRES) III, titled `Dynamic Interactions of Life and its Landscape'. This paper collaboration among Earth surface scientists and ecologists: it represents the con- sensus view

  6. Understanding the biological underpinnings of ecohydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxman, T. E.; Scott, R. L.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Hamerlynck, E. P.; Jenerette, D.; Tissue, D. T.; Breshears, D. D.; Saleska, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change presents a challenge for predicting ecosystem response, as multiple factors drive both the physical and life processes happening on the land surface and their interactions result in a complex, evolving coupled system. For example, changes in surface temperature and precipitation influence near-surface hydrology through impacts on system energy balance, affecting a range of physical processes. These changes in the salient features of the environment affect biological processes and elicit responses along the hierarchy of life (biochemistry to community composition). Many of these structural or process changes can alter patterns of soil water-use and influence land surface characteristics that affect local climate. Of the many features that affect our ability to predict the future dynamics of ecosystems, it is this hierarchical response of life that creates substantial complexity. Advances in the ability to predict or understand aspects of demography help describe thresholds in coupled ecohydrological system. Disentangling the physical and biological features that underlie land surface dynamics following disturbance are allowing a better understanding of the partitioning of water in the time-course of recovery. Better predicting the timing of phenology and key seasonal events allow for a more accurate description of the full functional response of the land surface to climate. In addition, explicitly considering the hierarchical structural features of life are helping to describe complex time-dependent behavior in ecosystems. However, despite this progress, we have yet to build an ability to fully account for the generalization of the main features of living systems into models that can describe ecohydrological processes, especially acclimation, assembly and adaptation. This is unfortunate, given that many key ecosystem services are functions of these coupled co-evolutionary processes. To date, both the lack of controlled measurements and experimentation has precluded determination of sufficient theoretical development. Understanding the land-surface response and feedback to climate change requires a mechanistic understanding of the coupling of ecological and hydrological processes and an expansion of theory from the life sciences to appropriately contribute to the broader Earth system science goal.

  7. Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

  8. TOPO-EUROPE: Understanding of the coupling between the deep Earth and continental topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, Sierd; Willett, Sean D.

    2013-08-01

    Linking different spatial and temporal scales in coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a prime objective of the multidisciplinary international research program TOPO-EUROPE. The research approach of TOPO-EUROPE integrates active collection of new data, reconstruction of the geological record and numerical and analog modeling. The results of the program presented in this special volume focus on four closely interrelated topics: crustal and upper mantle structures, lithosphere geodynamics, sedimentary basin dynamics and surface processes. Quantitative understanding of topographic evolution in space and time requires study of processes from the upper mantle, through the lithosphere and crust and acting on the Earth's surface. The results presented here demonstrate the opportunities to further understanding of topography through integrated studies of the full Earth system across space and timescales.

  9. Physical Processes in Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Leeder; Marta Pérez-Arlucea

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a sound introduction to the basic physical processes that dominate the workings of the Earth, its atmosphere and hydrosphere. It systematically introduces the physical processes involved in the Earth's systems without assuming an advanced physics or mathematical background.

  10. Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N?=?84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N?=?28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N?=?12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N?=?12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N?=?32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins ?1, ?2, ?, and ? increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems. PMID:21469913

  11. Science data processing in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The data-processing systems developed to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) are described in an overview of the system architectures. The MPE program is discussed in terms of flight segments and data types to examine the required elements of the information systems. The data-processing segments are described for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the Earth Observing System, and the Geostationary Earth Observatory. The data and information systems for the separate segments provide some redundant processing services. Distributed active archive centers are employed for each segment composed of three subelements: (1) a product-generation system, (2) a data archive and distribution system, and (3) an information management system. The data processing design for the MPE is expected to facilitate the understanding of the entire earth system on a global scale.

  12. Destinations Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    Destinations ­ Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences #12;#12;An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are to sustainably manage Earth's energy, water, mineral, soil, coastal and biological resources.The Earth and Ocean Sciences are also the key to predicting and managing natural hazards

  13. Language processing for speech understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  14. Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science (e-book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shirley Watt Ireton

    2003-01-01

    It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

  15. Understanding the Role of Biology in the Global Environment: NASA'S Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William F.

    1996-01-01

    NASA has long used the unique perspective of space as a means of expanding our understanding of how the Earth's environment functions. In particular, the linkages between land, air, water, and life-the elements of the Earth system-are a focus for NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This approach, called Earth system science, blends together fields like meteorology, biology, oceanography, and atmospheric science. Mission to Planet Earth uses observations from satellites, aircraft, balloons, and ground researchers as the basis for analysis of the elements of the Earth system, the interactions between those elements, and possible changes over the coming years and decades. This information is helping scientists improve our understanding of how natural processes affect us and how we might be affecting them. Such studies will yield improved weather forecasts, tools for managing agriculture and forests, information for fishermen and local planners, and, eventually, an enhanced ability to predict how the climate will change in the future. NASA has designed Mission to Planet Earth to focus on five primary themes: Land Cover and Land Use Change; Seasonal to Interannual Climate Prediction; Natural Hazards; Long-Term Climate Variability; and Atmosphere Ozone.

  16. Sedimentary Processes on Earth and Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martin Ruzek

    This site, hosted by USRA, presents the Earth Science Picture of the Day from December 6, 2000. The photograph is an image of the surface of Mars that seems to depict sedimentation processes. Alongside the image from Mars are images of landscapes formed by sedimentation on the Earth. At the bottom of the page there are links to related resources for more information.

  17. SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option are to give you an understanding of how our lively

    E-print Network

    Liu, Paul

    SOLID EARTH OPTION FOR EARTH SCIENCE (GYA/GYS) MAJORS The main goals of the Solid Earth option tools we use to unravel its complex history. Solid Earth science is the study of the materials, architecture, and processes of the dynamic solid Earth. It deals with rock-forming minerals and processes

  18. Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, Edward C. [American Geological Institute; Coulson, Doug [PS International

    2010-01-05

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

  19. Understanding near-Earth asteroids: Is it in the details?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervack, R.; Howell, E.; Magri, C.; Fernández, Y.; Nolan, M.; Taylor, P.; Marshall, S.; Jones, J.; Rivkin, A.

    2014-07-01

    Studies of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are important to our understanding of meteorites, impact probabilities for terrestrial planets, dynamics of the main belt, and asteroid surface processes. Crucial to these investigations is knowledge of the NEA size and albedo distributions and regolith properties; however, as we sample ever-smaller NEAs, we see an increasing variation in these physical properties. A notable diversity of shapes, surface features, and rotation states have been revealed by radar observations, whereas infrared observations have shown a range of spectral types and thermal characteristics. Although spacecraft missions will yield details for a few objects, and space-based surveys will result in important overviews, only ground-based observations can provide an overall understanding of the NEA population as a whole owing to the range of observing conditions (e.g., wavelength coverage, phase angle, heliocentric distance) they provide. Radiometry is commonly used to infer both size and thermal properties, but necessary assumptions about the regolith, which controls thermal and (often) radar reflectance properties, can be especially dangerous for small NEAs because surface properties change as a function of size and irregular shapes play an increasingly important role. Our investigation combines thermal measurements with radar delay-Doppler imaging to better understand the regolith properties of different types of NEAs through detailed thermophysical modeling. Over the past five years, we have measured the spectra of 53 NEAs at different phase angles and rotation phases to see how the inferred thermal properties depend on the detailed shape. The observations were carried out with SpeX at the NASA IRTF (0.8--4 microns) [1], which allows us to measure both the reflected and thermal contributions to the overall spectrum, thereby providing for a greater degree of self- consistency in the thermal modeling than infrared observations alone. The observed objects span a variety of spectral types: S-complex, C-complex, and X-complex, including two high-albedo (Tholen E-type) and two low-albedo (Tholen P-type) asteroids. Most of these objects were also observed with the Arecibo planetary radar. Although the quality of the radar data varies, for many of the objects we can determine the pole, spin state, and surface features from shape modeling without assuming a convex surface [e.g., 2,3]. These radar objects span a gamut of types, from nearly spherical to elongated or irregular shapes, single bodies to contact binaries to multiple-body systems, slow to fast rotators, and sizes from a few hundred meters to a few kilometers. To study the properties of these NEAs, we have developed a thermophysical model, ''SHERMAN'', that uses the detailed shape to simulate multiple observations of an NEA at different viewing geometries, which we then compare to the actual infrared observations to infer the regolith properties. SHERMAN computes the local surface temperature for each facet on the asteroid at the time of observation, including self-shadowing, multiple scattering, and sub-scale roughness [modeled as small hemispherical craters following the methods of 4,5]. We will present an overview of our dataset as well as specific examples comparing our thermal modeling results to those from simple models such as NEATM [6] to illustrate some of the effects shape, observing geometry, and asteroid composition can have on the derived properties.

  20. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth?s deep mantle

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, T.S. (Princeton)

    2008-12-09

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} in the CaIrO{sub 3}-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

  1. Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2007-05-01

    Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the changes in geosphere. The historical records talk of changes of the water level in wells, of strange weather, of ground-hugging fog, of unusual behaviour of animals (due to change in magnetic field of the earth) that seem to feel the approach of a major earthquake. With the advent of modern science and technology the understanding of these pre-earthquake signals has become stronger enough to develop a methodology of earthquake prediction. A correlation of earth directed coronal mass ejection (CME) from the active sunspots has been possible to develop as a precursor of the earthquake. Occasional local magnetic field and planetary indices (Kp values) changes in the lower atmosphere that is accompanied by the formation of haze and a reduction of moisture in the air. Large patches, often tens to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size, seen in night-time infrared satellite images where the land surface temperature seems to fluctuate rapidly. Perturbations in the ionosphere at 90 - 120 km altitude have been observed before the occurrence of earthquakes. These changes affect the transmission of radio waves and a radio black out has been observed due to CME. Another heliophysical parameter Electron flux (Eflux) has been monitored before the occurrence of the earthquakes. More than hundreds of case studies show that before the occurrence of the earthquakes the atmospheric temperature increases and suddenly drops before the occurrence of the earthquakes. These changes are being monitored by using Sun Observatory Heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Whatever the manifestations in the environment of the atmosphere or geosphere may be, there is a positive correlation of CMEs with change in magnetic field followed by aurora borealis or sudden spark of light from the sky before an earthquake. Any change in geomorphology in the pixel level, changes in groundwater level, geochemical anomalies of soils surrounding active faults and vegetation anomalies should be monitored in the mirror image position of sunspots on the earth facing side in reference to CME from the sun.

  2. The history of Earth climate In order to understand the history of the

    E-print Network

    McCready, Mark J.

    first understand something about the age of the Earth and how various events have been dated. Some fundamental questions: .How old is the Earth? . How do we know the age of the Earth?? . What was the origin over geologic time? #12;The Radiometric Time Scale: Key to age of Earth and geologic time . 1896

  3. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  4. Understanding technology development processes theory & practice

    E-print Network

    Oswald, W. Andrew (William Andrew)

    2013-01-01

    Technology development is hard for management to understand and hard for practitioners to explain, however it is an essential component of innovation. While there are standard and predictable processes for product development, ...

  5. Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

    2003-01-01

    NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

  6. Integrated Signal Processing and Signal Understanding 1

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Integrated Signal Processing and Signal Understanding 1 Victor Lesser, Hamid Nawab y , Malini­ standing of Signals, which permits sophisticated interaction between theory­based problem solving in signal processing and heuristic problem­solving in signal interpretation. The need for such a paradigm arises

  7. Integrated Signal Processing and Signal Understanding1

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Integrated Signal Processing and Signal Understanding1 Victor Lesser, Hamid Nawaby, Malini Bhandaru- standing of Signals, which permits sophisticated interaction between theory-based problem solving in signal processing and heuristic problem-solving in signal interpretation. The need for such a paradigm arises

  8. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  9. EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Anna I.

    EARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCESEARTH SCIENCES This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused this understanding to read the record of earth history written in rocks and sediments, and on developing models by humans. Opportunities for Students Sigma Gamma Epsilon: The Omega Chapter of the national honorary earth

  10. The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

  11. Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

  12. Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mukherjee

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the

  13. Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle

    E-print Network

    Duffy, Thomas S.

    Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth's deep mantle BY THOMAS S. DUFFY mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recentexperimental andtheoreticaladvances

  14. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in a section…

  15. are exploring planet Earth is the part of earth science dealing with the physical processes and

    E-print Network

    Brückl, Ewald

    GeoKids are exploring planet Earth Geophysics is the part of earth science dealing of the children provides a good basis for effective learning. The reflection on selected themes of earth sciences with the physical processes and characteristics of the Earth and its environment. Volcanism, earthquakes

  16. How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

    2010-12-01

    A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification or falsification and conclusions that must be well grounded and argued. The intelligibility of theories is improved by the combination of these two types of understanding. This is also attested by the fact that both theoretical and embodied skills are considered essential for the training of university students at all levels. However, from surprised and confounded reactions of the public to natural disasters it appears that just showing scientific results is not enough to convey the scientific understanding to the public. By using the tools used by earth scientists to develop explanations and achieve understanding, laymen could achieve understanding as well without rigorous theoretical training. We are presently investigating in science musea whether engaging the public in scientific activities based on embodied skills leads to understanding of earth-scientific phenomena by laymen.

  17. Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

  18. Teachers' Domain: Earth System, Structure, and Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-08

    Started in 2002 by WGBH, the Teachers' Domain website brings together over 1000 free media resources from a range of public television programs such as Design Squad and Frontline. Here visitors will find both video and audio segments, Flash interactives, images, lesson plans, and student-oriented activities. This particular set of materials deals with the earth sciences, and includes over 280 different items. Each resource features details on the media type, grade level, and a brief synopsis. Some of the resources include a video about the pH of water in an abandoned coal mine, rain gardens in Kentucky, and aquatic insects. Additionally, visitors can choose to look through different subcategories, like Energy in the Earth System, Natural Resources, The Rock Cycle, and Surface Processes.

  19. Children's Cosmographies: Understanding the Earth's Shape and Gravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneider, Cary; Pulos, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Assessed Nussbaum's developmental model (SE 024 045) using a new sample given no special instructions in spherical earth/gravity concepts. Also identified distribution of notions among students (N=159 in grades three to eight), compared distribution of notions at each age level with those in other studies, and explored role of individual…

  20. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water, rill erosion and the transport of fine and coarse sediments. Herein, rainfall simulations are one of our principal methods, as they can be used easily to study splash processes and to get data about soil erodibility. But therefore, measurements need to be comparable and the methodology very well established and documented. The incorporation of wind into rainfall events, as they usually appear in nature, is a challenge in field experimentation, which has been tackled in cooperation with colleagues from Basel (Switzerland). So, we are one of the few groups in the world able to use a low cost, but efficient rainfall-wind simulator in the field. In addition, to cover erosion processes by concentrated flow, a methodology has been developed for field measurement of erosion processes. In this context, we are focusing now also on the development of sensors to understand the movement of coarse particles (as pebbles) in concentrated flow and to investigate their influence on soil erosion. With this contribution, I would like to promote the use of experiments for soil erosion research, and to provide information and expertise on the design and application of lab and field experiments on all partial processes of soil erosion.

  1. Advances in Understanding Elements of the Sun—Earth Links

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Rozelot; Sandrine Lefebvre

    2006-01-01

    The study of the Sun–Earth connections is a science in full effervescence, as much as for the physical problems that arise\\u000a as for its growing impact on our societies. This last case is illustrated by the emergence of a new field of research called\\u000a Space Weather. The launch of this new concept (translated in French by météorologie de l’espace) deserves

  2. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  3. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  4. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  5. ERIPS: Earth Resource Interactive Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The ERIPS is an interactive computer system used in the analysis of remotely sensed data. It consists of a set of software programs which are executed on an IBM System/360 Model 75J computer under the direction of a trained analyst. The software was a derivative of the Purdue LARSYS program and has evolved to include an extensive pattern recognition system and a number of manipulative, preprocessing routines which prepare the imagery for the pattern recognition application. The original purpose of the system was to analyze remotely sensed data, to develop and perfect techniques to process the data, and to determine the feasibility of applying the data to significant earth resources problems. The System developed into a production system. Error recovery and multi-jobbing capabilities were added to the system.

  6. Process for the production of a rare earth metal alkoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ozaki; K. Kaneko; S. Mitachi

    1985-01-01

    A new improved process of producing a rare earth metal alkoxide is now provided, which comprises reacting a rare earth metal carboxylate with an alkali metal alkoxide in an inert organic solvent under anhydrous conditions, and which can be conducted in a facile way and give the desired rare earth metal alkoxide of a high purity in a high yield.

  7. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

  8. Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nermin Bulunuz

    2006-01-01

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock

  9. Confined fluids in the Earth's crust --Properties and processes Various processes in the Earth's crust for which confined fluids have a controlling effect are discussed. Recent work which has

    E-print Network

    Dysthe, Dag Kristian

    Preface Confined fluids in the Earth's crust -- Properties and processes Abstract Various processes in the Earth's crust for which confined fluids have a controlling effect are discussed. Recent work which has led to a better understanding of the properties of confined fluids is highlighted. We introduce

  10. Leaching process of rare earths from weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun TIAN; Ru-an CHI; Jing-qun YIN

    2010-01-01

    In order to strengthen the leaching procedure, the chemical processes of leaching rare earths (RE) from the weathered crust elution-deposited rare earth ore were investigated frow the viewpoints of kinetics, hydrodynamic and mass transfer. The results show that the leaching hydrodynamics follows the Darcy law. The leaching kinetics can be described by the shrinking core model; the leaching process is

  11. Timing And Processes Of Earth's Core Differentiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegre, C. J.; Manhes, G.; Gopel, C.

    2004-12-01

    Small 182W abundance excess of terrestrial W relative to W in bulk chondrites has been recently established (Yin et al. 2002, Kleine et al. 2002, Schoenberg et al. 2002). Rapid terrestrial accretion and early core formation, with completion of the bulk metal-silicate separation within less than 30 Myr have been proposed on this basis. These studies underline how much this 182W/182Hf time scale agrees with dynamic accretion models (Wetherill, 1986) that predict a ˜10 Myr interval for the main growth stage of Earth's formation. This W model time scale for terrestrial accretion is shorter than current estimates based on Pb isotope systematics of mantle-derived basalts and terrestrial Xe isotope systematics. The end of metal-silicate differentiation and large scale mantle degassing has been defined ˜100 My after beginning of the accretion. These studies also indicate agreement of this time scale with dynamic accretion models that predict 100 My for the end of Earth's accretion. The Hf-W time scale for accretion and core formation assumes total equilibration of incoming metal and silicate of impactors with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) during planet's growth. Recently, the assumption of incomplete equilibration of metal and silicate components with BSE has been investigated (Halliday, 2004). It is proposed that impacting core material has not always efficiently mixed with the silicate portions of the Earth before being added to the Earth's core Our approach also considers that equilibration between metal and silicate has not been complete in BSE during Earth's growth, and we argue that early part of the Earth's core has segregated through unmelted silicate material. When the baby Earth was large enough, the increase of the temperature induced Fe-FeS eutectic melting. The liquid metal segregated through the crystalline silicate matrix and formed the early part of the Earth's core. Experimental study (Yoshino et al. 2003) indicates the percolation threshold for molten iron-sulphur compounds of 5 vol% solid olivine, through channel on triple junction between minerals. This study allows us to reconsider the precedent proposition (Stevenson, 1990) based on experimental and theoretical considerations suggesting that percolation of metallic iron rich liquid through a mostly solid silicate matrix is largely prevented because of the high surface tension of iron. During formation and segregation of the Fe-FeS eutectic, W isotopic equilibration is limited by the diffusion through the solid silicate matrix. During the further Earth's growth, impact melting increased and has induced a progressive melting of BSE up to the formation of magma ocean at the end of the planet's accretion. Before the occurrence of the magma ocean, W equilibration between impactors and BSE has not been complete This incomplete isotopic exchange between terrestrial metal and metal originating from impactors with solid part of BSE during early accretion of the Earth leads to the observed excess of 182W of present BSE. It occurs when the 182W production in BSE is most significant, due to the short half-life of 182Hf. The change of segregation mechanisms of Earth's core during planet's growth and short-sightedness of Hf-W chronometer focused to the early segregation of Earth's core make the divergence with the U-Pb and I-Xe terrestrial records. Yin et al. 2002, Nature 418, 949-952. Kleine et al. 2002, Nature 418, 952-955. Schoenberg et al. 2002, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3151-3160. Wetherill 1986, in Origin of the Moon, eds Hartmann et al., LPI, 519-550. Yoshino et al. 2003, Nature 422, 154-157. Stevenson 1990, in Origin of the Earth, eds Newson et al., LPI, 231-249.

  12. Earth Processes: Reading the Isotopic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Asish; Hart, Stan

    Publication of this monograph will coincide, to a precision of a few per mil, with the centenary of Henri Becquerel's discovery of "radiations actives" (C. R. Acad. Sci., Feb. 24, 1896). In 1896 the Earth was only 40 million years old according to Lord Kelvin. Eleven years later, Boltwood had pushed the Earth's age past 2000 million years, based on the first U/Pb chemical dating results. In exciting progression came discovery of isotopes by J. J. Thomson in 1912, invention of the mass spectrometer by Dempster (1918) and Aston (1919), the first measurement of the isotopic composition of Pb (Aston, 1927) and the final approach, using Pb-Pb isotopic dating, to the correct age of the Earth: close—2.9 Ga (Gerling, 1942), closer—3.0 Ga (Holmes, 1949) and closest—4.50 Ga (Patterson, Tilton and Inghram, 1953).

  13. From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    From the center of Earth to the rim of the solar system, Earth and Space Sciences furthers our understanding of Earth, the solar system, and their histories. Based on the geologic record and on rigorous observation and modeling of Earth's present state, our activities cut across traditional disciplines

  14. Understanding of the Earth in the Presence of a Satellite Photo: A Threefold Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlen, Karin

    2009-01-01

    To acknowledge both conceptual and situational factors, children's understanding of the Earth was considered from three angles: 1. the perspective as the physical point or direction from which something is seen or depicted; 2. conceptual frameworks; 3. the relevance of explanations in a situation. Fourteen children were interviewed individually in…

  15. Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Penuel; Lawrence P. Gallagher

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect to the conceptions

  16. 30 Planet Earth Winter 2010 Understanding changes in the global atmospheric

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Paul

    to measure, report and verify carbon emissions and sequestration from land-use projects and policies30 Planet Earth Winter 2010 Understanding changes in the global atmospheric concentration of carbon of the carbon cycle ­ where is carbon being taken up, how much, and will this situation last? Without

  17. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  18. ICESat Contributions to Understanding Coastal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, T. J.; Schutz, B. E.; Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) has been obtaining global elevation measurements of the Earth since 2003. These data have shed new light in unprecedented detail over ice, land and ocean surfaces. In particular, coastal altimetry including transitions from land to water and back benefit from ICESat's small footprint (~70 m diameter), high resolution (40 Hz and 170 m spot separation), and high precision (3 cm over non-vegetated surfaces). ICESat data support a wide variety of interdisciplinary investigations incorporating other data such as GRACE, GPS, SRTM, InSAR, Landsat, radar altimetry (TOPEX/Jason/Envisat), airborne LIDAR, and tide gauges. This paper provides an introduction to the potential capabilities of using ICESat coastal data in cooperative efforts. Several examples of coastal topography and change detection are shown, including the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast and the Mississippi Delta.

  19. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  20. The Rare Earth Peak : An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic

    E-print Network

    Mumpower, M; Surman, R

    2012-01-01

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high entropy r-process (S>100k_B) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  1. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  2. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  3. Understanding the Term Gifted: Process? Product? Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented that views gifted individuals as being process oriented, creative individuals as product oriented, and talented individuals as performance oriented. Approaches to acting that differ based on elements of giftedness, creativity, talent, and combinations thereof are explored. (JDD)

  4. Expanding Our Understanding of the Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish; Stemple, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    School librarians know the importance of collaboration. They cannot run effective school library programs unless they work closely with classroom teachers. They have learned that deep collaboration is a fluid process that evolves over time. Only as connections are made and relationships are forged can real instructional progress occur. Yet it…

  5. Understanding and prediction of electronic-structure-driven physical behaviors in rare-earth compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudyal, Durga; Pathak, Arjun K.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.

    2013-10-01

    Rare-earth materials, due to their unique magnetic properties, are important for fundamental and technological applications such as advanced magnetic sensors, magnetic data storage, magnetic cooling and permanent magnets. For an understanding of the physical behaviors of these materials, first principles techniques are one of the best theoretical tools to explore the electronic structure and evaluate exchange interactions. However, first principles calculations of the crystal field splitting due to intra-site electron-electron correlations and the crystal environment in the presence of exchange splitting in rare-earth materials are rarely carried out despite the importance of these effects. Here we consider rare-earth dialuminides as model systems and show that the low temperature anomalies observed in these systems are due to the variation of both exchange and crystal field splitting leading to anomalous intra-site correlated-4f and itinerant-5d electronic states near the Fermi level. From calculations supported by experiments we uncover that HoAl2 is unique among rare-earth dialuminides, in that it undergoes a cubic to orthorhombic distortion leading to a spin reorientation. Calculations of a much more extended family of mixed rare-earth dialuminides reveal an additional degree of complexity: the effective quadrupolar moment of the lanthanides changes sign as a function of lanthanide concentration, leading to a change in the sign of the anisotropy constant. At this point the quadrupolar interactions are effectively reduced to zero, giving rise to lattice instability and leading to new phenomena. This study shows a clear picture that accurate evaluation of the exchange, crystal field splitting and shape of the charge densities allows one to understand, predict and control the physical behaviors of rare-earth materials.

  6. Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis

    E-print Network

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    Social Signal Processing: Understanding Social Interactions through Nonverbal Behavior Analysis A), the domain aimed at automatic understanding of social in- teractions through analysis of nonverbal behavior, nonverbal behavior analysis is used as a key to automatic understanding of social interactions. This pa- per

  7. Understanding and Modelling Business Processes with DEMO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan L. G. Dietz

    1999-01-01

    DEMO is a methodology for modeling, (re)designing and (re)engineering organizations. Its theoretical basis draws on three\\u000a scientific sources of inspiration: Habermas’ Communicative Action Theory, Stamper’s Semiotic Ladder, and Bunge’s Ontology.\\u000a The core notion is the OER-transaction, which is a recurrent pattern of communication and action. This notion serves as the\\u000a universal (atomic) building block of business processes. Some fifty projects

  8. Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions

    E-print Network

    Vinciarelli, Alessandro

    Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro Processing, human-human communication, nonverbal behavior, social interactions. ACM Classification Keywords A in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express

  9. Understanding Gaussian Process Regression Using the Equivalent Kernel

    E-print Network

    Sollich, Peter

    Silverman [1] called the idealized weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structureUnderstanding Gaussian Process Regression Using the Equivalent Kernel Peter Sollich1.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract. The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian process regression works

  10. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  11. The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget edition 1 data processing algorithms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Clerbaux, N.; Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget is the first instrument to measure the earth radiation budget from a geostationary orbit This allows a full sampling of the diurnal cycle of radiation and clouds - which is important for climate studies as well as detailed process studies e g the lifecycle of clouds or particular aerosol events such as desert storms GERB data is now for the first time released as edition 1 data for public scientific use In this paper we describe the status of the algorithms used for the edition 1 GERB data processing and the associated validation activities that have been carried out

  12. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  13. Information processing of earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1982-01-01

    Current trends in the use of remotely sensed data include integration of multiple data sources of various formats and use of complex models. These trends have placed a strain on information processing systems because an enormous number of capabilities are needed to perform a single application. A solution to this problem is to create a general set of capabilities which can perform a wide variety of applications. General capabilities for the Image-Based Information System (IBIS) are outlined in this report. They are then cross-referenced for a set of applications performed at JPL.

  14. Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

  15. Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression

    E-print Network

    Sollich, Peter

    weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structure of the remainder of the paper is as followsUsing the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro­ cess regression works

  16. Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication 

    E-print Network

    McNeal, Karen Sue

    2009-05-15

    research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

  17. Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph Bernstein

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and

  18. Discovering and measuring a layered Earth: A foundational laboratory for developing students' understanding of Earth's interior structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hubenthal; L. W. Braile; S. E. Olds; J. Taber

    2010-01-01

    Geophysics research is continuously revealing new insights about Earth's interior structure. Before students can grasp theses new complexities, they first must internalize the 1st order layered structure of Earth and comprehend how seismology contributes to the development of such models. Earth structure is of course covered in most introductory geoscience courses, though all too often instruction of this content is

  19. Innovative Uses of Google Earth to Facilitate Scientific Understanding of Meteorological Observations, Forecasts and Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, C. A.; Turk, F. J.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Google Earth application provides a unique means to display, animate and layer imagery and geophysical data on a 3-dimensional globe without the distortions imparted by a flat display. Using Google Earth, high resolution imagery from environmental satellite data such as the MODIS sensor onboard EOS Terra and Aqua can be viewed at various levels of detail, and updated dynamically as new datasets arrive. Observations and numerical weather prediction model forecasts can be viewed and directly compared. It also provides a forum for training and education of geophysical concepts (atmospheric and space weather, land surface processes, climate, oceanography, etc.) by fusing the aspects of a web-browser with the capability to geo-reference and geo- fuse multiple layers of data. This poster shows several examples that demonstrate how the Google Earth application can be used to display meteorological datasets. For example, an animation of satellite rainfall images from a blend of satellite types gives the user an immediate indication of heavy rain and flooding. 3-D aircraft flight tracks from a recent field experiment show how the in-situ data gathered onboard the aircraft can be compared with coordinated ground-based observations. We also demonstrate how to display data selected from a webpage directly into Google Earth, a land cover database integrated with active fire data, and the use of multispectral and multi- resolution satellite data as you zoom in on a tropical cyclone.

  20. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  1. The Use Of Fisheye View Visualizations In Understanding Business Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozgur Turetken; David Schuff

    2002-01-01

    Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are commonly used models for representing business processes. The traditional presentation of DFDs provides separate views of major system processes from views of their subprocesses. This separates the details of the low-level system activities from their context. Although this separation can reduce information overload, it can degrade the viewers' understanding of the overall system. Fisheye views

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  3. The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Edition 1 data processing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Clerbaux, N.; Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.; de Paepe, B.

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument is the first to measure the earth radiation budget from a geostationary orbit. This allows a full sampling of the diurnal cycle of radiation and clouds which is important for climate studies, as well as detailed process studies, e.g. the lifecycle of clouds or particular aerosol events such as desert storms. GERB data is now for the first time released as Edition 1 data for public scientific use. In this paper we summarise the algorithms used for the Edition 1 GERB data processing and the main validation results. Based on the comparison with the independent CERES instrument, the Edition 1 GERB accuracy is 5% for the reflected solar radiances and 2% for the emitted thermal radiances.

  4. Understanding Thermal Behavior in Lens Processing of Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Nelson, D.V.; Robino, C.V.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.E.; Wert, M.J.

    1998-11-05

    In direct laser metal deposition technologies, such as the Laser (LENS) process, it is important to understand and control the Engineered Net Shaping thermal behavior during fabrication. With this control, components can be reliably fabricated with desired structural material properties. This talk will describe the use of contact and imaging techniques to monitor the thermal signature during LENS processing. Recent results show a direct correlation between thermal history and material properties, where the residual stress magnitude decreases as the laser power, and therefore thermal signature, increases. Development of an understanding of solidification behavior, residual stress, and microstructural evolution with respect to thermal behavior will be discussed.

  5. Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

  6. Mental models and other misconceptions in children's understanding of the earth.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive "mental models" of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous. Participants were 6- and 7-year-olds (N=127) who were given either the mental model theorists' original drawing task or a new version in which the same instructions and questions were rephrased to minimize ambiguity and, thus, possible misinterpretation. In response to the new version, children gave substantially more indication of having scientific understanding and less of having naive mental models, suggesting that the misconceptions reported by the mental model theorists are largely methodological artifacts. There were also differences between the responses to the original version and those reported by Vosniadou and Brewer, indicating that other factors, such as cohort and cultural effects, are also likely to help explain the discrepant findings of previous research. PMID:19100995

  7. Understanding underlying processes in formic acid fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Sunghyun; Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2009-11-01

    A basic understanding of electrode structure and the characteristics of its components can be powerfully utilized in fuel cell applications such as direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) system integration and HCOOH concentration controlled systems. There have been, thus, tremendous efforts made to elucidate theoretical aspects of electrochemical processes involving new anode catalysts and put them into practical effect on formic acid fuel cells. Herein, we highlight recent studies for better understanding of the underlying processes in DFAFC: (i) a systematic approach for developing cost-effective and stable anode catalysts and electrode structures that incorporate mass transport characteristics of HCOOH; (ii) a clear evaluation of the HCOOH crossover rate based on its physicochemical properties; and (iii) a theoretical assessment process of individual electrodes and related components during DFAFC operation using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and a reversible hydrogen reference electrode, which can potentially detect subtle changes in the DFAFC mechanism and provide useful information pertaining to rate-limiting processes. PMID:19830313

  8. Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn

    E-print Network

    Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn Overview The hydraulic and connecting channel hydraulics models for use in Great Lakes water resource studies. 2000 Plans Niagara River Hydraulic Studies: Detailed analysis of the impact of hydraulic regime changes in the Niagara River

  9. Understanding Metaphorical Expressions: Conventionality, Mappings, and Comparison Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical expressions appear once every twenty words in everyday language, and play a central role in communication. Some cognitive linguistic theories propose that understanding metaphorical expressions requires mappings from one conceptual domain to the other. My research uses Event-Related Potentials to examine the processing, the…

  10. Using Simulation to Understand and Optimize a Lean Service Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumar Venkat; Wayne W. Wakeland

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the application of discrete event simulation to understand and optimize a lean service process. Simulation is being used increasingly in the design and improvement of lean manufacturing systems. We now apply simulation to the emerging notion of lean service. We use the case study of a lean auto repair facility to demonstrate the significant role that simulation

  11. Quenching - Understanding, Controlling and Optimizing the Process - II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ShuHui Ma; Darrell Rondeau; Aparna Varde; Makiko Takahashi; Marco Fontecchio

    Each year millions of dollars are lost as a result of distortion, cracking and mechanical property variations due to unexpected problems in the quenching process. A thorough understanding of the variations in quenching fluid's performance as a function of the medium's physical properties, system variables and part geometry is not currently available. In this paper the results of a series

  12. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  13. Using the Earth as a guide to martian mass movement processes: From form to process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, N.; Newsom, H. E.; Osterloo, M. M.; Okubo, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of gully features on Mars has led to renewed interest in hillslope processes on that planet, in particular mass movement and the morphologies that it produces. Mass movement is a collection of gravity-driven processes that act to move materials down a hillslope. Here, we examine how mass movements on hillslopes may be expected to differ on Earth and Mars as the result of gravity differences between these planets. Downslope movement of unconsolidated materials is generally controlled by the bulk shear strength of these materials. Although the relationship between gravity and shear strength is largely dependent on variables that are independent of gravity, the lower gravity on Mars is expected to produce some systematic changes in mass movement behaviors that may in turn create morphological features that are observably different from their terrestrial counterparts. After scaling for gravity and modifying empirically derived relationships, we may expect the following differences on martian hillslopes when compared to their terrestrial counterparts: ==On Mars, hillslopes may have steeper angles of repose in fine grained (< ~2 mm) materials, even when dry. No change in angle of repose is expected for larger particles; ==An increase in soil moisture content (e.g., excess pore pressure) is expected to weaken unconsolidated slope materials more on Mars for a particular regolith type, which in turn may produce --An increase in creep rates for a given pore pressure, and --An increase in effectiveness of frost heave to transport materials downslope; ==Processes triggered by saturation may occur at lower pore pressures on Mars; --A smaller amount of fluid is needed to achieve failure; ==Shorter runout lengths are expected for rapid mass movements; ==On Mars, overland flow will exert a proportionally lower shear stress on slope materials; --In cohesive materials, the same volume of water will detach sediments of smaller sizes. On Earth, mass movement processes may be directly observed and measured as they occur, whereas on Mars only the resultant landforms may be studied at present. By understanding how martian hillslope processes are expected to be modified by lower gravity, the interpretation of martian landforms may be greatly aided. Examples of observations that support some of these predicted differences will be presented, with a focus on saturation-triggered events in unconsolidated materials.

  14. Investigating material trends and lattice relaxation effects for understanding electron transfer phenomena in rare-earth-doped optical materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Thiel; R. L. Cone

    2011-01-01

    Rare-earth-doped insulators and semiconductors play an important role in a wide range of modern optical technologies. Knowledge of the relative energies of rare-earth ions’ localized electronic states and the band states of the host crystal is important for understanding the properties of these materials and for determining the potential material performance in specific applications such as lasers, phosphors, and optical

  15. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

  16. Prospects for understanding the astrophysical r-process

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Cowan, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    This paper discusses several recent advances toward a deeper understanding of the still unknown astrophysical site for rapid (r-process) neutron capture nucleosynthesis. The physical constraints on the r-process from the input nuclear data are highlighted and the particular importance of the recent measurements of beta-decay lifetimes along the r-process path is discussed. Astronomical observations of s- and r-process elemental abundances on metal poor halo stars are also discussed, in the context of models for the galactic chemical evolution of heavy-element abundances, as a constraint on the nature of the r-process. On the basis of these constraints it is suggested that the most likely source for the r-process may be from the ejection of core material from low-mass type II supernovae. 27 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Understanding the near Earth plasma sheet instability responsible for substorm onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T.; Lyons, L. R.; Pritchett, P. L.; Angelopoulos, V.; Donovan, E.

    2014-12-01

    Substorms are one of the most dramatic disturbances of the global magnetotail-ionosphere coupling system that release large amounts of solar wind energy accumulated in the magnetotail and are associated with auroral activations. A critical, long-standing problem in substorm research is to identify what physical mechanism leads to substorm auroral onset. It has been suggested that pre-onset waves with ~1-2 min periodicity are an important facet of the instability in the near-Earth region that leads to substorm onset and auroral beads. It is thus critical to determine if, and if so how, pre-onset waves in the near-Earth plasma sheet evolve to substorm onset waves. We found using the THEMIS satellite-imager conjunction events that westward-propagating pre-onset waves evolve to the beginning part of onset waves soon after auroral streamers, indicating an importance of the coupling process between incoming flows and pre-existing waves to substorm onset. On the other hand, a portion of the onset waves propagates eastward in contrast to westward propagation of the pre-onset waves and part of the onset waves. These unique propagation characteristics as well as the wavelength and periodicity can be used to identify a possible mechanism of near-Earth plasma sheet instability. We have compared the observation results with 3-D kinetic simulations with a localized tailward entropy gradient. This initial condition induces weak waves propagating westward that can be interpreted as due to kinetic ballooning/interchange instability and electromagnetic current-driven ion cyclotron instability. Part of those waves grows much larger in amplitude and propagated eastward and earthward due to charge separations between magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions, indicating that kinetic effects are responsible for the onset wave propagation. These propagation features of simulated waves are consistent with the observations, and therefore suggest that these kinetic waves may play an important role in initiating the instability responsible for substorm expansion phase onset.

  18. Simulated effect of forest road 1 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press)

    E-print Network

    Wemple, Beverley

    Simulated effect of forest road 1 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms

  19. 1692 L. A. James Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 16921706 (2006)

    E-print Network

    James, L. Allan

    2006-01-01

    1692 L. A. James Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 1692­1706 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 1692

  20. Understanding the efficacy of linewidth roughness post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2015-03-01

    Lack of progress in reducing linewidth roughness of lithographic features has led to investigations of the use of post-lithography process smoothing techniques. But it remains unclear whether such postprocessing will sufficiently reduce the detrimental effects of feature roughness. Thus, there is a need to understand the efficacy of post-processing on not just roughness reduction, but on the negative device impacts of roughness. This work derives model equations of how roughness impacts lithographic performance, and incorporates smoothing using post-processing. These models clearly show that post-process smoothing works best by increasing the correlation length. Increasing the correlation length is very effective at reducing high-frequency roughness that impacts within-feature variations, but is not very effective at reducing low-frequency roughness that impacts feature-tofeature variations. It seems that post-process smoothing is not a substitute for reducing the initial roughness of resist features.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry

    1993-01-01

    During the past eight years, we have been engaged in a NASA-supported program of research aimed at establishing the connection between satellite signatures of the earth's environmental state and the nonlinear dynamics of the global weather and climate system. Thirty-five publications and four theses have resulted from this work, which included contributions in five main areas of study: (1) cloud and latent heat processes in finite-amplitude baroclinic waves; (2) application of satellite radiation data in global weather analysis; (3) studies of planetary waves and low-frequency weather variability; (4) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to variable boundary conditions measurable from satellites; and (5) dynamics of long-term earth system changes. Significant accomplishments from the three main lines of investigation pursued during the past year are presented and include the following: (1) planetary atmospheric waves and low frequency variability; (2) GCM studies of the atmospheric response to changed boundary conditions; and (3) dynamics of long-term changes in the global earth system.

  2. NASA's Standards Process For Earth Science Data Systems (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA’s Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP’s Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, Global Change Master Directory’s Directory Interchange Format, NetCDF Classic, CF Metadata). We will discuss real examples of the different types of best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented and endorsed as Technical Notes (i.e. Interoperability between OGC CS/W and WCS Protocols, Lessons Learned Regarding WCS Server Design and Implementation, Mapping HDF5 to DAP2, Creating File Format Guidelines - The Aura Experience, ECHO Metadata) The NASA Earth science community benefits by having a repository of endorsed Earth science data systems standards that have been successfully implemented and used within the NASA environment. NASA’s Earth science data providers can rely on these endorsed standards for demonstrated readiness for mission use and science investigators are assured that standards contribute to science success in their discipline. The SPG is working with NASA’s Decadal Survey Missions (e.g. SMAP, CLARREO, ICESat II and DESDynI) to facilitate the use of NASA’s endorsed standards in these future mission data systems. We have also observed that the Standards process itself can encourage the development consensus within a community through the RFC development and review experience. An RFC can grow the use of common practices among related activities, then once the standard is endorsed, other discipline communities can learn from the successful practice and also use it. The adoption of the standard lowers the barriers to entry and use of NASA data by external discipline communities within NASA and outside NASA.

  3. Stacking of blocks by chimpanzees: developmental processes and physical understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misato Hayashi

    2007-01-01

    The stacking-block task has been used to assess cognitive development in both humans and chimpanzees. The present study reports\\u000a three aspects of stacking behavior in chimpanzees: spontaneous development, acquisition process following training, and physical\\u000a understanding assessed through a cylindrical-block task. Over 3 years of longitudinal observation of block manipulation, one\\u000a of three infant chimpanzees spontaneously started to stack up cubic

  4. Formation Of The Rare Earth Peak: Gaining Insight Into Late-Time r-Process Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Mumpower, Matthew; Surman, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    We study the formation and final structure of the rare earth peak ($A\\sim160$) of the $r$-process nucleosynthesis. The rare earth peak forms at late times in the $r$-process after neutron exhaustion (neutron-to-seed ratio unity or R=1) as matter decays back to stability. Since rare earth peak formation does not occur during \

  5. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  6. Investigating Earthquakes with Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maggie Molledo

    2012-07-25

    Students will explore the relationship between earthquakes and the tectonic plate boundaries using Google Earth. Students will track earthquakes noting location, magnitude and date. Students will apply their findings to formulate an understanding the processes that shape the earth.

  7. NASA's Standards Process for Earth Science Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA's Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, the netCDF Classic Model, Global Change Master Directory's Directory Interchange Format). The Standards Process can accelerate the evolution of practices through better communication from successful practice in a specific community to broader community adoption to community-recognized standards. For each endorsed standard, the availability of high quality documentation for the standard, available reusable software, and information about successful operational experience with the use of the standard will help bridge the chasm from innovative use by visionary practitioners to more popular use by pragmatic users. As an internal working group, the SPG has a NASA agency centered focus. At the same time, there is growing awareness that interagency and international standards are extremely relevant to addressing the regional and global science and decision support applications. The Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture and Data Management (AMD) Standards Interoperability Forum (SIF) is designed to encourage the use of standards in contributed components. It is clear that some of the standards endorsed by the NASA SPG could be important contributions to the GEOSS. The GEOSS recognized standards can also be reviewed as 'defacto' standards by the SPG. NASA stakeholders are often also NOAA stakeholders. Members of the NASA SPG have been working with members of the NOAA standards endorsement process to provide mutual benefit. We will also discuss the role of the NASA SPG participation with these and other cross-agency and international standards initiatives.

  8. Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ?1 min.

  9. GG 304L: Solid Earth & Planets Lab LAB 7: Using "Linray" and Understanding the Effects of Velocity Structure

    E-print Network

    Ito, Garrett

    GG 304L: Solid Earth & Planets Lab LAB 7: Using "Linray" and Understanding the Effects of Velocity the files "linray.m", "vmod.m", and "calc_raypath.m" from the GG304 directory to your home directory. 1) Run

  10. Geomorphology: Were Earth-like river processes ever present on Mars?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurel Goodell

    Laurel Goodell, Summary Students compare rivers on Earth to channel-like features on Mars, and consider whether Earth-like river processes were ever present on Mars. Context Type and level of course Entry level ...

  11. Bedrock Channels: Towards a Process-Based Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R. E.; Horn, C. A. P. T., III; Thy, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms in large rivers have focused on aggradational bedforms within alluvial sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. Detailed understanding of the processes within bedrock reaches of river channels is vital if an improved understanding of formation and evolution of bedrock scours and bedforms are to be elucidated. The paper presents high-resolution bathymetry and sidescan derived from multibeam sonar (MBES) and detailed flow mapping by acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) to illustrate, in intricate detail, relations between morphology, flow and sediment transport processes through a bedrock reach of the Mekong River (Cambodia) during a large flood event. A 2 by 5 km reach of the Mekong river near Sambor was surveyed with a RESON 7125 MBES system revealing incredible >40 m scour features within the bedrock substrate, with sidescan imagery also revealing the routing of alluvial sediment through the scours. A series of ADCP transects were obtained, both transverse and perpendicular to the primary downstream flow, that map the flows into, around and within these scour features. The paper will conclude by looking at how advances in measurement capability have permitted the detailed processes in such channels to be investigated for the first time at this scale.

  12. Developing Improved MD Codes for Understanding Processive Cellulases

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, M. F.; Uberbacher, E. C.; Brooks III, C. L.; Walker, R.C.; Nimlos, M. R.; Himmel, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cellulose-degrading enzymes is illuminated through a multidisciplinary collaboration that uses molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and expands the capabilities of MD codes to allow simulations of enzymes and substrates on petascale computational facilities. There is a class of glycoside hydrolase enzymes called cellulases that are thought to decrystallize and processively depolymerize cellulose using biochemical processes that are largely not understood. Understanding the mechanisms involved and improving the efficiency of this hydrolysis process through computational models and protein engineering presents a compelling grand challenge. A detailed understanding of cellulose structure, dynamics and enzyme function at the molecular level is required to direct protein engineers to the right modifications or to understand if natural thermodynamic or kinetic limits are in play. Much can be learned about processivity by conducting carefully designed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the binding and catalytic domains of cellulases with various substrate configurations, solvation models and thermodynamic protocols. Most of these numerical experiments, however, will require significant modification of existing code and algorithms in order to efficiently use current (terascale) and future (petascale) hardware to the degree of parallelism necessary to simulate a system of the size proposed here. This work will develop MD codes that can efficiently use terascale and petascale systems, not just for simple classical MD simulations, but also for more advanced methods, including umbrella sampling with complex restraints and reaction coordinates, transition path sampling, steered molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations of systems the size of cellulose degrading enzymes acting on cellulose.

  13. Understanding the influence of nanoenvironment on luminescence of rare-earth ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pushpal Ghosh; Amitava Patra

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the recent results on upconversion and photoluminescence of rare-earth ions in nanoenvironments.\\u000a The role of the rare-earth ion concentration, crystal size and crystal phase on the up and downconversion emission of rare-earth\\u000a ions in oxide nanocrystals and their underlying mechanisms are discussed. It is also found that the luminescence lifetime\\u000a of the excited state

  14. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain. PMID:25884891

  15. Understanding the influence of nanoenvironment on luminescence of rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pushpal; Patra, Amitava

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the recent results on upconversion and photoluminescence of rare-earth ions in nanoenvironments. The role of the rare-earth ion concentration, crystal size and crystal phase on the up- and downconversion emission of rare-earth ions in oxide nanocrystals and their underlying mechanisms are discussed. It is also found that the luminescence lifetime of the excited state rare-earth ions is sensitive to the particle crystalline phase and size. The analysis suggests that the modifications of radiative and nonradiative relaxation mechanisms are due to local symmetry structure of the host lattice and crystal size respectively.

  16. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  17. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Although we have an intuitive understanding of the behavior and functions of groundwater in the Earth's critical zone at the scales of a column (atmosphere-plant-soil-bedrock), along a toposequence (ridge to valley), and across a small catchment (up to third-order streams), this paper attempts to assess the relevance of groundwater to understanding large-scale patterns and processes such as represented in global climate and Earth system models. Through observation syntheses and conceptual models, evidence are presented that groundwater influence is globally prevalent, it forms an environmental gradient not fully captured by the climate, and it can profoundly shape critical zone evolution at continental to global scales. Four examples are used to illustrate these ideas: (1) groundwater as a water source for plants in rainless periods, (2) water table depth as a driver of plant rooting depth, (3) the accessibility of groundwater as an ecological niche separator, and (4) groundwater as the lower boundary of land drainage and a global driver of wetlands. The implications to understanding past and future global environmental change are briefly discussed, as well as critical discipline, scale, and data gaps that must be bridged in order for us to translate what we learn in the field at column, hillslope and catchment scales, to what we must predict at regional, continental, and global scales.

  18. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  19. Chapter 8: Understanding How the Earth Works: A Geodynamic Revolution Based on Linux Computing INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    INTRODUCTION Planet Earth is an extremely complex system, partly because of the existence of plate tectonics. Plate tectonics is an expression of slow convection of the Earth's mantle over geological timesEarthlosesitsinternalheat(seeglossarypagexx).Onageologicaltimescale(i.e.millions of years), plate tectonics exerts major controls on global sea-level changes and geochemical cycles. We

  20. Processes within Earth's atmosphere control hazardous weather events such as hurricanes and droughts, and contribute to

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    spacecraft in low-Earth orbit, each carrying a compact GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO) sensor that measures/NASA) Quick Facts Launch date: October 2014 Launch location: TBD Mission target: Low-Earth orbit PrimaryProcesses within Earth's atmosphere control hazardous weather events such as hurricanes

  1. Student Gains in Understanding the Process of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, T. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Young, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    Research-Based Science Education is a method of instruction that models the processes of scientific inquiry and exploration used by scientists to discover new knowledge. It is "research-based" in the sense that students work together in self-guided, cooperative groups on a real research project. In other words, in order to learn science, students are given the opportunity to actually do science. Here we present the results of a study of undergraduate students that were given the opportunity to work on a research project underway to search for novae in Local Group galaxies. Students analyzed images obtained regularly from the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope on Kitt Peak. Novae were found by blinking these images. Aperture photometry was used to generate light curves and measure decay rates. Students then explored individually chosen questions, such as comparing the location of novae in the galaxy and their rates of decay. Students then wrote research papers and gave oral presentations to the class. To assess their development in the understanding of science as a process, students completed pre and post concept maps on the topic of "scientific research." Each map was assessed for an understanding of the following ten concepts. Scientific research is: a process (i.e., a series of many steps over time); based upon prior knowledge or previous research; based on a hypothesis/question; uses experimentation; data collection; data representation (e.g., charts, tables and graphs); requires equipment; analysis/interpretation; generates results/ conclusions; and results that link back to modify the initial hypothesis iteratively. Overall, students made significant gains on the concept maps, showing greater depth in the number of concepts and their relationships. On average, students increased the number of the ten understood concepts listed above from 2.8 before the class to 5.4 afterwards.

  2. Student Gains in Understanding the Process of Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, T. A.; Pilachowski, C.; Young, M. J.

    2005-12-01

    Research-Based Science Education is a method of instruction that models the processes of scientific inquiry and exploration used by scientists to discover new knowledge. It is "research-based" in the sense that students work together in self-guided, cooperative groups on a real research project. In other words, in order to learn science, students are given the opportunity to actually do science. Here we present the results of a study of undergraduate students that were given the opportunity to work on a research project underway to search for novae in Local Group galaxies. Students analyzed images obtained regularly from the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope on Kitt Peak. Novae were found by blinking these images. Aperture photometry was used to generate light curves and measure decay rates. Students then explored individually chosen questions, such as comparing the location of novae in the galaxy and their rates of decay. Students then wrote research papers and gave oral presentations to the class. To assess their development in the understanding of science as a process, students completed pre and post concept maps on the topic of "scientific research." Each map was assessed for an understanding of the following ten concepts. Scientific research is: a process (i.e., a series of many steps over time), based upon prior knowledge or previous research, based on a hypothesis/question, uses experimentation, data collection, data representation (e.g., charts, tables and graphs), requires equipment, analysis/interpretation, generates results/conclusions, and results link back to modify the initial hypothesis iteratively. Overall, students made significant gains on the concept maps, showing greater depth in the number of concepts and their relationships. On average, students increased the number of the ten understood concepts listed above from 2.8 before the class to 5.4 afterwards.

  3. Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus [Medioambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

  4. Effects of rare earths in borax salt bath immersion vanadium carbide coating process on steel substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Liu; H. C. Wang; Y. Y. Li

    2008-01-01

    Various amounts of FeSiRe23, which were used as reducing agents, were added into typical borax salt bath used in thermal diffusion (TD) process to explore the effects of rare earths on borax salt bath vanadizing process and microstructure and properties of vanadium carbide coating. The effect results of rare earths on coating thicknesses at different process conditions showed that the

  5. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  6. Why Earth Science?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael J. Smith

    2004-05-01

    Nearly everything that we do each day is connected in some way to Earth--to its land, oceans, atmosphere, plants, and animals. To fully understand and appreciate our planet, students need to learn about its processes, its resources, and its environment. In 2004, the American Geological Institute (AGI) developed the "Why Earth Science?" brochure to help teachers, parents, and school boards to understand the value of Earth and space science to life, citizenship, and careers.

  7. Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: understanding trials using the normalization process model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl R May; Frances S Mair; Christopher F Dowrick; Tracy L Finch

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Normalization Process Model is a conceptual tool intended to assist in understanding the factors that affect implementation processes in clinical trials and other evaluations of complex interventions. It focuses on the ways that the implementation of complex interventions is shaped by problems of workability and integration. METHOD: In this paper the model is applied to two different complex

  8. Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulling, Azalie Cecile

    The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time as Piaget's system of time (e.g., chronological ordering of events, before and after relationships, duration or evolutionary time) was a necessary conceptual framework for students to develop a scientific understanding of deep time. An examination of students, worldviews and the interface of science and religion indicated that students often successfully applied a demarcation between science and religion in their public thinking (e.g., the formal classroom setting), but in their private thinking, the demarcation was often blurred.

  9. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lithograph depicts a view of Earth taken from Apollo 10 during its journey to the Moon in May 1969. False-color satellite images showing chlorophyll concentration, sea surface temperature, topography, and ozone concentration are also featured. The images are accompanied by a brief description, some statistical facts, and a list of important dates in the history of Earth exploration.

  10. Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and potential value as a resource for its intended audience. The reviewers' suggestions and comments are included. Conclusions and recommendations are suggested for further research on the utility of similar reference resources for the strengthening of content knowledge of practicing teachers.

  11. A Roast-Leach Process for Extraction of Rare Earths from Complex Monazite-Xenotime Concentrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Franken

    1995-01-01

    The proposed process approaches the problem of solubilizing rare-earth phosphates (monazite and xenotime) found at the Pea Ridge iron mine in Sullivan, MO, from both a pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical point of view. It utilizes a roasting operation that converts the rare-earth phosphates to rare-earth oxides (REOs), which eliminates some costly and hazardous processing steps currently in practice. Different combinations of

  12. Numerical simulation of collisional accretion process of the earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hayakawa; H. Mizutani; S. Kawakami; Y. Takagi

    1989-01-01

    The formation of the earth from 10 billion planetesimals of 8 km in diameter in a gas-rich environment is numerically studied, taking into account impact fragmentation, cratering erosion, rebound, and coagulation. The results show that, in the earth region, a body of about 5000 km in diameter is produced in 10 million yrs. A simple extrapolation of the growth curve

  13. Observing geologic processes and landforms using Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amy L Brock

    For the assignment, the students are given a series of placemarks in Google Earth. Using Google Earth, the students 'fly' to various areas around the world. They examine the landforms at each placemark and answer questions regarding the formation of these features. Designed for a geomorphology course Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

  14. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new ?18O and ?D measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from ?18O, ?D, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  15. Understand assumptions and know uncertainties: Boscovich and the motion of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Krajnovic, Davor

    2015-01-01

    The general prohibition of books advocating heliocentric theory put many progressive Jesuits in a difficult position. One of the most prominent Jesuit scientists of the 18th century, Rogerius Boscovich, was in particularly affected by conflicts between a beautifully simple theory of gravity by Newton, his Jesuit peripatetic education, Church doctrine and the lack of crucial experimental evidence for the motion of the Earth. I present the development of Boscovich's ideas prior to the lifting of the ban, and his retrospective considerations in later writings. These show that Boscovich's acceptance of the motion of the Earth was primarily driven by the existence of a working physical theory that also explained the motion of the Earth, and the lack of a consistent theory that supported any variation of a geocentric system.

  16. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x ? 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

  17. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AFFECTING THE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND YIELDING ABILITIES OF CULTIVATED CROPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rare earth elements affecting the biological processes and yielding abilities of cultivated crops. The research work was conducted at the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture in 1997-2002. For the trials a high- concentration original solution of rare earth elements (REE), resulting from the production process of AS Silmet, was used. REE solutions of different concentrations were used to treat the

  18. Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: Implications for resource utilization

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: Implications for resource utilization, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ ABSTRACT Crucial questions for possible utilization of Near Earth Asteroids include how to break asteroid materials down to particle sizes that can be processed. This remained

  19. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-03

    With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on our plant Earth. There is a section about water on earth and its many different varities, like freshwater, groundwater, and frozen water. There is information about the chemical make-up of water and many images showing the different water anvironments. There is a section about life in water, such as animals, plants, and plankton.

  20. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  1. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  2. Caries process on occlusal surfaces: evolving evidence and understanding.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, J C

    2014-01-01

    Management of the caries process on occlusal surfaces of permanent molars has proven a major challenge. The onset of caries on these surfaces takes place soon after their eruption, and the permanent first molars, followed by the second molars, remain the sites in the dentition which show the highest caries prevalence. This paper is structured in the form of questions and answers in which traditional concepts of caries susceptibility of occlusal surfaces are appraised and confronted with the current evidence. Then, research studies examining the role of biological determinants on the development and arrest of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are discussed. Finally, the contribution of these studies in terms of developing the available scientific evidence and our understanding of the caries process on occlusal surfaces is analyzed. The current evidence does not support the concept that the early onset and high prevalence of occlusal caries in young permanent teeth are due to a particularly low inherent resistance of the occlusal surface or due to the presence of inaccessible fissure-like structures on these surfaces. Evidence is provided to show that the most influential biological determinants of the development and arrest of occlusal caries are thick plaque accumulation on the groove-fossa system and the stage of tooth eruption limiting mechanical oral function. Consequently, active occlusal lesions are significantly more prevalent in erupting than in fully erupted teeth. The major contribution of this review is to provide updated knowledge about the biological principles determining the development and arrest of caries on occlusal surfaces of erupting teeth. PMID:24577073

  3. From Bursts to Back-Projection: Signal Processing Techniques for Earth and Planetary Observing Radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Discusses: (1) JPL Radar Overview and Historical Perspective (2) Signal Processing Needs in Earth and Planetary Radars (3) Examples of Current Systems and techniques (4) Future Perspectives in signal processing for radar missions

  4. As "Process" As It Can Get: Students' Understanding of Biological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barak, Judith; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes students' understanding of biological phenomena via the ontological categories of processes and matter. Analysis is based on tenth-grade students' explanations of biological phenomena such as photosynthesis, energy resources, temperature regulation, and the interrelationships between living and nonliving things. (Author/WRM)

  5. Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

    Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion picture industry relied upon establishing an accepted second space within the minds of their audiences. By the end of the study period, the universe accepted by most Americans was a "California Universe". It was not a discovery of pure science, but rather a cultural-scientific product of the Mount Wilson astronomers, the Pasadena community and the landscape and culture of Southern California.

  6. Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

  7. Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

  8. Mechanics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard V. Middleton; Peter R. Wilcock

    1994-01-01

    The study of the Earth and the environment requires an understanding of the physical processes within and at the surface of the Earth. This book will allow the student to develop a broad working knowledge of mechanics and its application to the earth and environmental sciences. The mathematics are introduced at a level that assumes only an understanding of first-year

  9. Using neural population decoding to understand high level visual processing

    E-print Network

    Poggio, Tomaso

    .A. Computer Science Oberlin College 2002 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BRAIN AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES. Tommy understands the benefit of taking many different approaches to studying the computations Meyers Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences October 28, 2010 Certified by

  10. Use of radionuclides to quantify load 509 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 509524 (2007)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2007-01-01

    Use of radionuclides to quantify load 509 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 509­524 (2007) Published online 6 September 2006

  11. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  12. he viscosity of Earth's upper mantle controls a wide range of processes, from

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    GREG HIRTH T he viscosity of Earth's upper mantle controls a wide range of processes, from with mantle convection and the dynamics of tectonic plates. This viscosity is logically inter- preted to be dominated by the physical prop- erties of olivine, the most abundant mineral in Earth's upper mantle

  13. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  14. Earth Science (A Process Approach), Section 1: The Water Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, K. C.; And Others

    Included is a collection of earth science laboratory activities, which may provide the junior or senior high school science teacher with ideas for activities in his program. The included 48 experiments are grouped into these areas: properties of matter; evaporation; atmospheric moisture and condensation; precipitation; moving water, subsurface…

  15. Earth as a System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH/Boston

    This short video uses animated imagery from satellite remote sensing systems to illustrate that Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. Adapted from NASA, this visualization helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education.

  16. 1154 D. R. Warren et al. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 11541163 (2007)

    E-print Network

    Hall Jr., Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    1154 D. R. Warren et al. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1154­1163 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1548 Forest age, wood and nutrient dynamics in headwater streams of the Hubbard Brook

  17. To understand the cognitive processes involved with probability judgment, decision making, and choice, to explore the implications these processes for

    E-print Network

    Dougherty, Michael

    at understanding the cognitive processes underlying diagnostic hypothesis generation and human judgment. >> When does the hypothesis generation process lead to biases in information search, hypothesis testing hypothesis generation processes in professional settings. 3 Inform the development of artificial intelligence

  18. An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burckin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual…

  19. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  20. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Chubb

    Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR's) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate

  1. Understanding the Process of Acculturation for Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, J. W.

    This paper reviews the concepts of acculturation and adaptation to provide a framework for understanding the highly variable relationship between acculturation and mental health in refugee populations. It begins with an extended definition and discussion of the concepts of acculturation and adaptation. The characteristics of acculturating groups…

  2. On Measurement and Understanding of Software Development Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Zhang; Audris Mockus

    Software systems are entities that change constantly throughout their lifetime. Understanding the relationship between different types of changes and the effect of these changes on project outcome is the key problem in software engineering. Primary software change activities involve adding new features and fixing defects. Our fundamental premise is that defects discovered and fixed during development are caused by implementation

  3. Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy

    E-print Network

    Banner, Jay L.

    Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical Accepted 23 June 2003 Abstract Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number

  4. Mountain permafrost dynamics within a recently exposed glacier forefield 1797 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 17971810 (2007)

    E-print Network

    Kääb, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1797­1810 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 1797­1810 (2007) Published online 8 February 2007

  5. 2108 D. J. Furbish, M. W. Schmeeckle and J. J. Roering Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 33, 21082117 (2008)

    E-print Network

    Roering, Joshua J.

    2008-01-01

    . Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 33, 2108­2117 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 33, 2108­2117 (2008) Published online 5 June 2008 in Wiley Inter

  6. The influence of riparian vegetation on near-bank turbulence: a flume experiment 2019 Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 20192037 (2007)

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    2007-01-01

    © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 2019­2037 (2007) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 2019­2037 (2007) Published online 17

  7. Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

    The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

  8. Non-thermal process for extracting rare earths from bastnaesite by means of mechanochemical treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiwu Zhang; Fumio Saito

    1998-01-01

    A novel process for extracting rare earths such as Ce, La contained in bastnaesite mineral (ReCO33F, Re = rare earths) has been developed in this work. This process is composed of three steps. The first step is milling of the mixture of bastnaesite and NaOH powders, forming mechanochemically Re(OH)3 and Na compounds. The second step is washing of the ground

  9. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott R. Chubb

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and

  10. On Atmospheric Loss of Oxygen Ions from Earth Through Magnetospheric Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, K.; Elphic, R. C.; Hirahara, M.; Terasawa, T.; Mukai, T.

    2001-05-01

    Earth's intrinsic magnetic field shields the upper atmosphere from direct interaction with the solar wind, and the direct escape of neutral oxygen through thermal and non-thermal processes, which is important for unmagnetized planets such as Venus and Mars, is small compared to the ion loss through magnetospheric processes. The intrinsic magnetic field facilitates a number of different plasma acceleration mechanisms at high latitudes. These acceleration mechanisms result in an observed outflow rate of ~7.2x1025 O+ ions/s with speeds above gravitational escape velocity averaged over the solar cycle [Yau et al., 1988]. However, the same global magnetic field that facilitates the ion acceleration processes may also mitigate this loss by trapping the ions and returning them to the atmosphere. In this paper, we examine loss rate of terrestrial atmospheric oxygen through magnetospheric processes by examining loss rates of four escape routes with high-altitude spacecraft observations. The estimated O+ loss rate is almost one order of magnitude smaller than the polar O+ outflow rate. This disagreement suggests that there is either a significant return flux from the magnetosphere to the low-latitude ionosphere or unknown loss process(es) of oxygen ions. In the former case, the gap in the O+ escape rates may indicate that the existence of a substantial intrinsic magnetic field can help a planet to keep its atmosphere. Alternatively in the latter case, a candidate of the unknown loss mechanism(s) may be escape of cold O+ ions at energies below 50 eV either to the magnetosheath or through the plasma sheet, which are difficult to observe in the magnetosphere without spacecraft potential control. Another candidate is the charge exchange loss of ring current ions that become dominated by O+ during magnetic storm periods. For further understanding, systematic ion-composition measurements in the magnetosheath and the plasma sheet as well as quantitative investigation of ring current loss mechanisms are needed.

  11. Towards a better understanding of the Earth's interior and geophysical exploration research "GOCE-GDC"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, P.; Baur, O.; Martinec, Z.; Sneeuw, N.; Tsoulis, D.; Vermeersen, B.; van der Wal, W.; Roth, M.; Sebera, J.; Valko, M.; Hoeck, E.

    2012-04-01

    Within the ESA STSE: GOCE+ Theme 2 a consortium of researchers from 6 European institutes investigates applications of GOCE gravity gradients in order to improve geophysical models in two different geographical areas. The first area, the Reykjanes Ridge close to Iceland, covers a mid-ocean ridge that plays a key role for creation of a new crust and for generation of ridge push driving partly plate motion. GOCE gravity gradients will be used for refined local density modelling that cannot uniquely be achieved through seismic measurements. In Africa, the second test area of the project, GOCE gravity gradients will be combined with seismic tomographic models of the continental lithospheric mantle (upper 200 km or so of the Earth's mantle that lies beneath the thin crustal layer) in order to refine an initial density model derived by 3-D modelling programs. To achieve these goals, GOCE gravity gradients will be used in combination with other available data sources such ground and marine gravity, altimetry, terrain elevation and density models, seismic tomographic and mantle flow models and crustal thickness models. However, the main target for the project is to demonstrate in particular benefits of GOCE gravity gradients for geophysical applications and interpretations.

  12. Architectural requirements of image understanding with respect to parallel processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLES C. WEEMS

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the architectural requirements for parallel processing in support of real-time, knowledge-based computer vision is given. One of the goals of this work is to provide an appreciation for the diversity, complexity, and computational intensity of vision processing. It begins with a description of common vision algorithms, analyzes their requirements in terms of the inherent structures that are

  13. Understanding tourism processes: a gender-aware framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Hall

    1996-01-01

    A gender-aware framework for the analysis of tourism development processes and tourismrelated activity is offered. The paper focuses on three crucial issues in the pursuit of such a framework. It is argued that, (1) tourism development processes and tourism-related activities are constructed out of gendered societies; (2) gender relations both inform, and are informed by the practices of all societies;

  14. New Advances in Understanding Northern Seasonal Processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, C. J.; Byrne, S.; Bourke, M.; Bridges, N.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; McEwen, A.; Mellon, M.; Pommerol, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.

    2014-07-01

    The sublimation of the seasonal CO2 polar caps is an active surface process in today's martian climate. Seasonal processes are responsible for changes in the morphology of the dunes of the north polar erg detected from one Mars year to the next.

  15. Using Maturity Assessments to Understand the ERP Requirements Engineering Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Daneva

    2002-01-01

    Applying standard requirements engineering (RE) processes is a major trend in today's Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software engineering. It emerged five years ago with the promise to provide a mechanism helping ERP project organizations deliver their business requirements timely and within budget. This paper looks in depth at a standard ERP RE process and seeks answers to four questions: how

  16. Understanding Local Structure Globally in Earth Science Remote Sensing Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Fetzer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Empirical probability distributions derived from the data are the signatures of physical processes generating the data. Distributions defined on different space-time windows can be compared and differences or changes can be attributed to physical processes. This presentation discusses on ways to reduce remote sensing data in a way that preserves information, focusing on the rate-distortion theory and using the entropy-constrained vector quantization algorithm.

  17. Release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during biomass pyrolysis and steam gasification process.

    PubMed

    Long, Jiang; Song, Hu; Jun, Xiang; Sheng, Su; Lun-Shi, Sun; Kai, Xu; Yao, Yao

    2012-07-01

    Investigating the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs) is of potential interest because of AAEM's possible useful service as catalysts in biomass thermal conversion. In this study, three kinds of typical Chinese biomass were selected to pyrolyse and their chars were subsequently steam gasified in a designed quartz fixed-bed reactor to investigate the release characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species (AAEMs). The results indicate that 53-76% of alkali metal and 27-40% of alkaline earth metal release in pyrolysis process, as well as 12-34% of alkali metal and 12-16% of alkaline earth metal evaporate in char gasification process, and temperature is not the only factor to impact AAEMs emission. The releasing characteristics of AAEMs during pyrolysis and char gasification process of three kinds of biomass were discussed in this paper. PMID:22525260

  18. Rare earth elements tracing the soil erosion processes on slope surface under natural rainfall.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingyong; Tan, Shuduan; Dang, Haishan; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-12-01

    A field experiment using rare earth elements (REEs) as tracers was conducted to investigate soil erosion processes on slope surfaces during rainfall events. A plot of 10m×2m×0.16m with a gradient of 20° (36.4%) was established and the plot was divided into two layers and four segments. Various REE tracers were applied to the different layers and segments to determine sediment dynamics under natural rainfall. Results indicated that sheet erosion accounted for more than 90% of total erosion when the rainfall amount and density was not large enough to generate concentrated flows. Sediment source changed in different sections on the slope surface, and the primary sediment source area tended to move upslope as erosion progressed. In rill erosion, sediment discharge mainly originated from the toe-slope and moved upwards as erosion intensified. The results obtained from this study suggest that multi-REE tracer technique is valuable in understanding the erosion processes and determining sediment sources. PMID:21839555

  19. Unified understanding of the valence transition in the rare-earth monochalcogenides under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrige, I.; Yamaoka, H.; Rueff, J.-P.; Lin, J.-F.; Taguchi, M.; Hiraoka, N.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Imura, K.; Matsumura, T.; Ochiai, A.; Suzuki, H. S.; Kotani, A.

    2013-03-01

    Valence instability is a key ingredient of the unusual properties of f electron materials, yet a clear understanding is lacking as it involves a complex interplay between f electrons and conduction states. Here we propose a unified picture of pressure-induced valence transition in Sm and Yb monochalcogenides, considered as a model system for mixed valent 4f-electron materials. Using high-resolution x-ray-absorption spectroscopy, we show that the valence transition is driven by the promotion of a 4f electron specifically into the lowest unoccupied (LU) 5d t2g band. We demonstrate with a promotional model that the nature of the transition at low pressures is intimately related to the density of states of the LU band, while at high pressures it is governed by the hybridization strength.

  20. Understanding mid-level representations in visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Peirce, Jonathan W.

    2015-01-01

    It is clear that early visual processing provides an image-based representation of the visual scene: Neurons in Striate cortex (V1) encode nothing about the meaning of a scene, but they do provide a great deal of information about the image features within it. The mechanisms of these “low-level” visual processes are relatively well understood. We can construct plausible models for how neurons, up to and including those in V1, build their representations from preceding inputs down to the level of photoreceptors. It is also clear that at some point we have a semantic, “high-level” representation of the visual scene because we can describe verbally the objects that we are viewing and their meaning to us. A huge number of studies are examining these “high-level” visual processes each year. Less well studied are the processes of “mid-level” vision, which presumably provide the bridge between these “low-level” representations of edges, colors, and lights and the “high-level” semantic representations of objects, faces, and scenes. This article and the special issue of papers in which it is published consider the nature of “mid-level” visual processing and some of the reasons why we might not have made as much progress in this domain as we would like. PMID:26053241

  1. Toward an understanding of energetic healing, Part 2: Energetic processes.

    PubMed

    Slater, V E

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the article are to discuss the role of consciousness and quantum processes in energetic healing and to present the author's theory of energetic healing. Two opposing views of consciousness are reviewed: consciousness as emerging from material processes and consciousness as primary. Three quantum physics' theories are discussed: potentiality/actuality, observer-created reality, and consciousness-created reality. Psychosynthesis is offered as a model for the dimensions of a psyche that could be involved in consciousness-created reality and in energetic healing. A theory of energetic healing is outlined and applied to holistic nursing. PMID:7650349

  2. Google Earth in the middle school geography classroom: Its impact on spatial literacy and place geography understanding of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgard, Kerri S. W.

    Success in today's globalized, multi-dimensional, and connected world requires individuals to have a variety of skill sets -- i.e. oracy, numeracy, literacy, as well as the ability to think spatially. Student's spatial literacy, based on various national and international assessment results, indicates that even though there have been gains in U.S. scores over the past decade, overall performance, including those specific to spatial skills, are still below proficiency. Existing studies focused on the potential of virtual learning environment technology to reach students in a variety of academic areas, but a need still exists to study specifically the phenomenon of using Google Earth as a potentially more useful pedagogical tool to develop spatial literacy than the currently employed methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which graphicacy achievement scores of students who were immersed in a Google Earth environment were different from students who were provided with only two-dimensional instruction for developing spatial skills. Situated learning theory and the work of Piaget and Inhelder's Child's Conception of Space provided the theoretical grounding from which this study evolved. The National Research Council's call to develop spatial literacy, as seen in Learning to Think Spatially , provided the impetus to begin research. The target population (N = 84) for this study consisted of eighth grade geography students at an upper Midwest Jr. High School during the 2009-2010 academic year. Students were assigned to the control or experimental group based on when they had geography class. Control group students ( n = 44) used two-dimensional PowerPoint images to complete activities, while experimental group students (n = 40) were immersed in the three-dimensional Google Earth world for activity completion. Research data was then compiled and statistically analyzed to answer five research questions developed for this study. One-way ANOVAs were run on data collected and no statistically significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. However, two of the five research questions yielded practically significant data that indicates students who used Google Earth outperformed their counterparts who used PowerPoint on pattern prediction and spatial relationship understanding.

  3. Introduction to Teaching Adults. Module 10: Understanding the Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David

    This module on the learning process is the tenth of 11 modules in the set, Introduction to Teaching Adults. Designed to meet the learning needs of part-time continuing education instructors, these modules can be used as resource materials for local workshops or study-discussion groups, as self-instruction (each module takes approximately two…

  4. Understanding the innovation adoption process of construction clients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hartmann; Geert Dewulf; Isabelle Reymen

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of clients in stimulating construction innovation seems to be controversial, little has been known about their innovation adoption behaviour. This paper presents first results of an ongoing research project the aim of which is to shed more light on the adoption processes of construction clients. We build up a conceptual framework that describes innovation adoption as a

  5. Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

  6. Toward Understanding Dynamic Annealing Processes in Irradiated Ceramics 

    E-print Network

    Myers, Michael

    2013-03-04

    of the evolution of defects after damage cascade thermalization, referred to as dynamic annealing, is quite limited. Unraveling the mechanisms associated with dynamic annealing is crucial since such processes play an important role in the formation of stable post-irradiation...

  7. Understanding VAS valuations: qualitative data on the cognitive process.

    PubMed

    van Osch, Sylvie M C; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2005-12-01

    Eliciting people's value is a central pursuit in health economics. We explored approaches to valuing a health state on a visual analog scale (VAS). Additionally, we examined whether dual processing (an interaction between automatic and controlled information processing) occurred during VAS valuation. In the first experiment, respondents were probed for their approach after valuation on a VAS. After inductive generalization, we grouped the approaches: (1) 'Sort-of ' (automatic processing), (2) 'Bisection of line first', (3) 'Numerical expression', and (4) 'Dividing into smaller segments'. In the second experiment, a short questionnaire followed the VAS in which these approaches were systematically assessed, as was awareness of the approach used, intention to re-use the approach the next time (confidence), and basis of the approach. Data showed that the 'Sort-of' approach was used most often, followed by the 'Bisection-first' approach. We argue that dual processing occurs during performance on the VAS. Awareness of the approach used was lower when an intuitive approach was used. A reasoned approach had a higher correlation with confidence. Thus, awareness of approach may improve reliability. Reducing the number of health states to be valued concurrently diminishes the complexity of the task; this may enhance the validity of the VAS. PMID:16328897

  8. Using Process Journals to Gain Qualitative Understanding of Beginning Programmers

    E-print Network

    Lewandowski, Gary - Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Xavier University

    with others in the course? Is the student's workstyle appropriate for long-term success? Are there obvious presents a qualitative analysis of the journals from a data structures course, categorizing the broad of this qualitative analysis is to answer the questions, "what sort of information do you see in a process journal

  9. Pack carburizing process for earth boring drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, R.W.; Scott, D.E.; Poland, J.R.

    1987-02-17

    A method is described of manufacturing an earth boring drill bit of the type having a bearing pin extending from a head section of the drill bit for rotatably mounting a cutter, comprising the steps of: providing a container having opposing end openings with sidewalls therebetween which define a container interior; placing the container over a portion of the head section so that the pin extends within the interior of the container; installing a spring spacer within the interior of the container about at least a portion of the circumference of the bearing pin at least one axial location; packing the container with a particulate treating medium; covering the container; and placing the pin and container into a furnace for a time and at a temperature to activate the treating medium.

  10. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Pope, E.; Bird, D.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth's surface and interior cooled following the moon-forming impact. The oceans passed through conditions favored by thermophile organisms before becoming clement. Ocean pH was ~6 and bars of CO2 existed in the atmosphere. Subduction removed the CO2 into the mantle before the time of rock record. Serpentinite likely existed in land, tidal, and marine environments as it does today. Seafloor spreading and arc volcanism likely drove hydrothermal circulation. The late heavy bombardment occurred after ca. 4.1 Ga; low heat flow environments and hence habitable subsurface refugia existed. It is conceivable that one or a few ocean-boiling impacts left thermophile survivors in their wake. Overall, the molecular biology of extant life likely conserves features that relate to its earliest abodes.

  11. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. V. Zharkova; K. Arzner; A. O. Benz; P. Browning; C. Dauphin; A. G. Emslie; L. Fletcher; E. P. Kontar; G. Mann; M. Onofri; V. Petrosian; R. Turkmani; N. Vilmer; L. Vlahos

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions\\u000a of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional\\u000a magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in\\u000a a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared.

  12. Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Precipitation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2002-01-01

    One of the most promising methods to test the representation of cloud processes used in climate models is to use observations together with Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The CRMs use more sophisticated and realistic representations of cloud microphysical processes, and they can reasonably well resolve the time evolution, structure, and life cycles of clouds and cloud systems (size about 2-200 km). The CRMs also allow explicit interaction between out-going longwave (cooling) and incoming solar (heating) radiation with clouds. Observations can provide the initial conditions and validation for CRM results. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model, a cloud-resolving model, has been developed and improved at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center over the past two decades. Dr. Joanne Simpson played a central role in GCE modeling developments and applications. She was the lead author or co-author on more than forty GCE modeling papers. In this paper, a brief discussion and review of the application of the GCE model to (1) cloud interactions and mergers, (2) convective and stratiform interaction, (3) mechanisms of cloud-radiation interaction, (4) latent heating profiles and TRMM, and (5) responses of cloud systems to large-scale processes are provided. Comparisons between the GCE model's results, other cloud-resolving model results and observations are also examined.

  13. Near-Earth dipolarization: Evidence for a non-MHD process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. T. Y. Lui; K. Liou; M. Nosé; S. Ohtani; D. J. Williams; T. Mukai; K. Tsuruda; S. Kokubun

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated a near-Earth depolarization event in the midnight sector using simultaneous observations of Polar and Geotail. We have found evidence for near-Earth depolarization to be a non-MHD process: depolarization occurring without significant plasma flow or with tailward flow and during dawnward electric field different from that inferred based on the frozen-in condition. These observations are inconsistent with the

  14. Rare-earth-doped materials for applications in quantum information storage and signal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Thiel; Thomas Böttger; R. L. Cone

    2011-01-01

    Realization of practical quantum memory and optical signal processing systems critically depends on suitable materials that offer specific combinations of properties. Solid-state materials such as rare-earth ions doped into dielectric crystals are one of the most promising candidates for several quantum information storage protocols, including quantum storage of single photons. This article provides an overview of rare-earth-doped material properties and

  15. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  16. Understanding Meso- and Micro-scale Coupling of Near Earth Plasmas (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2010-12-01

    Known meso-scale processes include the polar wind and plasmaspheric plumes, consisting mainly of light ions, and generic auroral ionospheric heating processes, which add heavy ion outflows including O+ and atmospheric molecular ions to the light ion outflows. Known micro-scale processes include Alfvén waves propagating into the ionosphere from turbulent magnetospheric boundary layers, current-driven instabilities leading to lower hybrid waves in the auroral acceleration region near 1 Re altitude, and convection and shear driven instabilities along auroral flux tubes, including pick-up ion ring beam relaxation in the topside, and Joule-frictional heating in the F region. Much of the latter is sunk into the neutral gas, leading to observable upwelling features above the auroras. Plasma outflows are observed to be dominated by superthermal (eV to 10's eV) ions that are transversely heated and whose flux rises in a power law relationship to the incident DC and AC Poynting (EM) fluxes and the density of precipitating hot electrons. These facts are thought consistent with lifting of ions by the ambipolar electric field, enhanced by superthermal electron precipitation, combined with heating and-or ponderomotive forcing of the ions by broadband cyclotron frequency range waves. The ambipolar electric field is reasonably well understood, but the source of ion resonant waves is indeterminate and their amplitudes cannot be derived from macroscopic disturbance conditions such as MHD field, current, and plasma conditions. The Outstanding Question in all this is "what are the mechanisms by which solar wind energy flux is dissipated in ionospheric plasmas to produce enhanced outflow?" To answer this question, a new mission is needed to provide a comprehensive picture of ionospheric mass ejection, including: i) detailed observations of the 3D energy-angle distribution of transversely accelerated ions and electrons down to thermal energies of ~0.1 eV; ii) control of plasma sensor potential at the plasma potential; iv) observation of BBELF wavelengths as well as frequencies for mode identification; v) observations of auroral neutral gas upwelling that go beyond recent accelerometer missions. Such a mission should deliver simultaneous conjugate diagnostics from the F region (250-300 km), from the exobase region (500-1300 km), and from the auroral acceleration region (4000-6000 km). Ionospheric observations could be provided by incoherent scatter radar.

  17. Simulation approach to understanding the processes that structure food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, H.I.; Gardner, R.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Post, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    A simulation model of food web dynamics, WEB, was constructed and used in Monte Carlo experiments to study the relationship between structure and function in food webs. Four main experiments were designed using WEB. The first tested the robustness of food web structures at equilibrium to variations in the functional response of predators in the food web to the densities of their prey. The second experiment clarified the roles of predation and resource limitation in the process of structuring food webs. A third experiment studied the influence of productivity on food web structure and function using simulated food webs. The final experiment was designed to study the differential successes of generalists and specialists. The main advantage gained by using a simulation approach in each of these experiments was the ability to assess the roles played by processes of predation and competition in structuring model food webs. This was accomplished by interpreting the order of extinction events that occurred in the simulations and relating these to the species configurations at equilibrium. 61 references, 23 figures.

  18. Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

  19. Understanding soil processes: one of the last frontiers in biological and ecological research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Soils are one of the great unknown realms on earth, despite decades of extensive research. We still see soils “through a ped\\u000a darkly”. This opacity in milieu and understanding rewards innovative study, however, as soils are indeed “complex adaptive\\u000a systems”, and show very sophisticated levels of self-organization. Viewed historically, soil ecological studies have progressed\\u000a from what major groups of biota

  20. TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloetingh, S.; Topo-Europe Science Community, The

    2009-04-01

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This directly affects local geo- ecosystems and human settlements. On the other hand, declining water levels and uplift may lead to a higher risk of erosion and even desertification. Similar examples could be given for groundwater, early life and climate change. Studying these aspects in an integrated way is essential to forward solid Earth Sciences in response to the needs of society (see http://www.yearofplanetearth.org/). To quantify topography evolution in space and time, understanding of the coupled deep Earth and surface processes is a requisite. The TOPO-EUROPE initiative of the International Lithophere Program (ILP) addresses the 4-D topography of the orogens and intra-plate regions of Europe through a multidisciplinary approach linking geology, geophysics, geodesy and geotechnology. TOPO-EUROPE integrates monitoring, imaging, reconstruction and modelling of the interplay between processes controlling continental topography and related natural hazards. Until now, research on neotectonics and related topography development of orogens and intra-plate regions has received little attention. TOPO-EUROPE initiates a number of novel studies on the quantification of rates of vertical motions, related tectonically controlled river evolution and land subsidence in carefully selected natural laboratories in Europe. From orogen through platform to continental margin, these natural laboratories include the Alps/Carpathians-Pannonian Basin System, the West and Central European Platform, the Apennines-Tyrrhenian-Maghrebian and the Aegean-Anatolian regions, the Iberian Peninsula and the Scandinavian Continental Margin. TOPO-EUROPE integrates European research facilities and know- how essential to advance the understanding of the role of topography in Earth System Dynamics. The principal objective of the network is twofold. Namely, to integrate national research programs into a common European network and, furthermore, to integrate activities among TOPO-EUROPE institutes and participants. Key objectives are to provide an interdisciplinary forum to share knowledge and information in the field of the neotectonic and topographic evolution of Europe, to promote and encourage multidisciplinary research on a truly European scale, to increase mobility of scientists and to train young scientists. An important step has been the selection in early 2008 by the European Science Foundation (ESF) of TOPO-EUROPE as one of its large scale European collaborative research initiatives (EUROCORES). In response to the ESF call for proposals, 42 outline proposals were submitted, resulting in 22 full proposals submitted for international peer-review. Out of these, ten collaborative research projects (CRP's) were selected for the ESF EUROCORES TOPO-EUROPE, with a total funding of 13 million Euro (M 18) and new research positions for more than 50 PhD students and post-doctoral researchers.

  1. Distributed geospatial information processing: sharing distributed geospatial resources to support Digital Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaowei Yang; Wenwen Li; Jibo Xie; Bin Zhou

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a new concept, distributed geospatial information processing (DGIP), which refers to the process of geospatial information residing on computers geographically dispersed and connected through computer networks, and the contribution of DGIP to Digital Earth (DE). The DGIP plays a critical role in integrating the widely distributed geospatial resources to support the DE envisioned to utilise a wide

  2. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  3. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  4. Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-11-DP1: Exploring early solar system processes using Cr isotopes Supervisors: Dr D in the early solar system and the processes that have led to the formation of the terrestrial planets. Stable an effective approach for unravelling the complex chemistry of the early solar system as recorded in meteorites

  5. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    E-print Network

    Zharkova, Valentina V; Benz, Arnold O; Browning, Phillippa; Dauphin, Cyril; Emslie, A Gordon; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Kontar, Eduard P; Mann, Gottfried; Onofri, Marco; Petrosian, Vahe; Turkmani, Rim; Vilmer, Nicole; Vlahos, Loukas

    2011-01-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  6. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Arzner, K.; Benz, A. O.; Browning, P.; Dauphin, C.; Emslie, A. G.; Fletcher, L.; Kontar, E. P.; Mann, G.; Onofri, M.; Petrosian, V.; Turkmani, R.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2011-09-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  7. Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

    2004-12-01

    Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition, because precipitation patterns in this semi-arid region tend to be temporally distributed, storage and global climate change issues are significant.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and Earth-system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Ebisuzaki, Wesley; Maasch, Kirk A.; Oglesby, Robert; Pandolfo, Lionel

    1990-01-01

    Researchers are continuing their studies of the nonlinear dynamics of global weather systems. Sensitivity analyses of large-scale dynamical models of the atmosphere (i.e., general circulation models i.e., GCM's) were performed to establish the role of satellite-signatures of soil moisture, sea surface temperature, snow cover, and sea ice as crucial boundary conditions determining global weather variability. To complete their study of the bimodality of the planetary wave states, they are using the dynamical systems approach to construct a low-order theoretical explanation of this phenomenon. This work should have important implications for extended range forecasting of low-frequency oscillations, elucidating the mechanisms for the transitions between the two wave modes. Researchers are using the methods of jump analysis and attractor dimension analysis to examine the long-term satellite records of significant variables (e.g., long wave radiation, and cloud amount), to explore the nature of mode transitions in the atmosphere, and to determine the minimum number of equations needed to describe the main weather variations with a low-order dynamical system. Where feasible they will continue to explore the applicability of the methods of complex dynamical systems analysis to the study of the global earth-system from an integrative viewpoint involving the roles of geochemical cycling and the interactive behavior of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

  9. Integrating high-precision U-Pb geochronologic data with dynamic models of earth processes

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, Terrence (Terrence Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopic dating can provide critical constraints for understanding the rates of tectonic, dynamic and biologic processes operating on our planet. Improving the interpretation and implementation of geochronologic data ...

  10. Understanding earthquake source processes with spatial random field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquake rupture is a complex mechanical process that can be formulated as a dynamically running shear crack on a frictional interface embedded in an elastic continuum. This type of dynamic description of earthquake rupture is often preferred among researchers because they believe the kinematic description is likely to miss physical constraints introduced by dynamic approaches and to lead to arbitrary and nonphysical kinematic fault motions. However, dynamic rupture modeling, although they produce physically consistent models, often uses arbitrary input parameters, e.g., stress and fracture energy, partially because they are more difficult to constrain with data compared to kinematic ones. I propose to describe earthquake rupture as a stochastic model with a set of random variables (e.g., random field) that represent the spatial distribution of kinematic source parameters such as slip, rupture velocity, slip duration and velocity. This is a kinematic description of earthquake rupture in the sense that a model is formulated with kinematic parameters, but since the model can be constrained by both rupture dynamics and data, it may have both physical and observational constraints inside. The stochastic model is formulated by quantifying the 1-point and 2-point statistics of the kinematic parameters. 1-point statistics define a marginal probability density function for a certain source parameter at a given point on a fault. For example, a probability distribution for earthquake slip at a given point can control a possible range of values taken by earthquake slip and their likelihood. In the same way, we can control the existence of supershear rupture with a 1-point variability of the rupture velocity. Two point statistics, i.e. auto- and cross-coherence between source parameters, control the heterogeneity of each source parameter and their coupling, respectively. Several interesting features of earthquake rupture have been found by investigating cross-coherence structure of both kinematic and dynamic rupture models. For instance, the correlation maximum between slip and rupture velocity can be shifted from zero offset, i.e. large slip may generate faster rupture velocity ahead of the current rupture front, which may be important for rupture directivity. This type of statistical analysis may too much simplify actual rupture processes, but it could be an efficient tool to provide a simplified view of otherwise complex rupture processes. The remaining issue is how well we can constrain the stochastic model by dynamic rupture modeling, kinematic source inversion, and laboratory experiments, etc. In practice, this stochastic model can be used as a physics-based rupture model generator for ground motion simulation. By simply drawing samples, e.g., Monte Carlo sampling, following a target stochastic model, we can generate physically consistent rupture scenarios in the sense that the target stochastic model is constrained by both rupture dynamics and data. Additionally since this model constrains a possible range of rupture scenarios for future events and quantify their variability within the range, it can be used as a basis to develop an extended earthquake rupture forecast model (eERF) for full-waveform-simulation-based hazard analysis.

  11. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  12. Improved understanding of the spark plasma sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Dale; Livingston, Roger; Liebenberg, Donald

    2015-05-01

    The process by which spark plasma sintering produces high densification of powder specimens is examined to determine the role of sparks and plasma. Measurements are reported of the electromagnetic emission during the pulsing current using the state-of-the-art Tektronix MDO4104B-6 to obtain voltage vs time and simultaneously radio frequency (rf) emission in selected power vs frequency regions. The results show strong rf emission over the selected frequency region 0-160 kHz during pulsing and nearly an order of magnitude decrease of power during pulsing but in the gap (no pulse). These measurements showed no rf emission dependence on the electrical conductivity of the specimen or with current levels between 0-500 A and support the conclusion that no sparking or plasma production takes place in the specimen. The steep slope of the current vs time profile is demonstrated to produce the rf emission in a manner described by Hertz and is suggested to provide forces on the sintering material that encourage densification.

  13. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades.

    PubMed

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades-that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web-varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic 'top-down' cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled 'bottom-up' cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

  14. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  15. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  16. Geographic Information Processing: Standards-Based Open Source Visualization Technology for Environmental Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Hogan; Tom Gaskins

    Environmental security is a global issue that will increasingly affect our ability to survive as a species. Collectively we\\u000a must better appreciate the complex relationships that make life on Earth possible. Providing geographic information in its\\u000a native context can accelerate our ability to process that information. To maximize this ability to process information, three\\u000a basic elements are required: data delivery

  17. This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the processes that influence the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this understanding to read the record of earth history: Crises of a Planet -- Impact of civilization on planet earth, and impact of earth's natural evolution Requirement (select one)* GEOL 105: Planet Earth GEOL 107: Oceanography GEOL 108: Crises of a Planet GEOL

  18. This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the processes that influence the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this understanding to read the record of earth history: Crises of a Planet -- Impact of civilization on planet earth, and impact of earth's natural evolution Introductory Course Requirement (select one)* GEOL 105: Planet Earth GEOL 107: Oceanography GEOL 108: Crises

  19. Image data processing of earth resources management. [technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desio, A. W.

    1974-01-01

    Various image processing and information extraction systems are described along with the design and operation of an interactive multispectral information system, IMAGE 100. Analyses of ERTS data, using IMAGE 100, over a number of U.S. sites are presented. The following analyses are included: investigations of crop inventory and management using remote sensing; and (2) land cover classification for environmental impact assessments. Results show that useful information is provided by IMAGE 100 analyses of ERTS data in digital form.

  20. Understanding surface processes 3D imaging from micro-scale to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin; Guerin, Antoine; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Michoud, Clément; Nicolet, Pierrick; Penna, Ivanna; Rudaz, Benjamin; Voumard, Jeremie; Wyser, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The production of topography using remote sensing techniques has considerably been improved during the last fifteen years due to the advances in electronics and to the increase of computing power. The earth surface is monitored at all the scales using Space Shuttle Missions (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), or using laser scanner (LS), both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS), with accuracies that can reach up to less than 50 microns for observations of objects at meter scale. Recently, photogrammetry has been pushed by the progress of LiDAR and thanks to the advance in image recognition. It led to the development of new techniques such as structure-from-motion (SFM), which allows obtaining 3D point cloud based on several pictures of the same object taken from several point of views. Both LiDAR and Photogrammetry produce 3D point clouds. One of the current 3D applications is the surface changes, which is often based simply on the subtraction of DEM at different time intervals, leading to a simple superficial description of the natural processes without information on the mass transport. However, a point cloud has much more information than a simple surface. For instance, shape recognition can be used to track objects or deformations such as a rock mass toppling, either using the shape of the point cloud or a specific moving element. Such method permits, for instance, to study in detail pre-failure accelerations, and are now routinely used in mining industry. Other methods are coupling images and DEMs and are used, for example, to capture the surface vectors of displacements in order to deduce the surface deformations of landslides. These types of surveys have now broad applications to all kinds of erosional processes. The coastal retreat can be monitored, and it displays in some places several centimetres per year of retreat on average. The sediment transports in torrent are now better constraint showing clearly pulses. The seasonal cycles can as well be detected either for debris-flows prone catchments or at the level of the soil erosion such as in black marls context. In addition, the application of these methods to micro-scale erosional processes such as raindrop erosion permits to open new perspective in the understanding of the soil erosion that is a major threat. Last but not least, these fine topographies can be used to map geology not only by the morphometric attribute but also by the intensity of the laser or by images from other sources, providing useful tools for lithological mapping. Therefore, the erosion processes are even better tackled, as it has been demonstrated for instance on granite cliffs. Furthermore, the use of surface information such as slope aspect etc. can give information on the ground structure. Large domains of research are now being opened, providing great perspectives in earth surface dynamics.

  1. The earth as a living planet: Human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process

    E-print Network

    Contoyiannis, Y F; Eftaxias, K

    2013-01-01

    The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic feat...

  2. A review of the current understanding of seismic shear-wave splitting in the Earth’s crust and common fallacies in interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Crampin; Sheila Peacock

    2008-01-01

    Azimuthally-aligned shear-wave splitting is widely observed in the Earth’s crust. The splitting is diagnostic of some form of seismic anisotropy, although the cause of this anisotropy has been sometimes disputed. The evidence in this review unquestionably indicates cracks, specifically stress-aligned fluid-saturated microcracks, as the predominant cause of the azimuthally-aligned shear-wave splitting in the crust. Although, in principle, shear-wave splitting is

  3. Process understanding on high shear granulated lactose agglomerates during and after drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. S. Nieuwmeyer

    2009-01-01

    In 2001 the FDA launched the Process Analytical Technology initiative as a response to the growing public and industrial awareness that there is a lack of process understanding required to have an optimal control of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The current research project was initiated based upon the insight that critical process and product attributes can only be acknowledged upon a thorough

  4. Image Understanding: A Driving Application for Research in Heterogeneous Parallel Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Weems Jr

    1993-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of image understanding, or knowledge-based computer vision, from the perspective of a driving application for research into heterogeneous parallel processing. Image understanding is so rich in its diversity of methodologies and so inherently computational intensive that it naturally demands a very heterogeneous mix of parallelism. This paper begins by exploring some of the diversity of

  5. Evaluating and improving CLM hydrologic processes for integrated earth system modeling at regional scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Huang; L. Leung; M. S. Wigmosta; A. M. Coleman; Y. Ke; T. K. Tesfa; H. Li

    2010-01-01

    The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being

  6. Visualization of Earth and Space Science Data at JPL's Science Data Processing Systems Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William B.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of systems in use at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for processing data returned by space exploration and earth observations spacecraft. Graphical and visualization techniques used to query and retrieve data from large scientific data bases will be described.

  7. TOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    TOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes S.A.P.L. Cloetingh ,1 , P. Soesoo, W. Spakman, R.A. Stephenson, H. Thybo, T. Torsvik, G. de Vicente, F. Wenzel, M.J.R. Wortel, TOPO-EUROPE Working Group2 Received 1 June 2006; accepted 2 February 2007 Available online 19 April 2007 Abstract TOPO-EUROPE

  8. Multiprocessor DSP for real-time data processing on Earth orbiting scatterometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, A.; Clark, D.; Lux, J.; Steffke, R.

    2000-01-01

    The implementation of a Multi DSP radar signal processor for a Ku-Band Earth orbiting scatterometer is discussed. A testbed has been assembled using a combination of commercial DSP hardware and spaceflight components to evaluate the proposed multiprocessing approaches. Test results of real-time radar echo processing are presented, as well as proposed designs for future investigation.

  9. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

  10. Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional reservoirs: the Upper Jurassic Vaca

    E-print Network

    Henderson, Gideon

    Linking sedimentological, stratigraphic and diagenetic processes to understand unconventional as to the scale of sedimentological variability within mudstone successions, and how related diagenetic alteration by Profs Taylor and Flint, to document the scale of sedimentological and diagenetic variability

  11. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  12. Establishment and Implementation of a Close Approach Evaluation and Avoidance Process for Earth Observing System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri; Duncan, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, the Earth Science Mission Operations Project tasked the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSPC) Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch with establishment of a process to protect the high-value Earth Observing System (EOS) missions (Terra, Aqua, and Aura) from close approaches with space debris and other orbiting objects. An agreement between GSFC and the United States Strategic Command was put in place so that close approach predictions would be routinely generated. This paper describes the ESMO conjunction assessment process for the EOS satellites. Process details, including tools and algorithms developed, are discussed. Particular details for a predicted close approach between Terra and a piece of space debris that resulted in the execution of a debris avoidance maneuver are included. This close approach example is described in detail fiom the first screening identification through execution of the mitigation maneuver to illustrate both the process and lessons learned fiom its implementation.

  13. Intelligent Optimal Control in Rare-Earth Countercurrent Extraction Process via Soft-Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Yang; Chunyan Yang; Chonghui Song; Tianyou Chai

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a According to the problems in the on-line measurement and automatic control of component content in rare-earth countercurrent\\u000a extraction process, soft sensor strategies based on the mechanism modeling of the extraction process and neural network technology\\u000a are proposed. On this basis, the intelligent optimal control strategy is provided by combining the technologies based on soft\\u000a sensor and CBR (case-based reasoning) for

  14. [A story for children to help children with HIV understand the health-disease process].

    PubMed

    Brondani, Jeanine Porto; Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim

    2013-03-01

    This study analyzed how a story for children related to AIDS contributed to the understanding of the health-disease process of children with HIV. It was conducted at the Pediatric Clinic in Porto Alegre/RS from May to December 2011. The participants were five children aged between seven and nine years and their caregivers. The data were collected by a focal group through interviews and submitted to thematic content analysis. Two categories were found: identification with the story, relationship with the health-disease process, understanding of the story, and the health-disease process. The results demonstrated that stories for children are resources to talk about the health-disease process with children without revealing the diagnosis, leading them to understand their situation and the importance of treatment. We considered that this resource may be a strategy to help the caregivers and health professionals to initiate the process of revelation of diagnosis. PMID:23781719

  15. Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

  16. [Anthropology, ethnography, and narrative: intersecting paths in understanding the processes of health and sickness].

    PubMed

    Costa, Gabriela M C; Gualda, Dulce M R

    2010-12-01

    The article discusses anthropology, ethnographic method, and narrative as possible ways of coming to know subjects' experiences and the feelings they attribute to them. From an anthropological perspective, the sociocultural universe is taken as a point of reference in understanding the meaning of the processes of health and sickness, using a dense ethnographic description from an interpretivist analytical approach. In this context, narratives afford possible paths to understanding how subjective human experiences are shared and how behavior is organized, with a special focus on meaning, the process by which stories are produced, relations between narrator and other subjects, processes of knowledge, and the manifold ways in which experience can be captured. PMID:21461458

  17. MT+, integrating magnetotellurics to determine earth structure, physical state, and processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedrosian, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    As one of the few deep-earth imaging techniques, magnetotellurics provides information on both the structure and physical state of the crust and upper mantle. Magnetotellurics is sensitive to electrical conductivity, which varies within the earth by many orders of magnitude and is modified by a range of earth processes. As with all geophysical techniques, magnetotellurics has a non-unique inverse problem and has limitations in resolution and sensitivity. As such, an integrated approach, either via the joint interpretation of independent geophysical models, or through the simultaneous inversion of independent data sets is valuable, and at times essential to an accurate interpretation. Magnetotelluric data and models are increasingly integrated with geological, geophysical and geochemical information. This review considers recent studies that illustrate the ways in which such information is combined, from qualitative comparisons to statistical correlation studies to multi-property inversions. Also emphasized are the range of problems addressed by these integrated approaches, and their value in elucidating earth structure, physical state, and processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  18. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  19. Use of Commercial Data Loggers to Develop Process Understanding in Pharmaceutical Unit Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle E. Staben Wobker; Amit Mehrotra; Barry H. Carter

    2010-01-01

    Due to the growing emphasis on quality by design during pharmaceutical development, accurate process data collection has become\\u000a even more crucial. While process analytical technology has emphasized complex spectroscopic techniques, univariate measurements\\u000a can provide data to develop further process understanding, such as assessing the impact of operating conditions on downstream\\u000a product attributes or spatially mapping the equipment environment for building

  20. A new hydrometallurgical process for extracting rare earths from apatite using solvent extraction with P 350

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongfei Li; Fuqiang Guo; Zhifeng Zhang; Deqian Li; Zhonghuai Wang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new process is proposed to recover rare earths from nitric acid leaching of apatite without interfering with the normal route for fertilizer production using solvent extraction with dimethyl heptyl methyl phosphonate CH3P(O)(OC8H17)2 (P350, B). In the present work, the leaching conditions are studied. In selected condition, apatite was dissolved in 20% (v\\/v) nitric acid solution at

  1. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  2. Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Fusselman; J. J. Roy; D. L. Grimmett

    1999-01-01

    The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten

  3. Understanding and Shifting Drug-Related Decisions: Contributions of Automatic Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth M; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P

    2015-08-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  4. The Earth as a living planet: human-type diseases in the earthquake preparation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoyiannis, Y. F.; Potirakis, S. M.; Eftaxias, K.

    2013-01-01

    The new field of complex systems supports the view that a number of systems arising from disciplines as diverse as physics, biology, engineering, and economics may have certain quantitative features that are intriguingly similar. The Earth is a living planet where many complex systems run perfectly without stopping at all. The earthquake generation is a fundamental sign that the Earth is a living planet. Recently, analyses have shown that human-brain-type disease appears during the earthquake generation process. Herein, we show that human-heart-type disease appears during the earthquake preparation of the earthquake process. The investigation is mainly attempted by means of critical phenomena, which have been proposed as the likely paradigm to explain the origins of both heart electric fluctuations and fracture-induced electromagnetic fluctuations. We show that a time window of the damage evolution within the heterogeneous Earth's crust and the healthy heart's electrical action present the characteristic features of the critical point of a thermal second-order phase transition. A dramatic breakdown of critical characteristics appears in the tail of the fracture process of heterogeneous system and the injured heart's electrical action. Analyses by means of Hurst exponent and wavelet decomposition further support the hypothesis that a dynamical analogy exists between the geological and biological systems under study.

  5. Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara Jane; McPartland, James

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological studies of face processing and discusses hypotheses for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. Based on results of behavioral studies, this study demonstrates that individuals with autism have impaired face discrimination and recognition and use atypical strategies for processing faces characterized by reduced attention to the eyes and piecemeal rather than configural strategies. Based on results of electrophysiological studies, this article concludes that face processing impairments are present early in autism, by 3 years of age. Such studies have detected abnormalities in both early (N170 reflecting structural encoding) and late (NC reflecting recognition memory) stages of face processing. Event-related potential studies of young children and adults with autism have found slower speed of processing of faces, a failure to show the expected speed advantage of processing faces versus nonface stimuli, and atypical scalp topography suggesting abnormal cortical specialization for face processing. Other electrophysiological studies have suggested that autism is associated with early and late stage processing impairments of facial expressions of emotion (fear) and decreased perceptual binding as reflected in reduced gamma during face processing. This article describes two types of hypotheses-cognitive/perceptual and motivational/affective--that offer frameworks for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. This article discusses implications for intervention. PMID:15843104

  6. Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  7. Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

  8. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

  9. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  10. Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Understanding Wax Printing: A Simple Micropatterning Process for Paper-Based Microfluidics Emanuel a detailed study on wax printing, a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating microfluidic devices in paper using a commercially avail- able printer and hot plate. The printer prints patterns of solid wax

  11. Understanding the Process of Science by Students Exposed to Different Science Curricula in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1972-01-01

    The contributions of Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Chemical Education Materials Study, and the Physical Science Study Committee courses to the understanding of science among Israeli students are compared. Changes in science process inventory scores in concurrent courses in grades 9-12 are examined. Common misunderstandings about the nature…

  12. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  13. Introduction to Biological Data Analysis and Statistics Steps in the process of understanding data

    E-print Network

    Gross, Louis J.

    Introduction to Biological Data Analysis and Statistics Steps in the process of understanding data "descriptive statistics" in which the objective is to abstract out certain properties of the data in order in the complete data set. An objective in descriptive statistics is to choose the appropriate level of description

  14. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  15. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  16. Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

    2013-01-01

    A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

  17. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  18. Why geography? Geographers study the earth's landscapes,

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    and the interactions between them. Geography bridges the social sciences (human geography) and natural sciencesWhy geography? Geographers study the earth's landscapes, people and environment (physical geography). It is concerned with understanding the interactions between natural processes

  19. New developments in understanding the r-process from observations of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2015-04-01

    In their atmospheres, old metal-poor Galactic stars retain detailed information about the chemical composition of the interstellar medium at the time of their birth. Extracting such stellar abundances enables us to reconstruct the beginning of the chemical evolution shortly after the Big Bang. About 5% of metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < - 2 . 5 display in their spectrum a strong enhancement of neutron-capture elements associated with the rapid (r-) nucleosynthesis process that is responsible for the production of the heaviest elements in the Universe. This fortuity provides a unique opportunity of bringing together astrophysics and nuclear physics because these objects act as ``cosmic lab'' for both fields of study. The so-called r-process stars are thought to have formed from material enriched in heavy neutron-capture elements that were created during an r-process event in a previous generation supernova. It appears that the few stars known with this rare chemical signature all follow the scaled solar r-process pattern (for the heaviest elements with 56 <= Z <= 90 that is). This suggests that the r-process is universal - a surprising empirical finding and a solid result that can not be obtained from any laboratory on earth. While much research has been devoted to establishing this pattern, little attention has been given to the overall level of enhancement. New results will be presented on the full extent of r-process element enrichment as observed in metal-poor stars. The challenge lies in determining how the r-process material in the earliest gas clouds was mixed and diluted. Assuming individual r-process events to have contributed the observed r-process elements. We provide empirical estimates on the amount of r-process material produced. This should become a crucial constraint for theoretical nuclear physics models of heavy element nucleosynthesis.

  20. Using isotopes to understand linked hydrological, biological, and biogeochemical processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, B. D.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Groening, M.; Poeltenstein, L.; Tanweer, A.

    2010-12-01

    Isotopes have many applications for understanding linked processes in ecosystems. Stable isotopes in particular are powerful tools because of their sensitivity to particular sources, transformations, and flow processes. Although less commonly used in an ecohydrological context, radioactive isotopes can also be valuable especially when questions related to groundwater or catchment residence times are involved. In this presentation, we will illustrate how isotopes can improve understanding of linked processes in ecosystems. For example, investigations of linked vadose zone/plant/atmosphere systems using deuterium and oxygen-18 show that both vertical and horizontal spatial variability of isotope values can provide important clues to understand how evaporation and transpiration partitioning varies across the landscape and how these processes impact water flow and pore water chemistry. The links to pore water chemistry are important because they show how strongly coupled vadose zone flow and transport, plant water use, and biogeochemical processes can be. Over the last few decades the use of isotopes has transformed understanding of linked hydrological, biological, and biogeochemical processes from both conceptual and quantitative viewpoints. In addition, recent advances in laboratory- and field-analysis methods for stable isotopes using laser absorption based methods have already had large impacts on scientific research and such impacts will almost certainly grow in the next few years. However, there are still important research questions and deficiencies in our sampling and analytical capabilities remain. These issues significantly hamper efforts to make better quantitative estimates of important fluxes (evaporation being one example). We conclude by discussing some of the key areas that require further development including issues related to the use of isotopes to quantify evaporation and evaporation/transpiration partitioning.

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Melt-processed light rare earth element - Ba - Cu - O

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murakami; N. Sakai; T. Higuchi; S. I. Yoo

    1996-01-01

    Unlike Y123 which forms only a stoichiometric compound, the light rare earth elements (LREs: La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) form a solid solution 0953-2048\\/9\\/12\\/001\\/img1. The presence of such solid solution caused a depression in the superconducting transition temperatures 0953-2048\\/9\\/12\\/001\\/img2, particularly for La123, Nd123 and Sm123 when they are melt processed in air. Recently, we have found that the 0953-2048\\/9\\/12\\/001\\/img3 of

  2. The albedo of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; O'Brien, Denis; Webster, Peter J.; Pilewski, Peter; Kato, Seiji; Li, Jui-lin

    2015-03-01

    The fraction of the incoming solar energy scattered by Earth back to space is referred to as the planetary albedo. This reflected energy is a fundamental component of the Earth's energy balance, and the processes that govern its magnitude, distribution, and variability shape Earth's climate and climate change. We review our understanding of Earth's albedo as it has progressed to the current time and provide a global perspective of our understanding of the processes that define it. Joint analyses of surface solar flux data that are a complicated mix of measurements and model calculations with top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux measurements from current orbiting satellites yield a number of surprising results including (i) the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (NH, SH) reflect the same amount of sunlight within ~ 0.2 W m-2. This symmetry is achieved by increased reflection from SH clouds offsetting precisely the greater reflection from the NH land masses. (ii) The albedo of Earth appears to be highly buffered on hemispheric and global scales as highlighted by both the hemispheric symmetry and a remarkably small interannual variability of reflected solar flux (~0.2% of the annual mean flux). We show how clouds provide the necessary degrees of freedom to modulate the Earth's albedo setting the hemispheric symmetry. We also show that current climate models lack this same degree of hemispheric symmetry and regulation by clouds. The relevance of this hemispheric symmetry to the heat transport across the equator is discussed.

  3. The Discovery of Global Warming: A Hypertext History of How Scientists Came to (Partly) Understand What People Are Doing to Change the Earth's Climate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This extensive website provides "a hypertext history of how scientists came to (partly) understand what people are doing to change the Earth's climate." Students and researchers can learn about climate trends -- both modern and past cycles -- the various factors and chemicals influencing the climate, and much more. Visitors will find a concise timeline describing the major discoveries throughout the years. The website is supplemented with various links where interested users can find more information. Those who would like a copy of the website can download the file onto their hard drive.

  4. Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

  5. Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase the quality of climate model projections and inform DOE's energy decisions

    E-print Network

    Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase results are incorporated into Earth system models to improve climate projections. e overarching goal of TES is to improve the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models

  6. 1964 A. Talebi, R. Uijlenhoet and P. A. Troch Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 33, 19641976 (2008)

    E-print Network

    Troch, Peter

    2008-01-01

    1964 A. Talebi, R. Uijlenhoet and P. A. Troch Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 33, 1964­1976 (2008) DOI: 10.1002/esp Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf shape, profile curvature of surface and bedrock, and soil depth. To investigate the stability of complex

  7. n-Gram Statistics for Natural Language Understanding and Text Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching Y. Suen

    1979-01-01

    n-gram (n = 1 to 5) statistics and other properties of the English language were derived for applications in natural language understanding and text processing. They were computed from a well-known corpus composed of 1 million word samples. Similar properties were also derived from the most frequent 1000 words of three other corpuses. The positional distributions of n-grams obtained in

  8. Controlling & understanding the variables: Key to commercializing micowave processing of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Garard, R.S. [Lambda Technologies, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Commercial use of microwave energy for processing advanced materials has been a {open_quotes}promising new development{close_quotes} for over a decade. However, the realization of actual commercial use in most advanced material cases has not yet been achieved. As with any new processing technique, the control and application of process conditions must be reliable, repeatable, and thoroughly understood. This paper will discuss the variables associated with both economic analysis and material properties when determining the potential of microwave processing for a given application. The importance of having a microwave system capable of controlling those variables and distributing the microwave energy uniformly over large volumes within a microwave oven is reviewed. The need for a production equipment supplier to combine materials science expertise with strong microwave engineering background is also discussed with emphasis on ensuring that a good understanding of the material/microwave interaction exists for each specific application.

  9. Science Sampler: The sweet Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Aaron Spurr

    2005-10-01

    A great number of geologic processes either take unimaginable lengths of time to complete, or happen in places that cannot be directly observed, such as under the Earth's crust. It is, therefore, necessary for an Earth science teacher to find a connection between students' experiences and the geologic process they are studying to help them better understand that which is often unobservable. One Earth science topic with a tendency to be beyond the reach of direct observation for students is rock formation. This activity compares different kinds of candy to the different types of rocks based on direct observation.

  10. Onboard Processing of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data of Volcanic Activity for Future Earth-Orbiting and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of eruption parameters and maps of thermal structure, has allowed these products to be delivered rapidly to volcanologists to aid them in assessing eruption risk and hazard. Such applications will enhance science return from future Earth-orbiting spacecraft and also from spacecraft exploring the Solar System, or beyond, which hope to image dynamic processes. Especially in the latter case, long communication times between the spacecraft and Earth exclude a rapid response to what may be a transient process - only using onboard autonomy can the spacecraft react quickly to such an event.

  11. Understanding the decisive thermal processes in laser sintering of polyamide 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Andreas; Witt, Gerd

    2015-05-01

    Due to the advancements during the last decade, the laser sintering process has achieved a high technical level, which allows parts being used for Rapid Manufacturing applications. However, the processes still show a poor reproducibility of part quality. Furthermore, process interruptions or defective parts still occur regularly. The know-how and expertise needed to avoid these kind of problems is still insufficient. The temperature increase in the powder bed during laser exposure is the driving force in laser sintering of plastics. The resulting part properties strongly depend on the interaction of melt temperature and melt viscosity caused by the laser power input in the powder bed. Additionally, cooling conditions and temperature gradients in the powder bed significantly influence the accuracy and especially the warpage of parts. However, literature provides only little information on these decisive thermal processes. Therefore, additional information is necessary to improve process understanding as well as part properties in laser sintering. In a first approach, a high-speed thermal imaging system is implemented into a LS-machine in order to measure the melt temperatures during and after laser exposure as a function of different process parameters. The measured data show significant correlations between temperatures and part properties. It turns out that especially the melt temperature after laser exposure has a strong influence on the resulting part properties. In a second approach, detailed measurements of temperature distributions within the powder bed are performed while using wireless temperature sensors. In addition, the influence of different heater parameter settings on the cooling conditions is investigated by using a new Advanced Temperature Guiding system with 15 single heater cycles. The results of the study lead to an enhanced understanding of the thermal processes in laser sintering and enable a significant improvement of processing conditions.

  12. Potential for extreme loss in high-latitude Earth surface processes due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, Juha; Venäläinen, Ari; Heikkinen, Risto K.; Luoto, Miska

    2014-06-01

    Climatically driven Earth surface processes (ESPs) govern landscape and ecosystem dynamics in high-latitude regions. However, climate change is expected to alter ESP activity at yet uncertain rate and amplitude. We examined the sensitivity of key ESPs (cryoturbation, solifluction, nivation, and palsa mires) to changing climate by modeling their distribution in regard to climate, local topography, and soil variables in northern Fennoscandia. The distributions of ESPs were then forecasted under two future time periods, 2040-2069 and 2070-2099, using ensemble modeling and three emission scenarios. Increase of 2°C in current temperature conditions caused an almost complete loss of ESPs, highlighting the extreme climatic sensitivity of high-latitude geomorphic processes. Forecasts based on three scenarios suggest a disappearance of suitable climate for studied ESPs by the end of this century. This could initiate multiple opposing feedback between land surface and atmosphere through changes in albedo, heat fluxes, and biogeochemical cycles.

  13. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  14. Understanding Microbial Reservoir Souring and Desouring Processes Using Reactive Transport Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Hubbard, C. G.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Li, L.; Engelbrektson, A. L.; Coates, J. D.; Surasani, V.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction is the major metabolic process that leads to oil reservoir souring. Souring typically occurs when (sea)water is injected into the oil reservoir to maintain pressure and sweep remnant oil through the reservoir. Because biogenesis of hydrogen sulfide has detrimental impacts on oil production operations and can cause significant environmental and health problems, we strive to develop predictive understanding of reservoir souring and associated mitigation processes. Recent laboratory sediment column experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate treatments as souring control strategies. In this study, we describe the development of a reactive transport model that is based on the reaction mechanisms and kinetics revealed through the column experimental data. The model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of the primary chemical species (e.g. sulfate, sulfide, nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate) and the microbial dynamics involved in the souring and desouring processes. The growth and inhibition dynamics of the sulfate reducing bacterial population are explicitly simulated and constrained by energetics. Simulation of the laboratory experimental results show that the model captured the spatio-temporal trend of the chemical species and microbial guilds during both souring and desouring. Ongoing research is focusing on extending the reactive transport model to mechanistically understand, quantify, and predict souring and desouring processes within heterogeneous reservoirs as a step toward optimizing field scale souring control strategies.

  15. Using process monitor wafers to understand directed self-assembly defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Her, YoungJun; Delgadillo, Paulina R.; Vandenbroeck, Nadia; Gronheid, Roel; Chan, Boon Teik; Hashimoto, Yukio; Romo, Ainhoa; Somervell, Mark; Nafus, Kathleen; Nealey, Paul F.

    2013-03-01

    As directed self-assembly (DSA) has gained momentum over the past few years, questions about its application to high volume manufacturing have arisen. One of the major concerns is about the fundamental limits of defectivity that can be attained with the technology. If DSA applications demonstrate defectivity that rivals of traditional lithographic technologies, the pathway to the cost benefits of the technology creates a very compelling case for its large scale implementation. To address this critical question, our team at IMEC has established a process monitor flow to track the defectivity behaviors of an exemplary chemo-epitaxy application for printing line/space patterns. Through establishing this baseline, we have been able to understand both traditional lithographic defect sources in new materials as well as new classes of assembly defects associated with DSA technology. Moreover, we have explored new materials and processing to lower the level of the defectivity baseline. The robustness of the material sets and process is investigated as well. In this paper, we will report the understandings learned from the IMEC DSA process monitor flow.

  16. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  17. nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.6 | JUNE2012 | 621 understanding the interactions between the earth's microbiome

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of microbial ecology. We describe a bioclimatic modeling approach that leverages artificial neural networks taxonomic structure in ecological studies. Understanding the dynamics that shape microbial communities by recent publications, in which co-occurrence patterns in marine7,11 and soil12 microbial assemblages

  18. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

  19. Prospective faculty developing understanding of teaching and learning processes in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareja, Jose I.

    Historically, teaching has been considered a burden by many academics at institutions of higher education, particularly research scientists. Furthermore, university faculty and prospective faculty often have limited exposure to issues associated with effective teaching and learning. As a result, a series of ineffective teaching and learning strategies are pervasive in university classrooms. This exploratory case study focuses on four biology graduate teaching fellows (BGF) who participated in a National Science Foundation (NSF) GK-12 Program. Such programs were introduced by NSF to enhance the preparation of prospective faculty for their future professional responsibilities. In this particular program, BGF were paired with high school biology teachers (pedagogical mentors) for at least one year. During this yearlong partnership, BGF were involved in a series of activities related to teaching and learning ranging from classroom teaching, tutoring, lesson planning, grading, to participating in professional development conferences and reflecting upon their practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in BGF understanding of teaching and learning processes in science as a function of their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In addition, the potential transfer of this knowledge between high school and higher education contexts was investigated. The findings of this study suggest that understanding of teaching and learning processes in science by the BGF changed. Specific aspects of the BGF involvement in the program (such as classroom observations, practice teaching, communicating with mentors, and reflecting upon one's practice) contributed to PCK development. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that constant reflection is critical in the process of change. Concurrently, BGFs enhanced understanding of science teaching and learning processes may be transferable from the high school context to the university context. Future research studies should be designed to explore explicitly this transfer phenomenon.

  20. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  1. The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-11-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

  2. Dual processing and discourse space: Exploring fifth grade students' language, reasoning, and understanding through writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol

    The purpose of this study was to explore the development of students' understanding through writing while immersed in an environment where there was a strong emphasis on a language-based argument inquiry approach. Additionally, this study explored students' spoken discourse to gain a better understanding of what role(s) talking plays in the development of understanding through writing. Finally, the study proposed a new concept of Discourse Space, which enabled researchers to improve their understanding of the characteristics of the development of student cognition through writing, and of the roles talking plays in cognitive development through writing. This study was guided by the research question: What patterns of the development of fifth grade students' cognition over time emerge in their private and public negotiations under a teacher who is ranked as a low-level implementer of the SWH approach? This question was divided into two sub-questions: (a) Throughout a unit, Ecosystems, what patterns emerge regarding the development of six fifth grade students' understanding through writing, and b) What patterns of the development of Discourse Space emerge through talking in three different contexts. In order to answer these questions, this qualitative research employed a generic qualitative study. Twenty-one fifth grade students participated in this study, and six students were purposefully selected through which to further investigate the development of an understanding of science through private negotiation while immersed in a language-based argument inquiry approach. Major data sources included students' writing samples, informal conversations with the teacher, researcher's field notes, and classroom videos. Additionally, the teacher's modified RTOP scores and semi-structured interviews were used to deepen the contextual understanding of the learning environment and the teacher's instructional performance. The data analysis was conducted by utilizing discourse analysis of writing and talking. The results showed (1) students' low level of engagement in evaluation impacted their reasoning and use of sources for making meanings, as well as their understanding of the topic. Compared to the results of a previous study, students' complexity of reasoning was relatively less developed, and similarly students' use of reflective sources was generally observed relatively less often. (2) The teacher and students in this study engaged in limited public negotiation, which focused more on articulating than on evaluating ideas. The limited public negotiation that was represented by the dialogical patterns in this study cannot support the development of understanding through writing or the practice of the roles of constructor and critiquer, which play a core function in the comprehension of scientific practice. This study has several implications for teacher education and research. Teacher education needs to be centered more on how to encourage students' engagement in the process of evaluation, since this plays an important function not only in the development of understanding, but also in providing opportunities to perform the roles of both constructor and critiquer. Teachers can use writing as an argumentative activity to encourage or foster students' engagement in the process of evaluation or critique. Additionally, this study provides insight into the importance of the learning environment in which the teacher and students create and develop; this learning environment needs to provide not only opportunities but also demands for students to engage in both constructing and critiquing ideas.

  3. The CONVEX project - Using Observational Evidence and Process Understanding to Improve Predictions of Extreme Rainfall Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Hayley; Kendon, Elizabeth; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Chan, Steven; Ferro, Christopher; Roberts, Nigel; Stephenson, David; Jones, Richard; Sessford, Pat

    2013-04-01

    During the last decade, widespread major flood events in the UK and across the rest of Europe have focussed attention on perceived increases in rainfall intensities. Whilst Regional Climate Models (RCMs) are able to simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of observed daily extreme rainfall events more reliably than Global Circulation Models (GCMs), they still underestimate extreme rainfall in relation to observations. Particularly during the summer a large proportion of the precipitation comes from convective storms that are typically too small to be explicitly represented by climate models. Instead, convection parameterisation schemes are necessary to represent the larger-scale effect of unresolved convective cells. Given the deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall by climate models, even in the current generation of high-resolution RCMs, the CONVEX project (CONVective EXtremes) argues that an integrated approach is needed that brings together observations, basic understanding and models. This should go hand in hand with a change from a focus on traditional validation exercises (comparing modelled and observed extremes) to an understanding and quantification of the causes of model deficiencies in the simulation of extreme rainfall processes on different spatial and temporal scales. It is particularly true for localised intense summer convection. CONVEX therefore aims to contribute to the goals of enabling society to respond to global climate change and predicting the regional and local impacts of environmental change. In addition to an improved understanding of the spatial-temporal characteristics of extreme rainfall processes (principally in the UK) the project is also assessing the influence of model parameterisations and resolution on the simulation of extreme rainfall events and processes. This includes the running of new RCM simulations undertaken by the UK Meteorological Office at 50km and 12km resolutions (parameterised convection) and comparing these with new 1.5km resolution (convection-permitting) model simulations for the southern UK. The project is also seeking to develop a process understanding of the relationships between large-scale predictors and extreme rainfall on different spatial and temporal scales to provide improved understanding of the strengths and limitations of climate models and uncertainty estimates derived from model ensembles. It is also believed that this could also lead to an improved estimation of changes to local scale convective rainfall and thus flash floods. Current results from the simulation of a "baseline" climate and future work undertaken by CONVEX will allow us to understand which extreme rainfall situations benefit from higher resolution. It is envisaged that this will provide valuable quantitative information regarding deficiencies in the coarser model output. Further, as well as providing improved process-understanding vital for future climate model development and better forecasts from NWP models, these results will ultimately provide valuable insight into the characteristics of convective-scale models and into the relationship between models of different resolution that can be applied in the context of climate change predictions.

  4. Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

  5. [10-386] Assessing and Improving the Scale Dependence of Ecosystem Processes in Earth System Models

    E-print Network

    . Goodale Cornell U. *Overall Project Lead *Lead Institution Intellectual Merit: Earth system models include policies. Our research assesses and improves Earth system model simulations of the carbon cycle, ecosystem of the Community Climate System Model/Community Earth System Model, which includes statistical meteorological

  6. Towards understanding implications of urbanization for regional and global climate in the GFDL Earth System Modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Land-use/land-cover changes at regional and global scales have been shown to play an important role in altering the climate, the hydrological cycle and the biogeochemical cycle. Urbanization is an extreme case of land-use/land-cover change through which natural surfaces are transformed into man-made surfaces. How urban areas affect regional and global climate and equally importantly, how urban areas respond to climate change at different time scales (ranging from seasonal to decadal) are critical areas of research. However, to date, most global climate and earth-system models that are used to investigate impacts of land-use/land-cover changes on the climate do not include an urban representation. Moreover, the dynamic growth and changes of urban areas (e.g., transformations of cropland to urban land) are not considered in any existing urban representations. In order to answer the questions raised above, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) has developed a high-resolution global climate model with an urban representation that can simulate interactively both changes in urban environments and feedbacks of urban changes. In this study, efforts towards urbanizing the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model LM3 are described. In addition, historical simulations with the urbanized GFDL LM3 are used to investigate how the growth of urban areas has affected the near-surface climate in recent decades.

  7. Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balter, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

  8. Earth Sciences Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    Earth Sciences Earth Sciences Undergraduate Studies #12;Department of Earth Sciences2 Royal;3Department of Earth Sciences Earth Sciences The Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.ac.uk/studyhere Contents Why study Earth Sciences? 4 Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway 5 Admissions and entry requirements 6

  9. Exploring the implication of climate process uncertainties within the Earth System Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B.; Lambert, F. H.; McNeal, D.; Harris, G.; Sexton, D.; Boulton, C.; Murphy, J.

    2011-12-01

    Uncertainties in the magnitude of future climate change have been a focus of a great deal of research. Much of the work with General Circulation Models has focused on the atmospheric response to changes in atmospheric composition, while other processes remain outside these frameworks. Here we introduce an ensemble of new simulations, based on an Earth System configuration of HadCM3C, designed to explored uncertainties in both physical (atmospheric, oceanic and aerosol physics) and carbon cycle processes, using perturbed parameter approaches previously used to explore atmospheric uncertainty. Framed in the context of the climate response to future changes in emissions, the resultant future projections represent significantly broader uncertainty than existing concentration driven GCM assessments. The systematic nature of the ensemble design enables interactions between components to be explored. For example, we show how metrics of physical processes (such as climate sensitivity) are also influenced carbon cycle parameters. The suggestion from this work is that carbon cycle processes represent a comparable contribution to uncertainty in future climate projections as contributions from atmospheric feedbacks more conventionally explored. The broad range of climate responses explored within these ensembles, rather than representing a reason for inaction, provide information on lower likelihood but high impact changes. For example while the majority of these simulations suggest that future Amazon forest extent is resilient to the projected climate changes, a small number simulate dramatic forest dieback. This ensemble represents a framework to examine these risks, breaking them down into physical processes (such as ocean temperature drivers of rainfall change) and vegetation processes (where uncertainties point towards requirements for new observational constraints).

  10. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  11. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  12. Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

  13. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    E-print Network

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  14. Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Earth Systems Science Earth Systems Science at UNH THE UNH Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space (EOS) Earth Systems Research Center is dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrative scientists and students study the Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water, and ice using field measurements

  15. Informing Geospatial Toolset Design: Understanding the Process of Cancer Data Exploration and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L.; MacEachren, Alan M.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

  16. SMAP Mission Multiresolution Soil Moisture data for Understanding Geophysical Process Dynamics at Different Scales (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of soil moisture evolution at various spatiotemporal resolutions is vital to understand dynamic geophysical processes pertaining to hydrology, ecology, weather and climate. Therefore measuring soil moisture at different spatiotemporal resolution from in situ to kilometers scale at field- to global-extent is essential. Various in situ soil moisture measuring instruments (~meter spatial resolution) forming functional networks are deployed across the world, however, are mostly localized. Satellite sensors e.g., AMSR-E (2002 - 2011) and SMOS (2009 - present) have been providing soil moisture estimate at very coarse spatial resolution of >40 km. In between these ~meter-scale and ~40 km soil moisture measurements, there is lack of availability of any consistent, spatially and temporally continuous soil moisture measurements. NASA's SMAP mission that has a target launch date in late 2014 will provide multiresolution (36-, 9-, and 3-km) and frequent revisit (2-3 days) soil moisture measurements at a global-extent. SMAP data will facilitate numerous studies without need of upscaling or downscaling soil moisture measurement, and hence improve the dynamic geophysical processes understanding. The data will also provide fresh perspective of soil moisture evolution and scaling over different hydroclimatic regions and landcover. The presentation will introduce the scientific community on the SMAP suite of soil moisture products by especially focusing on expected product accuracy, retrieval characteristics, flags, retrieval thresholds and masks. Potential studies emanating from multiresolution soil moisture measurements will also be discussed.

  17. Redefining fine roots improves understanding of below-ground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M Luke; Dickie, Ian A; Eissenstat, David M; Fahey, Timothy J; Fernandez, Christopher W; Guo, Dali; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Hobbie, Erik A; Iversen, Colleen M; Jackson, Robert B; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Norby, Richard J; Phillips, Richard P; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Pritchard, Seth G; Rewald, Boris; Zadworny, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    505 I. 506 II. 506 III. 508 IV. 512 V. 513 VI. 514 515 References 515 SUMMARY: Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain because of the challenges of consistently measuring and interpreting fine-root systems. Traditionally, fine roots have been defined as all roots ? 2 mm in diameter, yet it is now recognized that this approach fails to capture the diversity of form and function observed among fine-root orders. Here, we demonstrate how order-based and functional classification frameworks improve our understanding of dynamic root processes in ecosystems dominated by perennial plants. In these frameworks, fine roots are either separated into individual root orders or functionally defined into a shorter-lived absorptive pool and a longer-lived transport fine-root pool. Using these frameworks, we estimate that fine-root production and turnover represent 22% of terrestrial net primary production globally - a c. 30% reduction from previous estimates assuming a single fine-root pool. Future work developing tools to rapidly differentiate functional fine-root classes, explicit incorporation of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root studies, and wider adoption of a two-pool approach to model fine roots provide opportunities to better understand below-ground processes in the terrestrial biosphere. PMID:25756288

  18. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  19. Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool for watershed process understanding.

  20. Understanding space weather to shield society

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    Understanding space weather to shield society Improving understanding and forecasts of space weather requires addressing scientific challenges within the network of physical processes that connect the Sun to society. The roadmap team identified the highest-priority areas within the Sun-Earth space-weather

  1. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Williama

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

  2. Extended principle component analysis - a useful tool to understand processes governing water quality at catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, B.; Schwientek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality of ground and surface waters in catchments is typically driven by many complex and interacting processes. While small scale processes are often studied in great detail, their relevance and interplay at catchment scales remain often poorly understood. For many catchments, extensive monitoring data on water quality have been collected for different purposes. These heterogeneous data sets contain valuable information on catchment scale processes but are rarely analysed using integrated methods. Principle component analysis (PCA) has previously been applied to this kind of data sets. However, a detailed analysis of scores, which are an important result of a PCA, is often missing. Mathematically, PCA expresses measured variables on water quality, e.g. nitrate concentrations, as linear combination of independent, not directly observable key processes. These computed key processes are represented by principle components. Their scores are interpretable as process intensities which vary in space and time. Subsequently, scores can be correlated with other key variables and catchment characteristics, such as water travel times and land use that were not considered in PCA. This detailed analysis of scores represents an extension of the commonly applied PCA which could considerably improve the understanding of processes governing water quality at catchment scales. In this study, we investigated the 170 km2 Ammer catchment in SW Germany which is characterised by an above average proportion of agricultural (71%) and urban (17%) areas. The Ammer River is mainly fed by karstic springs. For PCA, we separately analysed concentrations from (a) surface waters of the Ammer River and its tributaries, (b) spring waters from the main aquifers and (c) deep groundwater from production wells. This analysis was extended by a detailed analysis of scores. We analysed measured concentrations on major ions and selected organic micropollutants. Additionally, redox-sensitive variables and environmental tracers indicating groundwater age were analysed for deep groundwater from production wells. For deep groundwater, we found that microbial turnover was stronger influenced by local availability of energy sources than by travel times of groundwater to the wells. Groundwater quality primarily reflected the input of pollutants determined by landuse, e.g. agrochemicals. We concluded that for water quality in the Ammer catchment, conservative mixing of waters with different origin is more important than reactive transport processes along the flow path.

  3. Earth Sciences Geology Option

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Earth Sciences with Geology Option Geological sciences focus on understanding the Earth, from its, mountain building, land surface evolution, and mineral resource creation over the Earth's 4.6 billion-year history. A geologist contributes to society through the discovery of earth resources, such as metals

  4. Understanding the Formation Process of Exceptionally Long Fullerene-Based Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Geng, Junfeng; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Johnson, Brian F. G.

    2009-12-01

    In a recent study [1], it was demonstrated that exceptionally long fullerene nanowires, with a length-to-width aspect ratio as large as ˜3000-5000, can be grown from 1, 2, 4-trimethylbenzene solution of C60. We have performed a thorough theoretical analysis, aiming at gaining an in-depth understanding of the exceptionally large aspect ratio of C60-based nanowires. By accounting for different interactions in the system we have calculated the structures of the unit cell and determined the role of the fullerene and of the solvent molecules in the crystallization process of the nanowires. We have calculated the adhesion energy of C60 molecules to the nanowire surface, and on the basis of this explained the growth anisotropy of the crystal. To get a more profound understanding of the nanowire growth mechanism we have also considered the influence of electron polarization on the growth anisotropy and studied the possible polymerization reactions occurred between the C60 and the solvent molecules.

  5. How Do Map Projections Distort Earth's Surface?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-09-10

    This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines how map projects distort Earth's surface. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ?¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." On the site, visitors will find information on representing the spherical Earth on a flat map, the different common projections used, and how to measure the properties of the projections. Many sections contain interactive features and questions which allow students to investigate and understand the ways that flattening the Earth creates problems with maps and what cartographers have done to minimize the distortion. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or out-of-class exploration.

  6. Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals from source affect sedimentary rock textures, i.e. grain sizes, shapes and arrangement. Deposition

  7. Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 507525 (2006)

    E-print Network

    Pederson, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Gullying and erosion control at archaeological sites in Grand Canyon, Arizona Joel L. Pederson1 *, Paul A, USA Abstract Gully erosion of cultural sites in Grand Canyon National Park is an urgent management

  8. Flinders Ranges bedrock erosion 929 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 929944 (2007)

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Flinders Ranges bedrock erosion 929 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1459 Bedrock erosion and relief production in the northern Flinders Ranges, Australia and alluvial sediment in the northern Flinders Ranges reveal surprisingly high erosion rates for a supposedly

  9. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

  10. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  11. Nano and metastable processing of rare earth doped silicate glasses for photonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Matthew Franklin

    2002-01-01

    Nanotechnology and photonic technology have seen rapid and astounding growth in the last 10 years. Many new properties and applications have been developed in the respective fields. In recent years some nanotechnology has been integrated into the field of photonics. In this study nano and metastable processing of silicate glasses for pholonic applications are examined. Nanopowders of SiO2 were fabricated. These powders were characterized by BET gas adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, X-Ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optimization of SiO2 nanopowder fabrication parameters proved invaluable since the same parameters were used for multicomponent compositions of Al2O3/SiO2/Er2O 3. Optimization of parameters included O2 flow rate, H 2 flow rates, burner distance, and precursor flow rate. Precursor flow rate, was found to be critical to the fabrication of high quality nanopowders. Multicomponent compositions were investigated for 1.55 mum emission from Er3+. Powders with average particle sizes of 9 nm were synthesized. In a complementary study, compositions of Al2O3/SiO 2/Er2O3 powders were hatched and spray dried for plasma melt quenching. These powders with very high concentrations of Er 2O3 were superheated in a plasma then quickly quenched into a water bath. Various compositions were prepared with different codoping ratios of Al2O3/Er2O3. Lifetime and fluorescence data are reported for emission at 1.55 um. Furthermore, green upconversion was observed with Yb/Er codoping. All compositions of plasma spray powders exhibited low multiexponential decay rates for the 4 I13/2 metastable state. Beat treatments of the powders up to 1400°C crystallized a Er2Si2O7 monoclinic pyrochlore structure. Upon crystallization the crystalline phase exhibited increased lifetimes of 7 ms up from <1 ms. Ordering of Er 3+ atoms is seen as the mechanism for increase in lifetime. This investigation has provided insight into the potential of metastable processing of heavily doped rare earth oxide nanopowders for photonic applications. Rare earth concentrations have been achieved which are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher then possible by more conventional synthesis methods. These findings should provide the incentive for follow-up research to further advance and exploit nanotechnology for next generation optical materials and devices.

  12. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  13. Contributions of TRMM to Our Understanding of Precipitation Processes and Climate Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan effort, has completed seven and a half years in orbit. This successful research mission studying precipitation processes and climatology has also become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first rain radar and microwave radiometer combination in space, continues to function perfectly, and the satellite has the capability to operate for a number of additional years, providing a unique, long-term record of global tropical precipitation characteristics. A summary of research highlights will be presented covering topics ranging over climate analysis, improving forecasts, and storm and precipitation processes. A focus of the talk will be the important role of TRMM data in multi-satellite precipitation analyses at fine time scales and in improving our understanding of the validity of climate-scale variations through comparison with, and eventual improvement of, the GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 25-year data set.

  14. Advances in understanding the coupling of DNA base modifying enzymes to processes involving base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes some of the recent, exciting developments that have characterized and connected processes that modify DNA bases with DNA repair pathways. It begins with AID/APOBEC or TET family members that covalently modify bases within DNA. The modified bases, such as uracil or 5-formylcytosine, are then excised by DNA glycosylases including UNG or TDG to initiate base excision repair (BER). BER is known to preserve genome integrity by removing damaged bases. The newer studies underscore the necessity of BER following enzymes that deliberately damage DNA. This includes the role of BER in antibody diversification and more recently, its requirement for demethylation of 5-methylcytosine in mammalian cells. The recent advances have shed light on mechanisms of DNA demethylation, and have raised many more questions. The potential hazards of these processes have also been revealed. Dysregulation of the activity of base modifying enzymes, and resolution by unfaithful or corrupt means can be a driver of genome instability and tumorigenesis. The understanding of both DNA and histone methylation and demethylation is now revealing the true extent to which epigenetics influence normal development and cancer, an abnormal development. PMID:23870509

  15. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  16. Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Smoothstone

    This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

  17. New Fission Fragment Distributions and r-Process Origin of the Rare-Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A?140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110?A?170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A?278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A?165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A?140.

  18. Rock Cycle in the Lab: Earth Products and the Processes That Link Them

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students will become familier with the rock cycle. During the first part of the lesson, students work in small groups, each group having a copy of the rock cycle on a sheet of paper and a selection of small-scale samples and photographs that represent the products of the rock cycle. The students lay out their samples and photographs next to what they consider to be the correct boxes on their copy of the rock cycle. In the second part, the teacher constructs a large scale rock cycle throughout the room while the students check their efforts. Students discover that all the parts of the rock cycle are linked together into a sort of global machine and that this machine is driven by energy from the sun and from inside the Earth. They will also realize that the rock cycle involves physical, chemical and biological processes. Copies of both the large scale and student size rock cycles are available at this site.

  19. Understanding aquatic microbial processes using EEM's and in-situ fluorescence sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Bethany; Attridge, John; Rushworth, Cathy; Cox, Tim; Anesio, Alexandre; Reynolds, Darren

    2015-04-01

    The diverse origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic systems is well documented within the literature. Previous literature indicates that coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is, in part, transformed by aquatic microbial processes, and that dissolved organic material derived from a microbial origin exhibits tryptophan-like fluorescence. However, this phenomenon is not fully understood and very little data is available within the current literature. The overall aim of our work is to reveal the microbial-CDOM interactions that give rise to the observed tryptophan-like fluorescence. The work reported here investigates the microbial processes that occur within freshwater aquatic samples, as defined by the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test, as a function of the T1 peak (?ex/em 280/330-370 nm). A series of standard water samples were prepared using glucose, glutamic acid, BOD dilution water and a bacterial seed (Cole-Parmer BOD microbe capsules). Samples were spiked with CDOM (derived from an environmental water body) and subjected to time resolved BOD analysis and as excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy. All EEM spectral data was interrogated using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) in an attempt to determine the presence and dominance (relative intensities) of the CDOM-related and T1-related fluorophores within the samples. In-situ fluorescence sensors (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.) were also used to monitor the T1 fluorescence peak (UviLux Tryptophan) and the CDOM fluorescence peak (UviLux CDOM) during experiments. Tryptophan-like fluorescence was observed (albeit transient) in both spiked and un-spiked standard water samples. By furthering our understanding of aquatic organic matter fluorescence, its origin, transformation, fate and interaction with aquatic microbiological processes, we aim to inform the design of a new generation in-situ fluorescence sensor for the monitoring of aquatic ecosystem health.

  20. Mission to Planet Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These four written and computer activities cover concepts of remote sensing in general and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The first is a written activity asking students to consider what about the earth they would want to study. The second combines a written activity on the Galileo spacecraft with a computer activity. Students will view images of the earth taken from the spacecraft. In the third activity, students receive their first introduction to image processing programs as they view two earth images and are asked to detect differences. They work with several software tools and become comfortable opening files and applying various image processing techniques. In the final section, students work with whole earth optical images and then open up their first radar image, seeing first an image of Los Angeles and then a close-up view of Elysium Park and Dodger Stadium taken at the same time, and derive an understanding of the various advantages and limitations of the remote sensing platforms.

  1. Interannual Variations in Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Humidity: Understanding Tropical Convective and Dynamical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Fitzjarrald, Dan E.; Miller, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty remains as to what extent variability in mid to upper tropospheric moisture, especially over the tropics, behaves as constant relative humidity during interannual climate variations associated with ENSO. Systematic variations in HIRS 6.7 micron and MLS 205 GHz suggest that dry subtropical regions evolving during warm SST events depress relative humidity, but the interpretation of these events is still uncertain. Additional specific concerns have to do with regional signatures of convective processes: How does the origin of dry air in the eastern subtropical N. Pacific differ in ENSO warm versus cold years? The dynamics of Rossby wave forcing by convective heating, subtropical jet stream dynamics, and dynamics driven subsidence all come into play here. How variations in precipitating ice hydrometeors from tropical anvils relate to variations in UTH is also a subject of debate? Do variations in precipitating ice, cloud cover and water vapor behavior show any support for the Iris-hypothesis mechanism? Here we examine historical records of SSM/T-2 data to gain a better physical understanding of the effects of deep convective moisture sources and dynamically-induced vertical circulations on UTH. These high frequency microwave measurements (183.3 GHz) take advantage of far less sensitivity to cloud hydrometeors than the 6.7 micron data to yield a record of upper tropospheric relative humidity. Furthermore, signatures of precipitating ice from these channels facilitate comparisons to TRMM hydrometeors detected by radar. In analyzing these observations, we isolate water vapor and temperature change components that affect brightness temperatures and the inferred relative humidity. Trajectory modeling is also used to understand interannual humidity anomalies in terms of outflow fbm convective regions and history of diabatically-driven sinking which modifies relative humidity.

  2. Can spectroscopic analysis improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in agricultural streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Heathwaite, Ann Louise

    2015-04-01

    In agricultural catchments diffuse fluxes of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from arable land and livestock are responsible for pollution of receiving waters and their eutrophication. Organic matter (OM) can play an important role in mediating a range of biogeochemical processes controlling diffuse pollution in streams and at their interface with surrounding land in the riparian and hyporheic zones. Thus, a holistic and simultaneous monitoring of N, P and OM fractions can help to improve our understanding of biogeochemical functioning of agricultural streams. In this study we build on intensive in situ monitoring of diffuse pollution in a small agricultural groundwater-fed stream in NW England carried out since 2009. The in situ monitoring unit captures high-frequency (15 minutes to hourly) responses of water quality parameters including total phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen to changing flow conditions. For two consecutive hydrological years we have carried out additional spectroscopic water analyses to characterise organic matter components and their interactions with nutrient fractions. Automated and grab water samples have been analysed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, a tryptophan sensor was trialled to capture in situ fluorescence dynamics. Our paper evaluates patterns in nutrient and OM responses to baseflow and storm flow conditions and provides an assessment of storage-related changes of automated samples and temperature and turbidity effects on in situ tryptophan measurements. The paper shows the value of spectroscopic measurements to understand biogeochemical and hydrological nutrient dynamics and quantifies analytical uncertainty associated with both laboratory-based and in situ spectroscopic measurements.

  3. Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northwest, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. Since 1) and 3) are 10-minute intervals and 2) is hourly data, we are developing hourly gridded data and using 1-3) to verify and quantify the rain rate observed by the Fukushima University X-band data.

  4. NASA Earth science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Volz, Stephen M.

    2013-10-01

    NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) conducts pioneering work in Earth system science, the interdisciplinary view of Earth that explores the interaction among the atmosphere, oceans, ice sheets, land surface interior, and life itself that has enabled scientists to measure global and climate changes and to inform decisions by governments, organizations, and people in the United States and around the world. The ESD makes the data collected and results generated by its space missions accessible to other agencies and organizations to improve the products and services they provide, including air quality indices, disaster management, agricultural yield projections, and aviation safety. Through partnerships with national and international agencies, NASA enables the application of this understanding. The ESD's Flight Program provides the spacebased observing systems and supporting ground segment infrastructure for mission operations and scientific data processing and distribution that support NASA's Earth system science research and modeling activities. The Flight Program currently has 15 operating Earth observing space missions, including the recently launched Landsat-8/Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The ESD has 16 more missions planned for launch over the next decade. These include first and second tier missions from the 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, Climate Continuity missions to assure availability of key data sets needed for climate science and applications, and small-sized competitively selected orbital missions and instrument missions of opportunity utilizing rideshares that are part of the Earth Venture (EV) Program. The recently selected Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) microsatellite constellation and the Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) instrument are examples. In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) is being increasingly used to host NASA Earth observing science instruments. An overview of plans and current status will be presented.

  5. An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

  6. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  7. An Integrated Signal Processing System for the Flat River Earth Strain Observatory of St. Louis University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Slojkowski

    1968-01-01

    An extensive observatory for the measurement of long-period and ultra-long-period earth strains is being operated in a mine of the St. Joseph Lead Company at Flat River, Mo. The principal instruments in the observatory, three 100-foot quartz extensometers, provide electrical outputs proportional to earth strain. Each extensometer output consists of a number of components at various levels and frequencies-ultra-long-period secular

  8. Process analytical technology to understand the disintegration behavior of alendronate sodium tablets.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Sayeed, Vilayat A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2013-05-01

    Various adverse events including esophagus irritations have been reported with the use of alendronate tablets, likely attributed to the rapid tablet disintegration in the mouth or esophagus. Accordingly, the disintegration of six alendronate tablet drug products was studied using a newly developed testing device equipped with in-line sensors, in addition to the official compendial procedure for measuring the disintegration time. The in-line sensors were used to monitor the particle count and solution pH change to assess the onset and duration of disintegration. A relatively large variation was observed in the disintegration time of the tested drug products using the compendial method. The data collected using the in-line sensors suggested that all tested drug products exhibited almost instantaneous onset of disintegration, under 2 s, and a sharp drop in solution pH. The drop in pH was slower for tablets with slower disintegration. The in-house prepared alendronate test tablets also showed similar trends suggesting rapid solubilization of the drug contributed to the fast tablet disintegration. This research highlights the usefulness of the newly developed in-line analytical method in combination with the compendial method in providing a better understanding of the disintegration and the accompanying drug solubilization processes for fast disintegrating tablet drug products. PMID:23450666

  9. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    PubMed Central

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  10. Morpholine nitrosation to better understand potential solvent based CO? capture process reactions.

    PubMed

    Chandan, Payal A; Remias, Joseph E; Neathery, James K; Liu, Kunlei

    2013-05-21

    The amine assisted CO? capture process from coal fired power plants strives for the determination of degradation components and its consequences. Among them, nitrosamine formation and their emissions are of particular concern due to their environmental and health effects. The experiments were conducted using morpholine as a representative secondary amine as a potential CO? capture solvent with 100 ppm standard NO? gas to better understand the nitrosamine reaction pathways under scrubber and stripper conditions. The role of nitrite in the nitrosation reaction was probed at elevated temperatures. The effects of different concentrations of nitrite on morpholine were evaluated. Formation rate, decomposition rates, activation energy, and the possible reaction pathways are elaborated. Thermal stability tests at 135 °C indicated the decomposition of nitrosamines at the rate of 1 ?g/(g h) with activation energy of 131 kJ/mol. The activation energy for the reaction of morpholine with sodium nitrite was found as 101 kJ/mol. Different reaction pathways were noted for lower temperature reactions with NO? gas and higher temperature reactions with nitrite. PMID:23614812

  11. Earth and the Environment Earth and the Environment at UNH

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Earth and the Environment Earth and the Environment at UNH The DeparTmenT of earTh ScienceS within the college of engineering and physical Sciences (cepS) aims to improve our understanding of the earth and graduate degrees encompassing a broad spectrum of disciplines. The Department of earth Sciences offers

  12. MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (editor); Haberle, Robert M. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

  13. Hydrological recurrence as a measure for large river basin classification and process understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R.; Sayama, T.

    2014-07-01

    Hydrologic functions of river basins are summarized as water collection, storage and discharge, which can be characterized by the dynamics of hydrological variables including precipitation, evaporation, storage and runoff. In some situations these four variables behave more in a recurrent manner by repeating in a similar range year after year or in other situations they exhibit more randomness with higher variations year by year. The degree of recurrence in runoff is important not only for water resources management but also for hydrologic process understandings, especially in terms of how the other three variables determine the degree of recurrence in runoff. The main objective of this paper is to propose a simple hydrologic classification framework applicable to global scale and large basins based on the combinations of recurrence in the four variables. We evaluate it by Lagged Autocorrelation, Fast Fourier Transforms and Colwell's Indices of variables obtained from EU-WATCH dataset composed by eight hydrologic and land surface model outputs. By setting a threshold to define high or low recurrence in the four variables, we classify each river basin into 16 possible classes. The overview of recurrence patterns at global scale suggested that precipitation is recurrent mainly in the humid tropics, Asian Monsoon area and part of higher latitudes with oceanic influence. Recurrence in evaporation was mainly dependent on the seasonality of energy availability, typically high in the tropics, temperate and subarctic regions. Recurrence in storage at higher latitudes depends on energy/water balances and snow, while that in runoff is mostly affected by the different combinations of these three variables. According to the river basin classification 10 out of the 16 possible classes were present in the 35 largest river basins in the world. In humid tropic region, the basins belong to a class with high recurrence in all the variables, while in subtropical region many of the river basins have low recurrence. In temperate region, the energy limited or water limited in summer characterizes the recurrence in storage, but runoff exhibits generally low recurrence due to the low recurrence in precipitation. In the subarctic and arctic region, the amount of snow also influences the classes; more snow yields higher recurrence in storage and runoff. Our proposed framework follows a simple methodology that can aid in grouping river basins with similar characteristics of water, energy and storage cycles. The framework is applicable at different scales with different datasets to provide useful insights into the understanding of hydrologic regimes based on the classification.

  14. carleton.ca Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    carleton.ca Earth Sciences #12;Earth is our home. It is a dynamic planet, integrating and recording spectrometers or electron microprobes--earth scientists investigate Earth's evolution to help understand future today and for the future is enhanced by the expertise of economic geologists. Knowledge of the Earth

  15. Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-08-01

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections as they communicate what they know and how they know it. Although tools such as vee-maps can scaffold students' efforts to design investigations, we know less about how these tools support students in connecting scientific ideas with the evidence they are generating, how these connections develop over time, or how writing can be used to encourage such connections. In this study, we explored students' developing ability to reason scientifically by examining the relationship between students' understanding of scientific phenomena and their understanding of how to generate and evaluate evidence for their ideas in writing. Three high school classes completed three investigations. One class used vee-mapping each time, one used vee-mapping once, and one did not use vee-mapping. Students' maps and written reports were rated for understanding of relevant science procedural and conceptual ideas. Comparisons between groups and over time indicate a positive relationship between improved procedural and conceptual understanding. Findings also indicate that improved procedural understanding preceded improved conceptual understanding, and thus, multiple experiences were needed for students to connect evidence and explanation for science phenomena.

  16. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early Precambrian (Archean, Early Paleoproterozoic) tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth was rather different from the Phanerozoic: the major features then were huge granite-greenstone terranes (GGTs) and their separating granulite belts; mantle melts were derived from a depleted source. The GGTs consisting of greenstone belts with komatiite-basaltic magmatism in Archean, "submerged" in granite gneiss matrix, probably, strong reworked primordial sialic crust, and by siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) in early Paleoproterozoic. GGTs were areas of extension, uplifting and denudation, whereas the granulite belts were dominated by compression, sinking and sedimentation. Generally, the Early Precambrian geological pattern was rather different from the modern plate tectonics and can be described in plumetectonics terms. A drastic change of the tectonomagamtic and ecology processes on it's surface occurred at ca. 2.3-2.0 Ga: instead of high-Mg magmas appeared geochemical enriched Fe-Ti pucrites and basalts, and the plume tectonic was changed by plate tectonics, which is still active now, as well as ecologic situation on the surface. Since that time the primordial sialic continental crust has been gradually replaced by the secondary basaltic oceanic crust. Systematic consumption of the ancient crust in subduction zones obviously started at ~2 Ga and led to gradually replacing it by the secondary mafic (oceanic) crust. The crustal materials has stored in the "slab cemeteries", revealed in the mantle by seismic tomography. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Moon began4.4-4.0 Ga in lunar highlands with low-Ti magnesium suite, analogous to the terrestrial Paleoproterozoic SHMS. Cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes, close to that on the Earth, happed on the Moon ~3.9 Ga to form large depressions of lunar maria with thinned crust and vast basaltic volcanism with signatures of plume magmatism (high-Ti basalts). The lunar maria were, probably, specific analogues of Earth's oceans. On Venus and Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basal

  17. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development environment with encapsulated low-level drivers, HW support and testing environment). Furthermore Space PDP presents an advanced processing system to be fully adopted both as on-board module for EO spacecrafts and extra-planetary exploration rovers. The main innovative aspects are: • HW and SW modularity - scalability for the Payload Data Processing and AOC S/S • Complex processing capabilities fully available onboard (on spacecrafts or rovers) • Reduced effort in mission SW design, implementation, verification and validation tasks • HW abstraction level comparable to present multitasking Unix-like systems allowing SW and algorithms re-use (also from available GS applications). The development approach addressed by SpacePDP is based both on the re-use and resources sharing with flexible elements adjustable to different missions and to different tasks within the same mission (e.g. shared between AOCS and data management S/S) and on a strong specialization in the system elements that are designed to satisfy specific mission needs and specific technological innovations. The innovative processing system is proven in many possible scenarios of use from standard compression task up to the most complex one as the image classification directly on-board. The first one is just useful for standard benchmark trade-off analysis of HW and SW capabilities respect to the other common processing modules. The classification is the ambitious objective of that system to process directly on board the data from sensor (by down-sampling or in no-full resolution acquisition modality if necessary) to detect at flight time any features on ground or observed phenomenas. For Earth application it could be the cloud coverage (to avoid the acquisition and discard the data), burning areas or vessels detection and similar. On Planetary o Universe exploration mission it could be the path recognition for a rover, or high power energy events in outbound galaxies. Sometimes it could be need to review the GS algorithms to approach the problem in the Space scenario, i.e. for Synthetic Aperture Rad

  18. Testbed for development of a DSP-based signal processing subsystem for an Earth-orbiting radar scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Douglas J.; Lux, James P.; Shirbacheh, Mike

    2002-01-01

    A testbed for evaluation of general-purpose digital signal processors in earth-orbiting radar scatterometers is discussed. Because general purpose DSP represents a departure from previous radar signal processing techniques used on scatterometers, there was a need to demonstrate key elements of the system to verify feasibility for potential future scatterometer instruments. Construction of the testbed also facilitated identification of an appropriate software development environment and the skills mix necessary to perform the work.

  19. Refining the Understanding of Inhibitory Processes: How Response Prepotency Is Created and Overcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.; Gorniak, Sarah L.; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

    2012-01-01

    Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with…

  20. Understanding the Role of Cessation Fatigue in the Smoking Cessation Process*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Runze; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Vasilenko, Sara; Piper, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Background To understand the dynamic process of cessation fatigue (i.e., the tiredness of trying to quit smoking) with respect to its average trend, effect on relapse, time-varying relations with craving and negative affect, and differences among genders and treatment groups. Method Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants received either placebo, monotherapy (bupropion SR, nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge), or combined pharmacotherapy (bupropion SR + nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge). Data were collected from 1504 daily smokers who were motivated to quit smoking. The participants completed baseline assessments and ecological momentary assessments for 2 weeks post-quit. Results Cessation fatigue reduced the likelihood of 6-month post-quit abstinence (OR = 0.97, 95% CI (0.95, 0.99)), and was positively associated with craving and negative affect. After controlling for these two factors, average cessation fatigue increased over time. Compared to men, women experienced greater fatigue (t = -10.69, p < 0.0001) and a stronger relation between fatigue and craving (t = -8.80, p < 0.0001). The relationship between fatigue and negative affect was significantly stronger in men (t = 5.73, p < 0.0001). Cessation fatigue was significantly reduced by combined pharmacotherapy (t = -13.4, p < 0.0001), as well as monotherapy (t = -6.2, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Cessation fatigue was closely related to craving, negative affect, and cessation outcomes. Women reported greater cessation fatigue than men. Current treatments appeared to reduce fatigue and weaken its relations with craving and negative affect. PMID:23954071

  1. The worldwide collapse caldera database (CCDB): A tool for studying and understanding caldera processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Adelina; Marti, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Collapse calderas are one of the most important volcanic structures not only because of their hazard implications, but also because of their high geothermal energy potential and their association with mineral deposits of economic interest. In 2008 we presented a new general worldwide Collapse Caldera DataBase (CCDB), in order to provide a useful and accessible tool for studying and understanding caldera collapse processes. The principal aim of the CCDB is to update the current field based knowledge on calderas, merging together the existing databases and complementing them with new examples found in the bibliography, and leaving it open for the incorporation of new data from future studies. Currently, the database includes over 450 documented calderas around the world, trying to be representative enough to promote further studies and analyses. We have performed a comprehensive compilation of published field studies of collapse calderas including more than 500 references, and their information has been summarized in a database linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS) application. Thus, it is possible to visualize the selected calderas on a world map and to filter them according to different features recorded in the database (e.g. age, structure). The information recorded in the CCDB can be grouped in seven main information classes: caldera features, properties of the caldera-forming deposits, magmatic system, geodynamic setting, pre-caldera volcanism,caldera-forming eruption sequence and post-caldera activity. Additionally, we have added two extra classes. The first records the references consulted for each caldera. The second allows users to introduce comments on the caldera sample such as possible controversies concerning the caldera origin. During the last seven years, the database has been available on-line at http://www.gvb-csic.es/CCDB.htm previous registration. This year, the CCDB webpage will be updated and improved so the database content can be queried on-line. This research was partially funded by the research fellowship RYC-2012-11024.

  2. SUICIDE PREVENTION AS A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: UNDERSTANDING CIRCUMPOLAR YOUTH SUICIDE PREVENTION THROUGH COMMUNITY LEVEL OUTCOMES

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Team, People Awakening; Allen, James

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Community-based models have become increasingly prominent in prevention, and have special relevance for suicide prevention in circumpolar Indigenous communities. It follows that outcomes from circumpolar suicide prevention programs might be more completely understood at the community level. We present here a methodology for analysis at this level. This paper seeks to understand a cultural prevention program for rural Yup'ik youth in Alaska targeting suicide and co-occurring alcohol abuse as a community development process through changes at the community level. Study Design Quasi-experimental design with assessment at pre- and post-intervention or at 4 time points. The community development process for this project began in October 2004. The first program baseline assessment began in November 2006, prior to prevention activities with youth and parents, and the post-intervention assessment concluded in March 2008. Methods Five key informants pre- and post-intervention completed a community readiness assessment, which is a structured procedure assessing a community's awareness of suicide as an issue and its organizational readiness for prevention programming. Forty-three adult caregivers or sponsors of youth in the prevention program completed an assessment of behaviours that contributed to community protective factors from youth suicide and alcohol abuse at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The 54 youth who participated in the prevention program completed an assessment of community protective factors, also at 4 time points before, during and after the intervention. The community protective factors from suicide that were assessed included safety, enforcement of alcohol prohibitions, role models, support and opportunities for youth. Results Community readiness for the prevention efforts increased to new developmental stages of readiness post-intervention, and a trend in the data suggested community protective factors increased in the amount of protective behaviours performed by adults (slope estimate=0.0162, 95% CI-0.0028–0.0351, d=.55) and in the perceptions of youth (slope estimate=0.0148, 95% CI-0.0004–0.0291, d=.45), in a dose response relationship to the number of prevention program sessions attended by adults and youth. Conclusions Using data from a feasibility study, this paper demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of methodological approaches that use community-level variables beyond individual level outcomes in circumpolar suicide prevention research. PMID:19705659

  3. The new worldwide collapse caldera database (CCDB): A tool for studying and understanding caldera processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Martí, J.

    2008-08-01

    Collapse calderas are one of the most important volcanic structures not only because of their hazard implications, but also because of their high geothermal energy potential and their association with mineral deposits of economic interest. The objective of this work is to describe a new general worldwide Collapse Caldera DataBase (CCDB), in order to provide a useful and accessible tool for studying and understanding caldera collapse processes. The principal aim of the CCDB is to update the current field based knowledge on calderas, merging together the existing databases and complementing them with new examples found in the bibliography, and leaving it open for the incorporation of new data from future studies. This database does not include all the calderas of the world, but it tries to be representative enough to promote further studies and analyses. We have performed a comprehensive compilation of published field studies of collapse calderas including more than 200 references, and their information has been summarized in a database linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS) application. Thus, it is possible to visualize the selected calderas on a world map and to filter them according to different features recorded in the database (e.g. age, structure). The information recorded in the CCDB can be grouped in seven main information classes: caldera features, properties of the caldera-forming deposits, magmatic system, geodynamic setting, pre-caldera volcanism, caldera-forming eruption sequence and post-caldera activity. Additionally, we have added two extra classes. The first records the references consulted for each caldera. The second allows users to introduce comments on the caldera sample such as possible controversies concerning the caldera origin. A further purpose of this work is to construct the CCDB web page. In this web page where registered users can acquire the current database version, as well as to propose corrections or updates and to exchange information with other registered members also involved in the study of caldera collapse processes. Additionally, the CCDB includes a formulary that will facilitate the incorporation of new calderas into the database.

  4. Spaceship Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2002-09-10

    In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

  5. Earth Movers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson explores plate tectonics and helps students understand how mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes are related to the movements of plates. Students will learn about the idea of continental drift and the theory of plate tectonics to ascertain a fuller picture of how land formations on the surface of the Earth are shaped by plates moving below the surface.

  6. Flux pinning enhancement in melt processed YBa2Cu3O7 - delta through rare-earth ion (Nd, La) substitutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Chakrapani; McGinn, Paul J.; Blackstead, Howard A.; Pulling, David B.

    1995-08-01

    Stoichiometric YBa2Cu3O7-? (Y123) samples doped with excess Nd2O3 and La2O3 additions were melt processed in air. Because decomposition and reformation of 123 occurs during melt processing, lighter rare-earth ion substitution in 123 takes place. As the lighter rare-earth ion sizes (Nd, La) are comparable to that of Ba2+, in addition to Y ion site substitution, partial substitution into the Ba2+ sites is also anticipated. The Tc and magnetic properties of lighter rare-earth oxide doped samples were analyzed and compared with undoped Y123 to investigate the flux pinning enhancement due to these substitutions. The lighter rare-earth oxide doped, melt processed 123 shows significant improvement in magnetization compared to undoped samples, which is likely due to point defects created by partial substitutions of the lighter rare-earth ions.

  7. Integrating EarthScope seismic, GPS, and other active Earth observations into informal education programs in parks and museums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Lillie; C. Goddard; J. Braunmiller; A. M. Trehu

    2008-01-01

    EarthScope is a National Science Foundation program that uses seismic, GPS, and other geophysical devices to explore the structure and evolution of the North American continent and to understand the physical processes that cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Two challenges facing the EarthScope community include providing the public with access to timely science results and presenting complex data and related

  8. Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements during magmatic and post-magmatic processes: a case study from the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, A. S.; Goodenough, K. M.; Hughes, H. S. R.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Gunn, A. G.; Rushton, J.; Lacinska, A.

    2013-10-01

    Concern about security of supply of critical elements used in new technologies, such as the Rare Earth Elements (REE), means that it is increasingly important to understand the processes by which they are enriched in crustal settings. High REE contents are found in syenite-dominated alkaline complexes intruded along the Moine Thrust Zone, a major collisional zone in north-west Scotland. The most northerly of these is the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, which comprises three separate intrusions. One of these, the Cnoc nan Cuilean intrusion, contains two mappable zones: a Mixed Syenite Zone in which mafic melasyenite is mixed and mingled with leucosyenite and a Massive Leucosyenite Zone. Within the Mixed Syenite Zone, hydrothermal activity is evident in the form of narrow altered veins dominated by biotite and magnetite; these are poorly exposed and their lateral extent is uncertain. The REE mineral allanite is relatively abundant in the melasyenite and is extremely enriched in the biotite-magnetite veins, which have up to 2 % total rare earth oxides in bulk rock analyses. An overall model for development of this intrusion can be divided into three episodes: (1) generation of a Light Rare Earth Element (LREE)-enriched parental magma due to enrichment of the mantle source by subduction of pelagic carbonates; (2) early crystallisation of allanite in melasyenite, due to the saturation of the magma in the LREE; and (3) hydrothermal alteration, in three different episodes identified by petrography and mineral chemistry, generating the intense enrichment of REE in the biotite-magnetite veins. Dating of allanite and titanite in the biotite-magnetite veins gives ages of c. 426 Ma, overlapping with previously published crystallisation ages for zircon in the syenite.

  9. A dissimmetry of tectonic processes of Northern and Southern hemispheres as dynamical consequence of relative forced polar displacements of the core and mantle of the Earth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. V. Barkin; N. A. Bozhko

    2009-01-01

    The empirical data testifying the dissymmetry of the Earth in cyclic (400 million years) process of assembly and breakup of supercontinents (Bozhko, 1992) obtain a natural explanation from the statements and base positions of developed geodynamic model (Bozhko, Barkin, 2009). The base of model makes the mechanism of the forced relative translational displacements (and turns) of the Earth's core and

  10. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  11. Astrochronology of the late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay (Dorset, England) and implications for Earth system processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chunju; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda

    2010-01-01

    The Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) is an economically important, organic-rich source rock of Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian age. The main rock types of the KCF in Dorset, UK, include grey to black laminated shale, marl, coccolithic limestone, and dolostone, which occur with an obvious cyclicity at astronomical timescales. In this study, we examine two high-resolution borehole records (Swanworth Quarry 1 and Metherhills 1) obtained as part of a Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) sediment drilling project. Datasets examined were total organic carbon (TOC), and borehole wall microconductivity by Formation Microscanner (FMS). Our intent is to assess the rhythmicity of the KCF with respect to the astronomical timescale, and to discuss the results with respect to other key Late Jurassic geological processes. Power spectra of the untuned data reveal a hierarchy of cycles throughout the KCF with ˜ 167 m, ˜ 40 m, 9.1 m, 3.8 m and 1.6 m wavelengths. Tuning the ˜ 40 m cycles to the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle shows the presence of all the astronomical parameters: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession index. In particular, ˜ 100-kyr and 405-kyr eccentricity cycles are strongly expressed in both records. The 405-kyr eccentricity cycle corresponds to relative sea-level changes inferred from sequence stratigraphy. Intervals with elevated TOC are associated with strong obliquity forcing. The 405-kyr-tuned duration of the lower KCF (Kimmeridgian Stage) is 3.47 Myr, and the upper KCF (early part of the Tithonian Stage, elegans to fittoni ammonite zones) is 3.32 Myr. Two other chronologies test the consistency of this age model by tuning ˜ 8-10 m cycles to 100-kyr (short eccentricity), and ˜ 3-5 m cycles to 36-kyr (Jurassic obliquity). The 'obliquity-tuned' chronology resolves an accumulation history for the KCF with a variation that strongly resembles that of Earth's orbital eccentricity predicted for 147.2 Ma to 153.8 Ma. There is evidence for significant non-deposition (up to 1 million years) in the lowermost KCF ( baylei- mutabilis zones), which would indicate a Kimmeridgian/Oxfordian boundary age of 154.8 Ma. This absolute calibration allows assignment of precise numerical ages to zonal boundaries, sequence surfaces, and polarity chrons of the lower M-sequence.

  12. Planetary cores formation: Evidence from evolution of tectonomagmatic processes and paleomagnetic data for the Earth and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    2013-09-01

    Geological and petrological data on evolution of tectonomagmatic processes on the Earth and the Moon evidence that their primordial iron cores were formed as a result of heterogeneous accretion from material, existed in the Solar system in the early stages of their development, when the terrestrial planets were born and were their embryos. Material of these primordial cores began to involve in tectonomagmatis processes only at the middle stages of their development, leading to cardinal reorganization of the planets geodynamics and gradually replacement of ancient sialic crust for secondary basaltic. Modern cores of the bodies are formed by mixture of material of the primordial cores and iron of chondrite origin.

  13. Simulating the Fate of an Earth-like Planet Inclined to the Ecliptic Plane to Improve Understanding of Planetary System Formation 

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Kristin

    2013-02-01

    its dynamics will continue to vary over time. For the Sun-Earth-Jupiter system simulated in this paper (run over 119,000 years), orbits inclined to the ecliptic plane greater than 50° became unstable, with Earth ejection after 62,000 years (85...

  14. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cole; M. Bambacus; C. Lynnes; B. Sauer; S. Falke; W. Yang

    2007-01-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation

  15. The snowball Earth aftermath: Exploring the limits of continental weathering processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Le Hir; Yannick Donnadieu; Yves Goddéris; Raymond T. Pierrehumbert; Galen P. Halverson; Mélina Macouin; Anne Nédélec; Gilles Ramstein

    2008-01-01

    article i nfo Carbonates capping Neoproterozoic glacial deposits contain peculiar sedimentological features and geochemical anomalies ascribed to extraordinary environmental conditions in the snowball Earth aftermath. It is commonly assumed that post-snowball climate dominated by CO2 partial pressures several hundred times greater than modern levels, would be characterized by extreme temperatures, a vigorous hydrological cycle, and associated high continental weathering rates.

  16. Advancing Our Understanding of the Impacts of Historic and Projected Land Use in the Earth System: The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, D. M.; Hurtt, G. C.; Brovkin, V.; Calvin, K. V.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Jones, C.; Pongratz, J.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Shevliakova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) are including increasingly comprehensive treatments of land use and land management, representing not only land cover change, but also land use in the form of prognostic crop and pasture models, irrigation, fertilization, wood harvest, and urbanization. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) is a new (proposed) satellite-MIP within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) that is designed to address the following main science questions: (1) What are the effects of land use and land-use change on climate (past-future)? (2) What are the effects of climate change on land-use and land-use change? (3) Are there regional land management strategies with promise to help mitigate and adapt to climate change? LUMIP will coordinate across existing land use change projects such as LUCID, AgMIP, GSWP3, Trendy, and LUC4C. LUMIP encompasses three major activities: (1) input and output data harmonization and standardization, (2) development of model metrics to assess ESM performance with respect to the impact of land use on climate and carbon cycling, and (3) design and execution of a concise set of land model and ESM experiments for assessment of the impacts of historic and projected land use on the climate system and to separate effects of fossil fuel vs. land use, biogeochemical vs biogeophysical processes, and land cover vs land management. Preliminary results from idealized model experiments will be presented.

  17. How Irreversible Heat Transport Processes Drive Earth's Interdependent Thermal, Structural, and Chemical Evolution Providing a Strongly Heterogeneous, Layered Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Because magmatism conveys radioactive isotopes plus latent heat rapidly upwards while advecting heat, this process links and controls the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth. We present evidence that the lower mantle-upper mantle boundary is a profound chemical discontinuity, leading to observed heterogeneities in the outermost layers that can be directly sampled, and construct an alternative view of Earth's internal workings. Earth's beginning involved cooling via explosive outgassing of substantial ice (mainly CO) buried with dust during accretion. High carbon content is expected from Solar abundances and ice in comets. Reaction of CO with metal provided a carbide-rich core while converting MgSiO3 to olivine via oxidizing reactions. Because thermodynamic law (and buoyancy of hot particles) indicates that primordial heat from gravitational segregation is neither large nor carried downwards, whereas differentiation forced radioactive elements upwards, formation of the core and lower mantle greatly cooled the Earth. Reference conductive geotherms, calculated using accurate and new thermal diffusivity data, require that heat-producing elements are sequestered above 670 km which limits convection to the upper mantle. These irreversible beginnings limit secular cooling to radioactive wind-down, permiting deduction of Earth's inventory of heat-producing elements from today's heat flux. Coupling our estimate for heat producing elements with meteoritic data indicates that Earth's oxide content has been underestimated. Density sorting segregated a Si-rich, peridotitic upper mantle from a refractory, oxide lower mantle with high Ca, Al and Ti contents, consistent with diamond inclusion mineralogy. Early and rapid differentiation means that internal temperatures have long been buffered by freezing of the inner core, allowing survival of crust as old as ca.4 Ga. Magmatism remains important. Melt escaping though stress-induced fractures in the rigid lithosphere imparts a lateral component and preferred direction to upper mantle circulation. Mid-ocean magma production over ca. 4 Ga has deposited a slab volume at 670 km that is equivalent to the transition zone, thereby continuing differentiation by creating a late-stage chemical discontinuity near 400 km. This ongoing process has generated the observed lateral and vertical heterogeneity above 670 km.

  18. Flat earth upward continuation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John V. Shebalin

    1979-01-01

    For a thorough understanding of flat earth upward continuation, Poisson's integral equation is transformed from a coordinate system with spherical symmetry to one with planar symmetry. The two separate cases of infinite and finite flat earths are considered. In resulting exact forms a functional factor in the integrands is isolated, a factor which allows the translation of a spherical earth

  19. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W., E-mail: guowei1982cry@163.com [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Ma, H.A.; Jia, X. [National Key Lab of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  20. Understanding the Triaging and Fixing Processes of Long Lived Bugs Ripon K. Saha, Sarfraz Khurshid, Dewayne E. Perry

    E-print Network

    Perry, Dewayne E.

    Understanding the Triaging and Fixing Processes of Long Lived Bugs Ripon K. Saha, Sarfraz Khurshid and Computer Engineering The University of Texas at Austin, USA Abstract Context: Bug fixing is an integral frustrating for user. While there are many studies that investigate factors affecting bug fixing time

  1. Major advances have been made during the past two years in understanding how honeybees process olfactory input at the level

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    504 Major advances have been made during the past two years in understanding how honeybees process, the honeybee has been used as a model. This review will focus on this latter species: behavioural paradigms. Why the honeybee? The `olfactory code' is a set of transformation rules that lead to a neuronal

  2. UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES IN eGOVERNMENT: INTEGRATING HIGHER EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING IN AN INTERNATIONAL BLENDED LEARNING PROGRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Gilge; Eric Schoop; Dalia Kriksciuniene; Michael Breidung

    eGovernment seems to be a popular answer to the tough demands for change on the public administration of today. But eGovernment cannot be efficiently and effectively be integrated into the public institution, if there is no understanding of the underlying processes and the ways of enhancing them with modern Information and Communication Technologies. Hence, public administration institutions have a high

  3. Impact of the informed consent process on patients’ understanding of varicose veins and their treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Dillon; C. J. Carr; T. M. F. Feeley; S. Tierney

    2005-01-01

    Aim  It is particularly important that patients have reasonable understanding of the risks, benefits and nature of elective surgery.\\u000a This study sought to analyse this level of understanding in patients undergoing varicose vein surgery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighty two patients completed a questionnaire in the vascular outpatient clinic and were asked to complete a telephone questionnaire\\u000a following the clinic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Pain (n=46) was the primary

  4. Understanding the Zongo : processes of socio-spatial marginalization in Ghana

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Emily Anne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial processes of marginalization and ghettoization have been described, labeled, and theorized extensively in the United States and Europe, yet there has been little research dedicated to these processes in the ...

  5. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl May; Tracy Finch; Frances Mair; Luciana Ballini; Christopher Dowrick; Martin Eccles; Linda Gask; Anne MacFarlane; Elizabeth Murray; Tim Rapley; Anne Rogers; Shaun Treweek; Paul Wallace; George Anderson; Jo Burns; Ben Heaven

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice.

  6. The function of bleaching earths in the processing of palm, palm kernel and coconut oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Morgan; D. B. Shaw; M. J. Sidebottom; T. C. Soon; R. S. Taylor

    1985-01-01

    The results presented in the literature, which attempt to elucidate the mechanisms by which triglyceride oils are bleached\\u000a by earths, are reviewed. The impact of this work and how the mechanistic proposals affect changes in oil properties are considered,\\u000a with particular emphasis on the needs of the palm oil processor. Important properties include color, metals and phosphorus\\u000a content and oxidative

  7. Progress report on terrestrial model development (TERRA and HABITAT): Research in support of the CERES earth system modeling project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Kercher; M. C. Axelrod; J. S. Amthor; J. Q. Chambers

    1994-01-01

    Although there is only a developing understanding of the many processes affecting and coupling the atmosphere, oceans, and land systems of the earth, we are embarked on an effort to construct a prototype model (CERES) of the full Earth system. As part of this effort, we have proposed to the EPA to construct an Earth System Framework for the CERES

  8. From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.

    PubMed

    Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities. PMID:22317190

  9. Monitoring and Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment and its influence on sacchrification kinetics, total sugar yield, and inhibitor formation is essential to develop efficient next-generation biofuels strategies, capable of displacing fossil fuels at a commercial level. In this study we investigate t...

  10. Understanding the Condemnation Process in Texas. Teachers Instructional Packet, TIP No. 8, Fall 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Real Estate Research Center.

    Part of a series of classroom aids designed for real estate instructors, this instructional packet was developed to help real estate students understand where the power to condemn property comes from, which entities have this power, what the condemnation procedure is in Texas, and how property rights are best protected. First, information about…

  11. Using Statistical Natural Language Processing for Understanding Complex Responses to Free-Response Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMark, Sarah F.; Behrens, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas great advances have been made in the statistical sophistication of assessments in terms of evidence accumulation and task selection, relatively little statistical work has explored the possibility of applying statistical techniques to data for the purposes of determining appropriate domain understanding and to generate task-level scoring…

  12. Verbal Information-processing Capabilities and Cochlear Implants: Implications for Preoperative Predictors of Speech Understanding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjorn Lyxell; Jan Andersson; Stig Arlinger; Goran Bredberg; Henrik Harder; Jerker Ronnberg

    In this study, we examined preoperative verbal cognitive ca- pacity in 11 deafened adults who were cochlear implant can- didates and reexamined level of speech understanding after 6—8 months' experience with the implant. Verbal cognitive performance in the implant group was compared in a group of normal hearing subjects and in a nonimplanted group of deafened adults. The three groups

  13. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

  14. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further decrease bed-material supply by an unknown amount because they limit bank erosion and entrainment of stored sediment. The rivers, geomorphic floodplain, and vegetation within the study area have changed noticeably in response to the alterations in floods and coarse sediment and wood transport. Widespread decreases have occurred in the rates of meander migration and avulsions and the number and diversity of landforms such as gravel bars, islands, and side channels. Dynamic and, in some cases, multi-thread river segments have become stable, single-thread channels. Preliminary observations suggest that forest area has increased within the active channel, further reducing the area of unvegetated gravel bars. Alterations to floods and sediment transport and ongoing channel, floodplain, and vegetation responses result in a modern Willamette River Basin. Here, the floodplain influenced by the modern flow and sediment regimes, or the functional floodplain, is narrower and inset with the broader and older geomorphic floodplain. The functional floodplain is flanked by higher elevation relict floodplain features that are no longer inundated by modern floods. The corridor of present- day active channel surfaces is narrower, enabling riparian vegetation to establish on formerly active gravel bar surfaces. The modern Willamette River Basin with its fundamental changes in the flood, sediment transport, and large wood regimes has implications for future habitat conditions. System-wide future trends probably include narrower floodplains and a lower diversity of landforms and habitats along the Willamette River and its major tributaries compared to historical patterns and today. Furthermore, specific conditions and future trends will probably vary between geologically stable, anthropogenically stable, and dynamic reaches. The middle and lower segments of the Willamette River are geologically stable, whereas the South Santiam and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers were historically dynamic, but are now largely stable in response to flow regulation and revetment construction. The upper Willa

  15. LamontDoherty Earth Observatory The Earth Institute at Columbia UniversityThe Earth Institute at Columbia Univ

    E-print Network

    12 12 Lamont­Doherty Earth Observatory The Earth Institute at Columbia UniversityThe Earth-DOHERTYEARTHOBSERVATORYTHEEARTHINSTITUTEATCOLUMBIAUNIVERSITYBIENNIALREPORT2000­2002 #12;Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory is renowned in the internationLamont-Doherty Earth suc- cess and innovation in advancing understanding of Earth, for itcess and innovation in advancing

  16. Using Constructivist Case Study Methodology to Understand Community Development Processes: Proposed Methodological Questions to Guide the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauckner, Heidi; Paterson, Margo; Krupa, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Often, research projects are presented as final products with the methodologies cleanly outlined and little attention paid to the decision-making processes that led to the chosen approach. Limited attention paid to these decision-making processes perpetuates a sense of mystery about qualitative approaches, particularly for new researchers who will…

  17. Thermal Conduction - A Tool for Exploring Geological Processes on the Earth and Other Bodies in our Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Grosfils

    Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process, one which controls many aspects of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of bodies within our solar system. Using transmission of thermal energy through the crust of the Earth as an initial, physically intuitive conceptual model, the module's background material will (a) help students deduce the thermal conduction equation-a second order differential which can be constructed from first principles, (b) evaluate volume-adjusted conduction incorporating internal heat generation and temperature change, and (c) explore special forms of the equation such as steady state conduction and thermal diffusion.

  18. The Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Key; Stanley Sander; Annmarie Eldering; Charles Miller; Christian Frankenberg; Vijay Natraj; David Rider; Jean-Francois Blavier; Dmitriy Bekker; Yen-Hung Wu

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. The measurement strategy delivers a process based understanding of the carbon cycle that is accurate and extensible from city to regional and continental scales. This understanding comes from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide

  19. Understanding invasion as a process: the case of Phalaris arundinacea in wet prairies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne M. Kercher; Andrea Herr-Turoff; Joy B. Zedler

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plants that most threaten biodiversity are those that rapidly form a monospecific stand, like the clonal grass, Phalaris arundinacea. Understanding complex and potentially interacting factors that are common in urban and agricultural landscapes and underlie\\u000a rapid invasions requires an experimental, factorial approach. We tested the effects of flooding and nutrient and sediment\\u000a additions (3 ? 3 ? 3 = 27 treatments, plus a control with

  20. Monitoring and Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohit Arora; Chithra Manisseri; Chenlin Li; Markus D. Ong; Henrik Vibe Scheller; Kenneth Vogel; Blake A. Simmons; Seema Singh

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment and its influence on saccharification kinetics, total sugar yield, and inhibitor\\u000a formation is essential to develop efficient next-generation biofuel strategies, capable of displacing fossil fuels at a commercial\\u000a level. In this study, we investigated the effect of residence time and temperature during ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of\\u000a switchgrass using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate. The primary metrics

  1. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  2. University Education Student's Understanding of the Nature and Processes of Science. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Roger L.

    This study examined the concept of the nature and processes of science held by college students in both elementary and secondary education as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Science Processes (WISP). Secondary science education students scored significantly higher than students enrolled in primary or intermediate education. The difference…

  3. Counselors' Understanding of Process Addiction: A Blind Spot in the Counseling Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angie D.; Johnson, Pennie

    2013-01-01

    The addictions field continues to grow and is expanding beyond the area of substance abuse and substance dependence. Process addictions are now an integral aspect of addictions treatment, diagnosis, and assessment. There is a gap in the literature related to process addictions which impacts counselors and clients due to lack of literature and…

  4. Towards Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Meijer, R. J.; Smit, F. D.; Brooks, F. D.; Fearick, R. W.; Wörtche, H. J.; Mantovani, F.

    2006-12-01

    The programme Earth AntineutRino TomograpHy (EARTH) proposes to build ten underground facilities each hosting a telescope. Each telescope consists of many detector modules, to map the radiogenic heat sources deep in the interior of the Earth by utilising direction sensitive geoneutrino detection. Recent hypotheses target the core-mantle boundary (CMB) as a major source of natural radionuclides and therefore of radiogenic heat. A typical scale of the processes that take place at the CMB is about 200 km. To observe these processes from the surface requires an angular resolution of about 3°. EARTH aims at creating a high-resolution 3D-map of the radiogenic heat sources in the Earth’s interior. It will thereby contribute to a better understanding of a number of geophysical phenomena observed at the Earth’s surface. This condition requires a completely different approach from the monolithic detector systems as e.g. KamLAND. This paper presents, for such telescopes, the boundary conditions set by physics, the estimated count rates, and the first initial results from Monte-Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments. The Monte-Carlo simulations indicate that the large volume telescope should consist of detector modules each comprising a very large number of detector units, with a cross section of roughly a few square centimetres. The signature of an antineutrino event will be a double pulse event. One pulse arises from the slowing down of the emitted positron, the other from the neutron capture. In laboratory experiments small sized, 10B-loaded liquid scintillation detectors were investigated as candidates for direction sensitive, low-energy antineutrino detection.

  5. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdi?, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson?s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. PMID:25935124

  6. Using structural theory to make a word-processing manual more understandable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hagmann; Richard E. Mayer; Peter Nenniger

    1998-01-01

    We used Mayer's (1979, 1985) transactional theory of computer programming languages to modify a word-processing manual, that is, we added visual and verbal descriptions of what happened inside the computer for each of 12 commands. In our study, computer-naive adults took a half-day course in word processing. Half of the participants learned from a standard manual that described and provided

  7. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

  8. Global change and modern coral reefs: New opportunities to understand shallow-water carbonate depositional processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallock, Pamela

    2005-04-01

    Human activities are impacting coral reefs physically, biologically, and chemically. Nutrification, sedimentation, chemical pollution, and overfishing are significant local threats that are occurring worldwide. Ozone depletion and global warming are triggering mass coral-bleaching events; corals under temperature stress lose the ability to synthesize protective sunscreens and become more sensitive to sunlight. Photo-oxidative stress also reduces fitness, rendering reef-building organisms more susceptible to emerging diseases. Increasing concentration of atmospheric CO 2 has already reduced CaCO 3 saturation in surface waters by more than 10%. Doubling of atmospheric CO 2 concentration over pre-industrial concentration in the 21st century may reduce carbonate production in tropical shallow marine environments by as much as 80%. As shallow-water reefs decline worldwide, opportunities abound for researchers to expand understanding of carbonate depositional systems. Coordinated studies of carbonate geochemistry with photozoan physiology and calcification, particularly in cool subtropical-transition zones between photozoan-reef and heterotrophic carbonate-ramp communities, will contribute to understanding of carbonate sedimentation under environmental change, both in the future and in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly prominent on declining reefs, as these microbes can tolerate strong solar radiation, higher temperatures, and abundant nutrients. The responses of reef-dwelling cyanobacteria to environmental parameters associated with global change are prime topics for further research, with both ecological and geological implications.

  9. Refining the understanding of inhibitory processes: how response prepotency is created and overcome

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.; Gorniak, Sarah L.; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

    2012-01-01

    Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with inhibiting saying the name of the stimulus due to the name being semantically related to the correct response or to its being a valid response on the task (i.e. a member of the response set) though incorrect for this stimulus? Experiment 1 (with 40 4-year-olds) suggests that prepotency is caused by membership in the response set and not semantic relation. Concerning (b), Diamond, Kirkham and Amso (2002) found that 4-year-olds could succeed on the day-night task if the experimenter sang a ditty after showing the stimulus card, before the child was to respond. They concluded that it was because delaying children’s responses gave them time to compute the correct answer. However, Experiment 2 (with 90 3-year-olds) suggests that such a delay helps because it gives the incorrect, prepotent response time to passively dissipate, not because of active computation during the delay. PMID:22251293

  10. Perception of Misbehavior: Understanding the Process of Labeling and the Role of Cultural Capital in the Disciplinary Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Cynthia S.

    2014-01-01

    Educators face multiple forms of misbehavior in the classroom on a regular basis. This ethnographic research project addresses the difficulties encountered by teachers in a high school setting, giving consideration to the decision-making process in determining whether to admonish students for misbehavior and whether to issue a referral to an…

  11. Adaptive lidar for Earth imaging from space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl Weimer; Tanya Ramond

    2011-01-01

    Laser remote sensing of the Earth from space offers many unique capabilities stemming from the unique properties of lasers. Lidars make possible three-dimensional characterizations that enable new scientific understanding of the natural processes that shape the planet's oceans, surface, and atmosphere. However, the challenges to further expand on these successes remain complex. Operation of lidars from space is limited in

  12. IMF control of the Earth's magnetosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Nishida

    1983-01-01

    We review recent progress in the understanding of the IMF control on the Earth's magnetosphere through the reconnection process. Major points include, (1) the identification of the magnetopause structure under the southward IMF polarity to be the rotational discontinuity and the resulting inference that the reconnection line is formed in the equatorial region, and (2) the confirmation from several observational

  13. Promoting reuse within the Earth Science community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Wolfe; S. Samadi; S. W. Olding

    2005-01-01

    Over the years, numerous large and complex information systems have been created to store, process and disseminate vast volumes of remotely-sensed data used by the Earth Science community to further our understanding of our home planet. These existing systems represent a tremendous potential source of software that can be reused to create new systems as well as enhance existing ones

  14. Bio-inspired synthesis: understanding and exploitation of the crystallization process from amorphous precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Junwu; Yang, Shihe

    2011-12-01

    Many biominerals, such as mollusk nacre, sea urchin, bone and teeth, are found to form by an amorphous precursor pathway, and these biominerals have remarkable properties, which are better than their artificial material counterparts that are formed at high temperatures and high pressures. More than ever, synthesizing technologically relevant materials following nature's way with a specific size, shape, orientation, organization, and complex form has been a focus of ongoing interest due to the increasing need for low cost and environmentally friendly approaches to processing advanced materials. Herein, we present recent developments in the crystallization process from amorphous precursors by primarily drawing on results from our own laboratory, and discuss some unique characteristics from the transformation process that can be exploited for the design and synthesis of artificial functional materials.

  15. Understanding and enabling laser processing of solar materials through temporal pulse control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekow, M.; Panarello, T.; Falletto, Nicolas; Guevremont, Marco

    2012-10-01

    The present highly competitive state of the PV industry is putting the pressure on both crystalline and thin film manufactures to deploy advanced architectures as a means to differentiate their products and protect market share. c-Si back side contact passivation, selective emitter opening and selective emitter doping are three efficiency improving processes that can utilize lasers that the industry is rapidly moving to adopt. Emitter Wrap Through (EWT) is another advanced architecture which will likely see adoption in the coming years for which lasers are a critical component of the process. Improved laser TCO patterning is of interest not only for CdTe solar cells but also for display and other micro electronics applications. Laser processing results for these various solar PV materials are presented both in terms of performance, materials science, and morphology as they relate to temporal characteristics of the laser pulse.

  16. The Lifeworld Earth and a Modelled Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juuti, Kalle

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the question of whether a phenomenological view of the Earth could be empirically endorsed. The phenomenological way of thinking considers the Earth as a material entity, but not as an object as viewed in science. In the learning science tradition, tracking the process of the conceptual change of the shape of the Earth, science's view of the Earth as an object—a celestial body—has been applied. I reanalysed data published in Vosniadou and Brewer's (Cognit psychol 24:535-585, 1992) seminal paper. According to my reanalysis of their interview material, it is plausible to conclude that the Earth as an infinite surface is the way to experience the Earth. Further, the `dual Earth model' is the first model of the Earth as an object. I conclude that experiences in the lifeworld need to be taken into consideration more seriously in science education research.

  17. Modification of phonon processes in nano-structured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    E-print Network

    Thomas Lutz; Lucile Veissier; Charles W. Thiel; Rufus L. Cone; Paul E. Barclay; Wolfgang Tittel

    2015-04-09

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable, or improve, persistent spectral hole-burning and optical coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and certain approaches to optical quantum memories. We specifically discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the telecommunication band, and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y$_2$SiO$_5$, a widely-used material in current quantum memory research.

  18. Modification of phonon processes in nano-structured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    E-print Network

    Lutz, Thomas; Thiel, Charles W; Cone, Rufus L; Barclay, Paul E; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nano-structured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable, or improve, persistent spectral hole-burning and optical coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and certain approaches to optical quantum memories. We specifically discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the telecommunication band, and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y$_2$SiO$_5$, a widely-used material in current quantum memory research.

  19. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-01-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  20. Influence of aerodynamic roughness length on aeolian processes: Earth, Mars, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Dan G.; Greeley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The aerodynamic roughness length (z sub 0) is the height at which a wind profile assumes a zero velocity. The lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer will be impeded by friction with the surface. An increase in surface roughness will also increase the shear stress required to initiate particle entrainment by the wind. Bagnold (1941) estimated z sub 0 as being 1/30 of the mean particle size. In Nature, surface roughness is composed of nonerodible elements as well as sand-size erodible particles. To assess z sub 0 values as a function of terrain, field experiments were conducted to obtain wind profiles monitored over natural surfaces at 15 sites in the Mojave Desert, Death Valley, and Nye County, Nevada. These sites span a variety of arid-land terrains, including smooth playas, alluvial fans, and lava flows; z sub 0 values ranged from 0.0001 cm to 1 cm. These values were incorporated in a threshold model and a flux model to assess transport efficiency over such terrains in three planetary environments (Venus, Earth, and Mars), and for particle sizes ranging from 60-500 micron. Threshold and flux are a function of planetary environment, particle density and size (Dp), and z sub 0, and the shear velocity of 1.2 x U sub *t (for Dp = 250 micron and z sub 0 = 0.84). Results show that flux on Mars is approximately 14 g/(cm x s), on Earth it is approximately 3 g/(cm x s), and on Venus 0.5 g/(cm x s). Under all planetary environments, the results also show a dramatic decrease in the flux for particles greater than 200 microns when z sub 0 increases above 0.0085 cm (corresponding to sites consisting of alluvium). When z sub 0 approaches 0.03 cm (corresponding to a mantled pahoehoe lava), the flux diminishes.

  1. Methodology to improve process understanding of surface runoff causing damages to buildings by analyzing insurance data records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, Daniel; Prasuhn, Volker; Weingartner, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Several case studies in Switzerland highlight that many buildings which are damaged by floods are not located within the inundation zones of rivers, but outside the river network. In urban areas, such flooding can be caused by drainage system surcharge, low infiltration capacity of the urbanized landscape etc. However, in rural and peri-urban areas inundations are more likely caused by surface runoff formed on natural and arable land. Such flash floods have very short response time, occur rather diffusely and, thus, are very difficult to observe directly. In our approach, we use data records from private, but mostly from public insurance companies. The latter, present in 19 out of the total 26 Cantons of Switzerland, insure (almost) every building within the respective administrative zones and, in addition, hold a monopoly position. Damage claims, including flood damages, are usually recorded and, thus, data records from such public insurance companies are a very profitable data source to better understand surface runoff leading to damages. Although practitioners agree that this process is relevant, there seems to be a knowledge gap concerning spatial and temporal distributions as well as triggers and influencing factors of such damage events. Within the framework of a research project, we want to address this research gap and improve the understanding of the process chain from surface runoff formation up to possible damages to buildings. This poster introduces the methodology, which will be applied to a dataset including data from the majority of all 19 public insurance companies for buildings in Switzerland, counting over 50'000 damage claims, in order to better understand surface runoff. The goal is to infer spatial and temporal patterns as well as drivers and influencing factors of surface runoff possibly causing damages. In particular, the workflow of data acquisition, harmonization and treatment is outlined. Furthermore associated problems and challenges are discussed. Ultimately, the improved process understanding will be used to develop a new modeling approach.

  2. Toward Understanding the Cognitive Processes of Software Design in Novice Programmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study provides insights with regard to the types of cognitive processes that are involved in the formation of mental models and the way those models change over the course of a semester in novice programmers doing a design task. Eight novice programmers participated in this study for three distinct software design sessions, using the same…

  3. Understanding Line Management Participation in IS Management for Selected Business Processes in Multinational Corporations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Schwarzer; Helmut Krcmar

    1994-01-01

    The IS literature calls far two shifts in IS management: from DP leadership to line management leadership and from a task-oriented approach to a process-oriented approach. Despite the widespread interest in these matters, few empirical studies have dealt with these issues. This paper reports on two exploratory studies which set out to examine use and management of IS in selected

  4. Towards Natural Language Processing: A Well-Formed Substring Table Approach to Understanding Garden Path Sentence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia-li Du; Ping-fang Yu

    2010-01-01

    As computers have become more affordable and accessible, the theories and techniques of natural language processing (NLP) are increasingly used as a means for automatically decoding natural language. Well-formed substring table (WFST) is an efficient parsing algorithm used to decode natural language. The form of (START, FINISH, LABEL?FOUND. TO FIND) is accepted by system as its basic model, and its

  5. Scapegoating: Another Step towards Understanding the Processes Generating Bullying in Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roz

    2007-01-01

    Within the group therapy literature scapegoating is understood as an unconscious process that plays an important function in preventing groups from being split asunder as a result of unexpressed frustration towards the leader. When a group successfully challenges its leader to share power, the need for a scapegoat passes. In the search for theory…

  6. Secondary School Students' Understanding of Mathematical Induction: Structural Characteristics and the Process of Proof Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Marina; Potari, Despina; Spyrou, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the meaning students attribute to the structure of mathematical induction (MI) and the process of proof construction using mathematical induction in the context of a geometric recursion problem. Two hundred and thirteen 17-year-old students of an upper secondary school in Greece participated in the study. Students'…

  7. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Thompson

    2010-04-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that

  8. Understanding and accelerating the diffusion process of energy-efficient buildings: Introducing an Action Science Venture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Ulli-Beer; Susanne Bruppacher; Stefan Grösser; Stefanie Geisshüsler

    This paper describes the innovative research approach of a project that has recently been funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF). The project aims at analyzing and accelerating managerial and organizational adaptation processes that foster the diffusion of pioneering energy efficient technologies in the building sector. Psychological, managerial, and economic theories as well as results of empirical investigations about

  9. Experiential Internships: Understanding the Process of Student Learning in Small Business Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Mary E.; Parker, Loran Carleton; Adedokun, Omolola; Shively, Monica; Burgess, Wilella; Childress, Amy; Bessenbacher, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the process of student learning in a small-business experiential internship programme that pairs highly qualified undergraduates with local small or start-up companies. The Cognitive Apprenticeship model developed by Collins et al (1991) was used to conceptualize students' reported experiences. The results revealed…

  10. NOAA's Science On a Sphere Education Program: Application of a Scientific Visualization System to Teach Earth System Science and Improve our Understanding About Creating Effective Visualizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. McDougall; J. McLaughlin

    2008-01-01

    NOAA has developed several programs aimed at facilitating the use of earth system science data and data visualizations by formal and informal educators. One of them, Science On a Sphere, a visualization display tool and system that uses networked LCD projectors to display animated global datasets onto the outside of a suspended, 1.7-meter diameter opaque sphere, enables science centers, museums,

  11. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  12. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  13. The generic MESSy submodel TENDENCY (v1.0) for process-based analyses in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, R.; Jöckel, P.

    2014-07-01

    The tendencies of prognostic variables in Earth system models are usually only accessible, e.g. for output, as a sum over all physical, dynamical and chemical processes at the end of one time integration step. Information about the contribution of individual processes to the total tendency is lost, if no special precautions are implemented. The knowledge on individual contributions, however, can be of importance to track down specific mechanisms in the model system. We present the new MESSy (Modular Earth Submodel System) infrastructure submodel TENDENCY and use it exemplarily within the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) model to trace process-based tendencies of prognostic variables. The main idea is the outsourcing of the tendency accounting for the state variables from the process operators (submodels) to the TENDENCY submodel itself. In this way, a record of the tendencies of all process-prognostic variable pairs can be stored. The selection of these pairs can be specified by the user, tailor-made for the desired application, in order to minimise memory requirements. Moreover, a standard interface allows the access to the individual process tendencies by other submodels, e.g. for on-line diagnostics or for additional parameterisations, which depend on individual process tendencies. An optional closure test assures the correct treatment of tendency accounting in all submodels and thus serves to reduce the model's susceptibility. TENDENCY is independent of the time integration scheme and therefore the concept is applicable to other model systems as well. Test simulations with TENDENCY show an increase of computing time for the EMAC model (in a setup without atmospheric chemistry) of 1.8 ± 1% due to the additional subroutine calls when using TENDENCY. Exemplary results reveal the dissolving mechanisms of the stratospheric tape recorder signal in height over time. The separation of the tendency of the specific humidity into the respective processes (large-scale clouds, convective clouds, large-scale advection, vertical diffusion and methane oxidation) show that the upward propagating water vapour signal dissolves mainly because of the chemical and the advective contribution. The TENDENCY submodel is part of version 2.42 or later of MESSy.

  14. The generic MESSy submodel TENDENCY (v1.0) for process-based analyses in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichinger, R.; Jöckel, P.

    2014-04-01

    The tendencies of prognostic variables in Earth System Models are usually only accessible, e.g., for output, as sum over all physical, dynamical and chemical processes at the end of one time integration step. Information about the contribution of individual processes to the total tendency is lost, if no special precautions are implemented. The knowledge on individual contributions, however, can be of importance to track down specific mechanisms in the model system. We present the new MESSy (Modular Earth Submodel System) infrastructure submodel TENDENCY and use it exemplarily within the EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) model to trace process-based tendencies of prognostic variables. The main idea is the outsourcing of the tendency accounting for the state variables from the process operators (submodels) to the TENDENCY submodel itself. In this way, a record of the tendencies of all process-prognostic variable pairs can be stored. The selection of these pairs can be specified by the user, tailor-made for the desired application, in order to minimise memory requirements. Moreover a standard interface allows the access to the individual process tendencies by other submodels, e.g., for on-line diagnostics or for additional parameterisations, which depend on individual process tendencies. An optional closure test assures the correct treatment of tendency accounting in all submodels and thus serves to reduce the models susceptibility. TENDENCY is independent of the time integration scheme and therefore applicable to other model systems as well. Test simulations with TENDENCY show an increase of computing time for the EMAC model (in a setup without atmospheric chemistry) of 1.8 ± 1% due to the additional subroutine calls when using TENDENCY. Exemplary results reveal the dissolving mechanisms of the stratospheric tape recorder signal in height over time. The separation of the tendency of the specific humidity into the respective processes (large-scale clouds, convective clouds, large-scale advection, vertical diffusion and methane-oxidation) show that the upward propagating water vapour signal dissolves mainly because of the chemical and the advective contribution. The TENDENCY submodel is part of version 2.42 or later of MESSy.

  15. Integration of Measurements and Models Across Spatial Scales for Improved Process Understanding in Arctic and Boreal Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Collier, N.; Kumar, J.; Painter, S. L.; Thornton, P. E.; Wilson, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Characterizing the spatial variability of properties and processes in Arctic and boreal landscapes is critical for gaining an understanding of ecosystem functioning and for parameterizing process-rich models that simulate feedbacks to a changing climate. However, large-scale models are often poorly informed by process studies and new approaches are needed if we are to better link field and laboratory investigations to climate models. A fundamental goal of the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project is to accelerate improvements in climate prediction through close integration of field, laboratory, and modeling activities. Geomorphological units, including thaw lakes, drained thaw lake basins, and ice-rich polygonal ground provide the organizing framework for our integrated framework for the coastal plains of the North Slope of Alaska. Process studies and observations of hydrology, geomorphology, biogeochemistry, vegetation patterns, and energy exchange and their couplings are being conducted across nested scales to populate a modeling framework and to achieve a broader goal of optimally informing process representations in global-scale models. We investigate the soil thermal regimes and their control on local scale hydrology for sites near Barrow, Alaska, through simulations at sub-meter scale resolution for low-centered, high-centered and transition polygons. We use high-resolution LiDAR and high-fidelity simulations using several models to couple surface-subsurface processes. A central focus of this challenge is to advance process understanding and predicting the evolution of permafrost thaw, degradation (i.e., thermokarst), and disturbance, and their impact on topography in a warming world and how these changes control the availability of water for biogeochemical, ecological, and physical feedbacks to the climate system.

  16. R-Process Freezeout, Nuclear Deformation, and the Rare-Earth Element Peak

    E-print Network

    R. Surman; J. Engel; J. R. Bennett; B. S. Meyer

    1997-01-03

    We use network calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis to explore the origin of the peak in the solar r-process abundance distribution near nuclear mass number A = 160. The peak is due to a subtle interplay of nuclear deformation and beta decay, and forms not in the steady phase of the r-process, but only just prior to freezeout, as the free neutrons rapidly disappear. Its existence should therefore help constrain the conditions under which the r-process occurs and freezes out.

  17. Understanding processes contributing to the ecosystem flux of carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide in a mixed forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commane, R.; Baker, I. T.; Berry, J. A.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been proposed as a valuable new measurement for understanding ecosystem carbon fluxes. Net OCS uptake is thought to be a proxy for gross photosynthetic uptake (which can't be directly measured at large scales). However, our understanding of the OCS flux within forest ecosystems, and it's relationship to CO2, has been limited by a lack of long-term measurements of the OCS flux. Throughout 2011, the ecosystem flux of OCS was measured at a mid-latitude deciduous forest (Harvard Forest, MA, US), a site of long-term CO2 flux measurements. In order to understand the processes contributing to the seasonal ecosystem fluxes of OCS and CO2, we used the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB). This is an enzyme-kinetic model that couples the carbon cycle to the surface energy, water and radiation balance through stomatal regulation. The model has been extended to include a coupled representation of OCS uptake by leaves and soil. Here we test these parameterizations against the whole suite of ecosystem fluxes (including OCS flux) measured throughout the year. We also evaluate the effect of longer-term processes (such as phenology and soil moisture stress) on inter annual variation in ecosystem flux and OCS exchange.

  18. Local active information storage as a tool to understand distributed neural information processing

    PubMed Central

    Wibral, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vögler, Sebastian; Priesemann, Viola; Galuske, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Every act of information processing can in principle be decomposed into the component operations of information storage, transfer, and modification. Yet, while this is easily done for today's digital computers, the application of these concepts to neural information processing was hampered by the lack of proper mathematical definitions of these operations on information. Recently, definitions were given for the dynamics of these information processing operations on a local scale in space and time in a distributed system, and the specific concept of local active information storage was successfully applied to the analysis and optimization of artificial neural systems. However, no attempt to measure the space-time dynamics of local active information storage in neural data has been made to date. Here we measure local active information storage on a local scale in time and space in voltage sensitive dye imaging data from area 18 of the cat. We show that storage reflects neural properties such as stimulus preferences and surprise upon unexpected stimulus change, and in area 18 reflects the abstract concept of an ongoing stimulus despite the locally random nature of this stimulus. We suggest that LAIS will be a useful quantity to test theories of cortical function, such as predictive coding. PMID:24501593

  19. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  20. The critical role of NIR spectroscopy and statistical process control (SPC) strategy towards captopril tablets (25?mg) manufacturing process understanding: a case study.

    PubMed

    Curtivo, Cátia Panizzon Dal; Funghi, Nathália Bitencourt; Tavares, Guilherme Diniz; Barbosa, Sávio Fujita; Löbenberg, Raimar; Bou-Chacra, Nádia Araci

    2015-05-01

    In this work, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method was used to evaluate the uniformity of dosage units of three captopril 25?mg tablets commercial batches. The performance of the calibration method was assessed by determination of Q value (0.9986), standard error of estimation (C-set SEE?=?1.956), standard error of prediction (V-set SEP?=?2.076) as well as the consistency (106.1%). These results indicated the adequacy of the selected model. The method validation revealed the agreement of the reference high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and NIRS methods. The process evaluation using the NIRS method showed that the variability was due to common causes and delivered predictable results consistently. Cp and Cpk values were, respectively, 2.05 and 1.80. These results revealed a non-centered process in relation to the average target (100% w/w), in the specified range (85-115%). The probability of failure was 21:100 million tablets of captopril. The NIRS in combination with the method of multivariate calibration, partial least squares (PLS) regression, allowed the development of methodology for the uniformity of dosage units evaluation of captopril tablets 25?mg. The statistical process control strategy associated with NIRS method as PAT played a critical role in understanding of the sources and degree of variation and its impact on the process. This approach led towards a better process understanding and provided the sound scientific basis for its continuous improvement. PMID:24344991

  1. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations for the Baltic Sea 1960-2100 • Outreach and Communication • Education The issue of anthropogenic changes and impacts on the Earth system of the Baltic Sea region is recognized as a major topic, and shall receive special attention. The intention of the "Outreach and Communication" and "Education" groups will be to initiate and design potential outreach activities and to provide an arena for scientific exchange and discussion around the Baltic Sea, to communicate findings and exchange views within the Baltic Earth research community internally and to other researchers and society, both professionals and non-professionals. A regular international Baltic Earth Summer School shall be established from 2015. There will be a strong continuity related to BALTEX in infrastructure (secretariat, conferences, publications) and the network (people and institutions).

  2. Exploring Earth Observation Time Series Data on the Web - Implementation of a Processing Service for Web-based Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Nativi, S.; Schmullius, C.; Mazetti, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade there has been a general trend in information technology from monolithic desktop applications towards loosely coupled Web Services. Following this trend Web-based visualization of map like data (e.g. OGC Web Mapping Service) has found widespread use, especially as part of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). In combination with metadata catalogues the primary aim of these map services is data publication and distribution, hence the capabilities are limited to viewing or browsing (e.g. zoom, pan, identify). Only a few examples exist enabling users to analyse data (e.g. calculating statistics or merging different data layers) through a web interface or Web Service. In this paper intermediate results are presented from research conducted on the implementation of an OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) for online analysis of Earth observation time series data. Earth observation data at regional to global scale has been collected with various sensors and satellite systems for more than three decades. The amounts of data acquired seem to have outpaced our ability to exploit and analysis it. With aid of consistent data products (e.g. MODIS suite of land surface products) and the advancements in information technology and in particular MDA, SOA and Grid computing the basis to overcome this shortfall is available. In this context the objective of this study was to develop a generic Processing Service for spatio- temporal exploration of coverage data. The advantage of implementing it as a WPS is that it can be accessed by any client (either a browser or a service) through the Internet and it delivers reproducible results facilitating interoperability and flexibility. Besides, WPS has been experimented as a standard processing interface for heterogeneous Grid infrastructures in the framework of the OGC-OGF interoperability initiative, facilitating scalability. Combining the WPS with a Catalogue Service (i.e. the OGC CS-W) allows users to select and access distributed data sources provided through Web Coverage Service (WCS) servers. They may be gridified, as well. This study is part of the development of the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster, a Spatial Data Infrastructure for remote sensing product generation, dissemination and analysis.

  3. Children's and adults' understanding of the impact of nutrition on biological and psychological processes.

    PubMed

    Raman, Lakshmi

    2014-03-01

    Four studies examined children's and adults' beliefs about the impact of nutrition on growth and mood states. In Studies 1 and 2, 271 participants (preschoolers through adults) judged the impact of healthy and unhealthy nutrition on height and weight. In Studies 3 and 4, 267 participants judged the impact of healthy and unhealthy nutrition on positive and negative mood states. The results suggest that young children demonstrate a co-existence of an ontologically distinct theory of biology as well as a theory of cross-domain interaction when reasoning about the impact of food on biological and psychological processes. PMID:24303848

  4. Contributions of the Clementine mission to our understanding of the processes and history of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Lucey, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine mission will provide us with an abundance of information about lunar surface morphology, topography, and composition, and it will permit us to infer the history of the Moon and the processes that have shaped that history. This information can be used to address fundamental questions in lunar science and allow us to make significant advances towards deciphering the complex story of the Moon. The Clementine mission will also permit a first-order global assessment of the resources of the Moon and provide a strategic base of knowledge upon which future robotic and human missions to the Moon can build.

  5. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Flight STS-46: Atlantis' Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Amsbury, David; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Shriver, Loren J.; Allen, Andrew M.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Nicollier, Claude

    1993-01-01

    The photographic and videographic documentation of the Earth during STS-46 mission has enhanced the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) database. Increasing numbers of scientists are using this database; many are downloading the imagery from our electronic database for specific scientific analyses. We believe the scientific returns of the Earth Observations photography from this mission will add to the global change databases and will contribute to the better understanding of our home planet. The use of manned space flights in understanding the global process first hand is a vital component in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The following are discussed along with photographs from the mission: landforms and geologic observation; environmental observations; meteorological/atmospheric observation; and oceanographic observations.

  6. Modeling materials and processes in dye-sensitized solar cells: understanding the mechanism, improving the efficiency.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of recent first-principles computational modeling studies on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), focusing on the materials and processes modeling aspects which are key to the functioning of this promising class of photovoltaic devices. Crucial to the DSCs functioning is the photoinduced charge separation occurring at the heterointerface(s) between a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline, mesoporous metal oxide electrode and a redox shuttle. Theoretical and computational modeling of isolated cell components (e.g., dye, semiconductor nanoparticles, redox shuttle, etc…) as well as of combined dye/semiconductor/redox shuttle systems can successfully assist the experimental research by providing basic design rules of new sensitizers and a deeper comprehension of the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing the cell functioning and its performances. A computational approach to DSCs modeling can essentially be cast into a stepwise problem, whereby one first needs to simulate accurately the individual DSCs components to move to relevant pair (or higher order) interactions characterizing the device functioning. This information can contribute to enhancing further the target DSCs characteristics, such as temporal stability and optimization of device components. After presenting selected results for isolated dyes, including the computational design of new dyes, and model semiconductors, including realistic nanostructure models, we focus in the remainder of this review on the interaction between dye-sensitizers and semiconductor oxides, covering organic as well as metallorganic dyes. PMID:24682760

  7. Big-Data RHEED analysis for understanding epitaxial film growth processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Rama K [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has by now become a standard tool for in-situ monitoring of film growth by pulsed laser deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. Yet despite the widespread adoption and wealth of information in RHEED image, most applications are limited to observing intensity oscillations of the specular spot, and much additional information on growth is discarded. With ease of data acquisition and increased computation speeds, statistical methods to rapidly mine the dataset are now feasible. Here, we develop such an approach to the analysis of the fundamental growth processes through multivariate statistical analysis of RHEED image sequence. This approach is illustrated for growth of LaxCa1-xMnO3 films grown on etched (001) SrTiO3 substrates, but is universal. The multivariate methods including principal component analysis and k-means clustering provide insight into the relevant behaviors, the timing and nature of a disordered to ordered growth change, and highlight statistically significant patterns. Fourier analysis yields the harmonic components of the signal and allows separation of the relevant components and baselines, isolating the assymetric nature of the step density function and the transmission spots from the imperfect layer-by-layer (LBL) growth. These studies show the promise of big data approaches to obtaining more insight into film properties during and after epitaxial film growth. Furthermore, these studies open the pathway to use forward prediction methods to potentially allow significantly more control over growth process and hence final film quality.

  8. Towards understanding the stabilization process in vermicomposting using PARAFAC analysis of fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Lv, Baoyi; Xing, Meiyan; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was employed to trace the behavior of water extractable organic matter and assess the stabilization process during vermicomposting of sewage sludge and cattle dung. Experiments using different mixing ratios of sewage sludge and cattle dung were conducted using Eisenia fetida. The results showed that vermicomposting reduced the DOC, DOC/DON ratio and ammonia, while increased the nitrate content. A three-component model containing two humic-like materials (components 1 and 2) and a protein-like material (component 3) was successfully developed using PARAFAC analysis. Moreover, the initial waste composition had a significant effect on the distribution of each component and the addition of cattle dung improved the stability of sewage sludge in vermicomposting. The PARAFAC results also indicated that protein-like materials were degraded and humic acid-like compounds were evolved during vermicomposting. Pearson correlation analysis showed that components 2 and 3 are more suitable to assess vermicompost maturity than component 1. In all, EEM-PARAFAC can be used to track organic transformation and assess biological stability during the vermicomposting process. PMID:25068534

  9. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  10. Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs): Integrating measurements and models of Earth surface processes to improve prediction of landscape structure, function and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, J.; Anderson, S. P.; Bales, R. C.; Duffy, C.; Scatena, F. N.; Sparks, D. L.; White, T.

    2012-12-01

    The "Critical Zone" - that portion of Earth's land surface that extends from the outer periphery of the vegetation canopy to the lower limit of circulating groundwater - has evolved in response to climatic and tectonic forcing throughout Earth's history, but human activities have recently emerged as a major agent of change as well. With funding from NSF, a network of currently six CZOs is being developed in the U.S. to provide infrastructure, data and models that facilitate understanding the evolution, structure, and function of this zone at watershed to grain scales. Each CZO is motivated by a unique set of hypotheses proposed by a specific investigator team, but coordination of cross-site activities is also leading to integration of a common set of multi-disciplinary tools and approaches for cross-site syntheses. The resulting harmonized four-dimensional datasets are intended to facilitate community-wide exploration of process couplings among hydrology, ecology, soil science, geochemistry and geomorphology across the larger (network-scale) parameter space. Such an approach enables testing of the generalizability of findings at a given site, and also of emergent hypotheses conceived independently of an original CZO investigator team. This two-pronged method for developing a network of individual CZOs across a range of watershed systems is now yielding novel observations and models that resolve mechanisms for Critical Zone change occurring on geological to hydrologic time-scales. For example, recent advances include improved understanding of (i) how mass and energy flux as modulated by ecosystem exchange transforms bedrock to structured, soil-mantled and/or erosive landscapes; (ii) how long-term evolution of landscape structure affects event-based hydrologic and biogeochemical response at pore to catchment scales; (iii) how complementary isotopic measurements can be used to resolve pathways and time scales of water and solute transport from canopy to stream, and (iv) how feedbacks between the Critical Zone, changing climate and changing land use are occurring on timescales relevant to human decisions and policy making.

  11. Improving understanding in the research informed consent process: a systematic review of 54 interventions tested in randomized control trials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Obtaining informed consent is a cornerstone of biomedical research, yet participants comprehension of presented information is often low. The most effective interventions to improve understanding rates have not been identified. Purpose To systematically analyze the random controlled trials testing interventions to research informed consent process. The primary outcome of interest was quantitative rates of participant understanding; secondary outcomes were rates of information retention, satisfaction, and accrual. Interventional categories included multimedia, enhanced consent documents, extended discussions, test/feedback quizzes, and miscellaneous methods. Methods The search spanned from database inception through September 2010. It was run on Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo and Cochrane CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. Five reviewers working independently and in duplicate screened full abstract text to determine eligibility. We included only RCTs. 39 out of 1523 articles fulfilled review criteria (2.6%), with a total of 54 interventions. A data extraction form was created in Distiller, an online reference management system, through an iterative process. One author collected data on study design, population, demographics, intervention, and analytical technique. Results Meta-analysis was possible on 22 interventions: multimedia, enhanced form, and extended discussion categories; all 54 interventions were assessed by review. Meta-analysis of multimedia approaches was associated with a non-significant increase in understanding scores (SMD 0.30, 95% CI, -0.23 to 0.84); enhanced consent form, with significant increase (SMD 1.73, 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.47); and extended discussion, with significant increase (SMD 0.53, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.84). By review, 31% of multimedia interventions showed significant improvement in understanding; 41% for enhanced consent form; 50% for extended discussion; 33% for test/feedback; and 29% for miscellaneous.Multiple sources of variation existed between included studies: control processes, the presence of a human proctor, real vs. simulated protocol, and assessment formats. Conclusions Enhanced consent forms and extended discussions were most effective in improving participant understanding. Interventions of all categories had no negative impact on participant satisfaction or study accrual. Identification of best practices for studies of informed consent interventions would aid future systematic comparisons. PMID:23879694

  12. Taking the Plunge: Looking to Constructed Ponds for a Better Big-Picture Understanding of Upland Ecohydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, M.; Wilcox, B. P.; McAlister, J.

    2011-12-01

    Healthy rangelands and a complete understanding of local processes are critical considerations in watershed management that will only grow in future importance. While scientific research continues to shed light on sediment dynamics in rangelands, many questions remain about the connection between mechanisms causing upland sediment loss and ultimate deposition in downstream areas of a watershed. This is particularly true of the sediment sinks of constructed ponds and small reservoirs. In the Lampasas River watershed of central Texas, a number of retention structures, originally designed for flood control, were constructed across the landscape in the middle of the 20th century. Our objectives are to investigate these features in detail and draw conclusions about upland sediment processes based on analyses of submerged sediments. Through acoustic profiling and sampling for radioactive Cesium 137 isotope signatures, we are able to shed light on the magnitude and chronology of erosion-deposition events. This and continuing work will serve as a critical step in building a better understanding of the processes driving sediment distribution in rangelands. Most importantly, this work will enable the comparison of sediment observations with known climatic, vegetation, and land management patterns through time and space, leading to an improved ability to forecast expected responses in the future. This linked investigation of hydrological and ecological mechanisms can prove to be a powerful tool, especially in areas where water storage capacity is vital and in those prone to abrupt vegetation shifts and prolonged drought.

  13. Structure development in aerogel-processed nanocrystalline alkaline earth oxides as revealed by SANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent A. Hackley; Peter K. Stoimenov; Derek L. Ho; Piin Sung; Kenneth J. Klabunde

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline MgO, CaO and SrO were prepared according to a modified aerogel process (AP). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to probe the nanoscale structural features of these materials after each stage of the synthetic process, including hydrolysis, supercritical drying and calcining. SANS data were interpreted using a classical analysis involving power-law and Guinier regimes, and by application of the

  14. The GEC Reference Cell as a Benchmark for Understanding Microelectronic Processing Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, M. L.

    1998-11-01

    The microelectronics manufacturing industry has used plasmas to etch and deposit materials for many years. Comparisons between experiments and models used to understand these plasmas vary, as does the behavior of seemingly identical commercial reactors. To address this problem, a collaborative experimental effort was initiated at the 1988 Gaseous Electronic Conference (GEC). An ad hoc committee was formed to develop a preliminary design of an experimental system that would be cost effective, easy to duplicate and accommodate anticipated diagnostics. This initial design runs in a capacitively coupled mode at 13.56 MHz. Since then many reactors have been modified by replacing the top electrode with a coil so that the reactor can be run in an inductively coupled plasma mode, (ICP). Industry is moving towards the ICP systems because they provide a more uniform, higher density plasma compared to the capacitive systems. At U of M, the GEC reactor has been used to study the etching of silicon based materials. Initial experiments included current and voltage measurements to determine deposited power. These power measurements matched that of GEC reactors at other locations. The GEC reactor was then benchmarked against a SEMI Group 1000 TP/CC RIE. When the plate spacing and power density were matched, the two systems exhibited similar etching and relative F concentration trends. An optical sensor was developed to collect parallel rays from a large port on the U of M GEC reactor and used an Abel inversion technique to obtain the spatial profile of the optical emission. During these studies, it was discovered that the emission and etch pattern followed similar spatial trends. In order for this sensor to be used on commercial systems, which have very small windows, major modifications to the sensor geometry had to be made. In the new sensor system, the field of view rotates about one point outside a small viewport. The radial emission profiles of the discharge are now obtained by using a rotating stage to capture small wedges of light, and reconstructing the emission using a Tikhonov regularizer. Experiments show that the etch profiles of silicon follow the emission profiles for physical etching in the U or M GEC system. This new sensor was used on a Sandia GEC reactor modified to run in the ICP mode. The sensor examined the reactive species concentration via actinometry. The data taken from the Sandia GEC is currently being compared to data taken with the same sensor on a Lam TCP 9400 SE ICP system. Preliminary results indicate that the Lam TCP gives uniform plasmas and fast etch rates.

  15. Comparison Between Modern and Fossil Examples, a Key to Understand Mass-Transport Deposits and Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, G.; Ogata, K.; Camerlenghi, A.; Codegone, G.; Festa, A.; Lucente, C.

    2011-12-01

    The field-based study of fossil mass-transport bodies or complexes (MTCs) provides detailed information on internal geometry and structures, which are less readily achieved by submarine geophysical studies of modern MTCs. The synergic study of modern and fossil MTCs is resulting in a better knowledge of the triggering agents, and the timing and speed of mass-transport processes. These points are crucial to recognize the hazard from MTCs (tsunamogenic potential, destabilization of slope and shore areas). There are, however, some important problems concerning this correlation. 1) The methods of investigations, the scale of observation and the quality/type of data are different, as well as the degree of compaction of sediments involved in the MTCs. 2) A gap still remains among distribution, size and recurrence in time of modern and ancient MTCs in diverse geodynamic environments. In the sedimentary record of the collisional chains, the majority of the fossil MTCs originated in foredeep and wedge-top basins during phases of intracontinental deformation. This contrasts with the observed abundance of modern MTCs, which prevail in passive and divergent margins and along the flanks of volcanic islands. The present-day submerged contractional margins, however, do not show a significant, high concentration of MTCs, apart the erosional margins off the coasts of Peru, and basin-wide bodies are only present when subduction of seamounts or volcanoes occurs. As far as the last point is concerned, the large scale MTCs are complex units involving the entire spectra of mass-wasting processes and leading to the stratal disruption and chaoticization of sediments. In areas of active contractional tectonics, these bodies can therefore be identified with the chaotic rock units known as mélanges in the literature. The actual significance of mélanges is often not thoroughly investigated, being an origin from tectonic processes aprioristically assumed. Due to the recent advances in the investigating methods and the increasing work of comparison between mélanges in the circum-Mediterranean chains, mass-transport is gaining more and more attention as one of the leading mechanism of chaoticization. Several MTCs have been, therefore, recognized as a consistent part of mélanges, even if strongly deformed by post-depositional, tectonic and/or mud-diapiric processes. The presence of these bodies might help in explaining the discrepancies pointed out before. Moreover, the structural-sedimentological study of fossil sedimentary mélanges/MTCs has enabled the distinction of three different kind of bodies/complexes, in which the movements are enabled by 1) shear-dominated viscous flows within a muddy matrix, 2) mud-silt-sandy matrix sustained by fluid overpressure, 3) concentrated shear zones/surfaces with advection of grains and fluid (overpressured basal carpets). These MTC types may represent end-members of a continuum of products and correspond to different kinematics of transport and emplacement and to different relationship with the substratum.

  16. Understanding the Psychological Processes of the Racial Match Effect in Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Oanh; Zane, Nolan; Cho, Young Il

    2014-01-01

    Some studies on mental health outcomes research have found that when clients and therapists are ethnically or racially matched, this tends to be related to greater satisfaction and better outcomes. However, the precise underlying mechanism for the match effect has not been extensively examined. In this experimental study, we tested the effect of racial match on critical counseling processes (i.e., therapist credibility and the working alliance) using a sample of 171 Asian American respondents. We also examined Asian ethnic identification as a potential moderator of the racial match effect. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racially matched individuals perceived greater experiential similarity with the therapist than nonmatched individuals, and experiential similarity was positively associated with therapist credibility. Although racial match did not predict attitudinal similarity, attitudinal similarity was strongly related to the working alliance and therapist credibility. Counseling implications are discussed. PMID:21574698

  17. Understanding the decision-making process for health promotion programming at small to midsized businesses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M Courtney; Patrick, Donald L; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Ghosh, Donetta L

    2011-07-01

    This study explores the decision-making process for implementing and continuing health promotion programs at small to midsized businesses to inform health promotion practitioners and researchers as they market their services to these businesses. Qualitative interviews are conducted with 24 employers located in the Pacific Northwest ranging in size from 75 to 800 employees, with the majority having between 100 and 200 employees. Small to midsized employers depend most on company success-related factors rather than on humanitarian motives when deciding whether to adopt workplace health promotion programs. They rely heavily on health insurers for health promotion and desire more information about the actual costs and cost-benefits of programs. To increase health promotion adoption at small to midsized businesses, health promotion practitioners should appeal to overall company success-related factors, use the insurance channel, and target their information to both human resource personnel and senior management. PMID:19843701

  18. Understanding the Canadian adult CT head rule trial: use of the theoretical domains framework for process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Canadian CT Head Rule was prospectively derived and validated to assist clinicians with diagnostic decision-making regarding the use of computed tomography (CT) in adult patients with minor head injury. A recent intervention trial failed to demonstrate a decrease in the rate of head CTs following implementation of the rule in Canadian emergency departments. Yet, the same intervention, which included a one-hour educational session and reminders at the point of requisition, was successful in reducing cervical spine imaging rates in the same emergency departments. The reason for the varied effect of the intervention across these two behaviours is unclear. There is an increasing appreciation for the use of theory to conduct process evaluations to better understand how strategies are linked with outcomes in implementation trials. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) has been used to explore health professional behaviour and to design behaviour change interventions but, to date, has not been used to guide a theory-based process evaluation. In this proof of concept study, we explored whether the TDF could be used to guide a retrospective process evaluation to better understand emergency physicians’ responses to the interventions employed in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Methods A semi-structured interview guide, based on the 12 domains from the TDF, was used to conduct telephone interviews with project leads and physician participants from the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial. Two reviewers independently coded the anonymised interview transcripts using the TDF as a coding framework. Relevant domains were identified by: the presence of conflicting beliefs within a domain; the frequency of beliefs; and the likely strength of the impact of a belief on the behaviour. Results Eight physicians from four of the intervention sites in the Canadian CT Head Rule trial participated in the interviews. Barriers likely to assist with understanding physicians’ responses to the intervention in the trial were identified in six of the theoretical domains: beliefs about consequences; beliefs about capabilities; behavioural regulation; memory, attention and decision processes; environmental context and resources; and social influences. Despite knowledge that the Canadian CT Head Rule was highly sensitive and reliable for identifying clinically important brain injuries and strong beliefs about the benefits for using the rule, a number of barriers were identified that may have prevented physicians from consistently applying the rule. Conclusion This proof of concept study demonstrates the use of the TDF as a guiding framework to design a retrospective theory-based process evaluation. There is a need for further development and testing of methods for using the TDF to guide theory-based process evaluations running alongside behaviour change intervention trials. PMID:23433082

  19. A framework for understanding the training process leading to elite performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J

    2003-01-01

    The development of performance in competition is achieved through a training process that is designed to induce automation of motor skills and enhance structural and metabolic functions. Training also promotes self-confidence and a tolerance for higher training levels and competition. In general, there are two broad categories of athletes that perform at the highest level: (i) the genetically talented (the thoroughbred); and (ii) those with a highly developed work ethic (the workhorse) with a system of training guiding their effort. The dynamics of training involve the manipulation of the training load through the variables: intensity, duration and frequency. In addition, sport activities are a combination of strength, speed and endurance executed in a coordinated and efficient manner with the development of sport-specific characteristics. Short- and long-term planning (periodisation) requires alternating periods of training load with recovery for avoiding excessive fatigue that may lead to overtraining. Overtraining is long-lasting performance incompetence due to an imbalance of training load, competition, non-training stressors and recovery. Furthermore, annual plans are normally constructed in macro-, meso- and microcycles around the competitive phases with the objective of improving performance for a peak at a predetermined time. Finally, at competition time, optimal performance requires a healthy body, and integration of not only the physiological elements but also the psychological, technical and tactical components. PMID:14719980

  20. Experiments to Further the Understanding of the Triple-Alpha Process in Hot Astrophysical Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N. R.; Greife, U.; Rehm, K. E.; Deibel, C. M.; Greene, J.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Kay, B. P.; Lee, H. Y.; Marley, S. T.; Notani, M.; Pardo, R.; Tang, X. D.; Teh, K.

    2009-03-01

    In astrophysics, the first excited 0+ state of 12C at 7.654 MeV (Hoyle state) is the most important in the triple-? process for carbon nucleosynthesis. In explosive scenarios like supernovae, where temperatures of several 109 K are achieved, the interference of the Hoyle state with the second 0+ state located at 10.3 MeV in 12C becomes significant. The recent NACRE compilation of astrophysical reaction rates assumes a 2+ resonance at 9.1 MeV for which no experimental evidence exists. Thus, it is critical to explore in more detail the 7-10 MeV excitation energy region, especially the minimum between the two 0+ resonances for carbon nucleosynthesis. The states in 12C were populated through the ?-decay of 12B and 12N produced at the ATLAS (Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System) in-flight facility. The decay of 12C into three alphas is detected in a Frisch grid twin ionization chamber, acting as a low-threshold calorimeter. This minimizes the effects of ?-summing and allowed us to investigate the minimum above the Hoyle state with much higher accuracy than previously possible. A detailed data analysis will include an R-matrix fit to determine an upper limit on the 2+ resonance width.

  1. Some procedures for computerized electronic data processing of absorption measurements from artificial earth satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinkkeller, B.

    1975-01-01

    The processing of data obtained from solar absorption radiation measurements is discussed. The position of the satellite was obtained by numerical integration of the differential equations of motion using initial conditions. The position of the sun was calculated as a function of time, and the tangential elevation was determined approximately from the positions of the satellite and the sun. The coefficients of an approximation formula and of a data smoothing process were determined, and the inversion of an Abel integral equation is solved analytically.

  2. Lineament structure analysis of the Karelsky coast (White Sea) for the understanding of the neotectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranskaya, Alisa; Romanenko, Fedor

    2013-04-01

    The White Sea region has undergone significant rebuilding during the Neotectonic period. Its tectonic structure and development is determined by four main factors. First of all, the modern White Sea structure inherits a palaeo-rift which appeared during the Middle-Late Riphean - the Kandalaksha-Dvina rift (Baluev, Przhiyaglovsky, Terekhov, 2009). Secondly, this rift with its unhomogenous crust conditions has been reactivated which caused differentiated vertical movements: subsidence of the axial part and uplift on the flanks, accompanied by modern earthquakes (Vinogradov, 2006). Thirdly, the Baltic crystalline shield is a steadily raising area for millions of years. Finally, the glacioisostatic and hydroisostatic processes due to the pressure of a 2-km thick glacier and the consequent filling of the White sea basin with marine water (Svendsen et al., 2004) have also greatly influenced the modern structure of the territory. One of the methods to determine the particularities of the neotectonic development is the analysis of lineaments. A lineament is a fault, fracture, weak zone or crack expressed in the modern topography by different kinds of linear forms: ledges and scarps, straightened river valleys, linear chains of lakes, ravines, etc. Lineaments can be selected in field or with the use of satellite imagery and remote sensing data and proved by the results of geological surveys (state geological maps). Geomorphologic studies of the territory help to separate tectonic linear landforms from exogenous ones. We have performed the analysis of the lineament structure for a key area of the Karelsky coast of the White Sea from island Veliky in the north to Sonostrov island in the south. The main feature of the region is the presence of a big drop fault which stretches in the north-north-westerly direction along the coast. It represents the outmost borders of the Kandlaksha-Dvina graben. The direction of the cutting faults is different and depends on the location of separate blocks. The biggest difference is observed between the southernmost Sonostrov block and the rest. The lineaments which cross the main drop fault have a north-east - south-westerly direction. Moving to the north, the direction of those lineaments changes first to sublateral and then to the west-north-west - east-south -easterly. Therefore the faults and weak zones turn if we move closer to the north-western angle of the Kandalaksha-Dvina rift. It also has to be noticed that for most of the blocks the directions of rock jointing can coincide with the main disjunctive dislocations directions, however, never coincides with the smaller orthogonal fractures and lineaments. By comparing the modern lineament net with the rose-diagrams for palaeosoic dykes which were trapped by the then existing faults and cracks we can tell that their directions don't coincide either. All those differences mean that the neotectonic structure is inherited from the old one of the Riphean rift structure and its palaeosoic development, but doesn't fully repeat it. The latest activization and glacio-and hydroisostatic processes were probably the driving factors of the area's recent tectonic development. The investigation is supported by the project 110501044 of the RFBR

  3. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  4. Advances in Understanding Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.

    2012-04-01

    The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and Transport Processes Affecting the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive transport problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the transport in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms affecting the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and transport models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the transport and fate of organic contaminants especially when the porous geological media have very low organic carbon contents.

  5. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements

    E-print Network

    Goriely, S; Lemaitre, J -F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H -Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110 140.

  6. Integration of thermal infrared satellite data with ground-based geophysical data for understanding volcanic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffke, Andrea M.

    This dissertation examines the tools and applications available for investigating volcanic phenomenon using satellite thermal infrared remote sensing data. Various algorithms have been developed to automatically detect volcanic thermal anomalies. A contextual (VAST), fixed threshold (MODVOLC) and temporal (RAT), the three main types of algorithms, are compared to determine how effective they are at detecting thermal anomalies caused by various types of volcanic activity (lava flows, lava domes, strombolian activity, and fumarolic activity). Each of the algorithms operates with the highest accuracy for the types of activity that they were designed to detect and no algorithm is 100 percent accurate. With the current data restrictions no algorithm ever will be, therefore user interaction is key. Results from the automated algorithms are then applied to determine discharge rates and cumulative volumes of erupted lava during the Stromboli 2007 eruption. Blinding applying the result can cause errors up to an order of magnitude with the main cause of errors coming from the inclusion of cloudy data and not identifying the most radiant pixels. From the manual results it was determined the 2007 eruption was a typical Strombolian effusive eruption caused by tapping a pressurized magma source. The satellite derived discharge rates and SO2 flux supply rates are then calculated and compared at Etna from 2002-2006. Differences in the supply rate of magma and erupted volume of lava occur from eruption to eruption and also vary throughout individual eruptions, indicating a complex supply system within Etna. Thermal satellite data is also used to estimate plume heights at Tungurahua volcano from 2006-2008. Heights are compared with acoustic power. Good correlation between plume height and acoustic power was found. By integrating the two data sets it is possible to distinguish between different eruption styles and aids in classification of eruption types. Although satellite data is a useful tool for volcano monitoring image analysts are needed for the most accurate quantitative results. Incorporating satellite data with other geophysical measurements allow insights into the eruption processes that would not otherwise be possible. Therefore it is important that every possible resource is used in volcanological studies.

  7. The role of high frequency monitoring in understanding nutrient pollution processes to address catchment management issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Paul; Jonczyk, Jennine; Owen, Gareth; Barber, Nick; Adams, Russell; ODonnell, Greg; EdenDTC Team

    2015-04-01

    The process insights afforded to catchment scientists through the availability of high frequency time series of hydrological and nutrient pollution datasets are invaluable. However, the observations reveal both good and bad news for the WFD. Data for flow, N, P and sediment (taken at 30 min intervals) from the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment and several other detailed UK studies, will be used to discuss nutrient fluxes in catchments between 1km2 and 10km2. Monitoring of the seasonal groundwater status and the forensic analysis of numerous storm events have identified dominant flow pathways and nutrient losses. Nonetheless, many of the management questions demanded by the WFD will not be resolved by collecting these datasets alone. Long term trends are unlikely to be determined from these data and even if trends are found they are unlikely to be accurately apportioned to the activities that have caused them. The impacts of where and when an action takes place will not be detected at the catchment scale and the cost effectiveness of any mitigation method is unlikely to be quantifiable. Even in small well instrumented catchments the natural variability in rainfall, antecedent patterns and the variability in farming practices will mask any identifiable catchment scale signal. This does not mean the cost of the data acquisition has been wasted, it just means that the knowledge and expertise gained from these data should be used in new novel ways. It will always be difficult to quantify the actual losses occurring at the farm or field scale, but the positive benefits of any mitigation may still be approximated. The evidence for the rate of nutrient removal from a local sediment trap, wetland and a pond can be shown with high resolution datasets. However, any quantifiable results are still highly localised and the transfer and upscaling of any findings must be done with care. Modelling these datasets is also possible and the nature of models have evolved in the light of improved data, particularly in the representation of storm driven flow pathways. Hence the aggregation and the impact of any management or mitigation will rely on having confidence that local activities are beneficial, that a basket of measures merit pursuing, and are worthy of funding. A novel set of data driven risk-based indices, impact models and new experiments are needed to show the worth of catchment scale management. The high frequency data have been useful to build knowledge but a quantifiable cause and effect remains an elusive goal at the catchment scale.

  8. Exchange Processes in Shibasaki's Rare Earth Alkali Metal BINOLate Frameworks and Their Relevance in Multifunctional Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jerome R; Gu, Jun; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2015-06-10

    Shibasaki's rare earth alkali metal BINOLate (REMB) catalysts (REMB; RE = Sc, Y, La - Lu; M = Li, Na, K; B = 1,1-bi-2-naphtholate; RE/M/B = 1/3/3) are among the most successful enantioselective catalysts and have been employed in a broad range of mechanistically diverse reactions. Despite the phenomenal success of these catalysts, several fundamental questions central to their reactivity remain unresolved. Combined reactivity and spectroscopic studies were undertaken to probe the identity of the active catalyst(s) in Lewis-acid (LA) and Lewis-acid/Brønsted-base (LA/BB) catalyzed reactions. Exchange spectroscopy provided a method to obtain rates of ligand and alkali metal self-exchange in the RE/Li frameworks, demonstrating the utility of this technique for probing solution dynamics of REMB catalysts. Isolation of the first crystallographically characterized REMB complex with substrate bound enabled stoichiometric and catalytic reactivity studies, wherein we observed that substrate deprotonation by the catalyst framework was necessary to achieve selectivity. Our spectroscopic observations in LA/BB catalysis are inconsistent with previous mechanistic proposals, which considered only tris(BINOLate) species as active catalysts. These findings significantly expand our understanding of the catalyst structure in these privileged multifunctional frameworks and identify new directions for development of new catalysts. PMID:25968561

  9. Density of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffrey Barker

    This demonstration of average density uses understandable units of total mass and volume of the Earth. The required supplies are a can of beer or soda and a 1-pound bag of pretzels. By imagining, for instance, 4.4 bags of pretzels fitting into a beer/soda can, students can better visualize the average density of the Earth.

  10. The Development of Two Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) for NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilmes, Curt

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics started the construction of a science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for processing data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which will launch on the Aura platform in mid 2004. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is a contribution of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR) in collaboration with the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) to the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura mission. It will continue the Total Ozone Monitoring System (TOMS) record for total ozone and other atmospheric parameters related to ozone chemistry and climate. OMI measurements will be highly synergistic with the other instruments on the EOS Aura platform. The LTP previously developed the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Data Processing System (MODAPS), which has been in full operations since the launches of the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts in December, 1999 and May, 2002 respectively. During that time, it has continually evolved to better support the needs of the MODIS team. We now run multiple instances of the system managing faster than real time reprocessings of the data as well as continuing forward processing. The new OMI Data Processing System (OMIDAPS) was adapted from the MODAPS. It will ingest raw data from the satellite ground station and process it to produce calibrated, geolocated higher level data products. These data products will be transmitted to the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC) instance of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for long term archive and distribution to the public. The OMIDAPS will also provide data distribution to the OMI Science Team for quality assessment, algorithm improvement, calibration, etc. We have taken advantage of lessons learned from the MODIS experience and software already developed for MODIS. We made some changes in the hardware system organization, database and software to adapt the system for OMI. We replaced the fundamental database system, Sybase, with an Open Source RDBMS called PostgreSQL, and based the entire OMIDAPS on a cluster of Linux based commodity computers rather than the large SGI servers that MODAPS uses. Rather than relying on a central I/O server host, the new system distributes its data archive among multiple server hosts in the cluster. OMI is also customizing the graphical user interfaces and reporting structure to more closely meet the needs of the OMI Science Team. Prior to 2003, simulated OMI data and the science algorithms were not ready for production testing. We initially constructed a prototype system and tested using a 25 year dataset of Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SBUV) data. This prototype system provided a platform to support the adaptation of the algorithms for OMI, and provided reprocessing of the historical data aiding in its analysis. In a recent reanalysis of the TOMS data, the OMIDAPS processed 108,000 full orbits of data through 4 processing steps per orbit, producing about 800,000 files (400 GiB) of level 2 and greater data files. More recently we have installed two instances of the OMIDAPS for integration and testing of OM1 science processes as they get delivered from the Science Team. A Test instance of the OMIDAPS has also supported a series of "Interface Confidence Tests" (ICTs) and End-to-End Ground System tests to ensure the launch readiness of the system. This paper will discuss the high-level hardware, software, and database organization of the OMIDAPS and how it builds on the MODAPS heritage system. It will also provide an overview of the testing and implementation of the production OMIDAPS.

  11. How Do We know About Layers Deep Within the Earth?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-09-11

    This site, part of Exploring Earth Investigation by McDougal Littell and TERC, examines what (and how) we know about the Earth's layers. The investigations "were designed to build students' knowledge of Earth Science conceptsâ?¦and to raise student awareness of Earth as a system of interconnected components and processes." Here, visitors can find lessons on how scientists have learned about the inner layers of Earth. Topics such as seismology, modeling internal structure, seismic tomography, and space imaging are all covered here. Many sections have illustrative images and interactive features, which help students, understand the topics presented, and the final section ends with questions for students to further explore as well as links to further modeling and mapping exercises. This is an excellent site for any Earth Science classroom as an introductory lecture or as an out-of-class exploration for students.

  12. Harnessing systems engineering methodology in using earth science research data for real applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahid Habib; Fritz S. Policelli; Vicki M. Zanoni

    2004-01-01

    For the last three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing an enormous amount of useful data and information serving to broaden our understanding of the home planet as a system. NASA's Earth science program has deployed about 18 complex satellites and is in the process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in this decade. At the

  13. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block D, The Earth's Changing Surface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This syllabus begins with a list of program objectives and performance criteria for the study of three general topic areas in earth science and a list of 22 science processes. Following this information is a listing of concepts and understandings for subtopics within the general topic areas: (1) the earth's surface--surface features, rock…

  14. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  15. Development of observed precipitation and meteorological database to understand the wet deposition and dispersion processes in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, Akiyo; Watanabe, Akira; Ishihara, Masahito; Ishihara, Hirohiko; Takara, Kaoru

    2014-05-01

    The transport and diffusion of the radioactive pollutants from the Fukushima-Daiichi NPP inthe atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Further, precipitation type and its amount affect the various transport process of the radioactive nuclides. Hence, this study first examine the qualitative precipitation pattern and timing in March 2011 using X-band radar data from Fukushima University and three dimensional C-band radar data network of Japan Meteorological Agency. Second, by collecting rain-gauge network and other surface meteorological data, we estimate quantitative precipitation and its type (rain/snow) according to the same method used to create APHRODITE daily grid precipitation (Yatagai et al., 2012) and judge of rain/snow (Yasutomi et al., 2011). For example, the data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northeast, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. The developed precipitation and other meteorological dataset will be released to the project Fukushima-IRIS site (http://firis.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp, or linked from http://center.stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp/member/akiyoyatagai/). The project aims to make a database to understand the initial meteorological condition. Various useful sites with meteorological data and other physical information on March 2011 have already linked at the site. This project is being supported by the Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University.

  16. The Optimization of an Ionic Liquid-Based TALSPEAK-Like Process for Rare Earth Ions Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Sun, Xiaoqi [ORNL] [ORNL; Luo, Huimin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Five new functionalized ionic liquids (FILs), tetraethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([N2222][DEHP]), tetraethylammonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinite ([N2222][BTMPP]), tetraethylammonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinite ([N2222][BTMPDTP]), tetrahexylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([N6666][DEHP]), and tetraoctylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([N8888][DEHP]) were synthesized and characterized. These ILs along with two previously synthesized FILs ([N4444][DEHP] & [N1888][DEHP]) were used as ionic extractants and investigated for rare earth elements (REEs) separation in 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI]). These FILs as ionic extractants were miscible with [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI]. We herein report the applications of these FILs in an IL-based TALSPEAK-like process and the optimization of the process by adjusting the cations and anions of the FILs, concentrations of the FILs as ionic extractants in the IL phase, concentrations of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase, and acidities of the aqueous phase.

  17. The electromagnetic effect on the critical ionization velocity process. [in earth atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Electromagnetic effects on the critical ionization velocity (CIV) process become important when the neutral gas velocity V(n) exceeds the local Alfven speed V(A). The electron heating due to unstable lower hybrid waves necessary for CIV still occurs, but the efficiency of the electron heating is significantly reduced when the electromagnetic effect comes into play. This is verified by a series of simulation runs using two-dimensional electromagnetic particle code combined with PANIC. The significance of the electromagnetic effects for the occurrence of CIV in the comet-solar wind interaction and other space phenomena is briefly discussed. It is found that the comet environment is marginal for the excitation of CIV.

  18. Towards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 5(4), 629644 (2001) EGS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    2001-01-01

    simulated with these models is sensitive to rooting depth changes (Kleidon and Heimann, 2000). DespiteTowards understanding tree root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root root profiles: simulating hydrologically optimal strategies for root distribution M.T. van Wijk and W

  19. Understanding Segregation Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Bruch

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a There is growing consensus that living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty increases the likelihood of social problems\\u000a such as teenage parenthood, drug and alcohol use, crime victimization, and chronic unemployment. Neighborhood inequality is\\u000a also implicated in studies of enduring race\\/ethnic health disparities, and there are recent moves to broaden the definition\\u000a of health care policy to policies targeting social inequality

  20. Understanding Segregation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Elizabeth

    There is growing consensus that living in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty increases the likelihood of social problems such as teenage parenthood, drug and alcohol use, crime victimization, and chronic unemployment. Neighborhood inequality is also implicated in studies of enduring race/ethnic health disparities, and there are recent moves to broaden the definition of health care policy to policies targeting social inequality (Mechanic 2007). Residential segregation affects health outcomes in several different ways. First, income, education, and occupation are all strongly related to health (Adler and Newman 2002). Segregation is a key mechanism through which socioeconomic inequality is perpetuated and reinforced, as it hinders the upward mobility of disadvantaged groups by limiting their educational and employment opportunities. Second, segregation increases minority exposure to unhealthy neighborhood environments. Residential segregation creates areas with concentrated poverty and unemployment, both of which are key factors that predict violence and create racial differences in homicide (Samson and Wilson 1995). Neighborhood characteristics, such as exposure to environmental hazards, fear of violence, and access to grocery stores, affect health risks and health behaviors (Cheadle et al. 1991). Tobacco and alcohol industries also advertise their products disproportionately in poor, minority areas (Moore, Williams, and Qualls 1996). Finally, residential segregation leads to inequalitie in health care resources, which contributes to disparities in quality of treatment (Smedley, Stith, and Nelson 2002).

  1. Earth System and Space Science Curriculum for High Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Earth System and Space Science emphasizes the dynamic interrelationships between the atmosphere, the geosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the earth-universe system. There is a strong emphasis on internet-based and technology activities, and laboratory activities. Science skills and processes learned in this course prepare for continued development of scientific inquiry in other science disciplines. A partnership with the Goddard Space Flight Center and collaboration with Anne Arundel County Public Schools provides enhanced richness to the learning activities. Earth and Space scientists from NASA GSFC gave their expertise in the development of ESSS. Their suggestions were the foundation for the development of this curriculum. Earth System and Space Science is a course, which develops student knowledge and understanding of the Earth System and its place in the universe. This course seeks to empower students to understand their dynamic local and global environments and the Earth as part of a complex system. The student will learn the science content necessary to make wise personal and social decisions related to quality of life, and the management of the Earth's finite resources, environments, and hazards. During much of the recent past, scientists have been concerned with examining individual physical, chemical, and biological processes or groups of processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Recently, however, there has been a movement in Earth Science to take a planetary or "system" approach to investigating our planet. Satellite images show planet Earth as one entity without boundaries. There are concerns with environmental issues on regional, global, and even planetary scales. In Earth/Space Systems Science, Earth is viewed as a complex evolving planet that is characterized by continually interacting change over a wide scale of time and space.

  2. Student Geoscientists Explore the Earth during Earth Science Week 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    Taking place October 9-15, Earth Science Week 2005 will celebrate the theme "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." The American Geological Institute (AGI) is organizing the event, as always, to help people better understand and appreciate the Earth sciences and to encourage stewardship of the planet. This year, the focus will be on the wide range of…

  3. The Comparison of Periods of the Change in the Earth's Magnetic and Tectonic Processes and Periods of Evolution Change of the new Biological Kinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, Andrey

    The Comparison of Periods of the Change in the Earth's Magnetic and Tectonic Processes and Periods of Evolution Change of the new Biological Kinds Kharitonov Andrey L., Kharitonova Galina P. Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of a Rus-sian Academy of Sciences, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow region, Russia, E-mail: ahariton@izmiran.ru The carrying-out theoretical analysis of the paleomagnetic, geochronological and paleobiological data allows to say, that at certain space parameters of motion of the Earth along space orbit, together with all Solar Planetary system (SPS), there are sharp enough changes of composition of atmosphere, changes of the climate (arid or freezing), change of the level of waters of the World Ocean (the transgression or the regression of the eustatic sea level), the blossom or the dead of biological kinds, and also activation or damping of tectonic processes in the Earth's interior (activity of earthquakes and many other geophysical and geotectonic processes). The change of the space factors during the motion of the Solar Planetary system, calls change geotectonic and accordingly climatic, biological processes in the Earth. The activity is executed at support of Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant 10-05-00343-a.

  4. Process for recovering niobium and\\/or tantalum compounds from such ores further containing complexes of uranium, thorium, titanium and\\/or rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Krismer; A. Hoppe

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering one or more nonradioactive transition metal compounds from an ore containing one or more compounds of said transition metal or metals and further containing at least one complex of a member selected from the group consisting of uranium, thorium, radium, titanium, and rare earth metals, comprises decomposing said ore in crushed condition by means of an

  5. Process for recovering niobium and\\/or tantalum metal compound from such ores further containing complexes of uranium, thorium, titanium and\\/or rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Floeter; G. Schoening; K. Schroeer

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering one or more non-radioactive transition metal compounds from an ore containing one or more compounds of said transition metal or metals and further containing at least one complex of a member selected from the group consisting of uranium, thorium, radium, titanium, and rare earth metals, which comprises decomposing said ore in crushed condition by means of

  6. Information processes in visual and object buffers of scene understanding system for reliable target detection, separation from background, and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2006-05-01

    Modern target recognition systems suffer from the lack of human-like abilities to understand the visual scene, detect, unambiguously identify and recognize objects. As result, the target recognition systems become dysfunctional if target doesn't demonstrate remarkably distinctive and contrast features that allow for unambiguous separation from background and identification upon such features. This is somewhat similar to visual systems of primitive animals like frogs, which can separate and recognize only moving objects. However, human vision unambiguously separates any object from its background. Human vision combines a rough but wide peripheral, and narrow but precise foveal systems with visual intelligence that utilize both scene and object contexts and resolve ambiguity and uncertainty in the visual information. Perceptual grouping is one of the most important processes in human vision, and it binds visual information into meaningful patterns and structures. Unlike the traditional computer vision models, biologically-inspired Network-Symbolic models convert image information into an "understandable" Network-Symbolic format, which is similar to relational knowledge models. The equivalent of interaction between peripheral and foveal systems in the network-symbolic system is achieved via interaction between Visual and Object Buffers and the top-level system of Visual Intelligence. This interaction provides recursive rough context identification of regions of interest in the visual scene and their analysis in the object buffer for precise and unambiguous separation of the object from background/clutter with following recognition of the target.

  7. Natural Sciences Tripos EARTH SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    Natural Sciences Tripos EARTH SCIENCES University of Cambridge Undergraduate Prospectus 2013.indd 1Undergraduate Prospectus 2013.indd 1 29/07/2013 16:44:3529/07/2013 16:44:35 #12;Department of Earth Sciences is the science of the Earth. What is the Earth made of? What processes shape and change it? What's happened

  8. NASA's Advancements in Space-Based Spectrometry Lead to Improvements in Weather Prediction and Understanding of Climate Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel

    2010-01-01

    AIRS is a precision state of the art High Spectral Resolution Multi-detector IR grating array spectrometer that was launched into a polar orbit on EOS Aqua in 2002. AIRS measures most of the infra-red spectrum with very low noise from 650/cm to 2660/cm with a resolving power of 2400 at a spatial resolution of 13 km. The objectives of AIRS were to perform accurate determination of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles in up to 90% partial cloud cover conditions for the purpose of improving numerical weather prediction and understanding climate processes. AIRS data has also been used to determine accurate trace gas profiles. A brief overview of the retrieval methodology used to analyze AIRS observations under partial cloud cover will be presented and sample results will be shown from the weather and climate perspectives.

  9. Recent progress in understanding the processes underlying the triggering of and energy loss associated with type I ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, A.; Dunai, D.; Dunne, M.; Huijsmans, G.; Pamela, S.; Becoulet, M.; Harrison, J. R.; Hillesheim, J.; Roach, C.; Saarelma, S.

    2014-11-01

    The type I ELMy H-mode is the baseline operating scenario for ITER. While it is known that the type I edge-localized mode (ELM) ultimately results from the peeling–ballooning instability, there is growing experimental evidence that a mode grows up before the ELM crash that may modify the edge plasma, which then leads to the ELM event due to the peeling–ballooning mode. The triggered mode results in the release of a large number of particles and energy from the core plasma but the precise mechanism by which these losses occur is still not fully understood and hence makes predictions for future devices uncertain. Recent progress in understanding the processes that trigger type I ELMs and the size of the resultant energy loss are reviewed and compared to experimental data and ideas for further development are discussed.

  10. Toward understanding the large-scale land-atmosphere coupling in the models: Roles of different processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2010-10-01

    Two different Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs), each coupled to three different land surface schemes (LSSs) (six different model configurations in total), are used to study the roles of different model components and different action processes in land-atmosphere coupling. Experiments show that, for the six model configurations, the choice of AGCMs is the main reason for the substantially different precipitation variability, predictability, and land-atmosphere coupling strength among the configurations. The impact of different LSSs is secondary. Intraseasonal precipitation variability, which is mainly a property of the AGCM, can impact land-atmosphere coupling both directly in the atmosphere and indirectly through soil moisture response to precipitation. These results lead to a common conceptual decomposition of the land-atmosphere coupling strength and increases the understanding on large-scale land-atmosphere coupling.

  11. Understanding Weather

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the naturally-occurring greenhouse effect on Earth, and its connection to global warming. Students build model greenhouses to see how this process works. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  12. Why and when is ethnic harassment a risk for immigrant adolescents' school adjustment? understanding the processes and conditions.

    PubMed

    Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2014-08-01

    Ethnically harassed immigrant youth are at risk for experiencing a wide range of school adjustment problems. However, it is still unclear why and under what conditions experiencing ethnic harassment leads to school adjustment difficulties. To address this limitation in the literature, we examined two important questions. First, we investigated whether self-esteem and/or depressive symptoms would mediate the associations between ethnic harassment and poor school adjustment among immigrant youth. Second, we examined whether immigrant youths' perception of school context would play a buffering role in the pathways between ethnic harassment and school adjustment difficulties. The sample (n = 330; M age = 14.07, SD = .90; 49% girls at T1) was drawn from a longitudinal study in Sweden. The results revealed that experiencing ethnic harassment led to a decrease in immigrant youths' self-esteem over time, and that youths' expectations of academic failure increased. Further, youths' relationships with their teachers and their perceptions of school democracy moderated the mediation processes. Specifically, when youth had poor relationships with their teachers or perceived their school context as less democratic, being exposed to ethnic harassment led to a decrease in their self-esteem. In turn, they reported low school satisfaction and perceived themselves as being unsuccessful in school. Such indirect effects were not observed when youth had high positive relationships with their teachers or perceived their school as offering a democratic environment. These findings highlight the importance of understanding underlying processes and conditions in the examination of the effects of ethnic devaluation experiences in order to reach a more comprehensive understanding of immigrant youths' school adjustment. PMID:24132501

  13. Graduate training in Earth science across borders and disciplines: ArcTrain -"Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; Walter, Maren; de Vernal, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Due to a complex set of feedback processes collectively known as "polar amplification", the Arctic realm is expected to experience a greater-than-average response to global climate forcing. The cascades of feedback processes that connect the Arctic cryosphere, ocean and atmosphere remain incompletely constrained by observations and theory and are difficult to simulate in climate models. Our capacity to predict the future of the region and assess the impacts of Arctic change processes on global and regional environments hinges on the availability of interdisciplinary experts with strong international experience and understanding of the science/society interface. This is the basis of the International Research Training Group "Processes and impacts of climate change in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Canadian Arctic - ArcTrain", which was initiated in 2013. ArcTrain aims to educate PhD students in an interdisciplinary environment that combines paleoclimatology, physical oceanography, remote sensing and glaciology with comprehensive Earth system modelling, including sea-ice and ice-sheet components. The qualification program for the PhD students includes joint supervision, mandatory research residences at partner institutions, field courses on land and on sea (Floating University), annual meetings and training workshops and a challenging structured training in expert skills and transferrable skills. Its aim is to enhance the career prospects and employability of the graduates in a challenging international job market across academic and applied sectors. ArcTrain is a collaborative project at the University of Bremen and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven. The German part of the project is designed to continue for nine years and educate three cohorts of twelve PhD students each. The Canadian partners comprise a consortium of eight universities led by the GEOTOP cluster at the Université du Québec à Montréal and including Dalhousie University, McGill University, Memorial University of Newfoundland, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, University of Calgary and Université du Québec à Rimouski. Further details about ArcTrain are available at: https://www.marum.de/ArcTrain.html

  14. Evaluating and improving hydrologic processes in the community land model for integrated earth system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, D. M.; Khamis, K.; Blaen, P. J.; Hainie, S.; Mellor, C.; Brown, L. E.; Milner, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This paper synthesises findings from previous and ongoing research in glacierized Alpine and Arctic river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand, Swedish Lapland and Svalbard), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-cryosphere-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning the consequences of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Using downscaled regional climate projections as inputs to a distributed hydrological model for a study basin in the French Pyrenees (i.e. an environment at the contemporary limit of valley glaciation), we show how shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter space-time dynamics in basin runoff. Notably, the timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and the proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff (cf. meltwater) may increase. Across our range of Alpine and Arctic study basins, we quantify observed links between relative water source contributions (% meltwater : % groundwater), physico-chemical habitat (e.g. water temperature, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment and channel stability) and benthic communities. At the site scale, results point towards increased community diversity (taxonomic and functional) as meltwater contributions decline and physico-chemical habitat becomes less harsh. However, basin-scale biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water source contributions and habitats, and the extinction of cold stenothermic specialists. Similar integrated, long-term research into hydroecological connections in other glacierized river basins is vital: (1) to enable robust projections of stream hydrology (water source contributions and physico-chemical habitat) and ecological response under scenarios of future climate/ variability, and (2) to develop conservation strategies for these fragile Alpine and Arctic freshwater ecosystems.

  15. Understanding Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of California Museum of Paleontology

    This page, from University of California Museum of Paleontology, features free, image-rich teaching resources that communicate what science is and how it works, with a focus on the process of science and its dynamic nature. The project is geared toward K-16 teacher preparation as well as broader public understanding of the nature of science.

  16. Using high resolution topography of the Earth and Moon to infer the "wetness" of slope processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Susan; Balme, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The present-day atmosphere of Mars is thin and dry; the surface environment experiences large temperature changes and is generally inhospitable to liquid water. However, we are coming to recognise that Mars has an extensive cryosphere, including polar caps, glaciers and ice-rich permafrost extending from the mid-latitudes to the poles. Recent work has highlighted the presence of landforms indicative of recent (<5 Ma) thaw and even liquid water flow, including, solifluction lobes, sorted patterned ground, and kilometre-scale gullies. Here we use metre-resolution topography of visually-analogous landforms on Earth and the Moon as "wet" and "dry" end-members for comparison to the slope-forms we find on Mars. We use hydrological analysis techniques to characterise the hillslopes in terms of upslope drainage area, local gradient and curvature, from which we derive a topographic fingerprint for each process. Our findings support the wet-interpretation of the martian landforms that was initially proposed based on planform morphology alone, but contested due to the lack of support from climate modelling.

  17. Cross-Section Measurements for Proton- and Neutron-Induced Reactions Needed to Understand Cosmic-Ray Interactions on Earth and in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, Janet M. [Northeast Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 30 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2005-05-24

    Primary cosmic rays interact directly with extraterrestrial bodies and cosmic-ray shower particles interact with the earth's surface to produce small quantities of radionuclides and stable isotopes, which are measured routinely using appropriate techniques. Theoretical models are used to analyze these measurements to learn the history of the object or the cosmic rays that fell upon it. Cross sections for reactions producing these cosmogenic nuclides are essential input to these models. Most primary cosmic rays are protons, and good measurements of the cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. Most relevant cross sections are now well measured, but discrepancies still exist between the measurements and calculations. One explanation is that neutrons produced in primary cosmic-ray interactions also initiate spallation reactions contributing significantly to the cosmogenic nuclide inventory, but few of the relevant cross sections have been measured at energies >30 MeV. We have measured many of these needed cross sections for neutron-induced reactions using two different techniques. Cross sections at selected unique neutron energies >70 MeV are measured at iThemba LABS, South Africa (iTL) using quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams. Energy integrated (average) cross sections are measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), using 'white' neutron beams with an energy range of 0.1-750 MeV.

  18. Understanding the formation of new clusters of alkali and alkaline Earth metals: a new synthetic approach, single-crystal structures, and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Katharina M; Gueneau, E D; Bernardinelli, G; Goesmann, H; Weber, J; Mayor-López, M-J; Boulet, P; Chermette, H

    2003-03-26

    A new synthetic approach, reacting alkaline earth metal iodides with butyllithium, lithium hydroxide, and/or lithium butoxide under salt elimination, is presented, giving access to some interesting clusters of calcium, strontium, and barium, partially in combination with lithium. The so far largest calcium cluster Li[[Ca(7)(mu(3)-OH)(8)I(6)(thf)(12)](2)(mu(2)-I)].3THF, 4, and the new strontium compound [Sr(3)I(3)(OH)(2)(thf)(9)]I, 5, are shown to feature common building blocks of OH-capped M(3) triangles. On the basis of mainly electrostatic interactions, these clusters are not volatile. By introducing LiO(t)Bu, the two clusters [IM(O(t)Bu)(4)[Li(thf)](4)(OH)] (6, M = Sr; 7, M = Ba) are prepared, 7 exhibiting volatility as an important physical property, which makes it a potential precursor for chemical vapor deposition. The structural relationship between 4, 5, 6, and 7 and their respective starting materials is shown, and possible reaction mechanisms are proposed. Exhibiting surprising and new structural motifs, the bonding modes of these clusters are investigated by the electron localization function as well as by ab initio calculations. PMID:12643722

  19. Earth System Science at Cornell Earth system sciences looks at the integrated whole of the planet,

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Earth System Science at Cornell Earth system sciences looks at the integrated whole of the planet for earth system science range from nm to 1000's of kilometers. Advancing earth system science requires whose work contributes to an understanding of earth system science. We think that organizing ourselves

  20. Multivariate analysis in the pharmaceutical industry: enabling process understanding and improvement in the PAT and QbD era.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana P; Tobyn, Mike

    2015-08-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, chemometrics is rapidly establishing itself as a tool that can be used at every step of product development and beyond: from early development to commercialization. This set of multivariate analysis methods allows the extraction of information contained in large, complex data sets thus contributing to increase product and process understanding which is at the core of the Food and Drug Administration's Process Analytical Tools (PAT) Guidance for Industry and the International Conference on Harmonisation's Pharmaceutical Development guideline (Q8). This review is aimed at providing pharmaceutical industry professionals an introduction to multivariate analysis and how it is being adopted and implemented by companies in the transition from "quality-by-testing" to "quality-by-design". It starts with an introduction to multivariate analysis and the two methods most commonly used: principal component analysis and partial least squares regression, their advantages, common pitfalls and requirements for their effective use. That is followed with an overview of the diverse areas of application of multivariate analysis in the pharmaceutical industry: from the development of real-time analytical methods to definition of the design space and control strategy, from formulation optimization during development to the application of quality-by-design principles to improve manufacture of existing commercial products. PMID:24641280