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1

Understanding Earth: Coal Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplementary material from Understanding Earth (4th ed.), this short animation guides viewers through the formation of coal and its pathway through different grades. The animation is annotated with labels.

W.H. Freeman & Co. Publishing

2

Do young children's ideas about the Earth's structure and processes reveal underlying patterns of descriptive and causal understanding in earth science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its `geological' aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earth's structure and processes held by individual children from Key Stage 2 (7

Anthony Blake

2005-01-01

3

Do Young Children's Ideas about the Earth's Structure and Processes Reveal Underlying Patterns of Descriptive and Causal Understanding in Earth Science?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its "geological" aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earths structure and processes held by individual children from…

Blake, Anthony

2005-01-01

4

Do young children's ideas about the Earth's structure and processes reveal underlying patterns of descriptive and causal understanding in earth science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its ‘geological’ aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earth’s structure and processes held by individual children from Key Stage 2 (7 11 years) in one primary school in north-east England reveal hierarchical levels of descriptive and causal understanding. Such patterns, described here as alternative frameworks, can be used to inform our understanding of young children’s learning in earth science and, unless taken into consideration, represent an additional ‘critical barrier’ to learning in this domain to those previously identified by research. Implications of these findings for further research and for classroom practice are addressed.

Blake, Anthony

2005-01-01

5

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

6

Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

Fidler, Chuck

2012-01-01

7

Understanding Earth's Changes Over Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students compare the magnitude of geologic time with spans of time in a person's lifetime, which is often difficult for many students. They use a long paper strip and a reasonable scale to represent visually all of geologic time, including significant events in the development of life on earth as well as recent human events. This activity provides students with an opportunity to develop understandings of the age of the earth compared to the various events in the history of earth systems. The site contains a list of materials and all of the information required to conduct this activity.

8

Feedbacks between geomorphology and biota controlling Earth surface processes and landforms: A review of foundation concepts and current understandings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review article presents recent advances in the field of biogeomorphology related to the reciprocal coupling between Earth surface processes and landforms, and ecological and evolutionary processes. The aim is to present to the Earth Science community ecological and evolutionary concepts and associated recent conceptual developments for linking geomorphology and biota. The novelty of the proposed perspective is that (1) in the presence of geomorphologic-engineer species, which modify sediment and landform dynamics, natural selection operating at the scale of organisms may have consequences for the physical components of ecosystems, and particularly Earth surface processes and landforms; and (2) in return, these modifications of geomorphologic processes and landforms often feed back to the ecological characteristics of the ecosystem (structure and function) and thus to biological characteristics of engineer species and/or other species (adaptation and speciation). The main foundation concepts from ecology and evolutionary biology which have led only recently to an improved conception of landform dynamics in geomorphology are reviewed and discussed. The biogeomorphologic macroevolutionary insights proposed explicitly integrate geomorphologic niche-dimensions and processes within an ecosystem framework and reflect current theories of eco-evolutionary and ecological processes. Collectively, these lead to the definition of an integrated model describing the overall functioning of biogeomorphologic systems over ecological and evolutionary timescales.

Corenblit, Dov; Baas, Andreas C. W.; Bornette, Gudrun; Darrozes, José; Delmotte, Sébastien; Francis, Robert A.; Gurnell, Angela M.; Julien, Frédéric; Naiman, Robert J.; Steiger, Johannes

2011-06-01

9

Earth Surface Processes, Landforms and Sediment Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits are intimately related - involving erosion of rocks, generation of sediment, and transport and deposition of sediment through various Earth surface environments. These processes, and the landforms and deposits that they generate, have a fundamental bearing on engineering, environmental and public safety issues; on recovery of economic resources; and on our understanding of Earth history. This unique textbook brings together the traditional disciplines of sedimentology and geomorphology to explain Earth surface processes, landforms and sediment deposits in a comprehensive and integrated way. It is the ideal resource for a two-semester course in sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, and Earth surface processes from the intermediate undergraduate to beginning graduate level. The book is also accompanied by a website hosting illustrations and material on field and laboratory methods for measuring, describing and analyzing Earth surface processes, landforms and sediments.

Bridge, John; Demicco, Robert

10

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

Ireton, Shirley W.; Gilbert, Steven W.

2003-01-01

11

Femtosecond spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthesis{emdash}towards an understanding of the most important energy conversion process on earth  

SciTech Connect

Reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis are ideal systems to study photosynthetic energy conversion. Femtosecond spectroscopy has delivered extensive information on the molecular mechanisms of the primary electron transfer. The data show, that primary electron transfer is an ultrafast stepwise reaction, where the electron is transferred via closely spaced pigments with reaction times as fast as 0.9 ps and 3.5 ps. Experiments on mutated and modified reaction centers allow to determine the energetics of the various intermediates in the reaction center. Recently, femtosecond experiments with light pulses in the mid infrared have shown, that an additional fast process occurs on the 200 fs timescale in the initially excited special pair. Only afterwards the well established electron transfer reactions take place. This fast process may be of importance for the optimization of the primary reaction. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Zinth, W.; Hamm, P.; Arlt, T.; Wachtveitl, J. [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Optik, Barbarastr.1 6, 80797 Muenchen (Germany)

1996-04-01

12

Femtosecond spectroscopy of bacterial photosynthesis--towards an understanding of the most important energy conversion process on earth  

SciTech Connect

Reaction centers of bacterial photosynthesis are ideal systems to study photosynthetic energy conversion. Femtosecond spectroscopy has delivered extensive information on the molecular mechanisms of the primary electron transfer. The data show, that primary electron transfer is an ultrafast stepwise reaction, where the electron is transferred via closely spaced pigments with reaction times as fast as 0.9 ps and 3.5 ps. Experiments on mutated and modified reaction centers allow to determine the energetics of the various intermediates in the reaction center. Recently, femtosecond experiments with light pulses in the mid infrared have shown, that an additional fast process occurs on the 200 fs timescale in the initially excited special pair. Only afterwards the well established electron transfer reactions take place. This fast process may be of importance for the optimization of the primary reaction.

Zinth, W.; Hamm, P.; Arlt, T.; Wachtveitl, J. [Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Medizinische Optik, Barbarastr.1 6, 80797 Muenchen (Germany) (Germany)

1996-04-01

13

Discovering and measuring a layered Earth: A foundational laboratory for developing students' understanding of Earth's interior structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysics research is continuously revealing new insights about Earth’s interior structure. Before students can grasp theses new complexities, they first must internalize the 1st order layered structure of Earth and comprehend how seismology contributes to the development of such models. Earth structure is of course covered in most introductory geoscience courses, though all too often instruction of this content is limited to didactic methods that make little effort to inspire or engage the minds of students. In the process, students are expected to blindly accept our understanding of the unseen and abstract. Thus, it is not surprising then that many students can draw a layered Earth diagram, yet not know that knowledge of Earth’s interior is based on information from earthquakes. Cognitive learning theory would suggest that what has been missing from instruction of Earth structure is a feasible method to present students with seismic evidence in a manner that allows students to become minds-on with the content; discovering or dispelling the presence of a layered Earth for themselves. Recent advances in serving seismic data to a non-seismologist audience have made the development of such laboratory investigations possible. In this exercise students use an inquiry approach to examine seismic evidence and determine that the Earth cannot have a homogeneous composition. Further they use the data to estimate the dimensions of Earth’s outer core. To reach these conclusions, students are divided into two teams, theoreticians and seismologists, to test the simplest hypothesis for Earth's internal structure; a homogeneous Earth. The theoreticians create a scale model of a homogeneous Earth and predict when seismic waves should arrive at various points on the model. Simultaneously, seismologists interpret a seismic record section from a recent earthquake noting when seismic waves arrive at various points around Earth. The two groups of students then compare the modeled arrivals to the observed data, and when plotted, a notable discrepancy is found. To help interpret the implications of this anomaly the students transfer the data to a second scale model. By extrapolating their data for additional earthquakes students are able to define and measure a boundary for Earth’s outer core. After completing this exercise, not only do students have an understanding of how we know about the structure of Earth, students are more prepared to understand the basics of seismic tomography and the interpretation and limitations of tomographic models.

Hubenthal, M.; Braile, L. W.; Olds, S. E.; Taber, J.

2010-12-01

14

Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

2012-01-01

15

Simulating processes within the Earth: experimental geochemistry at ORNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the chemical processes operating within the earth is heavily dependent on the ability to simulate, through experimental or theoretical means, deep-earth conditions currently inaccessible to study. Analogue studies of simplified geological systems, or experiments that model the natural systems, have been the focus of the geosciences research program at ORNL for the past six years. The principal

1984-01-01

16

Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2002-08-01

17

AGU and Earth Science Women's Network sign memorandum of understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In furtherance of our strategic goal to be a diverse and inclusive organization that uses its position to build the global talent pool in Earth and space science, AGU signed a memorandum of understanding with the Earth Science Women's Network (ESWN) in spring 2012. Under the agreement, AGU will provide ESWN with an online platform through which to better connect its members. The agreement will allow AGU to further its strategic goal and help ESWN enhance cooperation and collaboration among women in Earth and space science. ESWN is a community of scientists dedicated to supporting collaborations and providing mentorship for its members, many of whom are in the early stages of their careers. The new online platform should help ESWN to connect with more individuals and create a stronger network of dedicated women pursuing research in Earth and space science.

McEntee, Chris

2012-06-01

18

Biological Modulation of Deep Earth Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth became habitable once CO2 could be subducted into the deep mantle. It is likely that the Earth's surface became clement or even frigid within a few million years after it cooled to habitable temperatures (less than 120°C). Early life obtained its energy from chemical disequilibrium produced by internal processes within the Earth and photolysis in the air and

Norm Sleep

2011-01-01

19

Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the inter...

L. Forehand

1999-01-01

20

Earthing the Human Body Influences Physiologic Processes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives This study was designed to answer the question: Does the contact of the human organism with the Earth via a copper conductor affect physiologic processes? Subjects and experiments Five (5) experiments are presented: experiment 1—effect of earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis and serum concentrations of iron (N?=?84 participants); experiment 2—effect of earthing on serum concentrations of electrolytes (N?=?28); experiment 3—effect of earthing on thyroid function (N?=?12); experiment 4—effect of earthing on glucose concentration (N?=?12); experiment 5—effect of earthing on immune response to vaccine (N?=?32). Subjects were divided into two groups. One (1) group of people was earthed, while the second group remained without contact with the Earth. Blood and urine samples were examined. Results Earthing of an electrically insulated human organism during night rest causes lowering of serum concentrations of iron, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and reduction of renal excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Earthing during night rest decreases free tri-iodothyronine and increases free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. The continuous earthing of the human body decreases blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Earthing decreases sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron, total protein, and albumin concentrations while the levels of transferrin, ferritin, and globulins ?1, ?2, ?, and ? increase. These results are statistically significant. Conclusions Earthing the human body influences human physiologic processes. This influence is observed during night relaxation and during physical activity. Effect of the earthing on calcium–phosphate homeostasis is the opposite of that which occurs in states of weightlessness. It also increases the activity of catabolic processes. It may be the primary factor regulating endocrine and nervous systems.

Sokal, Karol

2011-01-01

21

Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a challenge educators at all grade levels face: How do you teach subjects your students can't see, touch, or hear? You do it with models--which have gained new importance since the National Science Education Standards specifically recommended using models as an organizing framework for teaching and understanding science. Whether your lessons concern molecules or Mars, Understanding Models in Earth and Space Science offers practical guidance. It's designed to help you understand the full range of models available to illustrate abstract concepts, demonstrate complex ideas, or teach about things students can't see. The book provides an in-depth look at specific kinds of models--what they are, how they can be designed, the best ways to use them, and possible shortcomings. Among the chapter topics are concrete models; mathematical models; similes, analogies, and metaphors; computer models; and inquiry and model building. Itself a model of good modeling, the book offers abundant examples (including drawing parallels between seemingly unrelated topics, such as how tornadoes are like vacuum cleaners) and plentiful background specific to Earth science teachers. Understanding Models is the result of a partnership between NSTA and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

Ireton, Shirley W.; Gilbert, Steven W.

2003-01-01

22

Sedimentary Processes on Earth and Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, hosted by USRA, presents the Earth Science Picture of the Day from December 6, 2000. The photograph is an image of the surface of Mars that seems to depict sedimentation processes. Alongside the image from Mars are images of landscapes formed by sedimentation on the Earth. At the bottom of the page there are links to related resources for more information.

Ruzek, Martin; Editor; Association, Universities S.

23

Facilitating Students Understanding Change in the Earth System on Multiple Time Scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the current urgency to develop a climatically literate society there is an increasing need for today's students to sufficiently understand how the Earth system changes. It is also vital that they understand the processes that cause those changes so they will be prepared to address the environmental challenges of the future. However, grasping change over time, especially on multiple time scales ranging from daily to ice age variations, is a challenge. In this presentation we will describe 1) the sequence of scaffolded activities and investigations we are developing that will help students more fully understand how the cryosphere changes on multiple time scales, and how the cryosphere impacts and is impacted by the other components of the Earth system; and 2) the study we are conducting to investigate the effectiveness of these activities and investigations in helping students understand how and why a component of the Earth system varies over time. The results of this effort will serve as a foundation for the development of a full scale capstone high-school course that will reside within the structure of EarthLabs, an online set of inquiry-based modules on a range of Earth system science topics that will more completely address the issues of climate literacy.

Ledley, T. S.; Libarkin, J.; McNeal, K.; Ellins, K.; Barstow, D.; Bardar, E.; Comer, C.

2008-12-01

24

Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes.

  • More details...
  • Pelletier, Jon D.

    25

    Some recent advances in understanding the mineralogy of Earth?s deep mantle  

    SciTech Connect

    Understanding planetary structure and evolution requires a detailed knowledge of the properties of geological materials under the conditions of deep planetary interiors. Experiments under the extreme pressure-temperature conditions of the deep mantle are challenging, and many fundamental properties remain poorly constrained or are inferred only through uncertain extrapolations from lower pressure-temperature states. Nevertheless, the last several years have witnessed a number of new developments in this area, and a broad overview of the current understanding of the Earth's lower mantle is presented here. Some recent experimental and theoretical advances related to the lowermost mantle are highlighted. Measurements of the equation of state and deformation behaviour of (Mg,Fe)SiO{sub 3} in the CaIrO{sub 3}-type (post-perovskite) structure yield insights into the nature of the core-mantle boundary region. Theoretical studies of the behaviour of MgSiO3 liquids under high pressure-temperature conditions provide constraints on melt volumes, diffusivities and viscosities that are relevant to understanding both the early Earth (e.g. deep magma oceans) and seismic structure observed in the present Earth (e.g. ultra-low-velocity zones).

    Duffy, T.S. (Princeton)

    2008-12-09

    26

    Solar spot influence on Earth's molecular processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The paper considers the two-century-old problem of how solar spots influence biological objects on the Earth. It describes the modern state of the kT-problem, which for a long time has been the most difficult obstacle in explaining solar activity effects. Based on recent advances in spin chemistry and magnetoplasticity physics, it is shown that a `molecular target' sensitive to weak electromagnetic fields is spins in non-equilibrial states of the molecular system. A way of how solar spots can influence Earth's molecular, including biological, processes through a `transparency window' in the Earth's atmosphere is proposed.

    Evstafyev, Vladimir K.

    2013-01-01

    27

    Properties and Processes of Earth' Lower Crust  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This AGU volume is a collection of papers which were presented at the IUGG Symposium U7 (Lower Crust: Properties and Processes) held in Vancouver, Canada in August, 1987. The principle objective of this symposium was to update our understanding of the properties of the lower crust and to review the physical and chemical processes which may have taken place and are still going on in the deep crust. Recent high resolution seismic experiments have thrown new light on the structure of the lower crust and crust-mantle transition which shows a much greater degree of complexity than had previously been assumed. In this symposium the complexity problem was examined from a multidisciplinary approach with papers being presented by earth scientists from the seismological, geological, geochemical, geothermal, geoelectric, geomagnetic and tectonophysics communities. A total of 38 oral and 33 poster papers were presented at the meetings. Eighteen of these papers were invited. Twenty nine of the participants have their work presented in this volume.

    Mereu, Robert F.; Mueller, Stephan; Fountain, David M.

    28

    Language Processing for Speech Understanding.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN spee...

    W. A. Woods

    1983-01-01

    29

    Lessons from Venus for understanding mantle plumes on Earth  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantle plumes are important in the magmatic and tectonic history for both Earth and Venus. The expression of plumes is distinctive on Venus and complementary to that on Earth; therefore, a cross-comparison is useful for better understanding plume magmatism on both planets. In contrast to the Earth, Venus has no observed record of plate tectonics, a low degree of surface erosion, and an apparently short duration for the formation of the present planetary surface. The absence of plate tectonics indicates that all magmatism is 'intraplate' and is generated beneath a stagnant lithospheric lid. A low degree of surface erosion preserves the surface structures and short-wavelength topography. The short duration of preserved magmatic activity suggests a global resurfacing event. Magmatic elements include: (a) individual volcanoes with diameters ranging up to 1000 km, which represent hotspots; (b) annular structures termed coronae with diameters averaging 300 km, but ranging up to 2600 km, and which appear to lack terrestrial (i.e. Earth) analogues; (c) radiating graben-fissure systems extending up to >2000 km in radius, some of which are purely uplift-related while others mark the plumbing system (dyke swarms) of volcanic systems; (d) lava flow fields of scale comparable to terrestrial flood basalts (large igneous provinces (LIPs)); and (e) regions of small shield volcanoes representing shallow-source melting. There are several hierarchies of magmatic events on Venus, ordered in terms of increasing scale and significance: (1) isolated coronae, volcanoes, flow fields, and radiating graben systems; (2a) individual and small clusters of volcanoes and coronae associated with topographic swells, geoid highs, and triple-junction rifting; these are most clearly indicative of terrestrial-type plumes originating from the deep mantle; (2b) coronae distributed along rifts (chasmata); these are the clearest examples of melt generation associated with rifting; (3) regional concentration of activity in the Beta-Atla-Themis (BAT) region; this is the closest example of a plume cluster event, sometimes termed a 'superplume event'; and (4) global volcanic resurfacing of the volcanic plains; no terrestrial analogue is confirmed, although the global burst of terrestrial plume activity in the Neoarchean is a possible analogue.

    Ernst, R. E.; Desnoyers, D. W.

    2004-08-01

    30

    Language processing for speech understanding  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    31

    Semantic Processing for Speech Understanding.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This paper describes aspects of the semantic component of the speech understanding system currently being developed jointly by SRI and SDC. The semantic component consists of two major parts: a semantic network coding a model of the task domain and a batt...

    G. G. Hendrix

    1975-01-01

    32

    Biological Modulation of Deep Earth Process  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Earth became habitable once CO2 could be subducted into the deep mantle. It is likely that the Earth's surface became clement or even frigid within a few million years after it cooled to habitable temperatures (less than 120°C). Early life obtained its energy from chemical disequilibrium produced by internal processes within the Earth and photolysis in the air and water. The global productivity was tiny and life did not leave a useful record. By the time of the first good geological record at 3.8 billion years, life had evolved anoxygenic (sulfide and ferrous iron) photosynthesis on both water and land. By then, the effects of life were so pervasive that it is not straightforward to infer the prebiotic environment; serpentine existed and catalysts including Ni3Fe and Pt-group minerals were present in trace amounts. On land by 3.8 billion years ago, life had bountiful energy to enhance chemical weathering to liberate Fe(II). Microbial crusts covered available landscape. Life modulates crustal tectonics by producing sandstones, shales, and carbonates that form fold mountains. Melted shales became granitic rocks with quartz. The process is a climatic buffer as it replaced (black daisy) fresh basalts with (white daisy) sand deserts and granites. The subducted produces of photosynthesis control the sulfur content and oxidation state of arc lavas. Even the mantle is strongly affected by photosynthesis. Biology determines the mantle abundances of N and C. Kimberlites (in the general sense) return CO2-rich subducted shallow oceanic crust and sediments to the surface. The chemistry of these rocks provides a record of surface conditions. It is likely that the mantle in general and kimberlites in particular sequester information on the earliest Earth that is no longer preserved in the crust.

    Sleep, Norm

    2011-01-01

    33

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) is to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Data Systems through the endorsement of Earth science data systems standards. SPG's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (4) A defacto standard already widely used. SPG's standards process has been revised to provide a comprehensive but not a redundant review of the proposed standard. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss the potential defacto standards (Google's KML, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF), GeoTIFF file format) that could be identified and endorsed through our revised Standards Process in the future. We will discuss the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result of our experience.

    Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

    2007-12-01

    34

    Children's Cosmographies: Understanding the Earth's Shape and Gravity.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Assessed Nussbaum's developmental model (SE 024 045) using a new sample given no special instructions in spherical earth/gravity concepts. Also identified distribution of notions among students (N=159 in grades three to eight), compared distribution of notions at each age level with those in other studies, and explored role of individual…

    Sneider, Cary; Pulos, Steven

    1983-01-01

    35

    Climate Variability Recorded in Earth System History: Contributions to our Understanding of a Changing Planet  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study of Earth System History is characterized by substantial innovation and excitement directed toward addressing the critical issue of understanding a changing planet and promoting new insights into the evolution of the Earth and its resources. Much of this innovation reflects the considerable expansion in the availability and quality of observations, particularly from the oceans, and the development and application of numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere-land-ice system. The key challenge within the Earth sciences is to develop a robust understanding of this coupled earth system and then to develop a predictive capability for natural variability and global change. Our capabilities are limited, among other things, by the fact that the instrumented record is too short to provide a strong sense of the character of change and the sensitivity of the Earth system. For this reason, modern observations are inadequate to demonstrate the capability of climate models to simulate conditions very different from the present day. The importance of Earth system history, and the ocean record in particular, stems from unique capabilities to: (1) assess the temporal and spatial characteristics of system variability, (2) define the nature of Earth sensitivity to a large number of forcing factors, including changes in ocean circulation and in greenhouse gases, (3) examine the integrated climatic, chemical and biologic response of the Earth system to a variety of spatial and temporal perturbations, (4) validate the predictions of numerical models for conditions very different from the present day, and (5) assess the rates of change associated with the evolution of the Earth and its components. Earth system history provides a great diversity of examples yielding a remarkable opportunity to develop insights into a broad range of issues and problems associated with the evolution of our planet. Three examples provide a focus for discussion. First, a careful analysis of climate proxies over the last millennia demonstrates the distinctive character of climate changes over the last half of the 20th century. Second, Earth system history provides a series of known forcing factors or perturbations that can be utilized to examine potential changes in climate. For example, known variations in freshwater fluxes in polar latitudes due to modest ice sheet melt provide a remarkable opportunity to examine the sensitivity of the ocean circulation to potential future perturbations. Third, High resolution simulation of European climates during Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (approximately 30,000 to 50,000 years ago at the time of transition from Neanderthalers to modern humans) permits careful model-data comparison, and therefore a test of the sensitivity of climate models to external forcing. In the process, it focuses our attention on the importance of the oceanic record. Each of these examples demonstrates the importance of natural variability in deciphering past and future climate change.

    Barron, E. J.

    2001-12-01

    36

    Tutorial: The EarthScope Investigation of Continental Processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EarthScope is an integrated investigation of continents that uses the U.S. as the study region. Why the U.S.? It is one of the most fruitful subjects for study and it is our country. EarthScope is drilling the San Andreas Fault, geodetically measuring deformation in the tectonically active western U.S., and seismically imaging continental lithosphere across the U.S. The goal is to understand the processes that create and shape continents, and an emphasis on earthquakes and volcanoes recognizes the scientific and social need to understand the underlying physics; these events are the fundamental agents in making continents and they pose genuine risk to society. Making significant progress toward these goals has proven elusive. In response, EarthScope has challenged our community to observe continental structure and earthquake and volcanic cycles on continuous and wide spatial and temporal scales, and to bridge across disciplines to provide an intellectually broad and continuous understanding. As EarthScope begins its study of the western U.S., the following overview provides a framework for consideration; however, we are just on the verge of understanding how this marvelous system works. The western U.S. is one of Earth's major orogenic plateaus. Unlike most regions, deformation is distributed over a broad area. The origins of the distinctive western U.S. tectonic provinces can be traced back to continental rifting 0.5 billion years ago, which created a continental margin upon which tectonic and magmatic activity constructed a coherently heterogeneous land. Aftermaths of the Laramide (Rocky Mountain) event include the current weakness and high elevations of the western U.S. These, combined with applied plate-tectonic loads at the plate margin and a protecting effect of the strong Canadian craton, result in extension of the continental interior (especially the very weak Basin and Range province), shear deformation across the westernmost swath of continent, and contraction in the Pacific Northwest as California moves north. Superimposed on and interacting with all this "plate tectonic" activity is activity driven by vertical flow. The Yellowstone hotspot represents mantle upwelling. Its uplift has focused Basin and Range extension near Yellowstone, and lithosphere is being constructed rapidly. The Columbia River flood basalts (the dominant magmatic initiation of Yellowstone) probably occurred as old dense roots of the Wallowa batholith convectively destabilized and fell into the Earth ("delaminated"), apparently in response to initial Yellowstone upwelling. This delamination was similar to that occurring today beneath the rising southern Sierra Nevada. And lithospheric downwelling beneath southern California draws crust toward the Transverse Ranges.

    Humphreys, E.

    2005-12-01

    37

    Understanding Students' Cognitive Processes in Solving  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The purpose of this paper is to understand low- achievement students' cognitive processes in solving algebraic problems. In terms of cognitive development, it is an interesting exploration to go through some processes of algebraic expressions and analyze the abstract levels. The paper highlights the concrete and abstract cognition in processing algebraic expressions. Forty-four students in my first-year Junior College Mathematics

    Fenqjen Luo

    38

    Towards decision-based global land use models for improved understanding of the Earth system  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A primary goal of Earth system modelling is to improve understanding of the interactions and feedbacks between human decision making and biophysical processes. The nexus of land use and land cover change (LULCC) and the climate system is an important example. LULCC contributes to global and regional climate change, while climate affects the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems and LULCC. However, at present, LULCC is poorly represented in Global Circulation Models (GCMs). LULCC models that are explicit about human behaviour and decision making processes have been developed at local to regional scales, but the principles of these approaches have not yet been applied to the global scale level in ways that deal adequately with both direct and indirect feedbacks from the climate system. In this article, we explore current knowledge about LULCC modelling and the interactions between LULCC, GCMs and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs). In doing so, we propose new ways forward for improving LULCC representations in Earth System Models. We conclude that LULCC models need to better conceptualise the alternatives for up-scaling from the local to global. This involves better representation of human agency, including processes such as learning, adaptation and agent evolution, formalising the role and emergence of governance structures, institutional arrangements and policy as endogenous processes and better theorising about the role of tele-connections and connectivity across global networks. Our analysis underlines the importance of observational data in global scale assessments and the need for coordination in synthesising and assimilating available data.

    Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Arneth, A.; Alexander, P.; Brown, D. G.; de Noblet-Ducoudré, N.; Ellis, E.; Finnigan, J.; Galvin, K.; Grigg, N.; Harman, I.; Lennox, J.; Magliocca, N.; Parker, D.; O'Neill, B. C.; Verburg, P. H.; Young, O.

    2013-08-01

    39

    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starting in January 2004, NASA instituted a set of internal working groups to develop ongoing recommendations for the continuing broad evolution of Earth Science Data Systems development and management within NASA. One of these Data Systems Working Groups is called the Standards Process Group (SPG). This group's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for approval to the SPG are one of 3 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community. There are 3 types of reviews potentially needed to evaluate a proposed standard: (1) A detailed technical review to determine the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the proposed specification and where a detailed technical review ensures that implementers can use the proposed standard as an implementation specification for any future implementations with confidence; (2) A "usefulness" user review that determines if the proposed standard is useful or helpful or necessary to the user to carry out his work; (3) An operational review that evaluates if the proposed standard works in an operational setting in a NASA environment with NASA data. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format), the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result.

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2006-12-01

    40

    Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change  

    SciTech Connect

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    41

    Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    42

    Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    43

    The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event of Nov. 3rd, 2002), the startup of the EarthScope experiment, and the construction of the Denali Science & Learning Center, a premiere facility for science education located just 43 miles from the epicenter of the Denali Fault earthquake. Real-time data and current research results from EarthScope installations and science projects in Alaska will be used to engage students and teachers, national park visitors, and the general public in a discovery process that will enhance public understanding of tectonics, seismicity and volcanism along the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Activities will take place in five program areas, which are: 1) museum displays and exhibits, 2) outreach via print publications and electronic media, 3) curriculum development to enhance K-12 earth science education, 4) teacher training to develop earth science expertise among K-12 educators, and 5) interaction between scientists and the public. In order to engage the over 1 million annual visitors to Denali, as well as people throughout Alaska, project activities will correspond with the opening of the Denali Science and Learning Center in 2004. An electronic interactive kiosk is being constructed to provide public access to real-time data from seismic and geodetic monitoring networks in Alaska, as well as cutting edge visualizations of solid earth processes. A series of print publications and a website providing access to real-time seismic and geodetic data will be developed for park visitors and the general public, highlighting EarthScope science in Alaska. A suite of curriculum modules will be developed for middle school classrooms to enrich earth science curricula by taking students into the field, and by providing opportunities to interact with scientists using real EarthScope data and research results. Curriculum modules will take advantage of Denali's new "Nature Area Network", an IEEE 802.11b wireless network serving the backcountry areas of the Park where students can engage in hands on learning about geology and geophysics and share their experiences with students worldwide via the Internet. Curricula will also focus on the new field of digital story telling, in which students will develop their own understanding of solid earth processes by creating digital stories using readily available digital moviemaking technology. A training course will be developed to enhance K-12 educators' ability to teach earth science utilizing real data and research results. And a series of public lectures both at Denali and in communities across Alaska will engage Geophysical Institute researchers with the public and foster wider participation in the EarthScope Experiment. The anticipated benefits of this project are many. An increase in public awareness and understanding of solid earth processes will lead to better preparedness, and improved decision making regarding the mitigation of risk from seismic and volcanic hazards. Earth science education will be made more vital and engaging for both students and teachers. And Alaska's visitors and residents will gain a better understand and greater appreciation for the dynamic tectonic processes that have created the rugged landscape of the state and its national parklands.

    Roush, J. J.; Hansen, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    44

    Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock

    Nermin Bulunuz

    2006-01-01

    45

    What similar physical processes occur on both Earth and Mars?  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA Module investigation compares and contrasts physical processes that occur on Both Earth and Mars. Students are given unidentified images of Earth and Mars. Their task is to arrange the images into pairs that show evidence of similar physical processes. Then they identify each image as one of Earth or of Mars by comparing and contrasting physical features that they observe in the image pairs. It includes teacher background materials and an answer key where appropriate.

    2002-05-26

    46

    North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

    Turner, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    47

    Toward an understanding of chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We present models of the evolution of isotopic heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle to develop an understanding of the relationship between modern geochemical observables and physical processes through time. Our basic model is an extension of the conventional geochemical reservoir model for the evolution of the Earth's crust-mantle system in which we calculate not only the mean isotopic ratios, but also the distribution of those ratios within the reservoirs. Owing to low chemical diffusion rates, subreservoirs that are created by mass transport into and out of the mantle effectively exist as distinct geochemical entities for all time. By tracking these subreservoirs, we obtain a model of the full range of isotopic values represented in the mantle. Using results from numerical calculations of mixing, we also track the length scales associated with each subreservoir. Applying simple statistics, we obtain the distribution of expected measurements as a function of the stirring time, effective melt fraction, sampling volume, and mass transport history. In developing the model, we focus on the samarium-neodymium and rubidium-strontium parent-daughter systems, as these are the best behaved of the commonly-used systems. We then focus on the uranium-thorium-lead system, which introduces a significant degree of complexity not present in the simpler systems. We find that the removal of lead from the oceanic crust by subduction zone processes is critical in obtaining the observed slopes in lead-isotopic space. We derive an internally consistent model of the Earth's isotopic evolution both in the bulk and statistical sense. We obtain a model of the Earth's mantle, heterogeneous on all length scales, which successfully reproduces the spectrum of heterogeneity observed in mid-ocean ridge basalts. This model leads us to a new version of the plum-pudding mantle in which relatively young, (<1 Gyr) depleted residua from continental crustal extraction form the plums and everything else mixes to form the pudding. This latter component may be identified with FOZO or C, the intermediate mixing endmember suggested previously by other authors.

    Kellogg, James Brewster

    48

    Preparation and processing of rare earth chalcogenides  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rare earth chalcogenides are initially prepared by a direct combination of the pure rare earth metal and the pure chalogen element with or without a catalyst. The use of iodine (10 to 100 mg) as a fluxing agent (catalyst), especially to prepare heavy lanthanide chalcogenides, greatly speeds up the formation of the rare earth chalcogenide. The resultant powders are consolidated by melting, pressure assisted sintering (PAS), or pressure assisted reaction sintering (PARS) to obtain near theoretical density solids. Mechanical alloying is a useful technique for preparing ternary alloys. In addition, mechanical alloying and mechanical milling can be used to form metastable allotropic forms of the yttrium and heavy lanthanide sulfides. Chemical analysis techniques are also described because it is strongly recommended that samples prepared by melting should have their chemical compositions verified because of chalogen losses in the melting step.

    Gschneidner, K. A.

    1998-10-01

    49

    Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

    Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    50

    Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-01-01

    51

    Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-01-01

    52

    Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    53

    The relation between drawing three-dimensional forms and understanding earth motions diagrams  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visual-spatial abilities have been associated with the rendering of drawings and the comprehension of three-dimensional fields in science. The possibility of a relation between the ability to comprehend illustrations of earth motions and the ability to draw in three-dimensional perspective led to a study to determine the degree of correlation between them. Also considered were the relations of art and earth science achievements with the Otis-Lennon School Abilities Test, and three subtests from the Differential Aptitude Tests battery: mechanical reasoning, spatial relations and abstract reasoning. The study was conducted with ninth grade students taking art and earth science. Two instruments were created to measure three-dimensional perspective rendering and earth motions understanding--an art rubric and an earth motions test. The art rubric rated the elements of three-dimensionality in student-drawn compositions of solid, geometric forms. The earth motions test consisted of illustrations in two or three-dimensional perspective. Both instruments were tested for reliability and validity. Correlation between the earth motions test scores and the art exercise ratings was +0.47 and statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Modest but significant correlations were found between earth science achievement and the standardized test scores. Art achievement correlated significantly with the standardized test scores, except spatial relations. Stepwise multiple regression analyses found that 26% of the variability in the earth motions test results could be accounted for by art and spatial relations, and when art was removed, mechanical reasoning and scholastic aptitude contributed a total of 24%. Mechanical reasoning and scholastic aptitude also accounted for 19% of the variation in art achievement. The findings indicate that the abilities to imagine relative motion and to visualize from different points of view within a three-dimensional field are important components in the understanding of concepts related to earth motions. Some of the same abilities appear to be utilized in the rendering of perspective drawings. Scholastic aptitude plays a significant, but secondary, role in both earth motions comprehension and perspective drawing. The findings suggest that science teachers should consider students' abilities in spatial and mechanical reasoning when teaching concepts relying on three-dimensional visualization. In addition, teachers are encouraged to include the drawing of three-dimensional fields in science class.

    Dudley, Jutta Siefert

    54

    The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. It will increase understanding of crustal movement and strain and provide insights into the causes and mechanisms of geodetic activity associated with earthquakes and volcanic activity. PBO equipment includes global positioning systems; seismometers; and borehole strainmeters, which detect compression and extension of the earth's crust with a sensitivity of up to a millimeter per thousand kilometer. The deployment of a PBO strainmeters will lead to greater understanding of crustal and volcanic deformation processes at frequencies not normally recorded by the seismic or geodetic instruments. Deploying a PBO strainmeter is a four-step process: The first step is finding a suitable site for the installations of the borehole strainmeter at depths of between 500 and 800 feet below the surface. The process involves understanding the geology of a target area and once a potential site is identified a field visit is required to determine the presence of suitable access and infrastructure. The final and most difficult part of the first step is obtaining a permit from a landowner, which can take several visits and/or phone calls to work through the paperwork. Drilling the borehole is the second step. A standard water well drilling rig is normally used and the drilling process can take between 7-20 days depending on the geology and weather. The drillers must follow strict requirements for the borehole such as hole diameter, angular deviation from vertical, depth, and type of drill bits used. Variables while drilling include lithology changes, competency of rock, and amount of water being produced. The third step is identifying an optimal zone to install the instruments in the borehole. A zone of hard unfractured borehole, about 10 to 15 feet in length, with minimal water production is required for the placement of the strainmeter. Drilling and geophysical logs and a borehole camera are the primary tools used to identify the installation zone. The minimum geophysical logging tools used are full waveform sonic, acoustic televiewer, calipers, and an various electrical tool. The final step is the installation of the equipment. This takes 7-10 days depending on weather, infrastructure and borehole conditions. During the installation a Gladwin tensor strainmeter, a 3 component borehole geophone seismometer, and pore pressure sensors are installed at a minimum and at some locations GPS monuments are installed. Power and communications equipment are also installed at each site as well as an enclosure to house the equipment. If A/C power is nearby, we run power to the, but we have also used solar and Thermal Electric Generators to power equipment. At volcanic sites, tilt meters will be installed.. Post installation, data are transmitted via satellite to UNAVCO where it is processed and forward on to the NCEDC and IRIS DMC for archiving. The data are made publicly available once a station comes online and the data are in the archive. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO strainmeter network.

    Johnson, W. C.; Venator, S.; Dittmann, T.; Stair, J.; Tiedeman, A.; Gottlieb, M.; Stroeve, A.; Hasting, M.; Mencin, D.; Jackson, M.

    2006-12-01

    55

    The Moon: Keystone To Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an interna- tional array of automated spacecraft provides data on geology, geochemistry, miner- alogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure unequaled except for Earth. This level of detail has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for under- standing of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include- Impact cratering: New information on the nature of the process, depth of excavation, role of oblique impact, nature of the modification stage, production of impact melt, ejecta emplacement dynamics, the role of volatile emplacement and fate, particularly at the poles, and the establishment of crater size-frequency distribution chronology. Magmatic activity: New insight into plutonism (intrusion) and volcanism (extrusion), and their role as major crustal building and resurfacing processes throughout history, as well as the distribution of mantle melting processes in space and time. The nature of magmatic activity during heavy bombardment (intrusion, extrusion, cryptomaria) and in later lunar history, in terms of the mare stratigraphic record, the distribution of basalt types, the distribution of melting in space and time, volume and flux informa- tion, and the full range of eruption styles and their petrogenetic significance. Tectonic activity: The Moon is the type location for tectonics on a one-plate planet which can be understood in the context of the complete lunar data set and extended to other planetary bodies. Issues include distinguishing magmatic and tectonic graben, estab- lishing the three-dimensional structure and chronology of wrinkle ridges and arches, determining the internal structure of mountain ranges and linking these events to lunar thermal evolution. Upcoming missions by ESA and Japan will provide important ad- ditional insight into a host of comparative planetological problems, including: Decon- volution of the complex record of early lunar crustal formation and evolution, relation of geological processes to the thermal evolution of the Moon and one-plate planets, establishment of a key planetary perspective on the first half of Solar System history, and extrapolation to the nature and evolution of terrestrial planetary bodies including Earth.

    Head, J. W.

    56

    Understanding the Deep Earth: Slabs, Drips, Plumes and More - An On the Cutting Edge Workshop  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exciting new science is emerging from the study of the deep Earth using a variety of approaches: observational instrumentation (e.g. EarthScope’s USArray; IRIS), analysis of rocks (xenoliths, isotopic tracers), experimental methods (COMPRES facilities), and modeling (physical and computational, e.g. CIG program). New images and models of active faults, subducting plates, mantle drips, and rising plumes are spurring a new excitement about deep Earth processes and connections between Earth’s internal systems, the plate tectonic system, and the physiography of Earth’s surface. The integration of these lines of research presents unique opportunities and also challenges in geoscience education. How can we best teach about the architecture, composition, and processes of Earth where it is hidden from direct observation. How can we make deep Earth science relevant and meaningful to students across the geoscience curriculum? And how can we use the exciting new discoveries about Earth processes to attract new students into science? To explore the intersection of research and teaching about the deep Earth, a virtual workshop was convened in February 2010 for experts in deep Earth research and undergraduate geoscience education. The six-day workshop consisted of online plenary talks, large and small group discussions, asynchronous contributions using threaded listservs and web-based work spaces, as well as development and review of new classroom and laboratory activities. The workshop goals were to: 1) help participants stay current about data, tools, services, and research related to the deep earth, 2) address the "big science questions" related to deep earth (e.g. plumes, slabs, drips, post-perovskite, etc.) and explore exciting new scientific approaches, 3) to consider ways to effectively teach about "what can't be seen", at least not directly, and 4) develop and review classroom teaching activities for undergraduate education using these data, tools, services, and research results to facilitate teaching about the deep earth across the geoscience curriculum. Another goal of the workshop was to experiment with, and evaluate the effectiveness of, the virtual format. Although there are advantages to face-to-face workshops, the virtual format was remarkably effective. The interactive discussions during synchronous presentations were vibrant, and the virtual format allowed participants to introduce references, images and ideas in real-time. The virtual nature of the workshop allowed participation by those who are not able to attend a traditional workshop, with an added benefit that participants had direct access to all their research and teaching materials to share with the workshop. Some participants broadcast the workshop ‘live’ to their classes and many brought discussions directly from the presentation to the classroom. The workshop webpage includes the workshop program with links to recordings of all presentations, discussion summaries, a collection of recommended resources about deep Earth research, and collections of peer-reviewed instructional activities. http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/deepearth/index.html

    Williams, M. L.; Mogk, D. W.; McDaris, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    57

    Thermochemical Models of Earth's Mantle Convection: New Insight From Fractionation and Outgassing Processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    As one fundamental part of the global recycling process between the Earth's mantle and lithosphere, sinking slabs in the deep mantle play a crucial role on mantle geochemical evolution. Many previous studies in the mantle dynamics subject area focused on understanding how stirring and mixing acts in the convective mantle, and thus how slab heterogeneities are spread out through the

    S. Ferrachat; L. H. Kellogg

    2001-01-01

    58

    Understanding and prediction of electronic-structure-driven physical behaviors in rare-earth compounds  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rare-earth materials, due to their unique magnetic properties, are important for fundamental and technological applications such as advanced magnetic sensors, magnetic data storage, magnetic cooling and permanent magnets. For an understanding of the physical behaviors of these materials, first principles techniques are one of the best theoretical tools to explore the electronic structure and evaluate exchange interactions. However, first principles calculations of the crystal field splitting due to intra-site electron-electron correlations and the crystal environment in the presence of exchange splitting in rare-earth materials are rarely carried out despite the importance of these effects. Here we consider rare-earth dialuminides as model systems and show that the low temperature anomalies observed in these systems are due to the variation of both exchange and crystal field splitting leading to anomalous intra-site correlated-4f and itinerant-5d electronic states near the Fermi level. From calculations supported by experiments we uncover that HoAl2 is unique among rare-earth dialuminides, in that it undergoes a cubic to orthorhombic distortion leading to a spin reorientation. Calculations of a much more extended family of mixed rare-earth dialuminides reveal an additional degree of complexity: the effective quadrupolar moment of the lanthanides changes sign as a function of lanthanide concentration, leading to a change in the sign of the anisotropy constant. At this point the quadrupolar interactions are effectively reduced to zero, giving rise to lattice instability and leading to new phenomena. This study shows a clear picture that accurate evaluation of the exchange, crystal field splitting and shape of the charge densities allows one to understand, predict and control the physical behaviors of rare-earth materials.

    Paudyal, Durga; Pathak, Arjun K.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.

    2013-10-01

    59

    Understanding and prediction of electronic-structure-driven physical behaviors in rare-earth compounds.  

    PubMed

    Rare-earth materials, due to their unique magnetic properties, are important for fundamental and technological applications such as advanced magnetic sensors, magnetic data storage, magnetic cooling and permanent magnets. For an understanding of the physical behaviors of these materials, first principles techniques are one of the best theoretical tools to explore the electronic structure and evaluate exchange interactions. However, first principles calculations of the crystal field splitting due to intra-site electron-electron correlations and the crystal environment in the presence of exchange splitting in rare-earth materials are rarely carried out despite the importance of these effects. Here we consider rare-earth dialuminides as model systems and show that the low temperature anomalies observed in these systems are due to the variation of both exchange and crystal field splitting leading to anomalous intra-site correlated-4f and itinerant-5d electronic states near the Fermi level. From calculations supported by experiments we uncover that HoAl2 is unique among rare-earth dialuminides, in that it undergoes a cubic to orthorhombic distortion leading to a spin reorientation. Calculations of a much more extended family of mixed rare-earth dialuminides reveal an additional degree of complexity: the effective quadrupolar moment of the lanthanides changes sign as a function of lanthanide concentration, leading to a change in the sign of the anisotropy constant. At this point the quadrupolar interactions are effectively reduced to zero, giving rise to lattice instability and leading to new phenomena. This study shows a clear picture that accurate evaluation of the exchange, crystal field splitting and shape of the charge densities allows one to understand, predict and control the physical behaviors of rare-earth materials. PMID:23999405

    Paudyal, Durga; Pathak, Arjun K; Pecharsky, V K; Gschneidner, K A

    2013-09-03

    60

    Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    61

    THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC  

    SciTech Connect

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Surman, Rebecca, E-mail: mrmumpow@ncsu.edu, E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu, E-mail: surmanr@union.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    62

    Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

    DOEpatents

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    63

    Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte  

    DOEpatents

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    64

    Understanding of the Earth in the presence of a satellite photo: A threefold enterprise  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    To acknowledge both conceptual and situational factors, children’s understanding of the Earth was considered from three angles:\\u000a 1, the perspective as the physical point or direction from which something is seen or depicted; 2. conceptual frameworks;\\u000a 3. the relevance of explanations in a situation. Fourteen children were interviewed individually in front of a poster of a\\u000a satellite photo of the

    Karin Ehrlén

    2009-01-01

    65

    Venus and the Earth's Archean: Geological mapping and process comparisons  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Introduction. The geological features, structures, thermal conditions, interpreted processes, and outstanding questions related to both the Earth's Archean and Venus share many similarities [1-3] and we are using a problem-oriented approach to Venus mapping, guided by insight from the Archean record of the Earth, to gain new perspectives on the evolution of Venus and Earth's Archean. The Earth's preserved and well-documented Archean record [4] provides important insight into high heat-flux tectonic and magmatic environments and structures [5] and the surface of Venus reveals the current configuration and recent geological record of analogous high-temperature environments unmodified by subsequent several billion years of segmentation and overprinting, as on Earth. Here we address the nature of the Earth's Archean, the similarities to and differences from Venus, and the specific Venus and Earth-Archean problems on which progress might be made through comparison. The Earth's Archean and its Relation to Venus. The Archean period of Earth's history extends from accretion/initial crust formation (sometimes called the Hadean) to 2.5 Ga and is thought of by most workers as being a transitional period between the earliest Earth and later periods largely dominated by plate tectonics (Proterozoic and Phanerozoic) [2, 4]. Thus the Archean is viewed as recording a critical period in Earth's history in which a transition took place from the types of primary and early secondary crusts seen on the Moon, Mars and Mercury [6] (and largely missing in the record of the Earth), to the style of crustal accretion and plate tectonics characterizing later Earth history. The Archean is also characterized by enhanced crustal and mantle temperatures leading to differences in deformation style and volcanism (e.g., komatiites) [2]. The preserved Archean crust is exposed in ~36 different cratons [4], forming the cores of most continental regions, and is composed of gneisses, plutons and greenstones. The geological record of the Archean Earth is considerably different than the Phanerozoic record and ongoing processes [1, 7]. The Archean record is characterized by evidence for enhanced mantle temperatures, different styles of crustal deformation (localized belts of high intensity deformation, tight high and low angle folds, diapiric-related deformation, significant lateral differences in lithospheric thickness (implied by 'cold' keels), significant evidence for crustal thickening processes and the burial and exhumation of thickened crust, abundant hightemperature komatiites, greenstone belts, "mafic plains"-type greenstones, positive gneissic and felsic diapirs, abundance of a distinctive TTG (tonalitetrondhjemite- granodiorite) assemblage, layered gabbro- anorthosite igneous intrusions, very abundant plume-derived basalts, unusual events interpreted to represent mantle instability and overturn, late stage granodiorites and granites derived from intracrustal melting, epicratonic basins, and production of large volumes of continental crust [1,4,5]. A major question in the study of the Archean is the nature of the geodynamic processes operating during this time. Do the geodynamic processes represent a steady-state accommodation to the Archean thermal environment, or do they represent a transitional or evolutionary phase? Does the Archean represent a particular unique style of vertical tectonics, as on oneplate planets, lateral tectonics (perhaps early plate tectonics) as on later Earth, or is it transitional in time (and perhaps in space), changing from one style to another during the Archean? What role do the enhanced mantle and crustal temperatures play in volcanism and tectonism during this period? Do global crustal and lithospheric density instabilities play a major role in the transition [8], perhaps causing catastrophic foundering and crustal overturn [9], as thought to have occurred on the Moon and Mars? Does vertical crustal accretion dominate over lateral crustal accretion, leading to density instabilities and planet-wide diapiric upwel

    Head, J. W.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Senthil Kumar, P.

    2008-09-01

    66

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget edition 1 data processing algorithms.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget is the first instrument to measure the earth radiation budget from a geostationary orbit This allows a full sampling of the diurnal cycle of radiation and clouds - which is important for climate studies as well as detailed process studies e g the lifecycle of clouds or particular aerosol events such as desert storms GERB data is now for the first time released as edition 1 data for public scientific use In this paper we describe the status of the algorithms used for the edition 1 GERB data processing and the associated validation activities that have been carried out

    Dewitte, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Clerbaux, N.; Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.

    67

    Why Earth Science?  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    68

    Digital Image Processing of Earth Observation Sensor Data  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper describes digital image processing techniques that were developed to precisely correct Landsat multispectral Earth observation data and gives illustrations of the results achieved, e.g., geometric corrections with an error of less than one picture element, a relative error of one-fourth picture element, and no radiometric error effect. Techniques for enhancing the sensor data, digitally mosaicking multiple scenes, and

    Ralph Bernstein

    1976-01-01

    69

    Sample processing for earth science studies at ANTARES  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AMS studies in earth sciences at ANTARES, ANSTO created a need for the processing of mineral and ice samples for 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl target preparation. Published procedures have been adapted to our requirements and improved upon where necessary. In particular, new methods to isolate Be with reproducible, high recoveries in the presence of excess Al and Ti were achieved.

    D. Child; G. Elliott; C. Mifsud; A. M Smith; D. Fink

    2000-01-01

    70

    Innovative Uses of Google Earth to Facilitate Scientific Understanding of Meteorological Observations, Forecasts and Analyses  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Google Earth application provides a unique means to display, animate and layer imagery and geophysical data on a 3-dimensional globe without the distortions imparted by a flat display. Using Google Earth, high resolution imagery from environmental satellite data such as the MODIS sensor onboard EOS Terra and Aqua can be viewed at various levels of detail, and updated dynamically as new datasets arrive. Observations and numerical weather prediction model forecasts can be viewed and directly compared. It also provides a forum for training and education of geophysical concepts (atmospheric and space weather, land surface processes, climate, oceanography, etc.) by fusing the aspects of a web-browser with the capability to geo-reference and geo- fuse multiple layers of data. This poster shows several examples that demonstrate how the Google Earth application can be used to display meteorological datasets. For example, an animation of satellite rainfall images from a blend of satellite types gives the user an immediate indication of heavy rain and flooding. 3-D aircraft flight tracks from a recent field experiment show how the in-situ data gathered onboard the aircraft can be compared with coordinated ground-based observations. We also demonstrate how to display data selected from a webpage directly into Google Earth, a land cover database integrated with active fire data, and the use of multispectral and multi- resolution satellite data as you zoom in on a tropical cyclone.

    Curtis, C. A.; Turk, F. J.; Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    71

    TERRA-1: Understanding the terrestrial environment, the role of earth observations from space  

    SciTech Connect

    TERRA-1 provides an account of the proceedings of a specialists' conference held at the Royal Geographical Society in August 1989 on land surface remote sensing, its relationship to global environmental research and earth system science, and its role in understanding global climate. The book is a collection of 19 articles from a diverse group of geologists, geographers, hydrologists, meteorologists, soil scientists, terrestrial ecologists, volcanologists, and remote sensing specialists. The articles provide a useful overview in a number of disciplines on how space-based remote sensing is helping address problems associated with monitoring and predicting the global environment and its climate.

    Mather, P.M. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    72

    Resources and Strategies for Building Understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun System in Students of all Ages  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This presentation discusses a variety of resources and strategies used in UT Dallas education and outreach programs to help learners build understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun system including topics of scale, lunar phases, and seasons.

    Urquhart, M. L.

    2011-03-01

    73

    Understanding Scientific Study via Process Modeling  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper argues that scientific studies distinguish themselves from other studies by a combination of their processes, their\\u000a (knowledge) elements and the roles of these elements. This is supported by constructing a process model. An illustrative example\\u000a based on Newtonian mechanics shows how scientific knowledge is structured according to the process model. To distinguish scientific\\u000a studies from research and scientific

    Robert W. P. Luk

    2010-01-01

    74

    Understanding the International Retail Divestment Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper focuses on the international retail divestment process. Using a qualitative methodological approach the paper presents findings that facilitate a stage?by?stage consideration of the process. Interviews with current and ex?employees, all senior managers, provide insights into the most important considerations, decisions and outcomes at different stages in the divestment process. By using this approach it has been possible to

    Patricia Cairns; Anne Marie Doherty; Nicholas Alexander; Barry Quinn

    2008-01-01

    75

    Understanding Memory: The Systems and Processing Debate  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    parts of the brain. Researchers have found dissociations between both explicit\\/implicit tasks and perceptual\\/conceptual tasks, proposing many theories to explain these dis- sociations. These theories can be categorized under two general theoretical approaches: the memory systems approach and the processing approach. The neuropsychological tradition favors the memory systems approach while the cognitive psychological tradition favors processing approaches (Roediger, 1990). Although

    Austin Che

    2001-01-01

    76

    Understanding the Process of Medical Referral  

    PubMed Central

    In this, the concluding article of a six-part series on a longitudinal study of 50 referrals from family physicians in Ontario and Manitoba, the end of the referral process and responsibility for it are examined. Referral seemed to function as a process that, sometimes inappropriately, restored faith or held out hope that medical solutions could be found for difficult, chronic problems. Outcomes were linked to patient agendas and expectations.

    Muzzin, Linda J.

    1992-01-01

    77

    A novel process for recovering rare earth from weathered black earth  

    SciTech Connect

    A novel process for recovering rare-earth (RE) elements from weathered-black-earth slime is developed. This process involves the initial removal of Mn by reduction leaching using SO{sub 2} followed by ammonium chloride roasting of the residual solids from the leaching process. The controlled roasting selectively converts RE oxides to water-soluble RE chlorides. The roasted materials are then dispersed in warm water (75 C) to extract RE, while water-insoluble iron oxides remain in gangue sludge, minimizing iron impurities in final RE products and hence simplifying the purification process. Lead chloride precipitates are obtained by cooling the leachate to {minus}10 C, and RE is recovered using oxalic acid precipitation. With this new process, a product of 92 pct purity at a RE recovery greater than 65 pct is obtained. In addition, Mn and Pb are recovered as by-products, with a recovery of 64 and 54 pct, respectively. The effect of operating variables on RE recovery is examined and the process chemistry described.

    Chi, R.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2000-02-01

    78

    Understanding the Process of Medical Referral  

    PubMed Central

    Fifty referrals from family physicians in Ontario were examined by interviewing the patients, referring physicians, consultants, and others involved at various points in the process. This, the second in a series of six articles, introduces the participants and describes how grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the approximately 3000 pages of field notes.

    Muzzin, Linda

    1991-01-01

    79

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Edition 1 data processing algorithms  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument is the first to measure the earth radiation budget from a geostationary orbit. This allows a full sampling of the diurnal cycle of radiation and clouds which is important for climate studies, as well as detailed process studies, e.g. the lifecycle of clouds or particular aerosol events such as desert storms. GERB data is now for the first time released as Edition 1 data for public scientific use. In this paper we summarise the algorithms used for the Edition 1 GERB data processing and the main validation results. Based on the comparison with the independent CERES instrument, the Edition 1 GERB accuracy is 5% for the reflected solar radiances and 2% for the emitted thermal radiances.

    Dewitte, S.; Gonzalez, L.; Clerbaux, N.; Ipe, A.; Bertrand, C.; de Paepe, B.

    80

    Substorm Physical Process in the Near-Earth Plasma Sheet  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The physical processes of substorm onset and subsequent current disruption in the near-Earth plasma sheet observed by AMPTE\\/CCE are presented. Toward the end of growth phase (approximately 2 minutes before the substorm onset) a low frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 sec is excited and grows exponentially to a large amplitude with delta B \\/ B >= 0.3

    C. Z. Cheng; A. T. Y. Lui

    1998-01-01

    81

    The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    82

    Understanding the Process of Fascial Unwinding  

    PubMed Central

    Background: Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapist’s touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a client’s body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as “mystical.” Purpose: This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. Hypothetical Model: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Conclusions: Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory.

    Minasny, Budiman

    2009-01-01

    83

    Need for a mission to understand the Earth-Venus-Mars difference in Nitrogen  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This presentation is based on a satellite mission proposal that was submitted to ESA's call for a Small Mission in June 2012. Although the mission was not selected, its science was recommended by the Solar System Exploration Working Group. Nitrogen is a key element for life as an inevitable part of the amino acid and protein. While nitrogen is abundant on the Earth (the amount in the soil, crust, and ocean are small compared to the atmospheric amount) and on Venus (only 3% but pressure is 90 times of the Earth, resulting in three times as the Earth), Martian atmosphere has very little nitrogen, about only 0.01% of the Earth or Venus (with 10% of planetary mass). This contrasts the oxygen abundance, which is found in all three planets (Martian case, it is now believed to exist in the crust as oxidized rocks because the observed escape rate is equivalent only 10 m deep water). Considering the fact that nitrogen is much more difficult to be ionized than oxygen due to triple chemical binding and that dependence of the ion outflow from the ionosphere on the geomagnetic activity is more drastic for cold nitrogen ion than cold oxygen ions, absence of the nitrogen only on the Mars is a mystery, while this absence might explain the absence of life on Mars at the present knowledge. From these viewpoints, it is important to understand the dynamic of N+ and N2+ at different solar conditions, e.g., its difference from oxygen dynamics for whatever the planet. One reason for lack of such measurement except cold ions is the difficulty in separating hot N+ from O+ in the modern time-of-flight instruments, but it is now most likely possible to separate O+ and N+ using magnetic mass analyzer if we mask H+ and if we limit the angular coverage to minimize contamination. The nitrogen study in space requires a dedicated space mission that covers both the polar region and inner magnetosphere. Instrumentation for such a mission also benefits study of inner magnetospheric study, substorm studies, and basic plasma physics such as ion energization. We present the science and instrumentation of the proposed NITRO mission.

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Dandouras, Iannis; Rathsman, Peter

    2013-04-01

    84

    The mechanism of rare earth incorporation in solution doping process.  

    PubMed

    The mechanism involved during solution doping process has been systematically investigated by correlating the soot characteristics and solution parameters with the amount of rare earth (RE) incorporated in the core of optical fiber. Experiments show that the amount of RE incorporation may be controlled with better precision by adjusting Al ion concentration in the soaking solution. A model has been developed on the basis of cooperative adsorption mechanism correlating different parameters in the overall process. Theoretical estimation shows good agreement with the experimental results and can be used to predict the extent of RE incorporation for any composition if the soot layer characteristics are known. PMID:18711522

    Dhar, Anirban; Pal, Atasi; Paul, Mukul Ch; Ray, P; Maiti, Himadri S; Sen, Ranjan

    2008-08-18

    85

    Development of a Mantle Convection Physical Model to Assist with Teaching about Earth's Interior Processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Modeling and Educational Demonstrations Laboratory (MEDL) at UCLA is developing a mantle convection physical model to assist educators with the pedagogy of Earth’s interior processes. Our design goal consists of two components to help the learner gain conceptual understanding by means of visual interactions without the burden of distracters, which may promote alternative conceptions. Distracters may be any feature of the conceptual model that causes the learner to use inadequate mental artifact to help him or her understand what the conceptual model is intended to convey. The first component, and most important, is a psychological component that links properties of “everyday things” (Norman, 1988) to the natural phenomenon, mantle convection. Some examples of everyday things may be heat rising out from a freshly popped bag of popcorn, or cold humid air falling from an open freezer. The second component is the scientific accuracy of the conceptual model. We would like to simplify the concepts for the learner without sacrificing key information that is linked to other natural phenomena the learner will come across in future science lessons. By taking into account the learner’s mental artifacts in combination with a simplified, but accurate, representation of what scientists know of the Earth’s interior, we expect the learner to have the ability to create an adequate qualitative mental simulation of mantle convection. We will be presenting some of our prototypes of this mantle convection physical model at this year’s poster session and invite constructive input from our colleagues.

    Glesener, G. B.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    86

    Linking rare earth element zoning in major and accessory minerals to better understand metasedimentary migmatites  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trace element signatures from major and accessory minerals are increasingly used to place constraints on the ages of tectonothermal events and gain insights into processes operating in the deep continental crust. Minerals such as garnet, zircon or monazite represent sensitive recorders of events if a solid understanding exists of what trace element signatures represent. A study underway on granulite facies migmatites is providing insights into trace element signatures in garnet, and when integrated with in situ, microbeam analysis of zircon and monazite, is allowing a complex polymetamorphic history to be deciphered. The Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica, are composed of felsic orthogneisses and metasediments that were affected by high-grade metamorphism and partial melting at c. 7 kbar and >800 °C. Initially interpreted to have experienced a single cycle of metamorphism at c. 550-530 Ma, recent ages suggest that the area was affected by an earlier high-grade event at c. 900 Ma; the timing of migmatization relative to these two events remains uncertain. To address this, a detailed study has targeted metasedimentary migmatites. Garnet, zircon and monazite were analysed from melanosome, leucosome and selvage domains. Garnet (predominantly almandine-pyrope) preserves little, if any, major element zoning. In contrast, it records systematic within-grain variations in heavy rare earth element (HREE) concentration depending on textural context. Garnet within residuum domains displays broad cores with flat HREE slopes in chondrite-normalized plots, but are HREE-depleted (negative slopes) at boundaries adjacent to leucosome. In contrast, garnet boundaries adjacent to cordierite-rich selvages are typically HREE-enriched, with positive-sloping patterns. It is interpreted that core-rim depletions in HREE may reflect evolution of the whole-rock reservoir towards depletion during migmatization and garnet growth. Enrichment in garnet HREE adjacent to selvage domains likely resulted from local reaction between solids and melts either during melt transit and/or crystallization. Monazite, which is preferentially located in leucosome domains, preserves ages that reflect growth at c. 900 Ma and c. 530 Ma, although trace element signatures are ambiguous. However, zircon, which is preferentially located in selvage domains, preserves c. 530 Ma rims with depleted, flat to negatively sloping HREE patterns. It is interpreted that these zircon rims grew in, or near to equilibrium with garnet cores and rims during partial melting, and may date at least part of migmatite formation in the Larsemann Hills. They do not date the final crystallization of melts and development of selvage domains. Preliminary results of this study have shown that the trace element composition of garnet from high-temperature terrains can be a powerful tool in tracking metamorphic and melting processes where major elements zoning is no longer preserved. This study also demonstrates the utility of textural context when interpreting trace element patterns and ages from dateable accessory minerals in rocks from polycyclic metamorphic terrains.

    Matthews, J. A.; Kelly, N. M.; Koenig, A.; Harley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    87

    MiTEP's Collaborative Field Course Design Process Based on Earth Science Literacy Principles  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michigan Technological University has developed a collaborative process for designing summer field courses for teachers as part of their National Science Foundation funded Math Science Partnership program, called the Michigan Teacher Excellence Program (MiTEP). This design process was implemented and then piloted during two two-week courses: Earth Science Institute I (ESI I) and Earth Science Institute II (ESI II). Participants consisted of a small group of Michigan urban science teachers who are members of the MiTEP program. The Earth Science Literacy Principles (ESLP) served as the framework for course design in conjunction with input from participating MiTEP teachers as well as research done on common teacher and student misconceptions in Earth Science. Research on the Earth Science misconception component, aligned to the ESLP, is more fully addressed in GSA Abstracts with Programs Vol. 42, No. 5. “Recognizing Earth Science Misconceptions and Reconstructing Knowledge through Conceptual-Change-Teaching”. The ESLP were released to the public in January 2009 by the Earth Science Literacy Organizing Committee and can be found at http://www.earthscienceliteracy.org/index.html. Each day of the first nine days of both Institutes was focused on one of the nine ESLP Big Ideas; the tenth day emphasized integration of concepts across all of the ESLP Big Ideas. Throughout each day, Michigan Tech graduate student facilitators and professors from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University consistantly focused teaching and learning on the day's Big Idea. Many Earth Science experts from Michigan Tech and Grand Valley State University joined the MiTEP teachers in the field or on campus, giving presentations on the latest research in their area that was related to that Big Idea. Field sites were chosen for their unique geological features as well as for the “sense of place” each site provided. Preliminary research findings indicate that this collaborative design process piloted as ESI I and ESI II was successful in improving MiTEP teacher understanding of Earth Science content and that it was helpful to use the ESLP framework. Ultimately, a small sample of student scores will look at the impact on student learning in the MiTEP teacher classrooms.

    Engelmann, C. A.; Rose, W. I.; Huntoon, J. E.; Klawiter, M. F.; Hungwe, K.

    2010-12-01

    88

    Understanding the earth systems of Malawi: Ecological sustainability, culture, and place-based education  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of nature-knowledge-culture systems from local, place-based perspectives. Specifically, we were interested in learning more about eco-justice issues that are related to environmental degradation in Malawi and the potential role of inquiry-oriented pedagogies in addressing these issues. In a science methods course, the African educators' views on deforestation and teaching about ecological sustainability were explored within the context of the local environment and culture. Teachers participated in inquiry pedagogies designed to promote the sharing of perspectives related to the connections between culture and ecological degradation. Strategies encouraging dialogue and reflection included role-playing, class discussions, curriculum development activities, teaching experiences with children, and field trips to a nature preserve. Data were analyzed from postcolonial and critical pedagogy of place theoretical perspectives to better understand the hybridization of viewpoints influenced by both Western and indigenous science and the political hegemonies that impact sustainable living in Malawi. Findings suggested that the colonial legacy of Malawi continues to impact the ecological sustainability issue of deforestation. Inquiry-oriented pedagogies and connections to indigenous science were embraced by the Malawian educators as a means to involve children in investigation, decision making, and ownership of critical environmental issues.

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-07-01

    89

    Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Earth and the Moon: key for understanding of their origin and development  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparative study of tectonomagmatic development of the Earth and the Moon showed that there are essential similarity of evolution of the lunar magmatism to the Palaeoproterozoic terrestrial magmatism (analogs of the terrestrial Archean granite-greenstone terranes and the Phanerozoic subduction-related situations were absent on the Moon). Geological development of the both bodies became after solidification of their global magmatic oceans, which resulted in appearance the primordial sialic crust on the Earth and the anorthositic on the Moon. Geological data indicate that the further evolution of the both bodies had occurred in two main stages with rather different character of its tectonomagmatic processes. On the Earth in the early Palaeoproterozoic (2.5-2.2 Ga) magmas of the siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS), derived from depleted mantle sources, predominated. At 2.2-2.0 Ga they were changes by geochemically-enriched magmas (with advent of Fe-Ti picrites and basalts in global scale as well as high-Ti alkaline rocks); it was followed by changing of plume-tectonics to plate tectonics and appearance of ophiolites (in the Penrose Conference's sense). On the Moon magmatic activity began on the highlands about 4.3-4.35 Ga from the magnesian suite, which was rather close to the terrestrial SHMS on its geochemistry and isotopy. Such activity lasted till ˜ 4.0 Ga and was changed by basaltic volcanism including low- and high-Ti varieties, occurred within large maria depressions with thinned crust at the boundary 3.9-3.8 Ga. These magmas were close to MORB and OIB consequently. Thus, in the both cases a new material sudden began to involve in the geological processes of their outer shells. We suggest that the both planetary bodies had originally heterogeneous structures with iron cores and silicate mantles, and evolved under the same scenario: gradually inwards warming right up to appearance of its liquid cores, accompanied by also gradually cooling of their outer parts. At the first stages evolution of the bodies' tectonomagmatic processes was probably linked with ascending of the mantle superplumes, formed into the mantle, depleted during magmatic oceans formation and previous magmatic events. Appearance of the liquid cores initiated ascending of superplumes of the second generation from the mantle-core boundaries; they reached more shallow levels and extension of their heads led to cardinal transformation of the planets surfaces.

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    90

    NASA's Standards Process For Earth Science Data Systems (Invited)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA’s Standards Process Group (SPG) facilitates the approval of proposed standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit for use in NASA’s Earth science data systems. After some initial experience in approving proposed standards, the SPG has tailored its Standards Process to remove redundant reviews to shorten the review process. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP’s Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium’s Web Map Server, the Hierarchical Data Format, Global Change Master Directory’s Directory Interchange Format, NetCDF Classic, CF Metadata). We will discuss real examples of the different types of best practices and implementation experiences that have been documented and endorsed as Technical Notes (i.e. Interoperability between OGC CS/W and WCS Protocols, Lessons Learned Regarding WCS Server Design and Implementation, Mapping HDF5 to DAP2, Creating File Format Guidelines - The Aura Experience, ECHO Metadata) The NASA Earth science community benefits by having a repository of endorsed Earth science data systems standards that have been successfully implemented and used within the NASA environment. NASA’s Earth science data providers can rely on these endorsed standards for demonstrated readiness for mission use and science investigators are assured that standards contribute to science success in their discipline. The SPG is working with NASA’s Decadal Survey Missions (e.g. SMAP, CLARREO, ICESat II and DESDynI) to facilitate the use of NASA’s endorsed standards in these future mission data systems. We have also observed that the Standards process itself can encourage the development consensus within a community through the RFC development and review experience. An RFC can grow the use of common practices among related activities, then once the standard is endorsed, other discipline communities can learn from the successful practice and also use it. The adoption of the standard lowers the barriers to entry and use of NASA data by external discipline communities within NASA and outside NASA.

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2010-12-01

    91

    Geomorphology: Were Earth-like river processes ever present on Mars?  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laurel Goodell, Summary Students compare rivers on Earth to channel-like features on Mars, and consider whether Earth-like river processes were ever present on Mars. Context Type and level of course Entry level ...

    Goodell, Laurel P.

    92

    P/M Processing of Rare Earth Modified High Strength Steels.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Material processing studies were continued directed toward developing powder metallurgy methods for producing rare earth modified high strength 4340 steel with improved resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Three different methods of making rare earth mod...

    A. A. Sheinker

    1980-01-01

    93

    Tunguska phenomenon: Discharge processes near the earth's surface  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An investigation of the Tunguska cosmic body's epicenter showed that both dried trees and those that survived the catastrophe are marked with characteristic deteriorations. For the trees that survived near the epicenter (the distance is <4 km), cracks of up to 7 m in length are found on their stems. All the vegetation near the explosion epicenter has traces of uniform scorch that covered the trees even on the land parts isolated by water. On the background of this uniform scorch, a notable feature is carbonization that touched the tree tops and the earth-directed ends of broken branches. All tops of both living and dried trees in the central zone are burned and dead. Carbonization of tops and branch ends was observed up to a distance of 10-15 km from the epicenter; i.e., charge processes took place over an area of more than 500 km2 in size. Carbonized branch ends have a characteristic "bird's nail" shape, which has no analogs on the Earth. Similar deterioration is typical for the crater shape that obtains an anode during arc discharge combustion. It is supposed that the duration of these charge processes could be ?1 min.

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2013-09-01

    94

    Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    95

    Probing Earth's Middle Atmosphere: Non­lte Processes And Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy, A Preliminary Study  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The study of chemical and physical phenomena in the Earth's troposphere, strato- sphere and mesosphere is important to understand the coupling between these regions of the atmosphere. Information on the thermal structure, non-LTE processes, pres- sures, trace species abundances, and local dynamics is contained in emitted and ab- sorbed line spectra of molecular constituents in these atmospheric regions. Access to this information is optimized by spectroscopic resolution sufficient to resolve the molecular line shapes. We will describe a direct approach for such a study using true shapes of measured lines from mid-atmospheric constituents. We will present model calculations of the Earth's limb monochromatic radiances in the 9­12 µm spectral re- gion within spectral lines of a number of atmospheric trace gases (CO2, O3, N2O, OH, and others). The calculations account for non­LTE effects and simulate both emission and solar/lunar occultation observations from Earth orbit. These results will be com- pared to measurements expected from infrared heterodyne spectroscopy, which pro- vides the necessary spectral resolution (/ 106) to measure the line shapes and their accurate frequencies. The required instrumental parameters and the sensitivity for various observing geometries will be determined for retrieval of information on species abundance, kinetic temperature, non-LTE effects, and local winds. The feasi- bility and specific scientific return of such an investigation from Earth orbit will be discussed, in the context of many similar previous investigations of other planetary atmospheres in our solar system.

    Kutepov, A. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Gusev, O. A.; Kostiuk, Th.; Maguire, W.; Livengood, T. A.

    96

    Secondary School Students' Understandings of Scientific Processes: an interview study  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thirty two students aged between 13 and 16 were interviewed individually to determine their understanding of the meaning of a range of science processes. In an attempt to obtain understandings from students with a range of interests and abilities in scientific investigation the sample was stratified according to participation and degree of success in science fairs. A total of 63

    Alan K. Griffiths; Jeffrey Thompson

    1993-01-01

    97

    Tuning optoelectronic properties and understanding charge transport in nanocrystal thin films of earth abundant semiconducting materials  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the capability of producing nearly 600 TW annually, solar power is one renewable energy source with the potential to meet a large fraction of the world's burgeoning energy demand. To make solar technology cost-competitive with carbon-based fuels, cheaper devices need to be realized. Solution-processed solar cells from nanocrystal inks of earth abundant materials satisfy this requirement. Nonetheless, a major hurdle in commercializing such devices is poor charge transport through nanocrystal thin films. The efficiency of charge transport through nanocrystal thin films is strongly dependent on the quality of the nanocrystals, as well as their optoelectronic properties. Therefore, the first part of this dissertation is focused on synthesizing high quality nanocrystals of Cu2ZnSnS4, a promising earth abundant photovoltaic absorber material. The optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals were tuned by altering the copper to zinc ratio, as well as by introducing selenium to create Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSe x)4 solid solutions. Photoelectrochemical characterization was used to test the Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(S 1-xSex)4 nanocrystal thin films. The results identify minority carrier diffusion and recombination via the redox shuttle as the major loss mechanisms hindering efficient charge transport through the nanocrystal thin films. One way to solve this issue is to sinter the nanocrystals together, creating large grains for efficient charge transport. Although this may be quick and effective, it can lead to the formation of structural defects, among other issues. To this end, using a different copper-based material, namely Cu2Se, and simple surface chemistry treatments, an alternative route to enhance charge transport through nanocrystals thin films is proposed.

    Riha, Shannon C.

    98

    A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    99

    UNAVCO Facility GPS Support Capability and Contributions to Studies of Earth Processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Global Positioning System (GPS) support facility was established by the NSF Earth sciences research community in the mid-1980's to ensure optimal use by researchers of the then very scarce GPS receiver pool. Early use of those few receivers led to pioneering breakthroughs in studies of plate motions, plate boundary zones, earthquake processes, intra-plate deformation, and volcanic processes. Additional scientific spin-offs have included study of glacier dynamics, sea level change, hydrology, Polar sciences, and atmospheric studies. The ability to make mm-level measurements, with what have become inexpensive GPS receivers, over increasingly shorter timeframes has revolutionized several fields of study in the solid Earth sciences. The presence of a major GPS support facility for the last decade and a half has been critical to this success by ensuring: broad availability of GPS equipment; technical support for global campaign-style measurements; installation, operation and maintenance of permanently installed, continuously operating GPS networks; development and testing of new hardware and software tools to capture increasingly higher quality data; and, archiving of precise GPS data for over 6000 discrete points over the globe. The existence of a unified community under the UNAVCO banner has led to increased resources for the community to conduct GPS-based research, and the existence of a multi-agency funded GPS facility in Boulder, Colorado has ensured continued technical evolution to support a growing list of multi-disciplinary Earth sciences applications. The foresight, wisdom and support shown by the NSF Division of Earth Sciences, Instrumentation and Facilities Program over a decade-and-a-half have been richly rewarded with an abundance of scientific revelations and an opportunity in the future to greatly expand our understanding of plate boundary dynamics through the EarthScope/Plate Boundary Observatory project.

    Shiver, W. S.; Jackson, M. E.; Johns, B.; Meertens, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    100

    Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    101

    Terrestrial manganese-53 — A new monitor of Earth surface processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We report the first systematic study of the terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide manganese-53 ( T1/2 = 3.7 Ma) measured in thirteen samples from nine dolerite surfaces in the Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The terrestrial manganese-53 concentrations correlate well with cosmic-ray-produced helium-3 and neon-21 concentrations in the same samples, implying that the manganese-53 is produced continuously in situ and retained quantitatively over millions of years. The terrestrial manganese-53 production rate determination normalized to iron (the only important target element) and to high-latitude and sealevel yields a value of P53 = 103 ± 11 atoms yr - 1 (g Fe) - 1 . This is consistent with the theoretical value of 120 ± 18 atoms yr - 1 (g Fe) - 1 obtained from modeling calculations. Our results show that the manganese-53 concentrations in bulk terrestrial rocks can be used to monitor Earth surface processes on time-scales exceeding 10 My.

    Schaefer, Joerg M.; Faestermann, Thomas; Herzog, Gregory F.; Knie, Klaus; Korschinek, Gunther; Masarik, Jozef; Meier, Astrid; Poutivtsev, Michail; Rugel, Georg; Schlüchter, Christian; Serifiddin, Feride; Winckler, Gisela

    2006-11-01

    102

    Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) planet profile provides data and images of the planet Earth. These data include planet size, orbit facts, distance from the Sun, rotation and revolution times, temperature, atmospheric composition, density, surface materials and albedo. Images with descriptions show Earth features such as the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica, Simpson Desert in Australia, Mt. Etna in Sicily, the Cassiar Mountains in Canada, the Strait of Gibraltar, Mississippi River, Grand Canyon, Wadi Kufra Oasis in Libya, and Moon images such as Hadley Rille, Plum Crater, massifs and Moon rocks. These images were taken with the Galileo Spacecraft and by the Apollo missions.

    103

    Manufacturing Process for Alloys of Rare-Earth Metals and the System Used in This Manufacturing Process.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The present invention concerns a process by which a dissolved-salt bath containing rare-earth metals, alkali metals and the fluorides of alkaline-earth metals, is used to manufacture alloys of rare-earth metals and metals that have a melting point and a s...

    T. Yamanaka

    1988-01-01

    104

    The Use Of Fisheye View Visualizations In Understanding Business Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Data flow diagrams (DFDs) are commonly used models for representing business processes. The traditional presentation of DFDs provides separate views of major system processes from views of their subprocesses. This separates the details of the low-level system activities from their context. Although this separation can reduce information overload, it can degrade the viewers' understanding of the overall system. Fisheye views

    Ozgur Turetken; David Schuff

    2002-01-01

    105

    Dialogue Theory as a Tool for Understanding Interactive Learning Processes.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Explicates aspects of dialogue theory that may enhance understanding of educational processes in general and interactive learning processes in particular. Bakhtin's extended theory of dialogue, the concept of multivoicedness and Lotman's dual functions of texts are explained and used to analyze a Web-mediated discussion among university students.…

    Dysthe, Olga

    1999-01-01

    106

    Toward an Holistic Understanding of the Coaching Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    While it has been recognized that the coaching process is vulnerable to differing social pressures and constraints, the humanistic nature of the coaching process remains a little understood and under researched area. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to present a methodology that combines systematic observation and interpretive interview techniques to gain a thicker, deeper, and broader understanding of

    Paul Potrac; Clive Brewer; Robyn Jones; Kathleen Armour; Jan Hoff

    2000-01-01

    107

    Understanding customer relationship management (CRM) : People, process and technology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Customer relationship management (CRM) is a combination of people, processes and technology that seeks to understand a company's customers. It is an integrated approach to managing relationships by focusing on customer retention and relationship development. CRM has evolved from advances in information technology and organizational changes in customer-centric processes. Companies that successfully implement CRM will reap the rewards in customer

    Injazz J. Chen; Karen Popovich

    2003-01-01

    108

    Understanding customer relationship management (CRM) People, process and technology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Customer relationship management (CRM) is a combination of people, processes and technology that seeks to understand a company's customers. It is an integrated approach to managing relationships by focusing on customer retention and relationship development. CRM has evolved from advances in information technology and organizational changes in customer-centric processes. Companies that successfully implement CRM will reap the rewards in customer

    Injazz J. Chen; Karen Popovich

    109

    Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome  

    SciTech Connect

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

    Shaffer, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    110

    Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of responding teachers were found to be properly certified to teach the subject; most had been trained for teaching life science. Approximately one-half had never had a course in geology, astronomy, or meteorology--the three primary components of the typical earth science course. Of 32 earth science topics suggested for possible additional inservice workshops, teachers responding to the Logue and Lacefield survey selected Alabama and Southeastern geology as the topic of greatest interest and need. As an alternative to conventional inservice training, an illustrated book on Alabama geologic history was developed for publication. Its purpose was to supply an ongoing, usable geologic reference for Alabama earth science teachers and their students and to promote greater understanding of Alabama geology by the public in general. Entitled Lost Worlds in Alabama Rocks: The Half-Billion Year Record of Change in the State's Life and Landscape, the 82-page book (included as appendix) explains how geologic history is reconstructed using evidence from rocks, surveys the major sets of sedimentary rocks found within the state, details what each means in terms of ancient environment, and describes how Alabama's present landscape can be interpreted to reflect past geologic changes. The resource includes nearly 200 color photographs and graphics and 12 pages of fossil identification guides illustrating the most common fossil organisms found within the state. A selected group of professional geologists and earth science educators evaluated the book for scientific accuracy, format, presentation of content, and potential value as a resource for its intended audience. The reviewers' suggestions and comments are included. Conclusions and recommendations are suggested for further research on the utility of similar reference resources for the strengthening of content knowledge of practicing teachers.

    Lacefield, James Anderson

    111

    Understanding the valency of rare earths from first-principles theory  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The rare-earth metals have high magnetic moments and a diverse range of magnetic structures. Their magnetic properties are determined by the occupancy of the strongly localized 4f electronic shells, while the outer s-d electrons determine the bonding and other electronic properties. Most of the rare-earth atoms are divalent, but generally become trivalent in the metallic state. In some materials, the

    P. Strange; A. Svane; W. M. Temmerman; Z. Szotek; H. Winter

    1999-01-01

    112

    Digital image-processing activities in remote sensing for earth resources  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The United States space program is in the throes of a major shift in emphasis from exploration of the moon and nearby planets to the application of remote sensing technology toward increased scientific understanding and economic exploitation of the earth itself. Over one hundred potential applications have already been identified. Since data from the unmanned Earth Resources Technology Satellites and

    G. Nagy; Yorktown Heights

    1972-01-01

    113

    Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time as Piaget's system of time (e.g., chronological ordering of events, before and after relationships, duration or evolutionary time) was a necessary conceptual framework for students to develop a scientific understanding of deep time. An examination of students, worldviews and the interface of science and religion indicated that students often successfully applied a demarcation between science and religion in their public thinking (e.g., the formal classroom setting), but in their private thinking, the demarcation was often blurred.

    Pulling, Azalie Cecile

    114

    Global biomass mapping for an improved understanding of the CO 2 balance—the Earth observation mission Carbon3D  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Understanding global climate change and developing strategies for sustainable use of our environmental resources are major scientific and political challenges. In response to an announcement of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for a national Earth observation (EO) mission, the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena and the JenaOptronik GmbH proposed the EO mission Carbon-3D. The data products of this mission will for the

    S. Hese; W. Lucht; C. Schmullius; M. Barnsley; R. Dubayah; D. Knorr; K. Neumann; T. Riedel; K. Schröter

    2005-01-01

    115

    Linking the Wilson Cycle to deep Earth processes (Invited)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Over the past century description of the movement and deformation of the Earth's outer layer has evolved from the hypothesis of Continental Drift into Sea-Floor Spreading and thence to the theory of Plate Tectonics. This theory is as fundamentally unifying to the Earth Sciences as Darwin's Evolution Theory is to Life Science. By 1968 Tuzo Wilson had identified three basic

    T. H. Torsvik; K. C. Burke

    2010-01-01

    116

    Social Signal Processing: Understanding social interactions through nonverbal behavior analysis  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper introduces social signal processing (SSP), the domain aimed at automatic understanding of social interactions through analysis of nonverbal behavior. The core idea of SSP is that nonverbal behavior is machine detectable evidence of social signals, the relational attitudes exchanged between interacting individuals. Social signals include (dis-)agreement, empathy, hostility, and any other attitude towards others that is expressed not

    A. Vinciarelli; H. Salamin; M. Pantic

    2009-01-01

    117

    Using Simulation to Understand and Optimize a Lean Service Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper describes the application of discrete event simulation to understand and optimize a lean service process. Simulation is being used increasingly in the design and improvement of lean manufacturing systems. We now apply simulation to the emerging notion of lean service. We use the case study of a lean auto repair facility to demonstrate the significant role that simulation

    Kumar Venkat; Wayne W. Wakeland

    2006-01-01

    118

    Understanding Metaphorical Expressions: Conventionality, Mappings, and Comparison Processes  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metaphorical expressions appear once every twenty words in everyday language, and play a central role in communication. Some cognitive linguistic theories propose that understanding metaphorical expressions requires mappings from one conceptual domain to the other. My research uses Event-Related Potentials to examine the processing, the…

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin

    2009-01-01

    119

    Numerical study of magnetization processes in rare-earth tetraborides  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We present a simple model for a description of magnetization processes in rare-earth tetraborides. The model is based on the coexistence of two subsystems, and, namely, the spin subsystem described by the Ising model and the electronic subsystem described by the Falicov-Kimball model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice (SSL). Moreover, both subsystems are coupled by the anisotropic spin-dependent interaction of the Ising type. We have found, that the switching on of the spin-dependent interaction (Jz) between the electron and spin subsystems and taking into account the electron hopping on the nearest (t) and next-nearest (t') lattice sites of the SSL leads to a stabilization of magnetization plateaus. In addition, to the Ising magnetization plateau at msp/mssp=1/3 we have found three relevant magnetization plateaus located at msp/mssp=1/2 , 1/5, and 1/7 of the saturated spin magnetization mssp . The ground states corresponding to magnetization plateaus have the same spin structure consisting of parallel antiferromagnetic bands separated by ferromagnetic stripes.

    Farkašovský, Pavol; ?en?ariková, Hana; Mat'Aš, Slavomír

    2010-08-01

    120

    Earth processes in wake of Gujarat earthquake reviewed from space  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Two years after a devastating earthquake in Gujarat, India, scientists from many disciplines met at an international workshop to share the latest knowledge about Earth system processes related to this natural disaster. The meeting particularly focused on the use of spaceborne technology to study the effects of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere interaction prior to and following the earthquake. More than 80 of the participants were affiliated with research and academic institutions in India, and several scientists from the United States, Germany Russia, and China also participated.Soon after the earthquake on 26 January 2001, Indian scientists established a Global Positioning System (GPS) network to monitor crustal motion around the earthquake's epicenter in cooperation with scientists from Japan, Germany, and the United States. Observations made by routine GPS measurements in the past have shown that the Bhuj area has significantly shifted anti-clockwise. The leveling observations made by the Survey of India show that the Santal Pur Bhuj Block was uplifted up to 60 cm, while Bhuj, Bhachau, and Mundra subsided ˜60 cm. The need to establish a dense network of level lines and gravity stations in Kachchh was stressed at the meeting.

    Singh, Ramesh P.; Ouzounov, Dimitar

    121

    Developing a Simple Unified Web API for Earth Science Data Processing  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA's EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) Core System (ECS) has, for over a decade, provided a vast catalog of remote sensing data to the scientific community. This data is invaluable to increasing the understanding of our dynamic planet. Over time, technological advances and changes in user demands have brought about huge changes. While data was originally stored in huge tape silos, requiring complicated software and a sizeable lag time for delivery to end users, data is now available on network connected storage devices and can be downloaded in real time. The online access to ECS data opens the door to a wide array of possible applications which were not previously feasible. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, ECS set out to develop an API for accessing and processing Earth Science data in real time. This API was designed to provide the most common types of data processing in a simple and straightforward fashion. Many options, such as Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPenDAP), were considered as starting points to develop this API, but in the end, a mostly customized interface based on EOSDIS' Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) was chosen. The ECS implementation of the API was designed in such a way as to allow EOSDIS data centers to plug in their own desired processing tools in such a way that end users can get the most appropriate type of processing for each datatype without any need to know what specific tool is being used and via a single API. Thus, the focus is on the end result of processing, not the tools and processes used to get there. In the past, in order to have ECS data processed (e.g. subsetted or reprojected), users were required to download data and tools to their own systems and perform the processing there. This often required detailed knowledge of the specifics of the data involved and of Geospatial data concepts. Alternatively, users could submit processing requests via the ECS DataPool Web Access interface, which offered limited options and made it very easy for user error to result in long processing times or useless data. DataPool Web Access processing was not however available in real time and required the submission of asynchronous requests. The new API, entitled EOSDIS Service Interface (ESI), provides an interface via which users can request data with the processing they desire using a simple and intuitive method. Combined with a next generation user interface such as Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO)'s Reverb, ESI widely increases the level of access to Earth Science data. In the process of developing this system, many hurdles were encountered, which will be discussed. These include: -Weighing existing versus custom APIs to determine suitability. -Developing an mapping between community and custom APIs. -Defining a set of request valids from a sea of competing syntaxes. In addition, the reasons for settling on a custom API will be discussed. ESI provides a interface for Earth Science data processing which should prove useful for other data providers. The lessons learned in the ESI development process should be very useful for other providers faced with similar problems.

    Goff, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    122

    Understanding divergent evolution of Earth-like planets: The case for a Venus exploration program  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The planet Venus is our most Earth-like neighbor in size, mass, and solar distance. In spite of these similarities, the Venus surface and atmosphere are characterized by some of the most enigmatic features seen anywhere in the solar system. Here, we propose a Venus exploration program designed to explain the origin and divergent evolution of the interiors, surfaces, and atmospheres

    D. Crisp

    2002-01-01

    123

    A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    124

    A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    125

    Materials Processing of Rare Earth-Cobalt Permanent Magnets.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Rare earth-cobalt intermetallic compounds show promise for permanent magnets with a higher energy product than are currently available. Because fine particles are required for magnetic alignment and sintering, and since the coercivities of these fine part...

    P. J. Jorgensen R. W. Bartlett

    1971-01-01

    126

    Materials Processing of Rare Earth Cobalt (RECo5) Permanent Magnets.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Rare earth-cobalt intermetallic compounds show promise for permanent magnets with a higher energy product, BH(max), than are currently available. Because fine particles are required for magnetic alignment and sintering, and since the coercivities of these...

    P. J. Jorgensen

    1970-01-01

    127

    EOforge: Generic Open Framework for Earth Observation Data Processing Systems.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Ground segment payload data segments context is rapidly changing, to follow the increasing Earth Observation (EO) data needs. User community requiring EO data is growing from scientific users to a broader community where environmental national and cross b...

    C. Gomez J. Prieto L. M. Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    128

    Piles of Rocks Create Mountains of Understanding; The Fossil Finders Model for success in Earth Science Education  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Through the implementation of the Fossil Finders Resources and Tools Project; students across the country have found increased academic understanding of biological evolution. Evolution curriculum is currently covered minimally in many elementary and middle schools. Fossil Finders is a collaboration of the Cornell University Department of Education, The Paleontological Institution of Ithaca, New York and classrooms all over the United States. Essential elements of this curriculum include a scaffolded series of lessons on nature of science, making observations and inferences of fossils and development of an increased understanding of essential earth science topics including the Law of Uniformitarianism and the principle of superposition . Through these hands-on lessons, students begin to understand evolutionary theory and nature of science. The rewards of implementing this curriculum can be observed with student excitement as they engage in authentic research; they become student paleontologists as they scour bags of rocks for the fossils that may be unearthed. The rocks had been collected during a field study, by the teachers and are well known to contain a multitude of Devonian era fossils. Students become researchers as they examine, identify, measure and quantify all fossils found in these rocks. As the children contribute their own data to an online database of an actual paleontological study, they become self driven to examine that compiled data in order to construct explanations of past life in that collection area. This presentation will focus on personal experiences of two teachers, as they engaged their students in authentic research in earth science It will focus on using inquiry-based strategies that can be transferred to a multitude of classrooms and how to use this basic format to engage, excite and develop understanding of earth science. Teachers will learn about effective inquiry-based lessons that incorporate aspects nature of science. Additionally, this presentation may inform curriculum designers and geologists of how similar geologic educational curriculum might be designed, using an authentic investigation. Measuring and identifying a Devonian era fossil.

    Pella-Donnelly, M. A.; Daley, B.; Crawford, B.

    2010-12-01

    129

    The Deployment of a PBO Strainmeter Site. Four Steps to a Better Understanding of the Earth  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UNAVCO is a non-profit organization funded by the National Science Foundation to operate the geodetic component of the EarthScope Project called the Plate Boundary Observatory. The Plate Boundary Observatory, or PBO, is a geodetic observatory designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western

    W. C. Johnson; S. Venator; T. Dittmann; J. Stair; A. Tiedeman; M. Gottlieb; A. Stroeve; M. Hasting; D. Mencin; M. Jackson

    2006-01-01

    130

    Earth materials and earth dynamics  

    SciTech Connect

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T. [and others

    2000-11-01

    131

    Luminescent instabilities and nonradiative processes in rare earth systems  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This research is an outgrowth of earlier experiments that demonstrated bistable luminescence in heavy metal halide crystals doped with trivalent ytterbium ions. This type of instability has importance as a fundamentally new physical phenomenon with a potential application for fast all-optical switching as well as a limitation on compact solid state laser performance. In this thesis, the investigation of luminescent instabilities is extended to bistable energy transfer processes in crystals and to the observation of "bistable" blackbody emission in rare earth nanopowders. High resolution laser spectroscopy was used to study bistable luminescence and energy transfer in Yb,Er:CsCdBr3 crystals at cryogenic temperatures. For the first time, it was found that bistable behavior associated with Yb 3+ ions was transferred to Er3+ through resonant energy transfer. Bistability of the resulting sensitized luminescence caused sufficiently dramatic changes in the crystal dynamics so as to change the color of emission from yellow to green. This color changing phenomenon is fully explained in the present work and is referred to as "chromatic switching." Temperature is a critical variable that is known to govern luminescent instabilities in all current theories. Therefore, in a search for new systems with luminescent instabilities at high temperatures, materials with extreme thermal properties were investigated as part of this research. Yb,Er:Y 2O3 nanopowders were selected for this purpose. Nanopowders exhibit greatly reduced thermal conductivity and were verified during the course of this work to cause enhanced absorption as the result of multiple scattering. Significant spectral differences between Yb,Er:Y2O 3 nanopowders and single crystals also emerged. Measurements of erbium upconversion luminescence versus pump intensity in resonance with the ytterbium absorption transition revealed striking new optical phenomena: strong luminescent quenching, intense "bistable" blackbody emission, and the formation of single crystal micro-tubes directly from powder samples. A simple theoretical model was successfully developed to explain all these optical effects by a detailed balance approach to thermal transport that explicitly included erbium and ytterbium atomic level occupation probabilities, blackbody radiation and radiation trapping. Calculations of nanopowder sample luminescence accurately reproduced experimentally observed quenching, the onset of blackbody emission, "bistability" and details of hysteresis loops. The model also predicted that absorbed powers of less than 15 mW could melt yttria nanopowders (melting point = 2410°C), again in agreement with experiments. This work is expected to enable new approaches to laser processing of ceramics and laser machining of reflective metals, notably aluminum, using low power lasers.

    Redmond, Shawn Michael

    132

    Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?  

    PubMed

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication. PMID:22908680

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    133

    Rare earth permanent magnets and energy conversion processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traditionally in magnetoelectric devices the stator has been the massive and static part of the device and the dynamic element has been a moving coil. With improvements in the volumetric efficiency of permanent magnets it is possible to rearrange magnetic circuit elements and invert devices. Rare earth permanent magnets exhibit a high magnetic moment per unit volume and have extreme

    R. J. Parker

    1977-01-01

    134

    Transport processes in an anisotropic near-earth plasma  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Attention is given to the hydrodynamic theory of a plasma with a nonuniform particle thermal energy distribution with respect to degrees of freedom. A 16-moment approximation method for charged-particle distribution functions is presented and used to obtain a closed system of transport equations with allowance for the temperature anisotropy of partially ionized plasma in the earth's upper atmosphere.

    V. N. Oraevskii; Iu. V. Konikov; G. V. Khazanov

    1985-01-01

    135

    Earth Science (A Process Approach), Section 1: The Water Cycle.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Included is a collection of earth science laboratory activities, which may provide the junior or senior high school science teacher with ideas for activities in his program. The included 48 experiments are grouped into these areas: properties of matter; evaporation; atmospheric moisture and condensation; precipitation; moving water, subsurface…

    Campbell, K. C.; And Others

    136

    Earth as a System  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This short video uses animated imagery from satellite remote sensing systems to illustrate that Earth is a complex, evolving body characterized by ceaseless change. Adapted from NASA, this visualization helps explain why understanding Earth as an integrated system of components and processes is essential to science education.

    Wgbh/boston

    137

    Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

    Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2009-12-01

    138

    Industrial web inspection for manufacturing process understanding and control  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many industrial manufacturing processes are not well understood and are treated as `black art' with few experts able to control the process and ensure product quality. However, modern manufacturing companies are finding it increasingly difficult to compete in the global marketplace without better process understanding and control. Automated inspection systems for general manufacturing have become more feasible through technical advances, primarily in sensor and computing technology. However, these systems have been used almost exclusively for the detection and subsequent removal of well defined, discrete defects from the product; thus guaranteeing high quality for the customer. This paper describes a larger opportunity to affect operations by employing web inspection techniques to dynamically analyze manufacturing conditions rather than just detecting the presence of defective material. One can then keep the process under better control, thereby eliminating defects, ensuring product quality, and optimizing manufacturing time on the production line. Specific image and data processing techniques will be illustrated including product uniformity metrics, automatic determination of thresholds for blob analysis, and localization of repeating defects within production data. The benefit of these techniques will be demonstrated through `real-world' examples of web-based manufactured products.

    Xu, Wenyuan; Floeder, Steven P.

    1999-03-01

    139

    Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts  

    PubMed Central

    The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes.

    Levy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    140

    Home area geology and Alabama earth science teachers: A resource to improve the understanding and use of the state's rocks to supplement textbook concepts in earth history  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Recent studies have suggested that teachers of earth science in Alabama secondary schools are undertrained in the content areas of the subject. A survey of academic training and certification of active earth science teachers (Hall, 1985) was replicated as part of a study of the current inservice needs of Alabama earth science teachers (Logue & Lacefield, 1995). Only one-third of

    James Anderson Lacefield

    1998-01-01

    141

    Process for separation of the rare earths by solvent extraction  

    DOEpatents

    Production rates for solvent extraction separation of the rare earths and yttrium from each other can be improved by the substitution of di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid for di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The di(2-ethylhexyl) mono-thiophosphoric acid does not form an insoluble polymer at approximately 50% saturation as does the former extractant, permitting higher feed solution concentration and thus greater throughput.

    Mason, George W. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Lewey, Sonia (Joliet, IL)

    1977-04-05

    142

    Upconversion Processes in Transition Metal and Rare Earth Metal Systems  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The design and characterization of new luminescent materials is an active area of research. Here we present several current\\u000a topics in the area of upconversion by transition-metal and rare-earth-metal doped halide lattices. Following introduction\\u000a to the necessary background material related to upconversion mechanisms and kinetics, a series of topics are discussed which\\u000a illustrate some key areas of developing interest in

    Daniel R. Gamelin; Hans U. Güdel

    143

    Understanding the ultrafast electron photoemission process, from simulation to experiment  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ongoing efforts to develop a reliable ultrafast electron diffraction and imaging system require a stable source of photoemitted electrons and an understanding of how the properties of the generated bunch depend on the photocathode. In order to gain more understanding of this process, we combine the three-step photoemission model with N-particle electron simulations. By using the Fast Multipole Method to treat space charge effects, we are able to follow the time evolution of pulses containing over 10^6 electrons and investigate the role of laser fluence and extraction field on the total number of electrons that escape the surface. The results of these simulations are compared to experimental images of the photoemission process collected using the shadow imaging technique. We are able to show good quantitative agreement both for the number of electrons generated and the pulse parameters. We also see evidence of a virtual cathode limit, which gives an upper limit to the number of electrons that is is possible to extract. The extension of these results to various extraction fields, laser pulse shapes and photocathode material parameters, represents a very interesting future development, allowing to better optimize the materials used in electron pulse generation.

    Portman, Jenni; Zhang, He; Tao, Zhensheng; Ruan, Chong-Yu; Berz, Martin; Duxbury, Philip

    2013-03-01

    144

    A synthetic biology approach to understanding cellular information processing  

    PubMed Central

    The survival of cells and organisms requires proper responses to environmental signals. These responses are governed by cellular networks, which serve to process diverse environmental cues. Biological networks often contain recurring network topologies called ‘motifs’. It has been recognized that the study of such motifs allows one to predict the response of a biological network, and thus cellular behavior. However, studying a single motif in complete isolation of all other network motifs in a natural setting is difficult. Synthetic biology has emerged as a powerful approach to understanding the dynamic properties of network motifs. In addition to testing existing theoretical predictions, construction and analysis of synthetic gene circuits has led to the discovery of novel motif dynamics such as how the combination of simple motifs can lead to autonomous dynamics or how noise in transcription and translation can affect the dynamics of a motif. Here, we review developments in synthetic biology as they pertain to increasing our understanding of cellular information processing. We highlight several types of dynamic behaviors that diverse motifs can generate, including the control of input/output responses, the generation of autonomous spatial and temporal dynamics, as well as the influence of noise in motif dynamics and cellular behavior.

    Riccione, Katherine A; Smith, Robert P; Lee, Anna J; You, Lingchong

    2012-01-01

    145

    Understanding the thermal annealing process on metallic thin films  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thermal annealing is an usual process used for intrinsic stress liberation, structural improving, and surface roughness control in materials. In a qualitative way, annealing modifies the surface morphology of materials with temperature and time. In this work, a methodology to explain the surface modification of thin films when they are submitted to an annealing process is discussed. Two thermally evaporated Au films with 200 nm-thicknesses were post-annealed in a vacuum chamber at 100 °C with an argon atmosphere, and annealing times from 0 to 1000 minutes. Each Au film grown at different rate deposition was cyclical annealed and imaged under different annealing times. Data obtained from high quality AFM images after different annealing times of Au samples were used to calculate surface parameters such as roughness, grain size, and slope at the border, also the respective exponents as a function of the annealing time. The experimental results allow understanding the temporal evolution of the annealing process, as a rearrangement of the surface protrusions.

    Alonzo-Medina, G. M.; González-González, A.; Sacedón, J. L.; Oliva, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    146

    Understanding Other Worlds with Spitzer: From Hot Jupiters to Super-Earths  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The intense study of transiting exoplanets over the past decade has begun to unveil the vast diversity of planetary systems in the Milky Way and to place our own solar system in perspective. Notably, ground-based Doppler and transit surveys are finding at an increasing pace planets suitable for detailed characterization. These planets around bright stars fall into two distinct families providing exciting new avenues at the frontiers of exoplanetary science. On one hand are the numerous highly irradiated gas giants whose atmospheres can be studied in great detail with a wide range of existing instruments from space and ground, notably their temperature profiles, chemical compositions, energy transport efficiencies, and atmospheric circulation patterns. On the other hand are the small but growing list of `super-Earths' around bright stars for which the first detections of transits and atmospheric signatures are becoming available. The Spitzer space telescope has played a prominent role in both these areas through a plethora of ground-breaking results, many involving members of our team. Our proposed Exploration Science program with Spitzer aims to pursue major advancements in the nascent field of comparative exoplanetology with a two-pronged approach focused on these two exoplanet families. On the one hand, we will use Spitzer to thoroughly characterize a large and diverse sample of new giant exoplanets, chosen for their ability to place unprecedented constraints on the classification of irradiated giant planets, and stringent constraints on the planets' atmospheric thermal, chemical, and dynamical properties. On the other hand, we will search for the transits of 15 low-mass planets detected by our HARPS Doppler survey, both to constrain their compositions and to increase the small sample of low-mass planets amenable for atmospheric studies with future facilities like JWST. Together, these two complementary parts of our program will form a new major legacy of Spitzer in the study of other worlds.

    Gillon, Michael; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Anderson, David; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Ehrenreich, David; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Udry, Stephane; Queloz, Didier; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Pollacco, Don; Wheatley, Peter; Rostron, John; Smalley, Barry; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre; Mahtani, Deepak; Smith, Alexis; Bonfils, Xavier; Dragomir, Diana

    2012-09-01

    147

    Millikan Lecture 1994: Understanding and teaching important scientific thought processes  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physics is an intellectually demanding discipline and many students have difficulties learning to deal with it. Further, our instruction is often far less effective than we realize. Indeed, recent investigations have revealed that many students, even when getting good grades, emerge from their basic physics courses with signification scientific misconcepts, with prescientific notions, with poor problem-solving skills, and with an inability to apply what they ostensibly learned. In short, students' acquired physics knowledge is often largely nominal rather than functiional. This situation leads one to ask: Why is this so, and what can be done about it? More specifically, it has led me to address the following two basic questions: (a) Can one understand better the underlying throught processes required to deal with a science like physics? (b) How can such an understanding be used to design more effective instruction? These are the questions which have been the focus of my work during the last several years and which I want to discuss in this article.

    Reif, Frederick

    2011-07-28

    148

    Hot plasma and energetic particles in the earth's outer magnetosphere: new understandings during the IMS  

    SciTech Connect

    In this paper we review the major accomplishments made during the IMS period in clarifying magnetospheric particle variations in the region from roughly geostationary orbit altitudes into the deep magnetotail. We divide our review into three topic areas: (1) acceleration processes; (2) transport processes; and (3) loss processes. Many of the changes in hot plasmas and energetic particle populations are often found to be related intimately to geomagnetic storm and magnetospheric substorm effects and, therefore, substantial emphasis is given to these aspects of particle variations in this review. The IMS data, taken as a body, allow a reasonably unified view as one traces magnetospheric particles from their acceleration source through the plasma sheet and outer trapping regions and, finally, to their loss via ionospheric precipitation and ring current formation processes. It is this underlying, unifying theme which is pursued here. 52 references, 19 figures.

    Baker, D.N.; Fritz, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    149

    Understanding the interplay between crystal structures and magnetic states of RCo2 ( R = heavy rare earths)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The RCo2 compounds with R = heavy lanthanides are well known model systems for both experimentalists and theorists because of the complex nature of the magnetism of these materials. Better understanding of the magnetism can be achieved from parameter-free first principles calculations as well as carefully executed experiments. From first principles calculations we show that the indirect 4f - 4f exchange polarizes the 5d spins and the spin up 5d and spin down 3d hybridization gives rise to ferrimagnetism, i.e. antiparallel 5d and 3d itinerant magnetic moments at low temperature. The itinerant electron metamagnetism is known to support first order phase transformations in some of the RCo2 compounds. However the clear understanding of this mechanism is lacking and, therefore, we clarify this mechanism from first principles calculations and experimentally confirm the nature of phase transformation of TbCo2. The interrelation between the crystal structure and the magnetic states has also been investigated considering TbCo2 as an example.

    Paudyal, Durga; Mudryk, Y.; Pecharsky, V. K.; Gschneidner, K. A., Jr.

    2012-02-01

    150

    Unified understanding of the valence transition in the rare-earth monochalcogenides under pressure  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valence instability is a key ingredient of the unusual properties of f electron materials, yet a clear understanding is lacking as it involves a complex interplay between f electrons and conduction states. Here we propose a unified picture of pressure-induced valence transition in Sm and Yb monochalcogenides, considered as a model system for mixed valent 4f-electron materials. Using high-resolution x-ray-absorption spectroscopy, we show that the valence transition is driven by the promotion of a 4f electron specifically into the lowest unoccupied (LU) 5d t2g band. We demonstrate with a promotional model that the nature of the transition at low pressures is intimately related to the density of states of the LU band, while at high pressures it is governed by the hybridization strength.

    Jarrige, I.; Yamaoka, H.; Rueff, J.-P.; Lin, J.-F.; Taguchi, M.; Hiraoka, N.; Ishii, H.; Tsuei, K. D.; Imura, K.; Matsumura, T.; Ochiai, A.; Suzuki, H. S.; Kotani, A.

    2013-03-01

    151

    Demonstrations of Geophysical Principles Applicable to the Properties and Processes of the Earth's Interior  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These demonstrations are designed to help students develop a conceptual understanding of geophysical principles. The concepts covered in these demonstrations include rheology, seismic waves, reflection, standing waves, velocity, earthquakes, Earth density, magnetic field, resonance, precession, the shadow zone, and Curie temperature. Each demonstration provides background information and a complete explanation of how to use and discuss the demo in class.

    Barker, Jeffrey

    152

    PROCESS FOR SEPARATING YTTRIUM FROM THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

    DOEpatents

    A process of isolating yttrium from other rare earths present together with it in aqueous solutions is presented. Yttrium and rare earths heavier than yttrium are first extracted with dialkyl phosphoric acid, after adjustment of the acidity to 2 N, and then back-extracted with 5-6 N mineral acid to form a strip solution. Thiocyanate is added to the strip solution and the rare earths heavier than yttrium are then selectively extracted with trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl phosphoric acid, alkyl phosphonate, or dialkyl aryl phosphonate, leaving the yttrium in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-11-12

    153

    Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

    Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    154

    Process for enhancing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations  

    SciTech Connect

    A process is claimed for increasing recovery of oil from oil-bearing earth formations wherein H/sub 2/S from sour wellhead gas is oxidized to SO/sub 3/ which in turn is reacted with a petroleum hydrocarbon mixture to produce a petroleum sulfonate. The petroleum sulfonate is incorporated into an oil recovery enhancing fluid and introduced through an injection well into an oil-bearing earth formation to displace oil toward a production well.

    Watson, J.M.; Butler, J.R.

    1984-04-03

    155

    Understanding Meso- and Micro-scale Coupling of Near Earth Plasmas (Invited)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Known meso-scale processes include the polar wind and plasmaspheric plumes, consisting mainly of light ions, and generic auroral ionospheric heating processes, which add heavy ion outflows including O+ and atmospheric molecular ions to the light ion outflows. Known micro-scale processes include Alfvén waves propagating into the ionosphere from turbulent magnetospheric boundary layers, current-driven instabilities leading to lower hybrid waves in the auroral acceleration region near 1 Re altitude, and convection and shear driven instabilities along auroral flux tubes, including pick-up ion ring beam relaxation in the topside, and Joule-frictional heating in the F region. Much of the latter is sunk into the neutral gas, leading to observable upwelling features above the auroras. Plasma outflows are observed to be dominated by superthermal (eV to 10's eV) ions that are transversely heated and whose flux rises in a power law relationship to the incident DC and AC Poynting (EM) fluxes and the density of precipitating hot electrons. These facts are thought consistent with lifting of ions by the ambipolar electric field, enhanced by superthermal electron precipitation, combined with heating and-or ponderomotive forcing of the ions by broadband cyclotron frequency range waves. The ambipolar electric field is reasonably well understood, but the source of ion resonant waves is indeterminate and their amplitudes cannot be derived from macroscopic disturbance conditions such as MHD field, current, and plasma conditions. The Outstanding Question in all this is "what are the mechanisms by which solar wind energy flux is dissipated in ionospheric plasmas to produce enhanced outflow?" To answer this question, a new mission is needed to provide a comprehensive picture of ionospheric mass ejection, including: i) detailed observations of the 3D energy-angle distribution of transversely accelerated ions and electrons down to thermal energies of ~0.1 eV; ii) control of plasma sensor potential at the plasma potential; iv) observation of BBELF wavelengths as well as frequencies for mode identification; v) observations of auroral neutral gas upwelling that go beyond recent accelerometer missions. Such a mission should deliver simultaneous conjugate diagnostics from the F region (250-300 km), from the exobase region (500-1300 km), and from the auroral acceleration region (4000-6000 km). Ionospheric observations could be provided by incoherent scatter radar.

    Moore, T. E.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2010-12-01

    156

    Google Embryo for Building Quantitative Understanding of an Embryo As It Builds Itself. I. Lessons from Ganymede and Google Earth  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Google Earth allows us to obtain a new vision of the planet we live on, with an ability to zoom in from space to ground level detail at any point on Earth. As it is only recently that we have been able to look toward the Earth from space, we review instead the history of imaging of the Jupiter moon

    Richard Gordon

    2010-01-01

    157

    Station Coordinates, low Degree Harmonics, and Earth Rotation Parameters From an Integrated GPS\\/CHAMP\\/GRACE Processing  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Time series of geodetic Earth system parameters as part of a global geodetic reference system have been derived for the year 2004 by means of dynamic satellite orbit adjustment. The procedure applied is the integrated approach where the GPS satellites and the Low Earth Orbiters (LEOs) CHAMP and GRACE are processed simultaneously with common standards. The set of estimated Earth

    D. Koenig; R. Koenig; K. Neumayer; M. Rothacher; R. Schmidt; F. Flechtner; U. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    158

    Understanding Collaborative Learning Processes in New Learning Environments  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Trying to understand the complexity of computer-mediated problem-based learning environments is not easy. Sociocultural theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding such environments because it emphasizes the socially situated nature of learning and the critical role of tools in mediating learning. To examine how different aspects of…

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Chernobilsky, Ellina; Jordan, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    159

    Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils  

    PubMed Central

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system.

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    160

    Process and Magnetic Properties of Rare-Earth Bonded Magnets  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonded magnets can be manufactured by compression molding, extrusion, injection molding or calendering processes. For compression\\u000a molding, the magnet powders coated with epoxies are compression molded into required geometries and then cured at an appropriate\\u000a temperature. Bonded magnets manufactured by this process can be held to tight tolerances, which eliminates the need for secondary\\u000a or finish machining. For injection molding,

    Jinfang Liu; Michael Walmer

    161

    Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

    Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

    2009-12-01

    162

    Model for Understanding Flow Processes and Distribution in Rock Rubble  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recent studies of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, suggest that degradation of emplacement drifts may be caused by either persistent stresses induced by thermal decay of the spent nuclear fuel disposed in the drifts or seismic ground motion. Of significant interest to the performance of the repository is how seepage of water onto the engineered barriers in degraded emplacement drifts would be altered by rubble. Difficulty arises because of the uncertainty associated with the heterogeneity of the natural system complicated by the unknown fragment size and distribution of the rock rubble. A prototype experiment was designed to understand the processes that govern the convergence and divergence of flow in the rubble. This effort is expected to provide additional realism in the corresponding process models and performance assessment of the repository, and to help evaluate the chemistry of water contacting the waste as well as conditions affecting waste package corrosion in the presence of rubble. The rubble sample for the experiment was collected from the lower lithophysal unit of the Topopah Spring (Tptpll) unit in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block Cross Drift and is used as an approximate analog. Most of the potential repository is planned to be built in the Tptpll unit. Sample fragment size varied from 1.0 mm [0.04 in] to 15 cm [6 in]. Ongoing experiments use either a single or multiple sources of infiltration at the top to simulate conditions that could exist in a degraded drift. Seepage is evaluated for variable infiltration rates, rubble particle size distribution, and rubble layering. Comparison of test results with previous bench-scale tests performed on smaller-sized fragments and different geological media will be presented. This paper is an independent product of CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the view or regulatory position of NRC. The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgment or determination of the matters addressed or of the acceptability of a license application for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain.

    Green, R. T.; Manepally, C.; Fedors, R.; Gwo, J.

    2006-12-01

    163

    Geology 201: Non-linear processes in geofluids or Why does the Earth look the way it does?  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many patterns we observe on the Earth’s surface are a result of fluid transport, fluxes, and phase changes. Coastlines, drainage networks, river deltas, types of rock deformation and the driving mechanism for plate tectonics all result from fluid flows exhibiting complex behavior. Currently, undergraduate students often do not have conceptual frameworks necessary for understanding non-linear systems. Their prior experiences have often emphasized linear and non-directional relationships, but most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. We have found it difficult to explain ideas such as feedbacks, hysteresis, and phase transitions to students without prior exposure to complex system behavior. Here we will present a curriculum designed for sophomore-level undergraduates that will use concepts of flow to explain origin of the features we see on the Earth’s surface, while simultaneously teaching fundamental properties of complex-system behavior. Example features will come from tectonics, mantle convection, geomorphology, and hydrology. We will provide an outline of course materials where students will first be exposed to physical and conceptual models of non-linear behavior and then follow up with understanding the equations governing these processes. Examples: Rock rheologies using food analogies and then exploring material constitutive equations, stream channel avulsion using a classroom teaching flume, then a one-dimensional model of bifurcating flow in a channel. We chose the sophomore level specifically so students are introduced early in their academic career and thus have the conceptual frameworks and quantitative skills necessary to work with complex systems as they advance to upper level courses. Learning goals for the course we present will include the ability to recognize non-linear behavior, and the development of a level of comfort with these concepts.

    Orr, C. H.; Cooper, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    164

    Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated

    J. G. Dyke; F. Gans; A. Kleidon

    2011-01-01

    165

    Understanding collaborative learning processes in new learning environments  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trying to understand the complexity of computer-mediated problem-based learning environments is not easy. Sociocultural theory\\u000a provides a theoretical framework for understanding such environments because it emphasizes the socially situated nature of\\u000a learning and the critical role of tools in mediating learning. To examine how different aspects of discourse relate to each\\u000a other, as well as to the tools being used

    Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver; Ellina Chernobilsky; Rebecca Jordan

    2008-01-01

    166

    Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process  

    DOEpatents

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    167

    Untangling complex processes within Earth's radiation belts with the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Progress towards developing a predictive understanding of Earth's dynamic radiation belts requires that we: 1) better understand individual transport and energization mechanisms, and 2) better understand how these mechanisms act together to yield the complex behaviors that are observed. An example of the former imperative is to understand the extent to which non-linearities modify the role that whistler mode waves play in exchanging energy with and scattering radiation belt electrons. However, the latter imperative represents a greater challenge. What is the relationship between processes that supply electron source populations and those that generate the Ultra Low Frequency waves that can help transport those particles? What is the role of substorm injections in creating or modifying the global electric fields that transport and redistribute the injected plasma populations? How dependent is the wave activity that energizes radiation belt electrons on the global electric field that creates the conditions for wave generation? Two characteristics of the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will enable researchers to address these interdependent mechanisms. First, the payload complement is unusually comprehensive, measuring all of the particle (electrons, ions, ion composition), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) needed to address the most critical science questions. However, the ability of the two RBSP spacecraft to make multiple, identical, and simultaneous measurements over a wide range of spatial scales is even more critical. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from ~0.1 to 5 RE. Here we discuss how the unique capabilities of the RBSP mission, when combined with a multiplicity of other serendipitous assets, will resolve the interdependent mechanisms that determine the complex behavior of the radiation belts.

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Kessel, R.

    2011-12-01

    168

    Current understanding of the laser-induced ultrafast (de)magnetization process  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The laser-induced ultrafast (de)magnetization process in ferromagnets is complex. There are several theories available [1], but none of these is satisfactory. In this talk, we first review several theoretical formalism for femtomagnetism and point out strengths and weaknesses of each theory [2]. In particular, we address issues associated with comparing experimental and theoretical results, which have been very challenging. Our first-principles theory includes electron correlation and electron-phonon effects along with spin-orbit coupling in metals or rare-earth compounds. Some of the newest results are presented, which are expected to tremendously enhance our understanding of the overall (de)magnetization process [3].[4pt] [1] G. P. Zhang, G. Lefkidis, W. H"ubner, and Yihua Bai, J. APPL. PHYS. 111, 07C508 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. S. Si and G. P. Zhang, AIP ADVANCES 2, 012158 (2012).[0pt] [3] G. P. Zhang, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 85, 224407 (2012).

    Zhang, Guoping; Gu, Mingqiang; Si, M. S.; George, T. F.; Wu, Xiaoshan

    2013-03-01

    169

    CATIONIC EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS  

    DOEpatents

    A process for separating mixtures of elements in the lanthanum and actinium series of the periodic table is described. The mixture of elements is dissolved in 0.05 M HCI, wherein the elements exist as tripositive ions. The resulting solution is then transferred to a column of cationic exchange resin and the column eluted with 0.1 to 0.6 M aqueous ammonium alpha hydroxy isobutyrate solution of pH 3.8 to 5.0. The use of ammonium alpha hydroxy isobutyrate as an eluting agent results in sharper and more rapid separations than previously obtainable with eluants such as citric, tartaric, glycolic, and lactic acids.

    Choppin, G.R.; Thompson, S.G.; Harvey, B.G.

    1960-02-16

    170

    Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. ``Geoscience Data Puzzles\\

    M. J. Passow; K. A. Kastens; A. M. Goodwillie; C. Brenner

    2009-01-01

    171

    Understanding Consumer Trust in Online Purchase Processes: An Experimental Investigation  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Consumer dropouts during the purchase process represent a critical challenge in e-commerce. While many individuals use retailer websites mainly for product searches and information gathering, a significant number of online shoppers often abandon their shopping carts somewhere in their purchase process. Hence, it is essential to investigate the customer's exit from a website along a general purchase process longitudinally. Prior

    Patrick Y. K. Chau; Paul J.-H. Hu; Bill L. P. Lee; Anson K. K. Au

    2005-01-01

    172

    An Information-Processing Model of Understanding Speech.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Language processing is the abstraction of meaning from a physical signal, such as a sequence of speech sounds. Processing a spoken message requires a series of transformations that begin with the acoustic signal arriving at the ears and end with meaning in the mind of the listener. The goal of this information-processing model is to describe how…

    Massaro, Dominic W.

    173

    Primary School Children's Understanding of Municipal Waste Processing  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The basic features and goals of environmental education incorporated into curricula for primary and lower secondary education in Slovenia are discussed. In this preliminary study we have attempted to establish a hypothesis about Slovene children's understanding of concepts relating to the problem of waste. For this purpose we tested 2nd?5th grade pupils of elementary schools in the state capital and

    S. A. Glažar; M. Vrta?nik; A. Ba?nik

    1998-01-01

    174

    Understanding and predicting the process of software maintenance release  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    One of the major concerns of any maintenance organization is to understand and estimate the cost of maintenance releases of software systems. Planning the next release so as to maximize the increase in functionality and the improvement in quality are vital to successful maintenance management. The objective of the paper is to present the results of a case study in

    Victor R. Basili; Lionel C. Briand; Steven E. Condon; Yong-Mi Kim; Walcélio L. Melo; Jon D. Valett

    1996-01-01

    175

    Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy, geochronology, provenance studies, and studies of temporal changes in Earth surface processes. This paper briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number of elements of interest in the environment, and then uses this information to explore the range of applications to chemical stratigraphy and other fundamental

    Jay L. Banner

    2004-01-01

    176

    Imaging Earth's upper mantle  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    New images of the three-dimensional structure of Earth's upper mantle revealed by large-scale processing of global seismic data are beginning to change our understanding of convection in the planet. The processing techniques combine data from hundreds of seismograms to distinguish weak features from the background noise. These procedures are termed ``stacking'' and are similar in many respects to reflection seismic

    Peter M. Shearer

    1993-01-01

    177

    Recommendations for an ESA initiative to further our understanding of the near-Earth object impact hazard  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In July 2002 the general studies programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) provided funding for preliminary studies of six space missions that could make significant contributions to our knowledge of near-Earth objects. Following the completion and presentation of these studies, the ESA Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel (NEOMAP) was established in January 2004. NEOMAP was charged with the task

    A. W. Harris; W. Benz; A. Fitzsimmons; A. Galvez; S. F. Green; P. Michel; G. B. Valsecchi

    2004-01-01

    178

    Reconsidering the Role of Artifacts in Reasoning: Children's Understanding of the Globe as a Model of the Earth  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This experiment investigated the effect of the presentation of a globe--the culturally accepted artifact representing the earth--on children's reasoning in elementary astronomy. Forty-four children from grades 1 and 3 were interviewed individually. First, the children were asked to make their own representations of the earth (i.e., drawings and…

    Vosniadou, Stella; Skopeliti, Irini; Ikospentaki, Kalliopi

    2005-01-01

    179

    Transfer of New Earth Science Understandings to Classroom Teaching: Lessons Learned From Teachers on the Leading Edge  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teachers on the Leading Edge (TOTLE) provided a field-based teacher professional development program that explored the active continental margin geology of the Pacific Northwest during a two-week field workshop that traversed Oregon from the Pacific Coast to the Snake River. The seventeen teachers on this journey of geological discovery experienced regional examples of subduction-margin geology and examined the critical role of geophysics in connecting geologic features with plate tectonic processes. Two examples of successful transfer of science content learning to classroom teaching are: (1) Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis. This topic was addressed through instruction on earthquake seismology; field observations of tsunami geology; examination of tsunami preparedness of a coastal community; and interactive learning activities for children at an Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) Science Camp. Teachers at Sunnyside Environmental School in Portland developed a story line for middle school students called "The Tsunami Hotline" in which inquiries from citizens serve as launch points for studies of tsunamis, earthquakes, and active continental margin geology. OMSI Science Camps is currently developing a new summer science camp program entitled "Tsunami Field Study" for students ages 12-14, based largely on TOTLE's Great Earthquakes and Tsunamis Day. (2) The Grand Cross Section. Connecting regional geologic features with plate tectonic processes was addressed many times during the field workshop. This culminated with teachers drawing cross sections from the Juan de Fuca Ridge across the active continental margin to the accreted terranes of northeast Oregon. Several TOTLE teachers have successfully transferred this activity to their classrooms by having student teams relate earthquakes and volcanoes to plate tectonics through artistic renderings of The Grand Cross Section. Analysis of program learning transfer to classroom teaching (or lack thereof) clearly indicates the importance of pedagogical content knowledge and having teachers share their wisdom in crafting new earth science content knowledge into learning activities. These lessons and adjustments to TOTLE program goals and strategies may be valuable to other Geoscience educators seeking to prepare K-12 teachers to convey the discoveries of EarthScope's USArray and Plate Boundary Observatory experiments to their students.

    Butler, R.; Ault, C.; Bishop, E.; Southworth-Neumeyer, T.; Magura, B.; Hedeen, C.; Groom, R.; Shay, K.; Wagner, R.

    2006-05-01

    180

    Development of geological processes on the Earth and their impact on the early biosphere  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Though life has been already existed in the Paleoarchean, biosphere started rapid development only in Paleoproterozoic from about 2.4-2.3 Ga. It was practically coincided with period of irreversible change of tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth, when high-Mg magmatism of the early Precambrian, derived from depleted mantle, gave place to the geochemical-enriched Fe-Ti basalts [12]. New type of magmas was characterized by elevated and high contents of elements which are required for metabolism and fermentation. It suggests that this event acted as a trigger for environmental changes and rapid evolution of biosphere, supplying a qualitatively new biophilic material to the Earth's surface. Venus and Mars developed at the same scenario; very likely, that at the beginning liquid water occurred on them; however, processes of the planetary development were favorable for the biosphere evolution only on the Earth.

    Sharkov, E.

    2012-09-01

    181

    Understanding farmers' decision making processes and improving managerial assistance  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Few studies have been made of how farmers make decisions. Most research and teaching has focused on the decision event, not the whole process. Current knowledge of the decision making process is reviewed and described as a set of eight functions or elements: values and goals, problem detection, problem definition, observation, analysis, development of intention, implementation, and responsibility bearing. The

    Bo Öhlmér; Kent Olson; Berndt Brehmer

    1998-01-01

    182

    A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

    M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

    2006-01-01

    183

    Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This document presents a process description for the retrieval of earth-covered, contact handled (CH) suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers located in the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The specific trenches include those in Burial Ground 218-W-4C (trenches 1, 4, 7, 20, and 29) and 218-W-4B (Trench 7 and TV-7). It describes the process planned for retrieval of the CH suspect

    2003-01-01

    184

    Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This document presents a process description for the retrieval of earth-covered, contact handled (CH) suspect transuranic (TRU) waste containers located in the Low Level Burial Grounds (LLBG). The specific trenches include those in Burial Ground 218-W-4C (trenches 1,4,7,20, and 29) and 21 8-W-4B (Trench 7 and TV-7). It describes the process planned for retrieval of the CH suspect TRU waste

    2003-01-01

    185

    Thermonuclear Processes as a Principal Source of the Earth's Internal Energy  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A cosmological model of the formation of the Solar System is presented. It is shown that the main source of the Earth's energy is delivered from the thermonuclear processes in the inner Earth's core consisting of metallic hydrides. Several theoretical studies showed that under low temperature (T<104 K) and sufficiently high density of plasma, the characteristics of nuclear synthesis could be explained only with some adjustments to a thermonuclear synthesis theory. By building a diagram of the mass luminosity for the giant planets and the Earth, Wang Hong-Zhang (1990) illustrated that this diagram was similar to the one corresponding to stars. This could have only one explanation-the energy is due to the thermonuclear reactions and the energy rate is increasing exponentially with temperature and pressure. In the local areas where thermonuclear reactions occur in the Earth core, one should expect a sharp increase in temperature which causes of the dissolution of hydrides, e.g. release of hydrogen from the hydride-ionic form to the proton gas in large quantities (Larin, 2005). The pressure in this zone would sharply rise, and this would cause expulsion of the streams of the hydrogen plasma outside of the Earth's core. As a result of the Earth rotation and existence of the Coriolis' acceleration, the hydrogen plumes (more exactly, the proton gas) characterized by a high electrical conductivity twirl in spirals in the outer core of the Earth. These spirals form solenoid and, as a result, create the dipole magnetic field of the Earth. The suggest hypothesis of the thermonuclear nature of the Earth's energy flux is a main reason for the endogenic geodynamic and tectonic processes in the Earth's history. This hypothesis is supported by known experimental facts, and it opens new ways to study not only our planet but other planets of the Solar System. One should note that according to accepted concepts, the dipole magnetic field could exist in planets with a sufficient rotation and a possibility of thermonuclear reactions in their core. Accordingly, these planets don't have dipole magnetic fields. The quantities of hydrogen (in the form of hydrides) in the Earth's core are also not limitless. When they are exhausted, then naturally, the thermonuclear reactions cease along with all tectonic activity and magnetic field. This study gives a theoretical justification of a possible non-organic origin of hydrocarbons. Surely, if there is degassing of hydrogen from deep areas of the planet, hydrogen once present in the carbon rich areas would result in the hydrogenising reactions potentially forming layers rich with hydrocarbons. Respectively, hydrocarbons (non-organic) could be formed now and will be formed until the source of hydrogen would cease in the Earth's core. Moreover, the pure hydrogen (coming from the Earth's core) could find its way to the surface during some rare and catastrophic evens. However, this is another problem of new methods of how to detect, explore and even produce hydrocarbons including pure hydrogen. Full paper: www.springerlink.com/content/jn2576q7727q0034

    Terez, E. I.; Terez, I. E.

    2011-12-01

    186

    Relation between the Electromagnetic Processes in the Near-Earth Space and Dynamics of the Biological Resources in Russian Arctic  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    It is a well-established fact that the electromagnetic processes of different kind occurring in the near- Earth space produce significant effects in the Earth's atmosphere at all altitudes including the ground surface. There are some indications that these processes could influence at least indirectly the human health conditions. In this study we explore relation between perturbations in the solar wind

    L. N. Makarova; A. V. Shirochkov

    2004-01-01

    187

    Acceptance in behavior therapy: Understanding the process of change  

    PubMed Central

    Acceptance is integral to several cutting-edge behavior therapies. However, several questions about acceptance remain to be clearly answered. First, what does acceptance look like, and can it be observed and measured? Second, what are the behavioral principles involved in the promotion of acceptance? Third, when is acceptance indicated or contraindicated as a therapeutic goal? The current paper attempts to clarify answers to these questions. The goal is to provide a conceptualization of the what, how, and when of acceptance that is accessible to behavior analysts, both to promote our understanding of acceptance as a behavioral phenomenon and to facilitate its empirical study and therapeutic utility.

    Cordova, James V.

    2001-01-01

    188

    Violent Islamic Radicalization Process: A Framework for Understanding.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The violent Islamic radicalization process is understood differently across disciplines within the homeland security enterprise. Radicalization of U.S. citizens is an emerging threat within the homeland. Current theories and models of the radicalization p...

    K. D. Keys-Turner

    2011-01-01

    189

    Towards understanding how surface life can affect interior geological processes: a non-equilibrium thermodynamics approach  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life has significantly altered the Earth's atmosphere, oceans and crust. To what extent has it also affected interior geological processes? To address this question, three models of geological processes are formulated: mantle convection, continental crust uplift and erosion and oceanic crust recycling. These processes are characterised as non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems. Their states of disequilibrium are maintained by the power generated from the dissipation of energy from the interior of the Earth. Altering the thickness of continental crust via weathering and erosion affects the upper mantle temperature which leads to changes in rates of oceanic crust recycling and consequently rates of outgassing of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Estimates for the power generated by various elements in the Earth system are shown. This includes, inter alia, surface life generation of 264 TW of power, much greater than those of geological processes such as mantle convection at 12 TW. This high power results from life's ability to harvest energy directly from the sun. Life need only utilise a small fraction of the generated free chemical energy for geochemical transformations at the surface, such as affecting rates of weathering and erosion of continental rocks, in order to affect interior, geological processes. Consequently when assessing the effects of life on Earth, and potentially any planet with a significant biosphere, dynamical models may be required that better capture the coupled nature of biologically-mediated surface and interior processes.

    Dyke, J. G.; Gans, F.; Kleidon, A.

    2011-06-01

    190

    Understanding Creativity-Technique Based Problem Solving Processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Computer-supported creativity techniques can help people finding creative solutions for their problems. However, real-life\\u000a creative processes demand a high level of flexibility of the support systems, which are normally tailored for one specific\\u000a creativity technique only. We present a model for creativity-technique based problem solving processes that incorporates a\\u000a variety of creativity techniques and can be a promising starting point

    Florian Forster; Michele Brocco

    2008-01-01

    191

    Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coastal saltmarsh ecosystems occupy only a small percentage of Earth's land surface, yet contribute a wide range of ecosystem services that have significant global economic and societal value. These environments currently face significant challenges associated with climate change, sea level rise, development and water quality deterioration and are consequently the focus of a range of management schemes. Increasingly, soft engineering techniques such as managed realignment (MR) are being employed to restore and recreate these environments, driven primarily by the need for habitat (re)creation and sustainable coastal flood defence. Such restoration schemes also have the potential to provide additional ecosystem services including climate regulation and waste processing. However, these sites have frequently been physically impacted by their previous land use and there is a lack of understanding of how this 'disturbance' impacts the delivery of ecosystem services or of the complex linkages between ecological, physical and biogeochemical processes in restored systems. Through the exploration of current data this paper determines that hydrological, geomorphological and hydrodynamic functioning of restored sites may be significantly impaired with respects to natural 'undisturbed' systems and that links between morphology, sediment structure, hydrology and solute transfer are poorly understood. This has consequences for the delivery of seeds, the provision of abiotic conditions suitable for plant growth, the development of microhabitats and the cycling of nutrients/contaminants and may impact the delivery of ecosystem services including biodiversity, climate regulation and waste processing. This calls for a change in our approach to research in these environments with a need for integrated, interdisciplinary studies over a range of spatial and temporal scales incorporating both intensive and extensive research design.

    Spencer, K. L.; Harvey, G. L.

    2012-06-01

    192

    PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium 'AA. Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions'  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rare-earth related materials have been widely used in various advanced technologies and devices because of their novel functions such as excellent magnetic and optical properties. For the fabrication of the next generation of new rare-earth related materials with novel functions, it is necessary to design a wide range of materials from nano-scale to macro-scale and to develop novel techniques realizing such designs. Indeed, there has been great progress in the preparation, processing and characterization of new rare-earth materials covering magnetic alloys, inorganic and organic fluorescence materials. In the International Union of Materials Research Societies International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA2008) (9-13 December, Nagoya, Japan), the symposium on 'AA: Rare-Earth Related Material Processing and Functions' was organized to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in fabrication processing and applications of rare-earth related materials with various scaled and unique morphologies. Many papers were presented in the symposium, and some papers were accepted to be published in this proceeding after review. Editors: Takayuki KOMATSU (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Tsugio SATO (Tohoku University, Japan) Ken-ichi MACHIDA (Osaka University, Japan) Hirotoshi FUKUNAGA (Nagasaki University, Japan) Jiro YAMASAKI (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan) Honjie ZHANG (Chinese Academy of Sciences, China) Chun Hua YAN (Peking University, China) Jianrong QIU (Zhejiang University, China) Jong HEO (Pohang University, Korea) Setsuhisa TANABE (Kyoto University, Japan) Hiroshi TATEWAKI (Nagoya City University, Japan) Tomokatsu HAYAKAWA (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan) Yasufumi FUJIWARA (Osaka University, Japan)

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Machida, Ken-ichi; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2009-02-01

    193

    Numerical Weather Prediction and Earth System Prediction to Better Understand Sea Level Rise/Coastal Issues as They Affect Readiness.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    The National Unified Operational Prediction Capability (NUOPC) is a joint effort between NOAA and DoD to improve collaboration and accelerate operational numerical weather prediction. The Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC) expands this collaboratio...

    D. McCarren

    2011-01-01

    194

    Toward Understanding Ethnic and Cultural Factors in the Interviewing Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The clinical interview is critical in the diagnostic assessment undertaking in clinical settings, and cultural\\/ethnic influences have been shown to influence the outcome of this process. Specifically, a number of studies have reported that proportionally far more ethnic minorities than Caucasians are likely to be misdiagnosed when assessed for psychiatric disorders. This particularly is the case when open clinical interviews

    Will M. Aklin; Samuel M. Turner

    2006-01-01

    195

    Satisfaction Formation Processes in Library Users: Understanding Multisource Effects  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This study explores whether disconfirmation theory can explain satisfaction formation processes in library users. Both library users' needs and expectations are investigated as disconfirmation standards. Overall library user satisfaction is predicted to be a function of two independent sources--satisfaction with the information product received…

    Shi, Xi; Holahan, Patricia J.; Jurkat, M. Peter

    2004-01-01

    196

    Understanding VAS valuations: qualitative data on the cognitive process.  

    PubMed

    Eliciting people's value is a central pursuit in health economics. We explored approaches to valuing a health state on a visual analog scale (VAS). Additionally, we examined whether dual processing (an interaction between automatic and controlled information processing) occurred during VAS valuation. In the first experiment, respondents were probed for their approach after valuation on a VAS. After inductive generalization, we grouped the approaches: (1) 'Sort-of ' (automatic processing), (2) 'Bisection of line first', (3) 'Numerical expression', and (4) 'Dividing into smaller segments'. In the second experiment, a short questionnaire followed the VAS in which these approaches were systematically assessed, as was awareness of the approach used, intention to re-use the approach the next time (confidence), and basis of the approach. Data showed that the 'Sort-of' approach was used most often, followed by the 'Bisection-first' approach. We argue that dual processing occurs during performance on the VAS. Awareness of the approach used was lower when an intuitive approach was used. A reasoned approach had a higher correlation with confidence. Thus, awareness of approach may improve reliability. Reducing the number of health states to be valued concurrently diminishes the complexity of the task; this may enhance the validity of the VAS. PMID:16328897

    van Osch, Sylvie M C; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2005-12-01

    197

    Reinforcing the understanding of signal processing concepts using audio exercises  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In the near future, multimedia techniques will be used more extensively in signal processing education because the technology is available and the benefits to student learning and information retention are high. Using a variety of teaching techniques helps a wider range of students, who have different learning styles, and enhances student skills in their weaker areas. This paper describes a

    J. W. Pierre; R. F. Kubichek; J. C. Hamann

    1999-01-01

    198

    Sketch based interfaces: early processing for sketch understanding  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freehand sketching is a natural and crucial part of everyday human interaction, yet is almost totally unsupported by current user interfaces. We are working to combine the flexibility and ease of use of paper and pencil with the processing power of a computer, to produce a user interface for design that feels as natural as paper, yet is considerably smarter.

    Tevfik Metin Sezgin; Thomas Stahovich; Randall Davis

    2007-01-01

    199

    Sketch based interfaces: early processing for sketch understanding  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freehand sketching is a natural and crucial part of everyday human interaction, yet is almost totally unsupported by current user interfaces. We are working to combine the flexibility and ease of use of paper and pencil with the processing power of a computer, to produce a user interface for design that feels as natural as paper, yet is considerably smarter.

    Tevfik Metin Sezgin; Thomas Stahovich; Randall Davis

    2006-01-01

    200

    Sketch based interfaces: early processing for sketch understanding  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freehand sketching is a natural and crucial part of everyday human interaction, yet is almost totally unsupported by current user interfaces. We are working to combine the exibility and ease of use of paper and pencil with the processing power of a computer, to produce a user interface for design that feels as natural as paper, yet is considerably smarter.

    Tevfik Metin Sezgin; Thomas Stahovich; Randall Davis

    2001-01-01

    201

    Understanding soil processes: one of the last frontiers in biological and ecological research  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soils are one of the great unknown realms on earth, despite decades of extensive research. We still see soils “through a ped\\u000a darkly”. This opacity in milieu and understanding rewards innovative study, however, as soils are indeed “complex adaptive\\u000a systems”, and show very sophisticated levels of self-organization. Viewed historically, soil ecological studies have progressed\\u000a from what major groups of biota

    D. C. Coleman

    2011-01-01

    202

    Understanding Software Processes through System Dynamics Simulation: A Case Study  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper presents a study with the intent to examine the opportunities provided by creating and using simula-tion models of software development processes. A model of one software development project was created through means of system dynamics, with data collected from docu-ments, interviews and observations. The model was simu-lated in a commercial simulation tool. The simulation runs indicate that increasing

    Carina Andersson; Lena Karlsson; Josef Nedstam; Martin Höst; Bertil I. Nilsson

    2002-01-01

    203

    About effect of processes in the earth crust on evolution of photosynthesis (as indicated by data on carbon isotopic composition)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A probable mechanism of effect of processes occurring in the Earth crust on evolution of photosynthesis is considered. According\\u000a to the hypothesis, this effect is realized through entrance to the Earth atmosphere of carbon dioxide that stimulates photosynthesis.\\u000a Supply of CO2 is irregular and is due to irregular movements of the Earth crust plates. This is accompanied by destruction of

    A. A. Ivlev

    2010-01-01

    204

    Understanding Hydrologic Processes in Semi-Arid Cold Climates  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Water shortages destabilize economies and ecosystems. These shortages are caused by complex interactions between climate variability, ecosystem processes, and increased demand from human activities. In the semi-arid region of the northwestern U.S., water availability during drought periods has already reached crisis levels and the problems are expected to intensify as the effects of global climate change and population growth continue to alter the supply and demand patterns. Many of the problems are critical to this region because hydropower, agriculture, navigation, fish and wildlife survival, water supply, tourism, environmental protection, and water-based recreation are vital to state economies and our way of life. In order to assess the spatial and temporal nature of hydrologic responses, consistent and comprehensive long-term data sets are needed. In response to these needs, we would like to propose the Spokane River drainage basin as a long-term hydrologic observatory. The Spokane River basin is located in eastern Washington and northern Idaho and is a tributary of the Columbia River. The watershed consists of several major surface water tributaries as well as natural and man-made lakes and reservoirs. With headwaters beginning in the Rocky Mountains, the drainage area is approximately 6,640 mi2. In addition to providing an excellent study area for examining many conventional water resource problems, the Spokane River watershed also presents a unique opportunity for investigating many of the hydrologic processes found in semi-arid cold climates. Snowfall in the watershed varies spatially between 35 inches near the mouth of the basin to over 112 inches at the headwaters. These varied hydrologic uses provide a unique opportunity to address many common challenges faced by water resource professionals. This broad array of issues encompasses science, engineering, agriculture, social sciences, economics, fisheries, and a host of other disciplines. In addition, because precipitation patterns in this semi-arid region tend to be temporally distributed, storage and global climate change issues are significant.

    Barber, M. E.; Beutel, M.; Lamb, B.; Watts, R.

    2004-12-01

    205

    Understanding the Fabrication Process of Multi-layered Cocktail Coatings  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sputtered multi-layered depleted uranium (DU) and gold cocktail coatings created at General Atomics are being characterized in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to elucidate how different process conditions affect the quality and composition of the sputtered films. Calculations have shown that adding a high Z material like DU to a gold hohlraum will improve the conversion efficiency to x-rays of the incoming laser energy incident on the hohlraum wall [1]. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of coatings made on a variety of different materials are presented, including flat substrates such as cellulose acetate and silicon, as well as coatings on rotating cylindrical acrylic and aluminum mandrels which are used to fabricate hohlraums. TEM images typically show clear intermixing of the DU and Au layers, and depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis done in cross-section accurately measure the material composition profile. 0.5em [1] T.J. Orzechowski, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3545 (1996).

    Wilkens, H.; Gunther, J.

    2005-10-01

    206

    Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    207

    Influence of neutron capture rates in the rare earth region on the r-process abundance pattern  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We study the sensitivity of the r-process abundance pattern to neutron capture rates along the rare earth region (A˜150 to A˜180). We introduce the concepts of large nuclear flow and flow saturation, which determine the neutron capture rates that are influential in setting the rare earth abundances. We illustrate the value of the two concepts by considering high entropy conditions favorable for rare earth peak production and identifying important neutron capture rates among the rare earth isotopes. We also show how these rates influence nuclear flow and specific sections of the abundance pattern.

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca

    2012-09-01

    208

    Visible Speech Improves Human Language Understanding: Implications for Speech Processing Systems  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evidence from the study of human language understanding is presented suggesting that our ability to perceive visible speech can greatly influence our ability to understand and remember spoken language. A view of the speaker's face can greatly aid in the perception of ambiguous or noisy speech and can aid cognitive processing of speech leading to better understanding and recall. Some

    Laura A. Thompson; William C. Ogden

    1995-01-01

    209

    Powder metallurgical processing of magnetostrictive materials based on rare earth-iron intermetallic compounds  

    SciTech Connect

    Procedures are described for fabrication of high density rare earth-iron magnetostrictive compounds by powder metallurgical techniques. The fabrication involves a sequence of steps which includes preparing the pre-alloyed compounds, pulverizing them into a fine powder, compacting in suitable sizes and shapes, and sintering. Samples prepared by these procedures are carefully characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, dilatometry, and magnetic measurements. Process steps are found to exert important influences upon densities, microstructure and magnetic properties attained after densification. Investigations on a number of these process steps, including milling time and medium, sintering, and magnetic powder alignment are described.

    Malekzadeh, M.

    1978-01-01

    210

    Bioprotection explored: the story of a little known earth surface process  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bioprotection is identified as an earth surface process. However, it has been little studied, little acknowledged and yet may have major implications for the operation and management of geomorphic systems. Key early observations are traced back to Darwin's ‘Voyage of the Beagle’, Geikie in the natural environment and Watson for the built environment. Recent field observations and experimental work examining bioprotection are reviewed, with a specific focus on lichens and the landscape, as are its complex interactions with other processes. A conceptual model of bioprotection is presented for the case of an epilithic lichen on a limestone surface.

    Carter, N. E. A.; Viles, H. A.

    2005-04-01

    211

    Application of CERES Energy Budget Data to Improve Understanding of the Dynamic Role of Clouds in the Earth's Planetary Albedo  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloud fraction has a large influence on the top of the atmosphere global energy balance through its control of the Earth's planetary albedo. Radiative-dynamic interaction of clouds occur at scales unresolved by GCMs so mechanistic models are needed for what controls the global response of cloud fraction to external forcings from changes in insolation. There is a periodic oscillation of globally averaged solar insolation due to the elliptical orbit of the earth of 11 Watts per meter squared or ~3.5% of its mean value of 340 Watts per meter squared. What is interesting is that analysis of CERES data shows that the northern hemisphere winter increase in global solar insolation is concurrent with an increase in the Earth's planetary albedo of ~0.01, which is also ~3.5% of the mean value of 0.29. However, the albedo declines from its maximum value approximately one month earlier than the solar maximum, concurrent with a decline in net energy deposition in the Earth's atmosphere, defined as the difference of the albedo-adjusted solar input and the outgoing longwave TOA flux. In prior work, we have shown that the radiative temperature difference between cloud base and the surface and below cloud air controls the potential energy that is available to be supplied to the cloud for driving dynamic motions and the extent of cloud cover spreading. We propose a speculative mechanism for the observed relationships between solar insolation and the Earth's planetary albedo. When there is net positive energy deposition in the Earth's atmosphere, this drives atmospheric convection and cloud spreading, which increases planetary albedo. A higher albedo acts as a negative feedback on increasing energy deposition from the Earth being closer to the sun, diminishing the solar input. This in turn acts as a negative feedback on cloud cover. Thus, the impact of solar eccentricity on net energy deposition is regulated by the response and control of cloud cover on planetary albedo. This interplay between cloud cover and solar eccentricity acts as a shortwave global-scale "iris".

    Schmidt, C. T.; Garrett, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    212

    Natural hazards for the Earth's civilization from space, 1. Cosmic ray influence on atmospheric processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In this paper we give a short description of global natural disasters for the Earth's civilization from space: 1) Galactic and solar cosmic ray (CR) influence on the atmospheric processes; 2) Impacts of great space magnetic storms during big Forbush-effects in CR, 3) Impacts of great radiation hazards from solar CR during flare energetic particle events, 4) Great impacts on planetary climate during periods of the Solar system capturing by molecular-dust clouds, 5) Catastrophic disasters from nearby Supernova explosions, and 6) Catastrophic disasters from asteroid impacts on the Earth. Some of these problems have been already studied (see e.g. Dorman, 1957, 1963a, b; Dorman and Miroshnichenko, 1968; Dorman, 1972, 1974, 1975a, b, 1978; Velinov et al., 1974; Miroshnichenko, 2001, 2003; Dorman, 2004, 2006, 2008). We present here a detailed treatment of the first disaster only, leaving to future papers the analysis of the other aspects.

    Dorman, L. I.

    2008-04-01

    213

    The Denali EarthScope Education Partnership: Creating Opportunities for Learning About Solid Earth Processes in Alaska and Beyond  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, in partnership with Denali National Park and Preserve, has begun an education outreach program that will create learning opportunities in solid earth geophysics for a wide sector of the public. We will capitalize upon a unique coincidence of heightened public interest in earthquakes (due to the M 7.9 Denali Fault event

    J. J. Roush; R. A. Hansen

    2003-01-01

    214

    Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

    Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

    2007-12-01

    215

    A common process for magnetic reconfigurations at Earth, Jupiter and Saturn.  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeatable magnetic reconfigurations (MRs) appear to be common to the magnetotails of the magnetised planets Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Close to the magnetotail current sheet, they can be identified by a unipolar or bipolar fluctuation of the magnetic field component parallel to the planetary magnetic dipole, which has been interpreted as a signature of magnetic reconnection that changes the magnetic topology and relaxes a stressed magnetotail magnetic field. MRs are also correlated with a variety of particle and radio signatures throughout the magnetosphere, highlighting their importance to the transport, energisation, and loss of magnetospheric plasma. Whilst MRs at different planets have morphological similarities, the very different physical regimes of the planets have led to uncertainty and controversy as to whether, or to what extent, they can be considered signatures of a common dynamical and physical process. Here we show that MRs at Jupiter and Saturn are both consistent with an integrate-and-fire process, comprising specifically a random walk with mean drift and positive random innovations between two barriers. This places them in the same category of process as MRs at Earth. Thus, at least, we have identified a unifying mathematical process by which the dynamical properties of MRs can be quantitatively compared. Moreover, in combination with other knowledge, we anticipate that such a comparison will also provide important clues and constraints to unifying theories of the underlying physics.

    Freeman, M. P.; Jackman, C. M.; Vogt, M. F.

    2012-04-01

    216

    Space Weather - Sun Earth Relations  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, a star of spectral type G2 is the main source of energy to the Earth. Being close to the Earth, Sun produces a resolvable disk of great detail, which is not possible for other stars. Solar flares and coronal mass ejections are the enigmatic phenomena that occur in the solar atmosphere and regularly bombard the Earth's environment in addition to the solar wind. Thus it becomes important for us not only to understand these physical processes of the Sun, but in addition how these activities affect the Earth and it's surrounding. Thus a branch of study called "Space Weather" had emerged in the recent past, which connects the Sun Earth rela-tions. This paper details about the solar activity and associated energetic phenomena that occur in the atmosphere of the Sun and their influence on the Earth.

    Raman, K. Sundara

    2011-03-01

    217

    Method for processing dump data packets in low earth orbital satellite  

    US Patent & Trademark Office Database

    Provided is a method for processing dump data packets in a low earth orbital (LEO) satellite. The method includes the steps of: a) extracting table identification (ID) information from a header of high-resolution camera (HRC) dump data transmitted from the LEO satellite; b) searching a HRC dump table from a HRC dump table list based on the extracted table ID information; c) extracting sequence information from the transmitted HRC dump data; d) completing and storing an complete table based on the sequence information searched in the HRC dump table and the extracted sequence information; and e) reading and displaying the HRC dump table upon request of an operator.

    Kim; Myung-Ja (Daejon, KR); Jung; Won-Chan (Daejon, KR); Kim; Jae-Hoon (Daejon, KR)

    2010-08-17

    218

    Science Sampler : The sweet Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A great number of geologic processes either take unimaginable lengths of time to complete, or happen in places that cannot be directly observed, such as under the Earth's crust. It is, therefore, necessary for an Earth science teacher to find a connection between students' experiences and the geologic process they are studying to help them better understand that which is often unobservable. One Earth science topic with a tendency to be beyond the reach of direct observation for students is rock formation. This activity compares different kinds of candy to the different types of rocks based on direct observation.

    Spurr, Aaron; Johnson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    219

    Applying comparative fractal analysis to infer origin and process in channels on Earth and Mars  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently there has been a large amount of interest in identifying the nature of channels on (extra terrestrial) bodies. These studies are closely linked to the search for water (and ultimately signs of life) and are unarguably important. Current efforts in this direction rely on identifying geomorphic characteristics of these channels through painstaking analysis of multiple high resolution images. Here we present a new and simple technique that shows significant potential in its ability to distinguish between lava and water channels. Channels formed by water or lava on earth (as depicted in map view) display sinuosity over a large scale of range. Their geometries often point to the fluid dynamics, channel gradient, type of sediments in the river channels and for lava channels, it has been suggested that they are indicative of the thermal characteristics of the flow. The degree of this sinuosity in geometry can be measured using the divider method, and represented by fractal dimension (D) values. The higher D value corresponds to higher degree of sinuosity and channel irregularity and vice versa. Here we apply this fractal analysis to compare channels on Earth and Mars using D values extracted from satellite images. The fractal dimensions computed in this work for terrestrial river channels range from 1.04 - 1.38, terrestrial lava channels range from 1.01-1.10 and Martian channels range from 1.01 - 1.18. For terrestrial channels, preliminary results from river networks attain a fractal dimension greater than or equal to 1.1 while lava channels have fractal dimension less than or equal to 1.1. This analysis demonstrates the higher degree of irregularity present in rivers as opposed to lava channels and ratifies the utility of using fractal dimension to identify the source of channels on earth, and by extension, extra terrestrial bodies. Initial estimates of the fractal dimension from Mars fall within the same ranges as the lava channels on Earth. Based on what has been observed on Earth, we hypothesize that the differences in the dynamics of lava and water flow will cause significant differences in the degrees of irregularity of their respective channels. Thus fractal analysis has the potential to be a simple, straight forward and easily available tool to provide first-order constraint on the origin and processes active in Martian channels.

    Balakrishnan, A.; Rice-Snow, S.; Hampton, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    220

    Processes of development in understanding of length in individuals with Down syndrome  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An investigation of processes in development of understanding of length was carried out with children who have Down syndrome extending an approach used with non?retarded children. The study revealed similarities and differences and was effective in developing children's understanding. Forty?eight individuals (aged 5 years to 26 years) with Down syndrome were pretested on tasks involving conservation of number and length.

    Caroline Lister; Sheila Lee; Chris Leach

    1992-01-01

    221

    Emotions and feelings in learning process: understanding emotional learning experiences of postgraduate students  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Learning is social, cognitive and emotional. Understanding the emotional effect and affect allows us to understand and support adult learning and learning process at postgraduate level at the university. Emotions and feelings are generally recognized as important, but they remain under-explored in terms of the learning experiences of adult students, especially in learning at university. The study explored the questions

    Larissa Jõgi; Marin Gross; Kristiina Krabi

    222

    Improved Understanding of Oceanic Processes through an Integrated Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing System  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Advances in the understanding of every oceanic process of concern to scientists, marine resource managers, disaster managers and other decision makers require improved understanding of properties such as sea surface temperature, circulation, air-land-sea interactions, sea floor bathymetry, eddy propagation and other subjects in which regional informational needs remain unfulfilled. To address this situation, the University of Puerto Rico and the

    R. A. Watlington; J. M. Morell; J. E. Corredor

    2008-01-01

    223

    Earth Lecture  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lecture is about the Earth, the planet which we know the most about, due to our ability to explore its interior as well as exterior. The lecture will compare values and processes on other planets to those on the Earth. It covers topics such as the interior, surface features and observations. It also includes a discussion of the Earth's crust, atmosphere, evolution and magnetic field. There is a quiz at the end of the lecture.

    Schombert, Jim

    2008-12-15

    224

    Automated Job Controller for Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Production Processing  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is one of NASA's highest priority Earth Observing System (EOS) scientific instruments. The CERES science team will integrate data from the CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) in addition to the four CERES scanning instrument on Terra and Aqua. The CERES production system consists of over 75 Product Generation Executives (PGEs) maintained by twelve subsystem groups. The processing chain fuses CERES instrument observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of FM5 to over 22 instrument years of data to be reprocessed from flight models 1-4 creates a need for an optimized production processing approach. This poster discusses a new approach, using JBoss and Perl to manage job scheduling and interdependencies between PGEs and external data sources. The new optimized approach uses JBoss to serve handler servlets which regulate PGE-level job interdependencies and job completion notifications. Additional servlets are used to regulate all job submissions from the handlers and to interact with the operator. Perl submission scripts are used to build Process Control Files and to interact directly with the operating system and cluster scheduler. The result is a reduced burden on the operator by algorithmically enforcing a set of rules that determine the optimal time to produce data products with the highest integrity. These rules are designed on a per PGE basis and periodically change. This design provides the means to dynamically update PGE rules at run time and increases the processing throughput by using an event driven controller. The immediate notification of a PGE's completion (an event) allows successor PGEs to launch at the proper time with minimal start up latency, thereby increasing computer system utilization.

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    225

    [A story for children to help children with HIV understand the health-disease process].  

    PubMed

    This study analyzed how a story for children related to AIDS contributed to the understanding of the health-disease process of children with HIV. It was conducted at the Pediatric Clinic in Porto Alegre/RS from May to December 2011. The participants were five children aged between seven and nine years and their caregivers. The data were collected by a focal group through interviews and submitted to thematic content analysis. Two categories were found: identification with the story, relationship with the health-disease process, understanding of the story, and the health-disease process. The results demonstrated that stories for children are resources to talk about the health-disease process with children without revealing the diagnosis, leading them to understand their situation and the importance of treatment. We considered that this resource may be a strategy to help the caregivers and health professionals to initiate the process of revelation of diagnosis. PMID:23781719

    Brondani, Jeanine Porto; Pedro, Eva Neri Rubim

    2013-03-01

    226

    Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup.  

    PubMed

    The creative processes of understanding patients' experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905-1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients' experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an "flash of insight" is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients' experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients' experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience. PMID:22076123

    Norlyk, Annelise; Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

    2011-11-08

    227

    Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of L?gstrup  

    PubMed Central

    The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905–1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an “flash of insight” is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients’ experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients’ experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience.

    Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    228

    Electronically excited alkaline earth oxides: Chemical production and collisional energy transfer processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A collaborative experimental and theoretical study both of the reactions of electronically excited alkaline earth atoms with molecular oxidants and of inelastic and reactive processes involving open-shell atoms and molecules has been carried out. The branching ratios for formation of ground and excited state products from the reactions of both ground state (1S) and metastable electronically excited (3Po, 1D, or 3D) Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba were determined by chemiluminescence and laser fluorescence measurements. These results were compared wtih adiabatic correlation predictions. It was also possible to set bounds on the CaO and MgO dissociation energies. A semi-empirical representation was developed for the description of the ion-pair (M(+)O2(-)) potential energy surfaces for both alkali and alkaline earth atoms. A semi classical dipolar model was developed for the calculation of collisional interelectronic energy transfer rates between the low-lying X1sigma(+), a 3Pi, and A 1Pi states of CaO and used to interpret the observed pressure dependence of the Ca (3Po) + N2O chemiluminescence spectrum. This model was also extended to energy transfer in MgO.

    Dagdigian, P. J.; Alexander, M. H.

    1985-02-01

    229

    The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    230

    Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    231

    From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

    Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

    1999-01-01

    232

    Understanding and Improving Cultural Receptiveness to PSLM in the Risk Optimization of Process Facilities  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Process Safety Management is an established approach to application of technical solutions and crisply focused management principles and systems to prevent process- related loss. Efforts to parachute it into an existing culture often meet frustration. Visionary leadership is required to foster a culture of risk optimization as a way of life for the organization. Leaders must understand differences in how

    R. Thomas Boughner

    233

    Differentiating Processes of Control and Understanding in the Early Development of Emotion and Cognition  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that preschoolers' performance on emotion and cognitive tasks is organized into discrete processes of control and understanding within the domains of emotion and cognition. Additionally, we examined the relations among component processes using mother report, behavioral observation, and physiological…

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    234

    Careers and Academic Research Collaborations: An Inductive Process Framework for Understanding Successful Collaborations  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |We use a two-stage process to inductively develop a framework to understand the mechanisms that influence academic research collaborations. First, we draw on the research collaboration experiences of three distinguished careers researchers to develop a process framework. The framework outlines the phases for the project from initiation through to…

    Sargent, Leisa D.; Waters, Lea E.

    2004-01-01

    235

    NOAA's Science On a Sphere Education Program: Application of a Scientific Visualization System to Teach Earth System Science and Improve our Understanding About Creating Effective Visualizations  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NOAA has developed several programs aimed at facilitating the use of earth system science data and data visualizations by formal and informal educators. One of them, Science On a Sphere, a visualization display tool and system that uses networked LCD projectors to display animated global datasets onto the outside of a suspended, 1.7-meter diameter opaque sphere, enables science centers, museums, and universities to display real-time and current earth system science data. NOAA's Office of Education has provided grants to such education institutions to develop exhibits featuring Science On a Sphere (SOS) and create content for and evaluate audience impact. Currently, 20 public education institutions have permanent Science On a Sphere exhibits and 6 more will be installed soon. These institutions and others that are working to create and evaluate content for this system work collaboratively as a network to improve our collective knowledge about how to create educationally effective visualizations. Network members include other federal agencies, such as, NASA and the Dept. of Energy, and major museums such as Smithsonian and American Museum of Natural History, as well as a variety of mid-sized and small museums and universities. Although the audiences in these institutions vary widely in their scientific awareness and understanding, we find there are misconceptions and lack of familiarity with viewing visualizations that are common among the audiences. Through evaluations performed in these institutions we continue to evolve our understanding of how to create content that is understandable by those with minimal scientific literacy. The findings from our network will be presented including the importance of providing context, real-world connections and imagery to accompany the visualizations and the need for audience orientation before the visualizations are viewed. Additionally, we will review the publicly accessible virtual library housing over 200 datasets for SOS and any other real or virtual globe. These datasets represent contributions from NOAA, NASA, Dept. of Energy, and the public institutions that are displaying the spheres.

    McDougall, C.; McLaughlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    236

    P/M processing of rare earth modified high strength steels. Technical report, 1 October 1979-30 September 1980  

    SciTech Connect

    Material processing studies were continued directed toward developing powder metallurgy methods for producing rare earth modified high strength 4340 steel with improved resistance to hydrogen embrittlement. Three different methods of making rare earth modified 4340 steel powders were investigated: hydrogen gas atomization, mechanical alloying, and rapid solidification atomization. Hot extrusion consolidation of hydrogen gas atomized 4340 steel powders at 2150 F (1450 K) resulted in much better mechanical properties after heat treatment than hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidation at 2100 F (1420 K), but the ductility and impact resistance properties of the extruded powders were generally lower than those of similarly heat treated, rare earth modified, wrought 4340 steels evaluated previously, at approximately the same rare earth (cerium) content.

    Sheinker, A.A.

    1980-12-01

    237

    Improving student understanding of complex spatial-temporal relationships in Earth Sciences using computer animation and visualization  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Although an ability to comprehend complex spatial- temporal relationships is central to understanding many aspects of GEES disciplines, students regularly struggle to fully appreciate the signifi cance of such relationships in part because traditional teaching techniques do not graphically convey 3D and 4D relationships effectively. The development and deployment of a series of computer-generated simulations and video-based animations as part

    Nigel P. Mountney

    2009-01-01

    238

    Cultural artifact and children’s understanding of the shape of the Earth: The case of Moroccan children  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The non-computational brand of cognitivism is based on the premise that performances, including those of children, are generated\\u000a by mental models or representations, i.e., “internal” resources. The sociocultural approach, on the other hand, regards context,\\u000a i.e., an “external” resource, as the chief means of elaborating knowledge. The results of empirical research on how Moroccan\\u000a children develop their understanding of the

    Bertrand Troadec; Benaissa Zarhbouch; Valérie Frède

    2009-01-01

    239

    Global acceleration processes of solar and terrestrial particles in the Earth's magnetosphere (Julius Bartels Medal Lecture)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The processes which accelerate solar and ionospheric particles inside the magnetosphere are reviewed in the light of data obtained from the magnetospheric missions, Cluster, Interball, Demeter and Double Star, plus satellite data obtained in the inner magnetosphere. We start with a brief review of plasma sources. Particle accelerations and their observed characteristic signatures are then examined, starting with processes found at the external boundaries of the magnetosphere and within the ionosphere. During quiet magnetic periods adiabatic acceleration processes (Fermi and Betatron) inside the magnetosphere can explain the particle distribution responsible for electron diffuse aurora and the corresponding proton aurora, while ions are accelerated non-adiabatically in the more distant tail. Close to the Earth the low energy plasma distribution near the inner edge of the plasma sheet is shown to result from the balance between the transport of ions of solar or ionospheric origin, and loss processes including charge exchange. During substorms and storms, rapid reconfiguration of the magnetosphere and the associated redistribution of the electric current is shown to cause sporadic acceleration of ions of various origins and, on the contrary, during the phase preceding substorms adiabatic deceleration prevails. Finally we consider the resonant interaction during storms of radiation belt particles with natural ULF waves and VLF waves of natural or man-made origin, which leads to the acceleration/diffusion of these particles.

    Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2009-04-01

    240

    Use of Commercial Data Loggers to Develop Process Understanding in Pharmaceutical Unit Operations  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Due to the growing emphasis on quality by design during pharmaceutical development, accurate process data collection has become\\u000a even more crucial. While process analytical technology has emphasized complex spectroscopic techniques, univariate measurements\\u000a can provide data to develop further process understanding, such as assessing the impact of operating conditions on downstream\\u000a product attributes or spatially mapping the equipment environment for building

    Michelle E. Staben Wobker; Amit Mehrotra; Barry H. Carter

    2010-01-01

    241

    Earth Structure: Layers of the Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive Flash allows users to explore Earth's structure and processes that occur on Earth such as earthquakes and plate tectonics and how scientists know the composition and state of the Earth's layers. Interactive diagrams and animations with supplementary information make this a helpful overview or review for high school and undergraduate introductory-level courses in physical geology and Earth sciences.

    Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

    242

    Understanding Challenges in Preserving and Reconstructing Computer-Assisted Medical Decision Processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper addresses the problem of understanding preservation and reconstruction requirements for computer- aided medical decision-making. With an increasing number of computer-aided decisions having a large impact on our society, the motivation for our work is not only to document these decision processes semi-automatically but also to understand the preservation cost and related computational requirements. Our objective is to support

    Sang-Chul Lee; Peter Bajcsy

    2007-01-01

    243

    An OpenEarth Framework (OEF) for Integrating and Visualizing Earth Science Data  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The integration of data is essential to make transformative progress in understanding the complex processes operating at the Earth's surface and within its interior. While our current ability to collect massive amounts of data, develop structural models, and generate high-resolution dynamics models is well developed, our ability to quantitatively integrate these data and models into holistic interpretations of Earth systems

    J. L. Moreland; D. R. Nadeau; C. Baru; C. J. Crosby

    2009-01-01

    244

    Knowledge-based aerial image understanding systems and expert systems for image processing  

    SciTech Connect

    This paper discusses roles of artificial intelligence in the automatic interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The authors first discuss several image understanding systems for analyzing complex aerial photographs. The discussion is mainly concerned with knowledge representation and control structure in the aerial image understanding systems: a blackboard model for integrating diverse object detection modules, a symbolic model representation for three-dimensional object recognition, and integration of bottom-up and top-down analyses. Then, a model of expert systems for image processing is introduced that discussed which and what combinations of image processing operators are effective to analyze an image.

    Matsuyama, T.

    1987-05-01

    245

    Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet  

    PubMed Central

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product.

    Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

    2011-01-01

    246

    Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents  

    SciTech Connect

    The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten LiCl-KCl and activity coefficients for Cd and Bi. Data were obtained between 400 and 500 C. Results for the rare earth chlorides using an improved experimental technique were consistent with theory, with standard free energy of formation values somewhat more negative than those found in the literature. Special attention was given to Am in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system because it can exist as the +2 and/or +3 ion in this system. Americium ions existed only as the +3 ion in LiCl-KCl/Bi. Standard electrochemical potentials for Am/Am{sup +2} in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 400, 450, and 500 C were {minus}2.893, {minus}2.853, and {minus}2.838 V, respectively, relative to Cl{sup 2}/Cl{sup {minus}}. Standard electrochemical potentials vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup {minus}} for Am/Am{sup +3} in LiCl-KCl eutectic were {minus}2.83 V at 450 C and {minus}2.78 V at 500 C. Activity coefficients for Am in molten Cd were 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} at 450 and 500 C.

    Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Grimmett, D.L. [Boeing Co., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power] [and others

    1999-07-01

    247

    A process-based understanding of the late Cenozoic carbon cycle  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On a million-year time scale the global carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 are assumed to be largely determined by the so-called solid Earth processes weathering, sedimentation, and volcanic outgassing. However, it is not clear how much of the observed dynamics in the proxy data constraining the carbon cycle over the Cenozoic might be determined by internal processes of the atmosphere-ocean-biosphere subsystem. Here, we apply for the first time a process-based model of the global carbon cycle in transient simulations over the last 20 Myr to identify the contributions of terrestrial carbon storage, solubility pump and ocean gateways on changes in atmospheric CO2 and marine ?13C. We apply the isotopic carbon cycle box model BICYCLE, which consists of atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere and ocean reservoirs, the latter containing the full marine carbonate system. Our simulation results show that the long-term cooling since the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (about 15 Myr BP) leads to an intensification of the solubility pump, and a drop in atmospheric CO2 of up to 100 ppmv. This oceanic carbon uptake is largely counterbalanced by carbon loss from the terrestrial biosphere. The reduction in terrestrial C storage over time including the expansion of C4 grasses during the last 8 Myr might explain half of the long-term decline in deep ocean ?13C and would support high CO2 (400 to 450 ppmv) around 15 Myr BP. The closure of the Tethys and the Central America ocean gateways explains the developing gradient in deep ocean ?13C between the Atlantic and Pacific basin. We furthermore calculate the residuals, which are unexplained by our results and are therefore caused by solid Earth processes. From the residuals a rise in both ocean alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon over time is detected as reasons for declining atmospheric CO2 which led to Earth's long-term cooling observed since the Mid Miocene Climate Optimum. Increased continental weathering in combination with changes in volcanic out-gassing of CO2 might explain these changes in marine carbonate chemistry. Around 16 Myr BP we find a prominent regime shift in the carbon cycle-climate system at which the gradient in both deep ocean ?13C and temperature significantly declines. This might be connected with a shrinking seafloor spreading rates which might have caused reduced volcanic activity and thus less CO2 outgassing. The existence of such a regime shift is confirmed if we extend our analysis to deep ocean records of ?18O and ?13C over the whole Cenozoic.

    Köhler, P.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; de Boer, B.; Lourens, L. J.; Bintanja, R.; Bickert, T.; Lohmann, G.

    2012-04-01

    248

    Macroscopic phenomena and microscopic processes: Student understanding of transients in direct current electric circuits  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Studies of student understanding of simple electric dc circuits have shown that many of them find it very difficult to apply qualitative reasoning to explain the observed phenomena. It has been suggested that these difficulties may be due to their failure to construct models of microscopic processes that lead to these phenomena. Indeed, in the traditional courses, such models have generally not been emphasized. In the present study, we compared the performance of different groups of university students in answering a questionnaire designed to probe their understanding of the relationship between macroscopic phenomena of transients in a dc circuit and the microscopic processes that can explain these phenomena. One group studied from a traditional text, the second group used a recently developed text that emphasizes models of microscopic processes. We also conducted detailed interviews with some of the students. From an analysis of the performance of these two groups, and also from a comparison with a previous study on Israeli high school students, we found that most of the students whose instructional experiences included an emphasis on the development of models of microscopic processes developed a better understanding of the transient phenomena studied. They applied qualitative considerations in their analyses and were able to develop coherent models to describe their observations. Overall, they demonstrated a superior understanding of the physical phenomena.

    Thacker, Beth A.; Boys, Donald; Ganiel, Uri

    2005-11-28

    249

    Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice Through Process Theories of Motivation: a Teaching Module and Simulation  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article o fers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational justice, are related and can be used to manage behavior in the

    Mary D. Stecher; Joseph G. Rosse

    2007-01-01

    250

    Understanding dieting: A social cognitive analysis of hedonic processes in self-regulation  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The present paper introduces a novel approach to understanding failures of self-regulation in chronic dieters. Traditional approaches to this problem have focused on consciously controlled processes of eating regulation, such as the realisation that one has overeaten, or the experience of food cravings. We argue, however, that dieters' problem might rather lie in their sensitivity to the hedonic aspects of

    Esther K. Papies; Wolfgang Stroebe; Henk Aarts

    2009-01-01

    251

    Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of…

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2011-01-01

    252

    Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    253

    Improving Students' Learning by Developing their Understanding of Assessment Criteria and Processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This paper reports the findings of a two-year research project focused on developing students' understanding of assessment criteria and the assessment process through a structured intervention involving both tacit and explicit knowledge transfer methods. The nature of the intervention is explained in detail, and the outcomes are analysed and discussed. The conclusions drawn from the evidence are that student learning

    CHRIS RUST; MARGARET PRICE; BERRY ODONOVAN

    2003-01-01

    254

    Contribution of Analytical Tools for the Understanding of Sediment Formation: Application to H-Oil® Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Analytical studies were performed concerning the H-Oil® Process to better understand the mechanisms involved during residue conversion and the possible formation of sediment. Asphaltenes present in residue are known to behave as colloïdal species since they form micelles, aggregates and can flocculate depending on the temperature, pressure and solvating power of the other hydrocarbons in the residue. In this study,

    Eric C. Robert; Isabelle Merdrignac; Bernadette Rebours; Virginie Harlé; Stéphane Kressmann; James Colyar

    2003-01-01

    255

    Understanding the Learning Process of Peer Feedback Activity: An Ethnographic Study of Exploratory Practice  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This ethnographic study attempts to find, reveal and understand the learning possibilities, from the social learning perspective, in the process of peer feedback activity in a College English classroom for non-English majors in China. The study reveals the nature of Exploratory Practice (EP), and the investigation is guided by EP principles,…

    Zheng, Chunxian

    2012-01-01

    256

    Understanding the Unconscious Brain: Can Humans process Emotional Information in a Non-Linear Way?  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In the late seventies, the cognitive approach to emotion was more or less the only approach. Much of contemporary psychology has come to recognize that a great deal of human emotional functioning is rooted in unconscious processes. Evidence was found in many behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Although we are beginning to understand some of the mechanisms behind unconscious emotional information

    Maurits van den Noort; Peggy Bosch; Kenneth Hugdahl

    257

    How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods…

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    258

    Understanding Metal Sources and Transport Processes in Watersheds: a Hydropedologic Approach (Invited)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Understanding the origin of metals in watersheds, as well as the transport and cycling processes that affect them is of critical importance to watershed science. Metals can be derived both from weathering of minerals in the watershed soils and bedrock and from atmospheric deposition, and can have highly variable residence times in the watershed due to cycling through plant communities

    T. D. Bullen; S. W. Bailey; K. J. McGuire; P. Brousseau; D. S. Ross; R. Bourgault; M. A. Zimmer

    2010-01-01

    259

    Understanding the Student-Faculty Mentoring Process: Its Effects on At-Risk University Students  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The purpose of this investigation was to understand the student-faculty mentoring process and how mentoring relationships facilitate at-risk students' adjustment to college. The sample consisted of 65 college students who were involved in a Faculty Mentoring Program (FMP) at a four-year institution. A conceptual model was tested relating ethnic…

    Santos, Silvia J.; Reigadas, Elena T.

    2004-01-01

    260

    Confronting sediment budgets for different time periods in the Holocene with contemporary erosion process understanding  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soil erosion and sediment deposition are important geomorphic processes in the central European loess belt. Several studies have shown that important changes in the rates of soil erosion and sediment deposition occurred during the Holocene. Sediment budget approaches are ideal tools to understand such complex system behavior during the Holocene. Within this study a temporal differentiated Holocene sediment budget based

    B. Notebaert; G. Verstraeten; J. Poesen; G. Govers

    2009-01-01

    261

    Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?  

    PubMed

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant-microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-05-27

    262

    Chemical and dynamical processes in the atmospheres of, I. Ancient and present-day earth, II. Jupiter and Galilean satellites, III. Extrasolar "Hot Jupiters"  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    When exposed to stellar UV radiation, chemical processes will be governed not only by temperature/pressure but also the spectrum of the incoming dissociative photon flux; the system will approach kinetic, or photochemical, equilibrium, instead of thermochemical equilibrium. Over the previous decades, photochemistry has proven to be a powerful tool for predicting the chemical composition in the atmospheres of solar planets and their satellites. For example, the ozone layer in our own atmosphere (stratosphere) is a photochemical product of oxygen. In this thesis, I apply a photochemical model to the study of a variety of astronomical objects: the Earth, Jupiter, the Galilean satellite Callisto, and extrasolar "hot Jupiters" (HD 209458b). For the Earth, a method for utilizing the isotopic composition of CO 2 and N 2 O to monitor global changes due to these two greenhouse gases is developed. For objects other than the Earth, the model facilitates in the interpretation of data acquired by remote (telescopic) and in situ (spacecraft) measurements. The ultimate goal is to understand the conditions of chemical and physical environments in protoplanetary nebulae, which will provide clues as to the formation of planetary systems; the synthesis of organic compounds which could lead to the appearance of life; and the evolution of planetary atmospheres such as the formation of Titan's nitrogen-rich atmosphere.

    Liang, Mao-Chang

    263

    Generalized satellite image processing: eight years of ocean colour data for any region on earth  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the past decade, the world's oceans have been systematically observed by orbiting spectroradiometers such as MODIS and MERIS. These sensors have generated a huge amount of data with unprecedented temporal and spatial coverage. The data is freely available, but not always accessible for marine researchers with no image processing experience. In order to provide historical and current oceanographic parameters for the jellyfish forecasting in the JELLYFOR project, a tool for the generalized processing and archiving of satellite data was created (GRIMAS). Using this generalized software, the large amount of remote sensing data can be accessed, and parameters such as chlorophyll a concentration (CHL), sea surface temperature (SST) and total suspended matter concentration (TSM) can be extracted and gridded for any region on earth. Time-series and climatologies can be easily extracted from this data archive. The products generated can be based on the standard products, as supplied by space agencies, or can be new or regionally calibrated products. All available MODIS and MERIS L2 images from an eight year period (2003-2010) were processed in order to create a gridded dataset of CHL, SST (MODIS only) and of TSM for the three JELLYFOR regions. For two of the regions, data for an extended region was also processed. Multi-year composites (climatologies) of satellite data and time-series can provide a wealth of information for different projects in any region. Climatologies from the two sensors are in good agreement, while significant differences can occur on a scene per scene basis. Total suspended matter concentrations match favourably with in situ data derived from sensors on autonomous buoys. MODIS sea surface temperature corresponds closely to temperature continuously measured underway on research vessels.

    Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    264

    Algorithm Preservation versus Data Preservation How to Manage Value-Added Processing in Earth Observation P ayload Ground Segments  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    rum.com Abstract. Besides long-term preservation and operational accessibility of data, the preservation of operational algorithms - called processors - is an issue in earth observation payload ground segments. This contribution describes this as a choice between systematic and on- demand processing, a corresponding proc- essing infrastructure to support several proc essing scenarios, the model of an in- terface between data

    M. Boettcher

    265

    Science Data Processing and Distribution of Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP)  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The CERES project at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides critical cloud and Earth radiation budget climate data records (CDRs) to support global climate change research. CERES has produced over 30 Instrument years of data from TRMM, Terra, and Aqua, and is preparing to collect, calibrate, process and distribute data from CERES Flight Model 5 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). A complex system of algorithm development, data collection, processing, archive and distribution is being developed to manage science data from CERES on NPP. A new state-of-the-art data archival and distribution system called Archive - Next Generation (ANGe) has also been developed at the Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) and now supports efficient data ingest, archive, and distribution for CERES. The CERES data system integrates data from multiple sources to produce an extensive set of high quality climate data records. For NPP, CERES data will be fused with clouds and aerosol information obtained using VIIRS radiance and geolocation data, making accurate and stable calibration of VIIRS radiances critical to maintaining high quality CERES CDRs. New science processing algorithms will provide improved clouds and aerosol information that feed flux calculations and time and space averaging, and will be applied to processing CERES NPP data. A more robust ground calibration campaign has also been developed for the CERES sensors. The addition of CERES data from NPP will extend Earth radiation budget climate data records well into the next decade. This paper will describe the data flow, science data processing, and distribution of CERES data from NPP.

    Closs, J. W.; Robbins, J. L.; Miller, W. F.

    2009-12-01

    266

    Nano and metastable processing of rare earth doped silicate glasses for photonic applications  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanotechnology and photonic technology have seen rapid and astounding growth in the last 10 years. Many new properties and applications have been developed in the respective fields. In recent years some nanotechnology has been integrated into the field of photonics. In this study nano and metastable processing of silicate glasses for pholonic applications are examined. Nanopowders of SiO2 were fabricated. These powders were characterized by BET gas adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, X-Ray Diffraction, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Optimization of SiO2 nanopowder fabrication parameters proved invaluable since the same parameters were used for multicomponent compositions of Al2O3/SiO2/Er2O 3. Optimization of parameters included O2 flow rate, H 2 flow rates, burner distance, and precursor flow rate. Precursor flow rate, was found to be critical to the fabrication of high quality nanopowders. Multicomponent compositions were investigated for 1.55 mum emission from Er3+. Powders with average particle sizes of 9 nm were synthesized. In a complementary study, compositions of Al2O3/SiO 2/Er2O3 powders were hatched and spray dried for plasma melt quenching. These powders with very high concentrations of Er 2O3 were superheated in a plasma then quickly quenched into a water bath. Various compositions were prepared with different codoping ratios of Al2O3/Er2O3. Lifetime and fluorescence data are reported for emission at 1.55 um. Furthermore, green upconversion was observed with Yb/Er codoping. All compositions of plasma spray powders exhibited low multiexponential decay rates for the 4 I13/2 metastable state. Beat treatments of the powders up to 1400°C crystallized a Er2Si2O7 monoclinic pyrochlore structure. Upon crystallization the crystalline phase exhibited increased lifetimes of 7 ms up from <1 ms. Ordering of Er 3+ atoms is seen as the mechanism for increase in lifetime. This investigation has provided insight into the potential of metastable processing of heavily doped rare earth oxide nanopowders for photonic applications. Rare earth concentrations have been achieved which are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher then possible by more conventional synthesis methods. These findings should provide the incentive for follow-up research to further advance and exploit nanotechnology for next generation optical materials and devices.

    Finley, Matthew Franklin

    2002-01-01

    267

    Understanding processing speed-its subcomponents and their relationship to characteristics of people with schizophrenia.  

    PubMed

    Introduction Processing speed has been advanced as one of the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Several methods were developed to assess this domain; however, most tasks, despite indexing several cognitive and motor components, tend to characterise processing speed as a unitary construct. This study explores potential subcomponents of processing speed in schizophrenia and their relationship with demographic, clinical, and neuropsychological characteristics. Methods One hundred and sixty participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were assessed on neuropsychological tasks measuring processing speed, executive function, and memory. Demographics and clinical characteristics were also recorded. Three independent measures were extracted to account for subcomponents of processing speed: behavioural execution, response processing, and accuracy. Results The identified components of processing speed were differently predicted by demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and overall intelligence estimates. Age and symptom severity were important predictors for behavioural execution; intelligence and social withdrawal predicted response processing; and accuracy was predicted by illness duration. Correlations showed executive function and memory to be associated with response processing and accuracy but not with behavioural execution. Conclusions Distinct characteristics of schizophrenia seem to predict processing speed subcomponents. Distinguishing between behavioural, processing, and accuracy may be a useful way forward to refine our understanding of processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:23082749

    Cella, Matteo; Wykes, Til

    2012-10-19

    268

    Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes  

    PubMed Central

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research.

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    269

    Evaluating and improving hydrologic processes in the community land model for integrated earth system modeling  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The community land model (CLM) was primarily designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. In principle, CLM can be run at any resolution, however, validations were mostly conducted at large river basin, continental, or global scales for studies on inter-annual and inter-decadal variability, paleoclimate regimes, and projections of future changes of the global climate system, with limited case studies at flux tower sites and small watersheds. With the emergence of integrated earth system models (iESMs) at global and regional scales, and increasing interests of applying CLM at finer resolutions, it is critical to evaluate and improve the capability of CLM for hydrologic simulations at various scales, so that CLM could be used to represent hydrology, soil, managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and biogeochemical processes across scales, and provide hydrologic information being passed through all the components in a single modeling framework of iESMs. In this presentation, we will report our efforts on the development and validation of CLM hydrologic processes featuring: (1) improved land surface hydrology that incorporates hydrologic processes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, including the parameterizations of subgrid variability, dynamic surface- and groundwater interactions, and hydraulic redistribution; (2) a semi-distributed extension of CLM (DCLM) for more spatially-explicit hydrologic modeling, which is critical for regional land and water management decisions under climate change mitigation and adaptation scenarios; and (3) applications of CLM at multiple scales ranging from flux towers, small and large watersheds, to continental scales.

    Huang, M.; Ke, Y.; Li, H.; Liu, Y.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Coleman, A.; Leung, L.

    2011-12-01

    270

    Spaceship Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, from Science NetLinks, students will develop an understanding of our planet as a system by designing a very-long-duration space mission in which the life-support system is patterned after that of earth.

    Science Netlinks;

    2002-09-10

    271

    Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

    DOEpatents

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    272

    Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters  

    DOEpatents

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    273

    Estimating mass-wasting processes in active earth slides - earth flows with time-series of High-Resolution DEMs from photogrammetry and airborne LiDAR  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This paper deals with the use of time-series of High-Resolution Digital Elevation Models (HR DEMs) obtained from photogrammetry and airborne LiDAR coupled with aerial photos, to analyse the magnitude of recently reactivated large scale earth slides - earth flows located in the northern Apennines of Italy. The landslides underwent complete reactivation between 2001 and 2006, causing civil protection emergencies. With the final aim to support hazard assessment and the planning of mitigation measures, high-resolution DEMs are used to identify, quantify and visualize depletion and accumulation in the slope resulting from the reactivation of the mass movements. This information allows to quantify mass wasting, i.e. the amount of landslide material that is wasted during reactivation events due to stream erosion along the slope and at its bottom, resulting in sediment discharge into the local fluvial system, and to assess the total volumetric magnitude of the events. By quantifying and visualising elevation changes at the slope scale, results are also a valuable support for the comprehension of geomorphological processes acting behind the evolution of the analysed landslides.

    Corsini, A.; Borgatti, L.; Cervi, F.; Dahne, A.; Ronchetti, F.; Sterzai, P.

    2009-03-01

    274

    Development of Remote Laboratory for Understanding the Processes from Design to Manufacture  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faculties at the Department of Production, Information and Systems Engineering at Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Technology faces a problem how they can motivate their students who lack in substantial hands on experience of design and manufacture and let them understand the processes from design to manufacture. To overcome this difficulty, a Remote Laboratory system was developed using a Stirling engine by noting its simple structure and principle, with the aim of providing a student hands on experience. A student designs a connecting rod, and it is machined by a milling machine in the lab at a distance. The on-site lab attendant installs the connecting rod on the engine and conducts a trial run, which is viewed by the student via internet video at the remote location. Experiments demonstrated that the Remote Lab system will facilitate a student to understand the processes from design to manufacture.

    Hayashi, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    275

    An Integrated Signal Processing System for the Flat River Earth Strain Observatory of St. Louis University  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An extensive observatory for the measurement of long-period and ultra-long-period earth strains is being operated in a mine of the St. Joseph Lead Company at Flat River, Mo. The principal instruments in the observatory, three 100-foot quartz extensometers, provide electrical outputs proportional to earth strain. Each extensometer output consists of a number of components at various levels and frequencies-ultra-long-period secular

    Robert Slojkowski

    1968-01-01

    276

    Models for Deploying Open Source and Commercial Software to Support Earth Science Data Processing and Distribution  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Software deployment is needed to process and distribute scientific data throughout the data lifecycle. Developing software in-house can take software development teams away from other software development projects and can require efforts to maintain the software over time. Adopting and reusing software and system modules that have been previously developed by others can reduce in-house software development and maintenance costs and can contribute to the quality of the system being developed. A variety of models are available for reusing and deploying software and systems that have been developed by others. These deployment models include open source software, vendor-supported open source software, commercial software, and combinations of these approaches. Deployment in Earth science data processing and distribution has demonstrated the advantages and drawbacks of each model. Deploying open source software offers advantages for developing and maintaining scientific data processing systems and applications. By joining an open source community that is developing a particular system module or application, a scientific data processing team can contribute to aspects of the software development without having to commit to developing the software alone. Communities of interested developers can share the work while focusing on activities that utilize in-house expertise and addresses internal requirements. Maintenance is also shared by members of the community. Deploying vendor-supported open source software offers similar advantages to open source software. However, by procuring the services of a vendor, the in-house team can rely on the vendor to provide, install, and maintain the software over time. Vendor-supported open source software may be ideal for teams that recognize the value of an open source software component or application and would like to contribute to the effort, but do not have the time or expertise to contribute extensively. Vendor-supported software may also have the additional benefits of guaranteed up-time, bug fixes, and vendor-added enhancements. Deploying commercial software can be advantageous for obtaining system or software components offered by a vendor that meet in-house requirements. The vendor can be contracted to provide installation, support and maintenance services as needed. Combining these options offers a menu of choices, enabling selection of system components or software modules that meet the evolving requirements encountered throughout the scientific data lifecycle.

    Yetman, G.; Downs, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    277

    Workplace Health Understandings and Processes in Small Businesses: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Literature  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Introduction Small businesses (SBs) play an important role in global economies, employ half of all workers, and pose distinct workplace\\u000a health problems. This systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed literature was carried out to identify and synthesize\\u000a research findings about how SB workplace parties understand and enact processes related to occupational health and safety\\u000a (OHS). Methods The review was conducted as

    Ellen MacEachen; Agnieszka Kosny; Krista Scott-Dixon; Marcia Facey; Lori Chambers; Curtis Breslin; Natasha Kyle; Emma Irvin; Quenby Mahood

    2010-01-01

    278

    Formation of the rare-earth peak: Gaining insight into late-time r-process dynamics  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We study the formation and final structure of the rare-earth peak (A˜160) of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Under high-entropy conditions (S>100kB), the rare-earth peak forms at late times in the r-process after neutron exhaustion (neutron-to-seed ratio R=1) as matter decays back to stability. Since rare-earth peak formation does not occur during (n,?)?(?,n) equilibrium it is sensitive to the strong interplay between late-time thermodynamic evolution and nuclear physics input. Depending on the conditions, the peak forms either because of the pattern of the neutron capture rates or because of the pattern of the separation energies. We analyze three nuclear data sets under different thermodynamic conditions. We find that the subtleties of each nuclear data set, including separation energies and neutron capture rates, influence not only the final shape of the peak but also when it forms. We identify the range of nuclei which are influential in rare-earth peak formation.

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, Rebecca

    2012-04-01

    279

    Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant…

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    280

    Radioactivity of the Earth and the Case for Potassium in the Earth's Core  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The radioactivity of the earth is an important parameter in understanding the dynamics of the planet and the evolution of the crust mantle core system but geochemical and geophysical approaches have had only a limited success in defining it. The opportunity of a direct estimate of the radioactivity of the earth by measurement of the geoneutrino flux takes on an added significance in this context. Such an independent new measurement will help resolve and/or clarify a number of questions about global scale processes in the earth and will help advance earth sciences.

    Murthy, V. R.

    2006-12-01

    281

    Flat earth upward continuation  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    For a thorough understanding of flat earth upward continuation, Poisson's integral equation is transformed from a coordinate system with spherical symmetry to one with planar symmetry. The two separate cases of infinite and finite flat earths are considered. In resulting exact forms a functional factor in the integrands is isolated, a factor which allows the translation of a spherical earth

    John V. Shebalin

    1979-01-01

    282

    MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

    Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    283

    Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

    SciTech Connect

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    284

    Understanding the physical processes of pollutant build-up and wash-off on roof surfaces.  

    PubMed

    Pollutants originating with roof runoff can have a significant impact on urban stormwater quality. This signifies the importance of understanding pollutant processes on roof surfaces. Additionally, knowledge of pollutant processes on roof surfaces is important as roofs are used as the primary catchment surface for domestic rainwater harvesting. In recent years, rainwater harvesting has become one of the primary sustainable water management techniques to counteract the growing demand for potable water. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth research study into particulate matter build-up and wash-off for roof surfaces. In this research, particulate matter was considered as the indicator pollutant where the processes related to other pollutants can be predicted based on the understanding generated for particulate matter. The study outcomes confirm that the build-up process on roof surfaces is comparatively similar to road surfaces. However, particle loads collected from roofs were significantly less compared to road surfaces and much finer in texture. Wash-off from roofs also showed significant similarities to wash-off from roads. A relatively high concentration of particulate matter was noted during the initial part of storm events. Furthermore, the amount of particulate matter remaining on the roof surfaces was significantly high for less intense rain events. PMID:19157516

    Egodawatta, Prasanna; Thomas, Evan; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2009-01-20

    285

    Elementary GLOBE Unit: All About Earth Our World on Stage  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, the GLOBE Kids are excited to perform a play for the rest of the school, demonstrating what they have learned about the Earth and all of its parts. They hit a glitch when they cannot decide which Earth component is the most important, but end up learning a lot about the Earth, Sun, water, air, soil, and living things, and the way these components are interconnected. In Activity 1: Earth System in a Bottle, students will understand how water, soil, and sunlight support plant life. They will learn how to set up fair tests, record detailed observations, draw conclusions, and share their results. In Activity 2: We're All Connected, students will gain an awareness that the Earth's processed are interconnected and that Earth system interactions can be seen all around them. In Activity 3: Earth System Play, students will demonstrate their knowledge of the Earth as a system of the above-mentioned components.

    2006-01-01

    286

    The effect of biotechnology education on Australian high school students' understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents’ understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from teacher and student interviews and surveys in the context of innovative Year 10 biotechnology courses conducted in three Western Australian high schools. The results indicate that after completing a biotechnology course students’ understanding increased but their attitudes remained constant with the exception of their views about human uses of gene technology. The findings of this study have ramifications for the design and implementation of biotechnology education courses in high schools.

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-11-01

    287

    Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report  

    SciTech Connect

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    288

    How knowledge drives understanding--matching medical ontologies with the needs of medical language processing.  

    PubMed

    In this article, we introduce a knowledge-based approach to medical text understanding. From an in-depth consideration of deep sentence and text understanding we distill basic requirements for an adequate knowledge representation framework. These requirements are then matched with currently available medical ontologies (thesauri, terminologies, etc.). A fundamental trade-off is recognized between large-scale conceptual coverage on the one hand, and formal mechanisms for integrity preservation and conceptual expressiveness on the other hand. We discuss various shortcomings of the most wide-spread ontologies to capture medical knowledge in-the-large. As a result, we argue for the need of a formally sound and expressive model along the lines of KL-ONE-style terminological representation systems in the format of description logics. These provide an adequate methodology for designing more sophisticated, flexible medical ontologies serving the needs of 'deep' knowledge applications which are by no means restricted to medical language processing. PMID:9930615

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    1999-01-01

    289

    Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications  

    SciTech Connect

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-12-01

    290

    Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation  

    SciTech Connect

    This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

    Krasil'nikov, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    291

    Satellites Orbiting Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In recent years, there has been a push to better understand how Earth works as a system- how land, oceans, air, and life all interact. Satellites in orbit around Earth are a fast and efficient way of gathering remotely sensed data about the planet as a whole. This animated video shows the orbital paths of the satellites in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS), a collection of satellites that work together to study Earth on a wide scale.

    292

    Museum of the Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Museum of the Earth is a natural history museum that stresses the interdependence of the Earth and its life, fostering public understanding of the environment and Earth's past, present and future. The museum is an exhibit facility for one of the nation's largest fossil collections, providing a resource for the public, teachers and students. It serves regional and national audiences by disseminating educational materials as well as promoting best practices and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education.

    2006-08-14

    293

    Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model  

    PubMed Central

    Background The Normalization Process Model is a theoretical model that assists in explaining the processes by which complex interventions become routinely embedded in health care practice. It offers a framework for process evaluation and also for comparative studies of complex interventions. It focuses on the factors that promote or inhibit the routine embedding of complex interventions in health care practice. Methods A formal theory structure is used to define the model, and its internal causal relations and mechanisms. The model is broken down to show that it is consistent and adequate in generating accurate description, systematic explanation, and the production of rational knowledge claims about the workability and integration of complex interventions. Results The model explains the normalization of complex interventions by reference to four factors demonstrated to promote or inhibit the operationalization and embedding of complex interventions (interactional workability, relational integration, skill-set workability, and contextual integration). Conclusion The model is consistent and adequate. Repeated calls for theoretically sound process evaluations in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions, and policy-makers who call for a proper understanding of implementation processes, emphasize the value of conceptual tools like the Normalization Process Model.

    May, Carl; Finch, Tracy; Mair, Frances; Ballini, Luciana; Dowrick, Christopher; Eccles, Martin; Gask, Linda; MacFarlane, Anne; Murray, Elizabeth; Rapley, Tim; Rogers, Anne; Treweek, Shaun; Wallace, Paul; Anderson, George; Burns, Jo; Heaven, Ben

    2007-01-01

    294

    Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management  

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

    Peters, N. E.

    2008-01-01

    295

    A dynamic fed batch strategy for a Pichia pastoris mixed feed system to increase process understanding.  

    PubMed

    Mixed substrate feeding strategies are frequently investigated to enhance the productivity of recombinant Pichia pastoris processes. For this purpose, numerous fed batch experiments or time-consuming continuous cultivations are required to optimize control parameters such as the substrate mixing ratio and the applied methanol concentration. In this study, we decoupled the feeding of methanol and glycerol in a mixed substrate fed batch environment to gain process understanding for a recombinant P. pastoris Muts strain producing the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Specific substrate uptake rates (qs) were controlled separately, and a stepwise increased qGly-control scheme was applied to investigate the effect of various substrate fluxes on the culture. The qs-controlled strategy allowed a parallel characterization of the metabolism and the recombinant protein expression in a fed batch environment. A critical-specific glycerol uptake rate was determined, where a decline of the specific productivity occurred, and a time-dependent acceleration of protein expression was characterized with the dynamic fed batch approach. Based on the observations on recombinant protein expression, propositions for an optimal feeding design to target maximal productivities were stated. Thus, the dynamic fed batch strategy was found to be a valuable tool for both process understanding and optimization of product formation for P. pastoris in a mixed substrate environment. PMID:22505140

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2012-05-21

    296

    A mobile monitoring system to understand the processes controlling episodic events in Corpus Christi Bay.  

    PubMed

    Corpus Christi Bay (TX, USA) is a shallow wind-driven bay and thereby, can be characterized as a highly pulsed system. It cycles through various episodic events such as hypoxia, water column stratification, sediment resuspension, flooding, etc. Understanding of the processes that control these events requires an efficient observation system that can measure various hydrodynamic and water quality parameters at the multitude of spatial and temporal scales of interest. As part of our effort to implement an efficient observation system for Corpus Christi Bay, a mobile monitoring system was developed that can acquire and visualize data measured by various submersible sensors on an undulating tow-body deployed behind a research vessel. Along with this system, we have installed a downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler to measure the vertical profile of water currents. Real-time display of each measured parameter intensity (measured value relative to a pre-set peak value) guides in selecting the transect route to capture the event of interest. In addition, large synchronized datasets measured by this system provide an opportunity to understand the processes that control various episodic events in the bay. To illustrate the capability of this system, datasets from two research cruises are presented in this paper that help to clarify processes inducing an inverse estuary condition at the mouth of the ship channel and hypoxia at the bottom of the bay. These measured datasets can also be used to drive numerical models to understand various environmental phenomena that control the water quality of the bay. PMID:20556650

    Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Bonner, James S; Ojo, Temitope O; Page, Cheryl

    2010-06-17

    297

    Student Understanding of the Physics and Mathematics of Process Variables in P-V Diagrams  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students in an upper-level thermal physics course were asked to compare quantities related to the First Law of Thermodynamics along with similar mathematical questions devoid of all physical context. We report on a comparison of student responses to physics questions involving interpretation of ideal gas processes on P-V diagrams and to analogous mathematical qualitative questions about the signs of and comparisons between the magnitudes of various integrals. Student performance on individual questions combined with performance on the paired questions shows evidence of isolated understanding of physics and mathematics. Some difficulties are addressed by instruction.

    Pollock, Evan B.; Thompson, John R.; Mountcastle, Donald B.

    2009-06-24

    298

    Thermal Evolution of the Earth During the First Billion Years  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    There is good evidence that life occurred on Earth during the first billion years of its history. Modelling the dynamics of\\u000a the Earth at this period of time is critical to understand the conditions of the emergence of life. These conditions are the\\u000a result of the coupling between the inner and outer envelopes of the Earth. Several processes such as

    Christophe Sotin

    2005-01-01

    299

    A dissimmetry of tectonic processes of Northern and Southern hemispheres as dynamical consequence of relative forced polar displacements of the core and mantle of the Earth  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The empirical data testifying the dissymmetry of the Earth in cyclic (400 million years) process of assembly and breakup of supercontinents (Bozhko, 1992) obtain a natural explanation from the statements and base positions of developed geodynamic model (Bozhko, Barkin, 2009). The base of model makes the mechanism of the forced relative translational displacements (and turns) of the Earth's core and

    Yu. V. Barkin; N. A. Bozhko

    2009-01-01

    300

    Synthesis, characterization and processing of active rare earth-doped chalcohalide glasses  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Applications for infrared-transmitting non-oxide glass fibers span a broad range of topics. They can be used in the military, the medical field, telecommunications, and even in agriculture. Rare earth ions are used as dopants in these glasses in order to stimulate emissions in the infrared spectral region. In order to extend the host glass transmission further into the infrared, selenium

    Roberto Mauro Debari

    2002-01-01

    301

    Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Paticulate for Bonded Magnet Applications.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE(sub 2)Fe(sub 14)B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by mel...

    P. K. Sokolowski

    2007-01-01

    302

    Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MREFeB (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-01-01

    303

    The snowball Earth aftermath: Exploring the limits of continental weathering processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    article i nfo Carbonates capping Neoproterozoic glacial deposits contain peculiar sedimentological features and geochemical anomalies ascribed to extraordinary environmental conditions in the snowball Earth aftermath. It is commonly assumed that post-snowball climate dominated by CO2 partial pressures several hundred times greater than modern levels, would be characterized by extreme temperatures, a vigorous hydrological cycle, and associated high continental weathering rates.

    Guillaume Le Hir; Yannick Donnadieu; Yves Goddéris; Raymond T. Pierrehumbert; Galen P. Halverson; Mélina Macouin; Anne Nédélec; Gilles Ramstein

    2008-01-01

    304

    Variational Data Assimilation for Short-Term Dynamical Processes in Earth  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numerical modeling of short-term geodynamic processes, such as inter-seismic strain buildup, presents opportunities for application of data assimilation (DA) methods to problems of broad societal impact. Together with high-resolution datasets obtained through initiatives like EARTHSCOPE, DA techniques will perhaps ultimately prove useful for improved predictive modeling of earthquake cycles, similar to what is commonly done now in forecasting of weather and seasonal climate variability. The NASA/JPL Geophysical Finite Element Simulation Tool (GeoFEST), a software package for visco-elastic modeling of dynamic stress and strain evolution in the crust, is one of the major simulation tools for QuakeSim, a NASA Earth Science Enterprise project, and been used extensively by other researchers for studying crustal deformation and the earthquake cycle. Here we describe initial efforts to develop and apply variational DA methods based on the GeoFEST package. A key feature of our development is to make use of a modular Inverse Ocean Modeling (IOM) system being developed for ocean data assimilation. In comparing a dynamical model to data three types of error must be considered: errors in the actual data (including spatial and temporal scales that the model is not intended to represent), errors in model physics or parameterizations, and errors in model inputs (initial conditions, boundary conditions, and forcing). Variational DA provides a framework for combining and inter-comparing data and dynamic models, explicitly allowing for all of the above mentioned error types. Similar to the generalized inverse methods familiar to geophysicists, minimization of the model and data error is accomplished in variational DA through a gradient-based search. Such schemes require coding of the tangent linear (TL) of the non-linear dynamical model, along with the adjoint (ADJ) of the TL. We will discuss development of TL and ADJ modules for GeoFEST. The relatively modular nature of GeoFEST allows significant code reuse, and only minor modifications to a subset of existing subroutines are required for the TL and ADJ codes. Interfacing of the new TL and ADJ codes with the IOM will also be discussed. As an initial illustration of the power of the methods we are developing, we will present results of synthetic DA experiments that test the power of different data types (e.g., GPS, InSAR, strainmeters) to correct different types of errors in model inputs and physics. These sorts of analysis can be very useful in rational design of observing systems, for example.

    Tandon, K.; Egbert, G.; Lyzenga, G.

    2005-12-01

    305

    Astrochronology of the late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay (Dorset, England) and implications for Earth system processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) is an economically important, organic-rich source rock of Kimmeridgian-Early Tithonian age. The main rock types of the KCF in Dorset, UK, include grey to black laminated shale, marl, coccolithic limestone, and dolostone, which occur with an obvious cyclicity at astronomical timescales. In this study, we examine two high-resolution borehole records (Swanworth Quarry 1 and Metherhills 1) obtained as part of a Rapid Global Geological Events (RGGE) sediment drilling project. Datasets examined were total organic carbon (TOC), and borehole wall microconductivity by Formation Microscanner (FMS). Our intent is to assess the rhythmicity of the KCF with respect to the astronomical timescale, and to discuss the results with respect to other key Late Jurassic geological processes. Power spectra of the untuned data reveal a hierarchy of cycles throughout the KCF with ˜ 167 m, ˜ 40 m, 9.1 m, 3.8 m and 1.6 m wavelengths. Tuning the ˜ 40 m cycles to the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle shows the presence of all the astronomical parameters: eccentricity, obliquity, and precession index. In particular, ˜ 100-kyr and 405-kyr eccentricity cycles are strongly expressed in both records. The 405-kyr eccentricity cycle corresponds to relative sea-level changes inferred from sequence stratigraphy. Intervals with elevated TOC are associated with strong obliquity forcing. The 405-kyr-tuned duration of the lower KCF (Kimmeridgian Stage) is 3.47 Myr, and the upper KCF (early part of the Tithonian Stage, elegans to fittoni ammonite zones) is 3.32 Myr. Two other chronologies test the consistency of this age model by tuning ˜ 8-10 m cycles to 100-kyr (short eccentricity), and ˜ 3-5 m cycles to 36-kyr (Jurassic obliquity). The 'obliquity-tuned' chronology resolves an accumulation history for the KCF with a variation that strongly resembles that of Earth's orbital eccentricity predicted for 147.2 Ma to 153.8 Ma. There is evidence for significant non-deposition (up to 1 million years) in the lowermost KCF ( baylei- mutabilis zones), which would indicate a Kimmeridgian/Oxfordian boundary age of 154.8 Ma. This absolute calibration allows assignment of precise numerical ages to zonal boundaries, sequence surfaces, and polarity chrons of the lower M-sequence.

    Huang, Chunju; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda

    2010-01-01

    306

    Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with

    U. Böhm; G. Pospiech; H. Körndle; S. Narciss

    2010-01-01

    307

    Beyond Engagement to Reflection and Understanding: Focusing on the process of science  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    We must engage the public and make science more accessible to all...It is important that the scientific community, in its outreach, help people not only to see the fun of science but also to understand what science is, what a scientific theory is, how science is done, that accepted scientific models or theories are based on evidence, that hypotheses are tested by experiment, and that theories change as new evidence emerges. Shirley Ann Jackson, AAAS Presidential Address, 2005 The nature of science is noted as a critical topic for science literacy; however, by all accounts, Americans' understanding of the nature of science is inadequate, and students and teachers at all grade levels have inaccurate understandings of what science is and how it works. Such findings do not bode well for the future of scientific literacy in the United States. In large part, the current confusions about evolution, global warming, stem cell research, and other aspects of science deemed by some as "controversial" are symptomatic of a general misunderstanding of what science is and what it is not. Too few of our citizens view science as a dynamic process through which we gain a reliable understanding of the natural world. As a result, the public becomes vulnerable to misinformation and the very real benefits of science are obscured. New opportunities are emerging for members of the scientific community to share their science with segments of the public - both informally through science cafés and science festivals, and more formally through science competitions and classroom visits. Each of these helps to make science more accessible and provides a critical first step toward connecting the public to the "fun and excitement" of science. Less often these activities focus on how science works - what science is, what it is not, and what is not science - as well as the creativity, curiosity, exploration, dead-ends, and a-ha moments that inspire scientists. This talk will share a teacher professional development project in which graduate students play a critical role not only in engaging elementary teachers in science, but also in making the process explicit, offering the opportunity to reflect, and increasing teacher understanding of how science really works. Teachers had the chance to do science themselves which went a long way toward reducing their fears of science and increasing their confidence to teach science more effectively. At the same time, the graduate students found that working with the teachers made them better realize their own strengths and revitalized their personal excitement about science.

    Scotchmoor, J. G.; Mitchell, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    308

    Dynamic chromatographic systems for the determination of rare earths and thorium in samples from uranium ore refining processes  

    SciTech Connect

    Dynamic ion exchange has been used for the rapid separation (16 min) and determination of rare earths and Y in samples from hydrometallurgical processes used to recover, U, Th, Y, and the rare earths from uranium ore. Optimization of the effective capacity of the dynamic ion exchanger and the selectivity of postcolumn reaction detection permitted analysis down to 0.1 ..mu..g-mL/sup -1/ of the rare earths and yttrium in the presence of U, Th, and a number of other metal ions. A comparison with X-ray fluorescence results showed good agreement, and the chromatographic procedure offered considerable savings in analysis time. Studies with Th(IV) and U(VI) showed that both metal ions exhibited selective sorption of their ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyric complexes, formed in situ in the eluent, onto reversed phases. The analytical results obtained showed that this dynamic separation process could be used for the determination of Th, and its potential for the determination of U was demonstrated.

    Barkley, D.J.; Blanchette, M.; Cassidy, R.M.; Elchuk, S.

    1986-09-01

    309

    Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements during magmatic and post-magmatic processes: a case study from the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, northern Scotland  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concern about security of supply of critical elements used in new technologies, such as the Rare Earth Elements (REE), means that it is increasingly important to understand the processes by which they are enriched in crustal settings. High REE contents are found in syenite-dominated alkaline complexes intruded along the Moine Thrust Zone, a major collisional zone in north-west Scotland. The most northerly of these is the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, which comprises three separate intrusions. One of these, the Cnoc nan Cuilean intrusion, contains two mappable zones: a Mixed Syenite Zone in which mafic melasyenite is mixed and mingled with leucosyenite and a Massive Leucosyenite Zone. Within the Mixed Syenite Zone, hydrothermal activity is evident in the form of narrow altered veins dominated by biotite and magnetite; these are poorly exposed and their lateral extent is uncertain. The REE mineral allanite is relatively abundant in the melasyenite and is extremely enriched in the biotite-magnetite veins, which have up to 2 % total rare earth oxides in bulk rock analyses. An overall model for development of this intrusion can be divided into three episodes: (1) generation of a Light Rare Earth Element (LREE)-enriched parental magma due to enrichment of the mantle source by subduction of pelagic carbonates; (2) early crystallisation of allanite in melasyenite, due to the saturation of the magma in the LREE; and (3) hydrothermal alteration, in three different episodes identified by petrography and mineral chemistry, generating the intense enrichment of REE in the biotite-magnetite veins. Dating of allanite and titanite in the biotite-magnetite veins gives ages of c. 426 Ma, overlapping with previously published crystallisation ages for zircon in the syenite.

    Walters, A. S.; Goodenough, K. M.; Hughes, H. S. R.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Gunn, A. G.; Rushton, J.; Lacinska, A.

    2013-10-01

    310

    Informing geospatial toolset design: understanding the process of cancer data exploration and analysis.  

    PubMed

    There is an increasing need for new methods and tools that support knowledge construction from complex geospatial datasets related to public health. This study is part of a larger effort to develop, implement, and test such methods and tools. To be successful, the design of methods and tools must be grounded in a solid understanding of the work practices within the domain of use; the research reported here focuses on developing that understanding. We adopted a user-centered approach to toolset design where we investigated the work of cancer researchers and used the results of that investigation as inputs into the development of design guidelines for new geovisualization and spatial analysis tools. Specifically, we conducted key informant interviews focused on use, or potential use, of geographic information, methods, and tools and complemented this with a systematic analysis of published, peer-reviewed articles on geospatial cancer research. Results were used to characterize the typical process of analysis, to identify fundamental differences between intensive users of geospatial methods and infrequent users, and to outline key stages in analysis and tasks within the stages that methods and tools must support. Our findings inform design and implementation decisions for visual and analytic tools that support cancer prevention and control research and they provide insight into the processes used by cancer researchers for addressing the challenges of geographic factors in public health research and policy. PMID:18060824

    Bhowmick, Tanuka; Griffin, Amy L; MacEachren, Alan M; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2007-10-23

    311

    ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS  

    SciTech Connect

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    312

    Hydrogeological processes in seasonally frozen northern latitudes: understanding, gaps and challenges  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The groundwater regime in seasonally frozen regions of the world exhibits distinct behavior. This paper presents an overview of flow and associated heat and solute transport processes in the subsurface, from the soil/vadose zone, through groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge processes in these areas. Theoretical developments, field studies and model development are considered. An illustrative conceptual model of the system is presented. From a groundwater perspective, the dominant effect is the extent of hydraulic isolation between the water above and that below the near-surface frozen zone. The spatial and temporal occurrences of this isolation are seasonally variable and may also be modified under a future changing climate. A good qualitative conceptual understanding of the system has been developed over numerous decades of study. A major gap is the inability to effectively monitor processes in the field, particularly unfrozen water content during freezing conditions. Modeling of field-scale behavior represents a major challenge, even while physically based models continue to improve. It is suggested that progress can be made by combining well-designed field experiments with modeling studies. A major motivation for improving quantification of these processes derives from the need to better predict the impacts of a future changing climate.

    Ireson, A. M.; van der Kamp, G.; Ferguson, G.; Nachshon, U.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-02-01

    313

    Hydrogeological processes in seasonally frozen northern latitudes: understanding, gaps and challenges  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The groundwater regime in seasonally frozen regions of the world exhibits distinct behavior. This paper presents an overview of flow and associated heat and solute transport processes in the subsurface, from the soil/vadose zone, through groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge processes in these areas. Theoretical developments, field studies and model development are considered. An illustrative conceptual model of the system is presented. From a groundwater perspective, the dominant effect is the extent of hydraulic isolation between the water above and that below the near-surface frozen zone. The spatial and temporal occurrences of this isolation are seasonally variable and may also be modified under a future changing climate. A good qualitative conceptual understanding of the system has been developed over numerous decades of study. A major gap is the inability to effectively monitor processes in the field, particularly unfrozen water content during freezing conditions. Modeling of field-scale behavior represents a major challenge, even while physically based models continue to improve. It is suggested that progress can be made by combining well-designed field experiments with modeling studies. A major motivation for improving quantification of these processes derives from the need to better predict the impacts of a future changing climate.

    Ireson, A. M.; van der Kamp, G.; Ferguson, G.; Nachshon, U.; Wheater, H. S.

    2012-10-01

    314

    Efficient qubit detection using alkaline-earth-metal ions and a double stimulated Raman adiabatic process  

    SciTech Connect

    We present a scheme for robust and efficient projection measurement of a qubit consisting of the two magnetic sublevels in the electronic ground state of alkaline-earth-metal ions. The scheme is based on two stimulated Raman adiabatic passages involving four partially coherent laser fields. We show how the efficiency depends on experimentally relevant parameters: Rabi frequencies, pulse widths, laser linewidths, one- and two-photon detunings, residual laser power, laser polarization, and ion motion.

    Moeller, Ditte; Soerensen, Jens L.; Thomsen, Jakob B.; Drewsen, Michael [QUANTOP - Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 (Denmark)

    2007-12-15

    315

    Processing and electrical properties of alkaline earth-doped lanthanum gallate  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oxides exhibiting substantial oxygen ion conductivity are utilized in a number of high-temperature applications, including solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, membrane reactors, and oxygen sensors. Alkaline earth-doped lanthanum gallate powders were prepared by glycine\\/nitrate combustion synthesis. Compacts of powders synthesized under fuel-rich conditions were sintered to densities greater than 97% of theoretical. Appropriate doping with Sr or Ba

    J. W. Stevenson; T. R. Armstrong; D. E. McCready; L. R. Pederson; W. J. Weber

    1997-01-01

    316

    Nonlinear analysis on the coupling process of electromagnetic vibrator and earth  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The linear model based on the hydraulic pressure vibrator has been no longer adaptable to the electromagnetic vibrator. In\\u000a order to realize the effective transmission of the limited energy from the vibrator to the ground, it is important to study\\u000a the coupling model of the electromagnetic vibrator and the earth. In this paper, a nonlinear restore term was introduced to

    Zubin Chen; Jiwen Teng; Jun Lin; Linhang Zhang; Zhongjin Jiang

    2005-01-01

    317

    Integration of Science on Biological and Physical Processes to Understand Ecological Diversity of Stream Fishes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The integration of biological and physical sciences has been important in efforts to understand and conserve aquatic species such as the stream fishes found in the Pacific Northwest. Traditionally that integration has focused at relatively fine scales and on what were perceived as more or less static conditions of stream habitats to explain the abundance and distribution of select species. Scientists and managers were intent on defining and creating optimal conditions to maximize the abundance of those species. There is growing recognition that habitats are dynamic and that populations of many species may be structured by biological and physical processes operating over much larger spatial and temporal scales. Natural disturbance, hydrology, and geomorphic constraints lead to variation in the distribution, size, and productivity of habitats for different species through time and space. That variation could influence the distribution and persistence of populations and the diversity that is expressed within and among those populations. It may even be critical to long-term evolutionary potential. Metapopulation theory, for example, suggests the geometry and interconnection of habitats will be key to the occurrence and persistence of many populations. Recent work with bull trout and Lahontan cutthroat trout support those predictions and demonstrate that the large-scale geometry of habitat networks is essentially defined by the variation in stream topology and temperature. Life history diversity and phenotypic plasticity are thought to be mechanisms that allow species populations to adapt to, fully exploit, and persist in variable and changing environments. The expression of that diversity may depend on historical patterns of disturbance and the interconnection and diversity of environments that are currently available. Conservation of aquatic biological diversity will depend on our understanding of the processes that generate that diversity. The application of new tools in biology such as molecular genetics and otolith chemistry promise new advances, but the integration with research on the physical processes structuring stream environments will be key as well.

    Rieman, B.; Dunham, J.

    2002-12-01

    318

    Research Spotlight: Magnetic island observed at Earth's magnetopause  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Understanding processes in the Earth's magnetosphere can help scientists understand and predict space weather and its effects on technology such as satellites and communications and navigation systems. Magnetic reconnection, in which magnetic field lines break, rearrange, and rejoin each other, is an important process that converts magnetic field energy into thermal and kinetic energy in the space plasma environment.

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    319

    Dipole Model of Electric Pulse Generation Caused by the Relaxation Processes in the Earth's Crust  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Study of electric and magnetic (EM) signals in the Earth's crust is of interest from a viewpoint of both establishing mechanisms and conditions for generation of geophysical fields and interpreting physical and mechanical characteristics of a hierarchically structured medium. In a previously developed model [1] it was proposed that generation of electromagnetic impulses in the Earth's crust with low water content was a result of a quasi independent displacement of a structural block being relaxed in constrained conditions. A transient electric current system generated on an active side of the structural block due to electric polarization of an inter-block gap content was considered as a source of EM radiation. In a new numerical model we use a set of Hertz's dipoles distributed over the active surface. Time dependence of the dipole moments was defined by displacement of the structural unit. To estimate EM signals the full system of Maxwell equations in a conductive medium was solved. The results of numerical simulations were compared with electric field records in a surface layer of the Earth's crust in the area of influence of the tectonically active Kurai structure (Gornyi Altai) [2]. The amplitudes of electric fields at a distance of 50-100 linear block sizes obtained in numerical simulations are in good agreement with the instrumental observations, which proves the validity of our model for the estimation of electric effects in the low moisture rock medium.

    Losseva, T. V.; Spivak, A.; Kuzmicheva, M. Y.

    2011-12-01

    320

    Earth Structures  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web guide explores several natural phenomena that are constantly changing the face of the Earth. These geologic forces not only impact the physical features of our planet but ultimately affect the biosphere in a dramatic way. Historically, the changes have ranged from gradual (such as with the process of mountain building) to the spontaneous (such as with seismic events).

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2005-04-01

    321

    Experimental-neuromodeling framework for understanding auditory object processing: integrating data across multiple scales.  

    PubMed Central

    In this article, we review a combined experimental-neuromodeling framework for understanding brain function with a specific application to auditory object processing. Within this framework, a model is constructed using the best available experimental data and is used to make predictions. The predictions are verified by conducting specific or directed experiments and the resulting data are matched with the simulated data. The model is refined or tested on new data and generates new predictions. The predictions in turn lead to better-focused experiments. The auditory object processing model was constructed using available neurophysiological and neuroanatomical data from mammalian studies of auditory object processing in the cortex. Auditory objects are brief sounds such as syllables, words, melodic fragments, etc. The model can simultaneously simulate neuronal activity at a columnar level and neuroimaging activity at a systems level while processing frequency-modulated tones in a delayed-match-to-sample task. The simulated neuroimaging activity was quantitatively matched with neuroimaging data obtained from experiments; both the simulations and the experiments used similar tasks, sounds, and other experimental parameters. We then used the model to investigate the neural bases of the auditory continuity illusion, a type of perceptual grouping phenomenon, without changing any of its parameters. Perceptual grouping enables the auditory system to integrate brief, disparate sounds into cohesive perceptual units. The neural mechanisms underlying auditory continuity illusion have not been studied extensively with conventional neuroimaging or electrophysiological techniques. Our modeling results agree with behavioral studies in humans and an electrophysiological study in cats. The results predict a particular set of bottom-up cortical processing mechanisms that implement perceptual grouping, and also attest to the robustness of our model.

    Husain, Fatima T.; Horwitz, Barry

    2007-01-01

    322

    Improving understanding of volcanic processes and hazards with near-surface geophysics  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Near-surface geophysical techniques have become integral tools for addressing a variety of volcanological problems, in particular for better understanding of processes and hazards associated with explosive volcanism. Processes with near-surface signatures can be examined with an array of high-resolution methods that offer imaging capabilities dramatically beyond traditional larger-scale gravity, magnetic, and seismic studies. Recent high-resolution surveys with self-potential (SP) and electromagnetic (EM) methods shed light on fluid flow and degassing processes. Time-domain EM surveys yield remarkable constraints on near-vent water table depths and associated hydrogeologic processes, in terrains where drilling would be prohibitively expensive. Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic methods have been used to image near-vent fracture systems, and in some cases to image magmas in the shallow subsurface directly. Resistivity methods, useful in geothermal exploration, are less well-suited to mapping the highly resistive near-surface of young volcanoes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveying, on the other hand, works best in resistive strata and can offer high-resolution 2- and 3-D stratigraphic images in otherwise inaccessible settings. GPR studies can provide constraints on tephra fall and surge deposit volumes and internal structure, the nature of paleosols separating individual eruption deposits, and volcanic block distributions. Microgravity studies illuminate near- surface density changes. Electromagnetic and magnetic instruments in particular can be deployed from helicopters for rapid, high-resolution, and repeated surveying. Finally, the application and cross-correlation of multiple methods is emerging as an essential way to characterize active volcanoes and volcanic processes.

    Kruse, S.

    2006-05-01

    323

    Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.  

    SciTech Connect

    A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

    Goussis, Dimitris A. (Ploutonos 7, Palaio Faliro, Greece); Najm, Habib N.

    2006-01-01

    324

    Analyses of Citizen - Collected Water Quality Data: Bridging the Gap between "Hot Spots" to Understanding Processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monitoring and stewardship of watershed systems is increasingly being undertaken by citizen and non-profit groups. Regular monitoring of water quality being done by many of these organizations is quality controlled and can yield continuous, high-quality data sets. In many cases these data are only being used for preliminary analyses: identifing so-called "hot-spots" or tracking improvement over time. However, these data are suitable for more intensive analyses, and techniques such as principal components analysis may yield more comprehensive understanding of the processes and modes of variability at work. Here, we analyze data from 13 citizen-monitored water quality parameters of the Neponset River and several tributaries in Eastern Massachusetts. We found that different modes of variability emerged from the main river vs. the tributaries and that factors such as stream size and land use could be correlated with specific identified components. This type of analysis could be used by many local watershed associations to better understand their watersheds and to aid in developing long term strategies for protecting and improving the health of the watershed systems.

    Saleem Arrigo, J.

    2005-05-01

    325

    NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder Program  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has the lead role in fulfilling the first element of the Agency's three-part mission statement, "To Understand and Protect Our Home Planet". We accomplish this by developing a scientific understanding of the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced changes to enable improved prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards. NASA brings to global change research the ability to view the Earth from space, as well as the capability to define and manage and end-to-end program of research to answer large scale Earth science questions. Our view from space allows us to view local and regional changes in their global context. The Earth Observing System of satellites begins monitoring variability and trends in global change parameters of known importance. Complimenting EOS, NASA' Earth System Science Pathfinder satellites explore Earth system processes that have yet to be measured globally. These processes, such as aerosol properties and vertical distribution and carbon sources and sinks, represent areas of great uncertainty in climate change. They also tend to require advanced remote sensing technologies, such as radars, lidars, and advanced spectrometers. NASA's ESSP program solicits the latest and best ideas from the science community to meet these challenges. NASA coordinates its plans with its international space partners to assure our collective space programs effectively and efficiently meet the requirements of internationally important global change research programs.

    Asrar, G. R.

    2003-04-01

    326

    Extended principle component analysis - a useful tool to understand processes governing water quality at catchment scales  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Water quality of ground and surface waters in catchments is typically driven by many complex and interacting processes. While small scale processes are often studied in great detail, their relevance and interplay at catchment scales remain often poorly understood. For many catchments, extensive monitoring data on water quality have been collected for different purposes. These heterogeneous data sets contain valuable information on catchment scale processes but are rarely analysed using integrated methods. Principle component analysis (PCA) has previously been applied to this kind of data sets. However, a detailed analysis of scores, which are an important result of a PCA, is often missing. Mathematically, PCA expresses measured variables on water quality, e.g. nitrate concentrations, as linear combination of independent, not directly observable key processes. These computed key processes are represented by principle components. Their scores are interpretable as process intensities which vary in space and time. Subsequently, scores can be correlated with other key variables and catchment characteristics, such as water travel times and land use that were not considered in PCA. This detailed analysis of scores represents an extension of the commonly applied PCA which could considerably improve the understanding of processes governing water quality at catchment scales. In this study, we investigated the 170 km2 Ammer catchment in SW Germany which is characterised by an above average proportion of agricultural (71%) and urban (17%) areas. The Ammer River is mainly fed by karstic springs. For PCA, we separately analysed concentrations from (a) surface waters of the Ammer River and its tributaries, (b) spring waters from the main aquifers and (c) deep groundwater from production wells. This analysis was extended by a detailed analysis of scores. We analysed measured concentrations on major ions and selected organic micropollutants. Additionally, redox-sensitive variables and environmental tracers indicating groundwater age were analysed for deep groundwater from production wells. For deep groundwater, we found that microbial turnover was stronger influenced by local availability of energy sources than by travel times of groundwater to the wells. Groundwater quality primarily reflected the input of pollutants determined by landuse, e.g. agrochemicals. We concluded that for water quality in the Ammer catchment, conservative mixing of waters with different origin is more important than reactive transport processes along the flow path.

    Selle, B.; Schwientek, M.

    2012-04-01

    327

    Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report  

    SciTech Connect

    Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R. [Univ. of New Nexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minnick, K. [Minnick & Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    328

    The Role of RIA in Understanding the rp- and ?p-processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hydrogen and Helium are burned explosively in novae and X-ray bursts via the rp- and ?p-processes. These consist of sequences of (p,?) and (?,p) reactions on radioactive isotopes near the proton drip line. These reactions rapidly generate energy while synthesizing heavy elements. Knowledge of the charged-particle reaction rates on, and the structure of, radioactive nuclei along the proton dripline is vital to understand these explosive events. The high-quality beams of radioactive nuclei anticipated at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) will provide excellent opportunities for groundbreaking studies of these astrophysical explosions. The nuclear physics information needed for explosion studies will be discussed, along with examples of typical capture, scattering, transfer, and fusion evaporation reaction measurements that could be carried out at RIA. The desired properties of recoil separators, targets, and detector systems for these measurements will also be discussed.

    Smith, Michael S.

    2000-10-01

    329

    SOCRATE: an optical bench dedicated to the understanding and improvement of a laser conditioning process  

    SciTech Connect

    We present an automatic excimer laser bench (SOCRATE) allowing for the treatment of optical components by laser conditioning. This apparatus, developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Le Ripault, has been designed to add to this conditioning process an in situ, accurate laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement and different nondestructive optical techniques for the characterization of the component during treatment. Through different examples, we demonstrate the importance of these characterizations to improve the understanding of the laser conditioning.The role of an in situ adapted metrology associated in real time with a laser conditioning bench offers new opportunities to analyze laser-induced damage mechanisms and subsequently to increase the LIDT of optical components.

    Bertussi, Bertrand; Piombini, Herve; Damiani, David; Pommies, Matthieu; Le Borgne, Xavier; Plessis, Daniel

    2006-11-20

    330

    Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments  

    SciTech Connect

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    331

    Students' Understanding of Large Numbers as a Key Factor in Their Understanding of Geologic Time  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |An understanding of geologic time is comprised of 2 facets. Events in Earth's history can be placed in relative and absolute temporal succession on a vast timescale. Rates of geologic processes vary widely, and some occur over time periods well outside human experience. Several factors likely contribute to an understanding of geologic time, one…

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    332

    Channel widths, landslides, faults, and beyond: The new world order of high-spatial resolution Google Earth imagery in the study of earth surface processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the application of high-resolution imagery and geographic-based information systems across every segment of society from security intelligence to product marketing to scientific research. Google Earth has positioned itself at the forefront of this spatial information wave by providing free access to high-resolution imagery through a simple, user-friendly interface. Whereas Google Earth

    G Burch Fisher; Colin B Amos; Bodo Bookhagen; Douglas W Burbank; Vincent Godard

    2012-01-01

    333

    Visualizing Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Visualizing Earth program uses the power of visualizations (pictures, maps, spatial representations) to help learners to visualize large volumes of data, perceive and understand complex concepts, create mental models of systems, and comprehend the interactions among data elements. Site materials include remote imagery (mostly Landsat and Space Shuttle images) of Earth surface features such as the Aral Sea, Salton Sea, and volcanoes around the world (Mt. Shasta, Mt Fuji, Mt. Kilimanjaro, and others). There is also a section that uses maps to describe and explain earthquake occurences in the Mammoth Lakes, California, area, and a VRML presentation that shows the relationship between the hypocenter and epicenter of an earthquake. The 'Fun stuff' section includes features about the Aral Sea and the Salton Sea, as well as 'Earth Detective', a feature on the use of remote imagery to detect fault systems, and a tutorial on the basics of geology. There is also information of the schools that participated in the Visualizing Earth program, and a page of links to other websites with related information.

    334

    Thermal Conduction - A Tool for Exploring Geological Processes on the Earth and Other Bodies in our Solar System  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thermal conduction is a fundamental physical process, one which controls many aspects of the volcanic and tectonic evolution of bodies within our solar system. Using transmission of thermal energy through the crust of the Earth as an initial, physically intuitive conceptual model, the module's background material will (a) help students deduce the thermal conduction equation-a second order differential which can be constructed from first principles, (b) evaluate volume-adjusted conduction incorporating internal heat generation and temperature change, and (c) explore special forms of the equation such as steady state conduction and thermal diffusion.

    Grosfils, Eric

    335

    Understanding hydroclimate processes in the Murray-Darling Basin for natural resources management  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isolating the causes of extreme variations or changes in the hydroclimate is difficult due to the complexities of the driving mechanisms, but it is crucial for effective natural resource management. In Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), ocean-atmosphere processes causing hydroclimatic variations occur on time scales from days to centuries, all are important, and none are likely to act in isolation. Instead, interactions between all hydroclimatic drivers, on multiple time scales, are likely to have caused the variations observed in MDB instrumental records. A simplified framework is presented to assist natural resource managers in identifying the potential causes of hydroclimatic anomalies. The framework condenses an event into its fundamental elements, including its spatial and temporal signal and small-scale evolution. The climatic processes that are potentially responsible are then examined to determine possible causes. The framework was applied to a period of prolonged and severe dry conditions occurring in the southern MDB from 1997-2010, providing insights into possible causal mechanisms that are consistent with recent studies. The framework also assists in identifying uncertainties and gaps in our understanding that need to be addressed.

    Gallant, A. J. E.; Kiem, A. S.; Verdon-Kidd, D. C.; Stone, R. C.; Karoly, D. J.

    2012-07-01

    336

    Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N",N"-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information for both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values may be present in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thus, thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. In this report, calorimetric studies of lactate protonation equilibrium illustrate a distinct influence of nitrate, perchlorate, methylsulfonate and triflate on the thermodynamic parameters associated with TALSPEAK aqueous chemistry. Triflate is identified a closer non-complexing representative of lactate solution chemistry. The reported initial two stability constants for the complexation of americium and neodymium by lactate in triflate medium suggest that the identified medium effects do not significantly affect the speciation.

    Zalupski, P. R.; Nash, K. L.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Martin, L. R.

    2010-03-01

    337

    Harvesting isotopes. Using stable isotope to understand rainfall - runoff processes in an agricultural catchment in Switzerland  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In agricultural catchments, rainfall-runoff processes have big influence on water availability, geomorphology and transport of nutrients and pesticides. A method to gain knowledge of catchments storm flow respond is hydrograph separation using stable isotopes 18O and 2H. This method has been successfully applied in many natural catchments around the world, but the applications in agricultural catchments are limited. This study presents the hydrograph separation in a small scale agricultural catchment (1 km2) near the village of Ossingen in Switzerland. Summer rainfall events were investigated, spatially and temporally, by making use of hydrograph separation using stable isotopes 18O and 2H in rainfall and discharge. For this purpose, the precipitation amount and its isotopic composition was measured. The discharge was observed at the catchment outlet and in four additional sub catchments. During events the runoff was sampled automatically with a frequency of 15 minutes. Here we present the first results of this study, which show that hydrograph separation improves process understanding also in agricultural catchments.

    Fischer, Benjamin; Doppler, Tobias; Stamm, Christian; Seibert, Jan

    2010-05-01

    338

    Using process drama to enhance pre-service teachers' understanding of science and religion  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a course, Philosophy of Science, taught by the researcher in Semester A, academic year 2007. Process drama is the teaching strategy employed. The students were fully engaged in the process drama; doing research, producing, distributing, and criticizing the drama. Focus group, student journal, and observation were used to gather the data and the data was analyzed using qualitative analysis techniques. The focus groups revealed that the drama could help students reflect on the complexity and sensitivity of the issue. They found there was no inherent conflict between science and religion since they answered different questions and used different methods to achieve their results. However, the conflicts occurred when people were not aware of the basic differences between the two so they justified one on the basis of purpose and method of one another. The pre-service teachers also found consistency between science and Buddhism. They thought that the teachers of science should respond to the conflicts in a respectful, compromising, and neutral manner.[InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan

    2010-03-01

    339

    Network strategies to understand the aging process and help age-related drug design  

    PubMed Central

    Recent studies have demonstrated that network approaches are highly appropriate tools for understanding the extreme complexity of the aging process. Moreover, the generality of the network concept helps to define and study the aging of technological and social networks and ecosystems, which may generate novel concepts for curing age-related diseases. The current review focuses on the role of protein-protein interaction networks (inter-actomes) in aging. Hubs and inter-modular elements of both interactomes and signaling networks are key regulators of the aging process. Aging induces an increase in the permeability of several cellular compartments, such as the cell nucleus, introducing gross changes in the representation of network structures. The large overlap between aging genes and genes of age-related major diseases makes drugs that aid healthy aging promising candidates for the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases, such as cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. We also discuss a number of possible research options to further explore the potential of the network concept in this important field, and show that multi-target drugs (representing 'magic-buckshots' instead of the traditional 'magic bullets') may become an especially useful class of age-related drugs in the future.

    2009-01-01

    340

    Understanding Children's Emotional Processes and Behavioral Strategies in the Context of Marital Conflict  

    PubMed Central

    Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior, however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children’s regulatory processes needs to be examined. The current study examined differences in children’s (n = 207; M = 8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy) and behavioral strategies to regulate conflict exposure during resolved, unresolved, escalating, and child-rearing marital conflict vignettes. Children’s cortisol levels were assessed in relation to child-rearing and resolved conflict vignettes. Anger and sadness were associated with escalating and child-rearing conflicts; fearfulness was related to escalating and unresolved conflicts. Children’s happiness was associated with resolution. Anger was associated with children’s strategies to stop conflict; whereas, sadness was associated with monitoring and avoidant strategies. Cortisol recovery moderated the link between fearfulness and behavioral regulation. These results highlight the importance of children’s emotions and regulatory processes in understanding the impact of marital conflict.

    Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    341

    Advances in understanding the coupling of DNA base modifying enzymes to processes involving base excision repair.  

    PubMed

    This chapter describes some of the recent, exciting developments that have characterized and connected processes that modify DNA bases with DNA repair pathways. It begins with AID/APOBEC or TET family members that covalently modify bases within DNA. The modified bases, such as uracil or 5-formylcytosine, are then excised by DNA glycosylases including UNG or TDG to initiate base excision repair (BER). BER is known to preserve genome integrity by removing damaged bases. The newer studies underscore the necessity of BER following enzymes that deliberately damage DNA. This includes the role of BER in antibody diversification and more recently, its requirement for demethylation of 5-methylcytosine in mammalian cells. The recent advances have shed light on mechanisms of DNA demethylation, and have raised many more questions. The potential hazards of these processes have also been revealed. Dysregulation of the activity of base modifying enzymes, and resolution by unfaithful or corrupt means can be a driver of genome instability and tumorigenesis. The understanding of both DNA and histone methylation and demethylation is now revealing the true extent to which epigenetics influence normal development and cancer, an abnormal development. PMID:23870509

    Wyatt, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    342

    Application of Thermodynamic Models for Better Understanding and Optimizing the Hall-Heroult Process  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the last decade, important improvements have been made in the application of thermodynamic models for studying the molten cryolite system used in the Hall-Heroult process. This approach allows a better understanding and paves the way for furthering developments in bath chemistry and molten metal processing. In this article, thermodynamic modeling is used to explore the operating windows in the reduction of alumina in molten cryolite. The impact of a range of concentrations of AlF3, CaF2, and Al2O3 in conventional or "lithium-free" baths is also discussed. Subsequently, the model was also used to evaluate the impact of additions of lithium fluoride to the bath. Conditions allowing an operation at lower cell voltages and lower bath temperatures were identified. The modeling approach described in this article is considered as an important innovation to revisit fundamentals, to constantly re-examine paradigms, and to identify potential modifications in bath chemistry for improving energy efficiency and productivity of modern prebaked Hall-Heroult cells.

    Coursol, Pascal; Dufour, Gilles; Coté, Jules; Chartrand, Patrice; Mackey, Phillip

    2012-11-01

    343

    The initiation of biological processes on earth: Summary of empirical evidence  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    With the currently available geological record at hand, the existence of life on this planet as from at least 3.8 Gyr ago seems so firmly established as to be virtually unassailable. Specifically, various disparate lines of evidence have merged to indicate (1) that the surface of the Archaean Earth had hosted prolific microbial ecosystems as is testified by a quasi-continuous record of microbialites (``stromatolites'') and associated microfossils of prokaryotic affinity over 3.5, if not 3.8 Gyr of geological history, and (2) that the sedimentary carbon record has preserved the isotopic signature of autotrophic (notably photosynthetic) carbon fixation over the same time span. With the observed enrichment of isotopically light carbon in sedimentary organic matter largely consonant with the bias in favor of 12C during photosynthesis, the mainstream of the carbon isotope record can be best explained as geochemical manifestation of the isotope discriminating properties of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase reaction of the Calvin cycle suggesting an extreme degree of evolutionary conservatism in the biochemistry of autotrophic carbon fixation. As a consequence, partial biological control of the geochemical carbon cycle was established already during Early Archaean times and fully operative by the time of formation of the Earth's earliest sediments.

    Schidlowski, Manfred

    344

    Breaking up the Writing Process: How Wikis Can Support Understanding the Composition and Revision Strategies of Young Writers  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Understanding how best to support immature writers in the development of their understanding of the writing process is an important concern for researchers and teachers. Social technologies have become key features of leisure and work place writing, yet knowledge about how to design educational settings that take full advantage of the affordances…

    Pifarre, Manoli; Fisher, Ros

    2011-01-01

    345

    Muon diagnostics of the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetosphere  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A method of distant monitoring of the Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere is described, which is based on the close correlation\\u000a between the modulations in the flux of atmospheric muons detected at the Earth’s surface and the dynamic processes in the\\u000a Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere and implies the use of large-area muon hodoscopes with high angular accuracy of muon\\u000a detection. The

    N. S. Barbashina; V. V. Borog; A. N. Dmitrieva; R. P. Kokoulin; K. G. Kompaniets; A. A. Petrukhin; D. A. Timashkov; V. V. Shutenko; I. I. Yashin

    2007-01-01

    346

    Measurement and Understanding of the Level and Effect of Residual Stresses Induced by the Laser Shock Peening Process.  

    National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

    This paper describes work undertaken to understand and quantify the benefits of laser shock peening (LSP) in improving the fatigue resistance of components when subject to high, near surface alternating stress fields. The process is known to introduce com...

    D. Rugg J. Schofield M. Lawson M. McElhone P. Greenacre

    2005-01-01

    347

    Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early Precambrian (Archean, Early Paleoproterozoic) tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth was rather different from the Phanerozoic: the major features then were huge granite-greenstone terranes (GGTs) and their separating granulite belts; mantle melts were derived from a depleted source. The GGTs consisting of greenstone belts with komatiite-basaltic magmatism in Archean, "submerged" in granite gneiss matrix, probably, strong reworked primordial sialic crust, and by siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) in early Paleoproterozoic. GGTs were areas of extension, uplifting and denudation, whereas the granulite belts were dominated by compression, sinking and sedimentation. Generally, the Early Precambrian geological pattern was rather different from the modern plate tectonics and can be described in plumetectonics terms. A drastic change of the tectonomagamtic and ecology processes on it's surface occurred at ca. 2.3-2.0 Ga: instead of high-Mg magmas appeared geochemical enriched Fe-Ti pucrites and basalts, and the plume tectonic was changed by plate tectonics, which is still active now, as well as ecologic situation on the surface. Since that time the primordial sialic continental crust has been gradually replaced by the secondary basaltic oceanic crust. Systematic consumption of the ancient crust in subduction zones obviously started at ~2 Ga and led to gradually replacing it by the secondary mafic (oceanic) crust. The crustal materials has stored in the "slab cemeteries", revealed in the mantle by seismic tomography. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Moon began4.4-4.0 Ga in lunar highlands with low-Ti magnesium suite, analogous to the terrestrial Paleoproterozoic SHMS. Cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes, close to that on the Earth, happed on the Moon ~3.9 Ga to form large depressions of lunar maria with thinned crust and vast basaltic volcanism with signatures of plume magmatism (high-Ti basalts). The lunar maria were, probably, specific analogues of Earth's oceans. On Venus and Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basal

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    348

    Process Network Approach to Understanding How Forest Ecosystems Adapt to Changes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sustainability challenges are transforming science and its role in society. Complex systems science has emerged as an inevitable field of education and research, which transcends disciplinary boundaries and focuses on understanding of the dynamics of complex social-ecological systems (SES). SES is a combined system of social and ecological components and drivers that interact and give rise to results, which could not be understood on the basis of sociological or ecological considerations alone. However, both systems may be viewed as a network of processes, and such a network hierarchy may serve as a hinge to bridge social and ecological systems. As a first step toward such effort, we attempted to delineate and interpret such process networks in forest ecosystems, which play a critical role in the cycles of carbon and water from local to global scales. These cycles and their variability, in turn, play an important role in the emergent and self-organizing interactions between forest ecosystems and their environment. Ruddell and Kumar (2009) define a process network as a network of feedback loops and the related time scales, which describe the magnitude and direction of the flow of energy, matter, and information between the different variables in a complex system. Observational evidence, based on micrometeorological eddy covariance measurements, suggests that heterogeneity and disturbances in forest ecosystems in monsoon East Asia may facilitate to build resilience for adaptation to change. Yet, the principles that characterize the role of variability in these interactions remain elusive. In this presentation, we report results from the analysis of multivariate ecohydrologic and biogeochemical time series data obtained from temperate forest ecosystems in East Asia based on information flow statistics.

    Kim, J.; Yun, J.; Hong, J.; Kwon, H.; Chun, J.

    2011-12-01

    349

    Earth Math  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This text explores a few of the many concepts that frequently come up in the study of Earth systems and global climate change. Students will be exposed to many problems involving unit conversion. Global climate change reports involve terms such as kilowatt-hour, megawatt-hour, and gigawatt-hour, as well as megatons and gigatons. Students will become versed in converting units where appropriate, and through the calculations, will work with the concept of significant figures. Creating linear equations from graphical and tabular information is covered, as well as forecasting. The text is meant to be used as a companion to standard Earth science and mathematics courses, and presents enough application problems to allow students to quantitatively understand typical media reports about global climate change.

    2009-01-01

    350

    Earth Institute  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The mission of the Earth Institute at Columbia University is to help the world achieve sustainability by expanding understanding of the Earth as one integrated system. Through research, education, and the practical application of research to real-world challenges, the Institute addresses nine interconnected global issues: climate and society, water, energy, poverty, ecosystems, public health, food and nutrition, and hazards and urbanization. The Institute's site offers a collection of videotaped events, including the biannual "State of the Planet" conferences, 2002-08, a Distinguished Lecture series, and the Sustainable Development seminar series, as well as e-seminars and e-briefings, information about funding opportunities, and information about educational opportunities at Columbia.

    351

    Earth-based radar and LRO Diviner constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta processing  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Many large craters on the lunar nearside show radar circular polarization ratio (CPR) signatures consistent with the presence of blocky ejecta blankets, to distances of 0.5 to 1.5 crater radii. However, most of these surfaces show very low surface rock concentration values and only limited enhancements in regolith temperatures calculated from Diviner nighttime infrared observations. Because the radar signal is integrated over the radar penetration depth (up to several meters), but the Diviner signal is sensitive only to rocks within the upper meter of the surface, this indicates that ejecta blocks on the surface and in the shallow subsurface are quickly removed by continued bombardment. Deeper subsurface rocks, which are clearly evident in radar CPR maps but are covered by a sufficiently thick layer of thermally insulating regolith material to render them invisible to Diviner, persist for much longer. By matching the results of one-dimensional thermal models to Diviner nighttime temperatures, we can constrain the thermophysical properties of the upper 1 meter of regolith. We find that Diviner nighttime cooling curves are best fit by a density profile that varies exponentially with depth, consistent with a mixture of rocks and regolith fines, with increasing rock content with depth. Using this density profile together with the surface rock abundance, we can estimate the excess rock mass represented by rocks on the surface and within the upper meter of regolith for individual craters. We find that for craters of known age younger than ~1.7Ga, a robust correlation exists between ejecta mass and crater age, which yields the first observational estimate of the rate of lunar ejecta processing. Our results show that crater ejecta are initially removed very quickly (perhaps up to ~1cm / m.y.), with the rate slowing over a short period of time to less than 1 mm / m.y., as the number of blocks on the surface decreases and the volume of protective regolith material increases, shielding subsurface rocks from the effects of bombardment. In principle, this relationship could be used to constrain the ages of other young lunar craters for which age dating by other means (e.g., counting craters on the continuous ejecta) is not possible. This is important because it has the potential to constrain the recent impactor flux, which in turn bears on our understanding of the evolution of the asteroid belt.

    Ghent, Rebecca R.; Hayne, Paul O.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Carter, Lynn M.; Allen, Carlton

    2013-04-01

    352

    Relation between the Electromagnetic Processes in the Near-Earth Space and Dynamics of the Biological Resources in Russian Arctic  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    It is a well-established fact that the electromagnetic processes of different kind occurring in the near- Earth space produce significant effects in the Earth's atmosphere at all altitudes including the ground surface. There are some indications that these processes could influence at least indirectly the human health conditions. In this study we explore relation between perturbations in the solar wind (dynamics of its density, velocity, intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field) and long- term changes in population of some species of Arctic fauna (lemmings, polar foxes, deers, wolves, elks etc.) It was found out that the best statistical coupling between various Space Weather parameters and the changes in populations of the Arctic fauna species appears when the solar wind dynamic pressure magnitude is taken as one of these parameters. It was shown that the secular variations of the solar UV radiation expressed as the Total Solar Irradiance appears to be a space parameter, showing the best correlation with the changes in population of the Arctic fauna species. Such high correlation coefficients as 0.8 are obtained. It is premature now to discuss exact physical mechanisms, which could explain the obtained relations. A possible mutual dependence of some climatic factors and fauna population in Arctic on the Space Weather parameters is discussed in this connection. Conclusion is made that the electromagnetic fields of space origin is an important factor determining dynamics of population of the Arctic fauna species.

    Makarova, L. N.; Shirochkov, A. V.

    353

    Confronting sediment budgets for different time periods in the Holocene with contemporary erosion process understanding  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soil erosion and sediment deposition are important geomorphic processes in the central European loess belt. Several studies have shown that important changes in the rates of soil erosion and sediment deposition occurred during the Holocene. Sediment budget approaches are ideal tools to understand such complex system behavior during the Holocene. Within this study a temporal differentiated Holocene sediment budget based on field data was constructed for the Belgian Dijle catchment (870 km²), and compared with a soil erosion model that was applied for the same time periods. Hand auger data from 6 locations were extrapolated to the entire catchment using different geomorphic units in order to calculate Holocene slope erosion and deposition amounts. Alluvial deposition was calculated using 26 hand auger cross valley profiles, spread over the catchment. A distinction was made between the main valley and the tributaries. In total 73 radiocarbon dates and 12 OSL dates from 3 colluvial and 8 alluvial sediment archives were used to split this sediment budget into three different time frames: early Holocene until 500 BC, 500 BC - 1000 AD and 1000 AD - present. The spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment deposition model WATEM/SEDEM was used to asses the soil erosion intensities for various historic periods for which land use was estimated based on population density and arable area per capita estimates: a pristine forest cover representing the pre-Neolithic period, Neolithic period, Roman times, Middle Ages (1200 AD-1300 AD) and pre-industrial times (1600 AD-1700 AD). Model outcomes were confronted with the sediment budget that was constructed by the field-based approach. The resulting sediment budget shows clearly an increase of sediment deposition in the late Holocene, first starting in the colluvial valleys and later on prograding towards the larger valleys. Although climate may have been a trigger in some cases, it is clear that land use changes are the main explaining factor. Model results are generally in agreement with this sediment budget, further more stressing the importance of land use changes. These results indicate that contemporary process understanding, on which the model is based, can be used for long term sediment budget studies.

    Notebaert, B.; Verstraeten, G.; Poesen, J.; Govers, G.

    2009-04-01

    354

    Processing and electrical properties of alkaline earth-doped lanthanum gallate  

    SciTech Connect

    Oxides exhibiting substantial oxygen ion conductivity are utilized in a number of high-temperature applications, including solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen separation membranes, membrane reactors, and oxygen sensors. Alkaline earth-doped lanthanum gallate powders were prepared by glycine/nitrate combustion synthesis. Compacts of powders synthesized under fuel-rich conditions were sintered to densities greater than 97% of theoretical. Appropriate doping with Sr or Ba on the A-site of the perovskite structure, and Mg on the B-site, resulted in oxygen ion conductivity higher than that of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and high ionic transference numbers. Doping with Ca and Mg resulted in lower conductivity than YSZ. Thermal expansion coefficients of the doped gallates were higher than that of YSZ.

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; McCready, D.E.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Dept.

    1997-10-01

    355

    Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

    Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    356

    IMF control of the Earth's magnetosphere  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    We review recent progress in the understanding of the IMF control on the Earth's magnetosphere through the reconnection process. Major points include, (1) the identification of the magnetopause structure under the southward IMF polarity to be the rotational discontinuity and the resulting inference that the reconnection line is formed in the equatorial region, and (2) the confirmation from several observational

    A. Nishida

    1983-01-01

    357

    The Role of Atomic Physics in Understanding Physical Processes in High Energy Astrophysics  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    X-ray grating spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton have provided new insights into many of the physical processes present in astrophysical sources. For example, (i) shocks produced by magnetic accretion onto stellar surfaces cool as the material flows down, with density and temperature diagnostics providing tests of the accretion models; (ii) many active galactic nuclei (AGN) produce winds or outflows, detectable through X-ray absorption; (iii) active cool stars have coronal pressures several orders of magnitude larger than found on the Sun. The diagnostics used to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, ionization states, and opacities require extremely accurate atomic data. At the same time, we must have a fairly complete database in order to ensure that the diagnostics are not blended or otherwise compromised. The best spectra are from bright objects with long exposures (days), but the information contained allows us to infer the location(s) of the emitting and absorbing plasmas and understand the physical properties. We will give examples to illustrate the role of atomic physics in our analyses of such spectra and the quality of data required.

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2007-08-01

    358

    The Role of Atomic Physics in Understanding Physical Processes in High Energy Astrophysics  

    SciTech Connect

    X-ray grating spectra from Chandra and XMM-Newton have provided new insights into many of the physical processes present in astrophysical sources. For example (i) shocks produced by magnetic accretion onto stellar surfaces cool as the material flows down, with density and temperature diagnostics providing tests of the accretion models; (ii) many active galactic nuclei (AGN) produce winds or outflows, detectable through X-ray absorption; (iii) active cool stars have coronal pressures several orders of magnitude larger than found on the Sun.The diagnostics used to determine temperatures, densities, elemental abundances, ionization states, and opacities require extremely accurate atomic data. At the same time, we must have a fairly complete database in order to ensure that the diagnostics are not blended or otherwise compromised. The best spectra are from bright objects with long exposures (days), but the information contained allows us to infer the location(s) of the emitting and absorbing plasmas and understand the physical properties. We will give examples to illustrate the role of atomic physics in our analyses of such spectra and the quality of data required.

    Brickhouse, Nancy S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2007-08-02

    359

    Changes in Health Perceptions after Exposure to Human Suffering: Using Discrete Emotions to Understand Underlying Processes  

    PubMed Central

    Background The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality), as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. Methodology/Findings An experimental group (N?=?47) was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N?=?47) was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. Conclusion These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

    Paschali, Antonia A.; Mitsopoulou, Efi; Tsaggarakis, Valentinos; Karademas, Evangelos C.

    2012-01-01

    360

    Modelling dewatering behaviour through an understanding of solids formation processes. Part I--Solids formation considerations.  

    PubMed

    An understanding of the mechanisms which control solids formation can provide information on the characteristics of the solids which are formed. These characteristics will in turn impact on dewatering behaviour. In this paper a model for solids formation is proposed. The first part of the model considers the hydrodynamics in the precipitation vessel, from which a reactant mixing model is developed. Spatially variant solution conditions are quantified (dynamically) using an equilibrium speciation model. These calculations are performed in conjunction with an adsorption model, accounting for equilibria involving adsorbed species. The kinetics of solids formation, including nucleation, growth and aggregation, are described empirically using spatially variant supersaturation profiles. These, together with moment transformations of the solids population balance, describe the evolution of particle sizes throughout the precipitation process. Precipitation of nickel hydroxide is explored experimentally, and models developed are fitted to the results. Comments are offered on the impact of simplifications required for computational reasons, and assumptions required due to lack of information, on the accuracy of the model. In part II of this paper, the use of model outputs in predicting filtration behaviour is explored. PMID:15935141

    Dustan, A C; Cohen, B; Petrie, J G

    2005-03-24

    361

    Earth Science Literacy: Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Earth Science Literacy Initiative seeks to create community consensus regarding what every person should know about earth science. This NSF-sponsored, inter-agency effort complements the Ocean, Climate, and Atmospheric Science Literacy Principles. The Earth Science Literacy draft document contains the Big Ideas and Supporting Concepts that underlie the research fields funded through the NSF-EAR division. The draft document is written for a high school graduate reading level. Community feedback on this draft is essential to the creation of a robust document that can effectively communicate current scientific understanding of the earth sciences. The draft document has eight Big Ideas which follow the themes of (1)Earth's history, (2) Earth's complex interacting systems, (3) the evolving geosphere, (4) water-related processes, (5) Earth's controls on the evolution of life, (6) Earth's resources, (7) natural hazards and human risks, and (8) human impacts on the Earth. Supporting concepts provide the related detail necessary to understand the Big Ideas. The Earth Science Literacy document has a decidedly anthropomorphic bias with three of the Big Ideas (resources, hazards and human impacts) relating directly to human interactions with the Earth. This human bias is justified by the increasing significance of Earth science-related topics such as increasing population, climate change, and scarcity of resources. Literacy documents from the ocean, atmosphere and climate communities have already had large impacts and the same is expected for the earth science literacy framework. The document will provide a foundation for future K-12 educational standards and K-16 textbooks, provide the basis for the displays and programs of informal education venues, and provide guidance for future governmental agency decisions in the earth sciences.

    Ladue, N. D.; Wysession, M.; Budd, D. A.; Campbell, K.; Conklin, M.; Lewis, G.; Raynolds, R.; Ridky, R. W.; Ross, R. M.; Taber, J.; Tewksbury, B.; Tuddenham, P.

    2008-12-01

    362

    Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections as they communicate what they know and how they know it. Although tools such as vee-maps can scaffold students' efforts to design investigations, we know less about how these tools support students in connecting scientific ideas with the evidence they are generating, how these connections develop over time, or how writing can be used to encourage such connections. In this study, we explored students' developing ability to reason scientifically by examining the relationship between students' understanding of scientific phenomena and their understanding of how to generate and evaluate evidence for their ideas in writing. Three high school classes completed three investigations. One class used vee-mapping each time, one used vee-mapping once, and one did not use vee-mapping. Students' maps and written reports were rated for understanding of relevant science procedural and conceptual ideas. Comparisons between groups and over time indicate a positive relationship between improved procedural and conceptual understanding. Findings also indicate that improved procedural understanding preceded improved conceptual understanding, and thus, multiple experiences were needed for students to connect evidence and explanation for science phenomena.

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-08-01

    363

    Density of the Earth  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration of average density uses understandable units of total mass and volume of the Earth. The required supplies are a can of beer or soda and a 1-pound bag of pretzels. By imagining, for instance, 4.4 bags of pretzels fitting into a beer/soda can, students can better visualize the average density of the Earth.

    Barker, Jeffrey

    364

    Know Your Earth  

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated video shares a series of fascinating facts about how climate change affects oceans, land, the atmosphere and ice sheets around the world. With the help of an animated astronaut touring the Earth, the video explains how NASA’s Earth-observing satellite fleet enables scientists to gather accurate data and understand those changes.

    gsfcvideo

    2010-06-30

    365

    Exergy analysis: An efficient tool for process optimization and understanding. Demonstrated on the vinyl-chloride plant of Akzo Nobel  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Exergy analysis has shown to be an efficient tool for process optimization and understanding. An exergy analysis has been made of the Akzo Nobel vinyl-chloride plant at Rotterdam, the Netherlands using Aspen plus™. The processed using specially developed routines. The results of this analysis are shown in an Exergy Flow Diagram. The exergy flow diagram gives a clear picture on

    A. J. G. G. Graveland; E. Gisolf

    1998-01-01

    366

    An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    367

    Understanding Interference and Inhibition Processes from a Motivational and Self-Regulated Learning Perspective: Comments on Dempster and Corkill  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Interference and inhibition processes as discussed by Dempster and Corkill (1999) are useful on two levels: first, metaphorically in terms of general themes for educational psychology, and, second, in terms of psychological mechanisms for understanding learning. At the same time, there are a number of issues that must be addressed in future theory and research before interference and inhibition processes

    Paul R. Pintrich

    1999-01-01

    368

    The Relation between Students' Epistemological Understanding of Computer Models and Their Cognitive Processing on a Modelling Task  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |While many researchers in science education have argued that students' epistemological understanding of models and of modelling processes would influence their cognitive processing on a modelling task, there has been little direct evidence for such an effect. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relation between students'…

    Sins, Patrick H. M.; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette H. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    369

    An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    370

    COULD THE THEORY OF COMMUNICATIVE PLANNING POSSIBLY GUIDE A PRACTICAL PROCESS TO ENHANCE CHILDREN'S UNDERSTANDING OF DEMOCRACY?  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In this paper I argue that the theory of communicative planning can guide a practical process to enhance children's understanding of democracy. A set of principles has been designed to assist the process of empowerment. Knowledge of the local environment and identification of small, ugly places in need for improvement are used as basis for the children's experiences of the

    Kari Bjørka Hodneland

    371

    Mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A review of the characteristics, processes, and spatial distributions of analogs for Mars  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori S.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Wan Bun Tseung, Jean-Michel; Skinner, James A.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2009-05-01

    372

    Mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A review of the characteristics, processes, and spatial distributions of analogs for Mars  

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

    Burr, D. M.; Bruno, B. C.; Lanagan, P. D.; Glaze, L. S.; Jaeger, W. L.; Soare, R. J.; Wan, Bun, Tseung, J. -M.; Skinner, Jr. , J. A.; Baloga, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    373

    Direct-to-Earth Communications and Signal Processing for Mars Exploration Rover Entry, Descent, and Landing  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For planetary lander missions, the most challenging phase of the spacecraft-to-ground communications is during the entry, descent, and landing (EDL). As each 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) enters the Martian atmosphere, it slows dramatically. The extreme acceleration and jerk cause extreme Doppler dynamics on the 8.4-GHz (X-band) signal received on Earth. When the vehicle slows sufficiently, the parachute is deployed, causing almost a step in deceleration. After parachute deployment, the lander is lowered beneath the parachute on a bridle. The swinging motion of the lander imparts high Doppler dynamics on the signal and causes the received signal strength to vary widely due to changing antenna pointing angles. All this time, the vehicle transmits important health and status information that is especially critical if the landing is not successful. Even using the largest Deep Space Network antennas, the weak signal and high dynamics render it impossible to conduct reliable phase-coherent communications. Therefore, a specialized form of frequency-shift keying will be used. This article describes the EDL scenario, the signal conditions, the methods used to detect and frequency track the carrier and to detect the data modulation, and the resulting performance estimates.

    Satorius, E.; Estabrook, P.; Wilson, J.; Fort, D.

    2003-01-01

    374

    THE EARTH OBSERVATION MISSION CARBON3D - A SYNERGETIC MULTI SENSOR APPROACH TO GLOBAL BIOMASS MAPPING FOR AN IMPROVED UNDERSTANDING OF THE CO2 BALANCE  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    To estimate the potential impact of global climate change an improved knowledge of the carbon cycle and its variability is essential. In response to an announcement of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) for a national Earth observation mission, the Friedrich- Schiller University Jena and the JenaOptronik GmbH proposed the EO-mission CARBON-3D. The data products of this multi sensor mission will

    S. Hese; C. Schmullius; R. Dubayah; M. Barnsley

    375

    Refining the Understanding of Inhibitory Processes: How Response Prepotency Is Created and Overcome  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with…

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.; Gorniak, Sarah L.; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

    2012-01-01

    376

    An Information Processing Analysis of the Function of Conceptual Understanding in the Learning of Arithmetic Procedures.  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Children learn arithmetic procedures by rote, rather than by constructing them with an understanding of numbers. Rote learning produces lack of flexibility, nonsensical errors, and other difficulties. Proposed is a theory of conceptual understanding and its role in learning and executing arithmetic procedures. The basic hypothesis is that…

    Ohlsson, Stellan; Rees, Ernest

    377

    Digital Library for Earth System Education Adds Pedagogical Links  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Effectively teaching Earth science requires not only a broad understanding of geoscience topics but also strategies and tools to help students learn. For example, a teacher planning a lesson on the hydrologic cycle should know students' common misconceptions (e.g., groundwater flows as underground rivers), how studying the water cycle can contribute to students' understanding of systems and processes, how to

    Kim A. Kastens; Robert Arko; Neil Holzman; Kathryn Ginger

    2007-01-01

    378

    Earth Rings for Planetary Environment Control  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    For most of its past, large parts of the Earth have experienced subtropical climates, with high sea levels and no polar icecaps. This warmer environment was punctuated 570, 280, and 3 million years ago with periods of glaciation that covered temperate regions with thick ice for millions of years. At the end of the current ice age, a warmer climate could flood coastal cities, even without human-caused global warming. In addition, asteroids bombard the Earth periodically, with impacts large enough to destroy most life on Earth, and the sun is warming inexorably. This paper proposes a concept to solve these problems simultaneously, by creating an artificial planetary ring about the Earth to shade it. Past proposals for space climate control have depended on gigantic engineering structures launched from Earth and placed in Earth orbit or at the Earth-Sun L1 libration point, requiring fabrication, large launch masses and expense, constant control, and repair. Our solution is to begin by using lunar material, and then mine and remove Earth-orbit-crossing asteroids and discard the tailings into Earth orbit, to form a broad, flat ring like those of Saturn. This solution is evaluated and compared with other alternatives. Such ring systems can persist for thousands of years, and can be maintained by shepherding satellites or by continual replenishment from new asteroids to replace the edges of the ring lost by diffusion. An Earth ring at R = 1.3-1.83 RE would shade only the equatorial regions, moderating climate extremes, and could reverse a century of global warming. It could also absorb particles from the radiation belts, making trips to high Earth orbit and GEO safer for humans and for electronics. It would also light the night many times as bright as the full moon. A preliminary design of the ring is developed, including its location, mass, composition, stability, and timescale required. A one-dimensional climate model is used to evaluate the Earth ring performance. Earth, lunar, and asteroidal material sources are evaluated; asteroid retrieval is addressed, along with techniques for processing and forming the ring to the proper thickness and density. The ring could consist of particles, or fabricated satellite structures. Environmental concerns and effects on existing satellites in various Earth orbits are addressed. There are uncertainties in our understanding of climate and its control. But it appears that the Earth ring could control the Earth's temperature and its latitudinal variation, make dangerous asteroids useful, reduce the intensity of the Van Allen radiation belts, provide nighttime illumination without power, and create an artificial ionosphere for radio communication.

    Pearson, Jerome; Oldson, John; Levin, Eugene; Carroll, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    379

    EarthLabs - Investigating Hurricanes: Earth's Meteorological Monsters  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earth science is one of the most important tools that the global community needs to address the pressing environmental, social, and economic issues of our time. While, at times considered a second-rate science at the high school level, it is currently undergoing a major revolution in the depth of content and pedagogical vitality. As part of this revolution, labs in Earth science courses need to shift their focus from cookbook-like activities with known outcomes to open-ended investigations that challenge students to think, explore and apply their learning. We need to establish a new model for Earth science as a rigorous lab science in policy, perception, and reality. As a concerted response to this need, five states, a coalition of scientists and educators, and an experienced curriculum team are creating a national model for a lab-based high school Earth science course named EarthLabs. This lab course will comply with the National Science Education Standards as well as the states' curriculum frameworks. The content will focus on Earth system science and environmental literacy. The lab experiences will feature a combination of field work, classroom experiments, and computer access to data and visualizations, and demonstrate the rigor and depth of a true lab course. The effort is being funded by NOAA's Environmental Literacy program. One of the prototype units of the course is Investigating Hurricanes. Hurricanes are phenomena which have tremendous impact on humanity and the resources we use. They are also the result of complex interacting Earth systems, making them perfect objects for rigorous investigation of many concepts commonly covered in Earth science courses, such as meteorology, climate, and global wind circulation. Students are able to use the same data sets, analysis tools, and research techniques that scientists employ in their research, yielding truly authentic learning opportunities. This month-long integrated unit uses hurricanes as the story line by which students investigate the different interactions involved in hurricane generation, steering, and intensification. Students analyze a variety of visualization resources looking for patterns in occurrence and to develop an understanding of hurricane structure. They download archived data about past hurricanes and produce temporal and spatial plots to discover patterns in hurricane life cycles. They investigate the relationship between hurricane wind speed and factors such as barometric pressure and sea surface temperature by conducting spreadsheet analyses on archived data. They also conduct hands-on laboratory experiments in order to understand the physical processes that underpin energy transfer in convection, condensation, and latent heat. These activities highlight Earth science as a vital, rich, invigorating course, employing state-of-the-art technologies and in-depth labs with high relevance for our daily lives and the future.

    McDaris, J. R.; Dahlman, L.; Barstow, D.

    2007-12-01

    380

    Earth meandering  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In this paper we try to put away current Global Tectonic Model to look the tectonic evolution of the earth from new point of view. Our new dynamic model is based on study of river meandering (RM) which infer new concept as Earth meandering(EM). In a universal gravitational field if we consider a clockwise spiral galaxy model rotate above Ninety East Ridge (geotectonic axis GA), this system with applying torsion field (likes geomagnetic field) in side direction from Rocky Mt. (west geotectonic pole WGP) to Tibetan plateau TP (east geotectonic pole EGP),it seems that pulled mass from WGP and pushed it in EGP due to it's rolling dynamics. According to this idea we see in topographic map that North America and Green land like a tongue pulled from Pacific mouth toward TP. Actually this system rolled or meander the earth over itself fractaly from small scale to big scale and what we see in the river meandering and Earth meandering are two faces of one coin. River transport water and sediments from high elevation to lower elevation and also in EM, mass transport from high altitude-Rocky Mt. to lower altitude Himalaya Mt. along 'S' shape geodetic line-optimum path which connect points from high altitude to lower altitude as kind of Euler Elastica(EE). These curves are responsible for mass spreading (source) and mass concentration (sink). In this regard, tiltness of earth spin axis plays an important role, 'S' are part of sigmoidal shape which formed due to intersection of Earth rolling with the Earth glob and actual feature of transform fault and river meandering. Longitudinal profile in mature rivers as a part of 'S' curve also is a kind of EE. 'S' which bound the whole earth is named S-1(S order 1) and cube corresponding to this which represent Earth fracturing in global scale named C-1(cube order 1 or side vergence cube SVC), C-1 is a biggest cycle of spiral polygon, so it is not completely closed and it has separation about diameter of C-7. Inside SVC we introduce cone vergence cube (CVC or geotectonic equator GE) which rotate 45 degree counterclockwise with respect to SVC. Every cube from big scale to small scale fractalize in order of 23 and every '8' shape from big scale to small scale also fractalize in the same order. Three dimensional and fractoscopic imagination about understanding the changing on earth is very important so we should imagine '8' as curved surface, sea floor spreading happened in maximum curvature of these surfaces. '8' formed from pair 'S' string with opposite direction. '8' oscillate in Pole-Pole and Side-Side direction and have saddle geometry with two 'U' path along perpendicular saddle (e.g. Lut/Jazmurian and Helmand/Mashkal basin in Iran actually intersection of this saddle shape with the earth surface and Iceland /Black Sea and CapeVerde/Victoria Lake are also In/Out (small scale polygon) of 'U' shape conduit which followed axial saddle of Side-'S-2' and Okhotsk Sea /Balkhash Lake followed axial saddle conduit of Pole-'S-2' actually intersection of this perpendicular conduit with surface make spot-like-lakes/volcanoes or basin. Global EM in Side-S-1 bounded compression region-TP inside and tension region-East African Rift offside).This is a interesting competing between two kinematic geometry - spherical and isometrical geometry by using the interaction of them we can analyze the earth face in past, present and future apart of the forces that cause this face. C-1 in two dimensional look like six sided big tent which speared over Tibet and main rod driven along GA. Pair S-1 curve. have seven component(fold) and six segment in between,S-7 exactly located on TP(center of S-1). Between two successive fold we have complex geology(e.g. eastern Iran and Afghanistan)mass dragged from North America and Siberian and accumulated gradually during six step in Earth Foundation(Tibet),S-7 bounded Takla Makan Desert (in smaller loop) and TP (in bigger loop) S-7 alter the earth balance and responsible for earth disturbing, another sample of 'S' curve we see around Australia and Kermadec/Tonga Trench, Aleutian ri

    Asadiyan, H.; Zamani, A.

    2009-04-01

    381

    Student Geoscientists Explore the Earth during Earth Science Week 2005  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Taking place October 9-15, Earth Science Week 2005 will celebrate the theme "Geoscientists Explore the Earth." The American Geological Institute (AGI) is organizing the event, as always, to help people better understand and appreciate the Earth sciences and to encourage stewardship of the planet. This year, the focus will be on the wide range of…

    Benbow, Ann E.; Camphire, Geoff

    2005-01-01

    382

    Towards the Prediction of Decadal to Centennial Climate Processes in the Coupled Earth System Model  

    SciTech Connect

    In this proposal, we have made major advances in the understanding of decadal and long term climate variability. (a) We performed a systematic study of multidecadal climate variability in FOAM-LPJ and CCSM-T31, and are starting exploring decadal variability in the IPCC AR4 models. (b) We develop several novel methods for the assessment of climate feedbacks in the observation. (c) We also developed a new initialization scheme DAI (Dynamical Analogue Initialization) for ensemble decadal prediction. (d) We also studied climate-vegetation feedback in the observation and models. (e) Finally, we started a pilot program using Ensemble Kalman Filter in CGCM for decadal climate prediction.

    Zhengyu Liu, J. E. Kutzbach, R. Jacob, C. Prentice

    2011-12-05

    383

    The Living Earth: Inviting Students into the World of Scientific Research through Seismology  

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In an introductory geoscience course, various elements of seismology were combined -- such as seismographs, seismograms, simulation of earthquake processes, and data analysis -- with open-ended problem solving to support preservice elementary teachers in understanding Earth science concepts.

    Kafka, Alan; Pfitzner-Gatling, Anne; Szymanski, Eugene; Barnett, Michael

    2005-05-01

    384

    Polar Misunderstandings: Earth's Dynamic Dynamo  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This article discusses the movement of Earth's north and south poles. The Earth's poles may be a bit more complex and dynamic than what many students and teachers believe. With better understanding, offer them up as a rich landscape for higher-level critical analysis and subject integration. Possible curriculum tie-ins include magnets, Earth

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    385

    Understanding the Unconscious Brain: Evidence for Non-Linear Information Processing  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abstract Neuroimaging,techniques have ,made ,breakthroughs ,in the field of conscious emotional processing possible. However, people process most emotional information at an unconscious level and this influences our daily life (Van den Noort, 2003). These unconscious ,processes ,still remain ,a great ,mystery. What are the limits of unconscious ,information ,processing? Neuroimaging-,and ,skin ,conductance ,studies ,will ,be discussed to answer this question.

    Maurits Van Den Noort; Peggy Bosch; Kenneth Hugdahl

    386

    Keeping Earth at work: Using thermodynamics to develop a holistic theory of the Earth system  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Earth system is unique among terrestrial planets in that it is maintained in a state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Practically all processes are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy, and these would act to destroy this state of disequilibrium. In order to maintain disequilibrium in steady state, driving forces are required that perform the work to maintain the Earth system in a state far from equilibrium. To characterize the functioning of the Earth system and the interactions among its subsystems we need to consider all terms of the first and second law of thermodynamics. While the global energy balance is well established in climatology, the global entropy and work balances receive little, if any, attention. Here I will present first steps in developing a holistic theory of the Earth system including quantifications of the relevant terms that is based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This theory allows us to compare the significance of different processes in driving and maintaining disequilibrium, allows us to explore interactions by investigating the role of power transfer among processes, and specifically illustrate the significance of life in driving planetary disequilibrium. Furthermore, the global work balance demonstrates the significant impact of human activity and it provides an estimate for the availability of renewable sources of free energy within the Earth system. Hence, I conclude that a holistic thermodynamic theory of the Earth system is not just some academic exercise of marginal use, but essential for a profound understanding of the Earth system and its response to change.

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-05-01

    387

    Manifestation of earth deformation processes by high-frequency seismic noise characteristics  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    During recent years special investigations of high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) have been conducted in order to study the nature of temporal regularities of this process. Some correlation between HFSN level and slow changes of stress field have been observed under different geological conditions. These phenomena were interpreted as being due to the presence of a seismic emission component in HFSN

    B. P. Diakonov; B. S. Karryev; O. B. Khavroshkin; A. V. Nikolaev; L. N. Rykunov; R. R. Seroglasov; A. K. Trojanov; V. V. Tsyplakov

    1990-01-01

    388

    Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique

    F. Schowengerdt

    2002-01-01

    389

    Identification of Volcanic Landforms and Processes on Earth and Mars using Geospatial Analysis (Invited)  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nearest neighbor (NN) analysis enables the identification of landforms using non-morphological parameters and can be useful for constraining the geological processes contributing to observed patterns of spatial distribution. Explosive interactions between lava and water can generate volcanic rootless cone (VRC) groups that are well suited to geospatial analyses because they consist of a large number of landforms that share a

    S. A. Fagents; C. W. Hamilton

    2009-01-01

    390

    Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far-reaching. They include such technologies as catalyst supports, high-temperature insulation and filters, bone replacement materials, new fire suppression systems for buildings, ships and aircraft; industrial process heating, and low- cost non-oxide ceramic powders. These and other applications will be surveyed at the conference.

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    391

    Multiperspective-Modelling in the Process of Constructing and Understanding Physical Theories Using the Example of the Plane Mirror Image  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaching physics goes along with explaining natural phenomena. The modelling process during the acquisition of physical knowledge plays an important role in developing understanding and deeper insight. Novices, however, have problems with this modelling process, in particular because they do not understand that teachers are talking about models of reality and not about reality itself. Physical theories are described with linguistic and mathematical symbols; hence there exist at least two perspectives of modelling, physical and mathematical modelling. According to Greca and Moreira (2001) [2] understanding of physics in school is achieved if it is possible to predict a physical phenomenon from its physical models. Yet, apart from the physical and the mathematical perspective of modelling other perspectives of modelling are necessary for understanding complex physical phenomena. To prevent confusion for the learner it is essential to differentiate between these different perspectives of modelling. This process of differentiation between various perspectives of modelling will be referred to as `Multiperspective-Modelling'. Prior studies (F. Goldberg and L. McDermott, (1986), Wiesner 1992) [1, 5] on how individual students think about images in plane mirrors revealed that the learners have misconceptions. Based on the idea of `Multiperspective-Modelling' we developed and evaluated a special training for the learner. This training differentiates physical, mathematical and `human' perspectives of modelling of the plane mirror phenomenon. The purposes of this study were to investigate the understanding of the plane mirror phenomenon of novices, before and after the special training.

    Böhm, U.; Pospiech, G.; Körndle, H.; Narciss, S.

    2010-07-01

    392

    Earth System and Space Science Curriculum for High Schools  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earth System and Space Science emphasizes the dynamic interrelationships between the atmosphere, the geosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere and the earth-universe system. There is a strong emphasis on internet-based and technology activities, and laboratory activities. Science skills and processes learned in this course prepare for continued development of scientific inquiry in other science disciplines. A partnership with the Goddard Space Flight Center and collaboration with Anne Arundel County Public Schools provides enhanced richness to the learning activities. Earth and Space scientists from NASA GSFC gave their expertise in the development of ESSS. Their suggestions were the foundation for the development of this curriculum. Earth System and Space Science is a course, which develops student knowledge and understanding of the Earth System and its place in the universe. This course seeks to empower students to understand their dynamic local and global environments and the Earth as part of a complex system. The student will learn the science content necessary to make wise personal and social decisions related to quality of life, and the management of the Earth's finite resources, environments, and hazards. During much of the recent past, scientists have been concerned with examining individual physical, chemical, and biological processes or groups of processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Recently, however, there has been a movement in Earth Science to take a planetary or "system" approach to investigating our planet. Satellite images show planet Earth as one entity without boundaries. There are concerns with environmental issues on regional, global, and even planetary scales. In Earth/Space Systems Science, Earth is viewed as a complex evolving planet that is characterized by continually interacting change over a wide scale of time and space.

    Leck, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    393

    TOPO-EUROPE: Studying Continental Topography and Deep Earth - Surface Processes in 4D  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Topography influences various aspects of society, not only in terms of the slow process of landscape evolution but also through climate (e.g. mountain building). Topographic evolution (changes in land, water and sea level) can seriously affect human life, as well as terrestrial geo-ecosystems. When fresh water or sea-water levels rise, or when land subsides, the risk of flooding increases. This

    S. Cloetingh

    2008-01-01

    394

    Social-Motivational Processes and Interpersonal Relationships: Implications for Understanding Motivation at School  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Social-motivational processes and socialization experiences can play a critical role in students' academic success. However, the search for specific mechanisms and processes that explain these social influences on motivation is still in its inception. The purpose of this article was to begin to articulate some of these processes in the hope that more precise explanations of influence will emerge. The

    Kathryn R. Wentzel

    1999-01-01

    395

    Using Process Drama to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Science and Religion  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a…

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan

    2010-01-01

    396

    Integration of Science on Biological and Physical Processes to Understand Ecological Diversity of Stream Fishes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The integration of biological and physical sciences has been important in efforts to understand and conserve aquatic species such as the stream fishes found in the Pacific Northwest. Traditionally that integration has focused at relatively fine scales and on what were perceived as more or less static conditions of stream habitats to explain the abundance and distribution of select species.

    B. Rieman; J. Dunham

    2002-01-01

    397

    The Original Understanding of the Takings Clause and the Political Process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The original understanding of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment was clear on two points. The clause required compensation when the federal government physically took private property, but not when government regulations limited the ways in which property could be used. In 1922, however, the Supreme Court's decision in Pennsylvania Coal v. Mahon established a new takings regime. In

    William Michael Treanor

    1995-01-01

    398

    Robotics and Science Literacy: Thinking Skills, Science Process Skills and Systems Understanding  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |This paper reports the results of a study of the relationship of robotics activity to the use of science literacy skills and the development of systems understanding in middle school students. Twenty-six 11-12-year-olds (22 males and 4 females) attending an intensive robotics course offered at a summer camp for academically advanced students…

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2008-01-01

    399

    Invited Commentary: Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Pain Processing in Adolescents' Non-Suicidal Self-Injury  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Whereas non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) is reported in 13-23% of adolescents and is an increasingly studied topic, there has been little investigation into the pathophysiology behind self-injury. This commentary examines recent research into pain and emotional distress to discuss implications for the manner we should understand, research, and…

    Ballard, Elizabeth; Bosk, Abigail; Pao, Maryland

    2010-01-01

    400

    Children's understanding of events and criminal justice processes in police programs  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Television viewing may provide input to children's knowledge of crime and law enforcement, but little is known of how young viewers interpret such material. The study reported here investigates how children and adults represent the content of police programs, their understanding of the various scenes, their temporal organization and the various models of criminal justice. Using the script framework of

    Jason Low; Kevin Durkin

    1997-01-01

    401

    An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding Violent Antisocial Behavior: Diagnostic Implications for a Dual-Process Etiology  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This article proposes an evolutionary theory for understanding the etiology of violent antisocial behavior. From this approach, aggressive behavior is understood as an evolutionary adaptation that has provided a selective advantage for members of the human species that demonstrated this trait. Similarly, aggression control is also viewed as an adaptive trait. Antisocial behavior is described as aggressive behavior that is

    Christopher J. Ferguson

    2008-01-01

    402

    Understanding Decimal Proportions: Discrete Representations, Parallel Access, and Privileged Processing of Zero  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results…

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R.

    2013-01-01

    403

    An Ecological Approach to Understanding Sexual Revictimization: Linking Personal, Interpersonal, and Sociocultural Factors and Processes  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    This article applies an ecological model to the problem of sexual revictimization to advance the understanding of how personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural factors contribute to child sexual abuse victims' increased risk of being sexually victimized later in life. This ecological model explores how sexual revictimization is multiply determined by factors related to the victim's personal history (e.g., traumatic sexualization), the

    Liz Grauerholz

    2000-01-01

    404

    Understanding Aesthetic and Creative Processes: The Complementarity of Idiographic and Nomothetic Data  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Persuasive arguments have been made recently for rediscovering the value of idiographic data and, specifically, of introspection (Perspectives on Psychological Science, January 2009). Such data have been crucial to me in attempting to understand both aesthetics and creativity. Used with the right controls, they are not only rich in information but also valid and reconcilable with nomothetic analyses. Here I

    Pavel Machotka

    2012-01-01

    405

    The reorganization of higher education through information technology: understanding the process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    The purpose of this work is to understand the multidimensional effects of information technology on the organizational structure of higher education institutions. It is well documented that universities and colleges are spending millions of dollars on purchasing technology for their campuses (Green, 1991). Hawkins, 1989, 1991, and Penrod and Doliner, 1991 cite examples that the explosion of technology and its

    Sheri L. Prupis

    1992-01-01

    406

    Using Process Drama to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Science and Religion  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a…

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan

    2010-01-01

    407

    Tracking environmental processes in the coastal zone for understanding and predicting Oregon coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) marine survival  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    To better understand and predict Oregon coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) marine survival, we developed a conceptual model of processes occurring during four sequential periods: (1) winter climate prior to smolt migration from freshwater to ocean, (2) spring transi- tion from winter downwelling to spring\\/summer upwelling, (3) the spring upwelling season and (4) winter ocean conditions near the end of the maturing

    E. A. Logerwell; N. Mantua; P. W. Lawson; R. C. Francis; V. N. Agostini

    2003-01-01

    408

    UNDERSTANDING PROCESSES IN eGOVERNMENT: INTEGRATING HIGHER EDUCATION AND LIFELONG LEARNING IN AN INTERNATIONAL BLENDED LEARNING PROGRAM  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    eGovernment seems to be a popular answer to the tough demands for change on the public administration of today. But eGovernment cannot be efficiently and effectively be integrated into the public institution, if there is no understanding of the underlying processes and the ways of enhancing them with modern Information and Communication Technologies. Hence, public administration institutions have a high

    Steffen Gilge; Eric Schoop; Dalia Kriksciuniene; Michael Breidung

    409

    Immuno-spin trapping of protein and DNA radicals: “Tagging” free radicals to locate and understand the redox process  

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biomolecule-centered radicals are intermediate species produced during both reversible (redox modulation) and irreversible (oxidative stress) oxidative modification of biomolecules. These oxidative processes must be studied in situ and in real time to understand the molecular mechanism of cell adaptation or death in response to changes in the extracellular environment. In this regard, we have developed and validated immuno-spin trapping to

    Sandra E. Gomez-Mejiba; Zili Zhai; Hammad Akram; Leesa J. Deterding; Kenneth Hensley; Nataliya Smith; Rheal A. Towner; Kenneth B. Tomer; Ronald P. Mason; Dario C. Ramirez

    2009-01-01

    410

    The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation  

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    |Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    411

    Mineralogical Signals from Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of Metamorphic Rocks: Clues to Understanding Petrologic Processes  

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During the last 50 years the technique of cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy has become a standard tool in mineralogy. First investigations mainly focused on sedimentary (± magmatic) rocks and on zircon zonations in connection with ion probe dating (SHRIMP). Within the last decade, this technique has also been applied to various metamorphic rocks. Here we would like to demonstrate the great advantages of a "hot cathode" CL microscope, in particular in conjunction with EMP-studies on metamorphic rocks, just using standard polished thin sections. The compilation of data presented focus on HT, HP, and UHP-metamorphic rocks and include samples from Cornet Hill/Romania, Valtellina and Dora Maira/Italy, Kokchetav/Kazakhstan, Sulu/China, Western Gneiss Region/Norway, Pohorje/Slovenia, the Rio San Juan Complex/Dominican Republic, Motagua Valley/Guatemala, NE-Corsica. Among other features, we introduce here: 1) oscillatory zoning patterns of wollastonite, garnet, jadeitic clinopyroxenes, kyanite, and zircon; 2) regular and irregular - in some cases very complex - growth structures of garnet, jadeite, omphacite, sillimanite, kyanite, carbonates, and clinopyroxenes; 3) dolomitic exsolution patterns in calcite and K-feldspar exsolution patterns in clinopyroxene. We illustrate the effects of the change of crystal morphology during growth (e.g. on garnet, jadeitite, diopside) and dissolution and deformational effects (garnet). Distinguishing features of different silica phases like coesite (bluish-green luminescence), quartz (dark red to violet), chalcedony (yellow), as well as those of aragonite (green), calcite (yellow), Mg-calcite (orange), and dolomite (red) are presented, as are the characteristics of different quartz and also carbonate generations. The CL-investigations introduced also contribute to the understanding of mineral reactions, particularly considering the formation of symplectites and pseudomorphs. Further studies focus on interstitial phases and different annealed crack systems of rock matrices; accessory luminescent minerals like diamond (greenish blue and partly zoned), zircon (blue), apatite (green), and bearthite (green) are easily identified in thin section, even when they occur in very small abundance. It is important to note that CL-microscopy is far from a simple descriptive method only. Using high-resolution spectroscopy of the CL-emission, it is possible to evaluat