Science.gov

Sample records for understanding earth processes

  1. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of teacher confidence when teaching global change content will continue to drive UGC resource development as the site expands in the future.

  2. Do young children's ideas about the Earth's structure and processes reveal underlying patterns of descriptive and causal understanding in earth science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion regarding the nature and complexity of understanding in the conceptually confined domain of earth science, here limited to its ‘geological’ aspects. There then follows a report on a study of how the ideas about a range of concepts relating to the Earth’s structure and processes held by individual children from Key Stage 2 (7 11 years) in one primary school in north-east England reveal hierarchical levels of descriptive and causal understanding. Such patterns, described here as alternative frameworks, can be used to inform our understanding of young children’s learning in earth science and, unless taken into consideration, represent an additional ‘critical barrier’ to learning in this domain to those previously identified by research. Implications of these findings for further research and for classroom practice are addressed.

  3. Lorenz Lecture: Process, Pattern, Prediction: Understanding Complexity in Driven Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Edward N Lorenz discovered that chaos and unpredictability are hallmarks of even simple driven systems. Yet forecasting the onset and severity of extreme events in driven earth systems, such as hurricanes, landslides, earthquakes, flooding, and weather/climate events remains a pressing global need. The economic damages from the most severe of these events amount to annualized economic costs of many billions of dollars, and are also associated with great suffering associated with the loss of many thousands of human lives each year. In addition to the problems identified by Lorenz, predicting the future evolution of a variety of driven nonlinear earth systems is further complicated by the fact that their dynamical processes are 1) often not amenable to direct observation; and 2) are strongly multi-scale, so that length and time scales range from very much smaller and shorter than human perception, to very much larger and longer. An example of such an earth system is the atmosphere, in which, from a practical standpoint, it is impossible to measure the temperatures, pressures, and humidity at all locations at all times. Here turbulent processes span length scales from sub-meter length scales to thousands of km, and time scales extend from fractions of seconds to many thousands of years. Another example is earthquake fault systems, in which lengths associated with earthquakes range from centimeters to many hundreds of km. Similarly, time scales extend from the seconds associated with the slip process, to the thousands of years between recurring events on the same fault. In systems such as these, we can only observe the space-time patterns of extreme events, the large storms, climate events, earthquakes, and floods that are the inevitable consequences of the underlying dynamics. Using these space-time patterns, and whatever is known about the dynamics of these high-dimensional nonlinear earth systems, it often possible to construct numerical simulations that can be used to make predictions about the future space-time evolution of the system and the possible occurrence of extreme events. The accuracy of these predictions and forecasts is limited by the proximity and similarity of the model trajectory through state space, to that of the actual system. This problem can be approached through data assimilation techniques. In addition, the existence of flexible new Grid computing techniques made possible by the World Wide Web has opened new avenues for the realization of sophisticated, state-of-the-art numerical simulations. Thus our ability to forecast the extreme events of the future is limited by a range of issues originating from the dynamical process of interest, the space-time patterns we can observe, and the accuracy of the predictions that are desired.

  4. Understanding Earth's Albedo Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    Earth and space science in the middle school classroom are composed of intricately intertwined sets of conceptual systems (AAAS 1993; NRC 1996). Some systems of study, such as the water and rock cycles, are quite explicit and often found as stand-alone middle school science units. Other phenomena are not so apparent, yet they play an extremely…

  5. Understanding Venus to understand the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it evolved so differently in its history is crucial to assert the long term evolution of our own planet. Exploring Venus' atmosphere also helps characterize the variety of Earth-size planets near their habitable zone to be discovered around other stars.he atmospheric arc, or aureole, seen from the DST/Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at ~8.5 minutes prior to first contact (NSO/Arcetri)

  6. Understanding Coupled Earth-Surface Processes through Experiments and Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, I.; Kim, W.

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, both numerical models and experiments have been purposefully designed to ';isolate' singular components or certain processes of a larger mountain to deep-ocean interconnected source-to-sink (S2S) transport system. Controlling factors driven by processes outside of the domain of immediate interest were treated and simplified as input or as boundary conditions. Increasingly, earth surface processes scientists appreciate feedbacks and explore these feedbacks with more dynamically coupled approaches to their experiments and models. Here, we discuss key concepts and recent advances made in coupled modeling and experimental setups. In addition, we emphasize challenges and new frontiers to coupled experiments. Experiments have highlighted the important role of self-organization; river and delta systems do not always need to be forced by external processes to change or develop characteristic morphologies. Similarly modeling f.e. has shown that intricate networks in tidal deltas are stable because of the interplay between river avulsions and the tidal current scouring with both processes being important to develop and maintain the dentritic networks. Both models and experiment have demonstrated that seemingly stable systems can be perturbed slightly and show dramatic responses. Source-to-sink models were developed for both the Fly River System in Papua New Guinea and the Waipaoa River in New Zealand. These models pointed to the importance of upstream-downstream effects and enforced our view of the S2S system as a signal transfer and dampening conveyor belt. Coupled modeling showed that deforestation had extreme effects on sediment fluxes draining from the catchment of the Waipaoa River in New Zealand, and that this increase in sediment production rapidly shifted the locus of offshore deposition. The challenge in designing coupled models and experiments is both technological as well as intellectual. Our community advances to make numerical model coupling more straightforward through common interfaces and standardization of time-stepping, model domains and model parameters. At the same time major steps forward require an interdisciplinary approach, wherein the source to sink system contains ecological feedbacks and human actors.

  7. Deep Soil Carbon and Its Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change: Process Understanding and Representation in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Phillips, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Because more than 80% of the world's soil organic carbon (SOC) is found below 20 cm depth, deep SOC has the potential to form large positive feedbacks to climate change. According to climate projections, temperature changes at 1 m depth will largely keep pace with warming air temperatures over the next century. While surface SOC decomposes exponentially faster with warming, little is known about the temperature response of deeper carbon, or the modes of stabilization of deeper SOC. Most biogeochemical studies have been limited to the surface soil. Likewise, soil biogeochemical models in Earth System Models are parameterized for surface soil and lack mechanisms important for stabilization of deep SOC, such as organo-mineral associations. Radiocarbon observations in different soil types show that SOC residence of time of SOC increases with depth, with residences times over 10,000 years in many soils by 1 m deep. That means this SOC has accumulated slowly over time; if stabilization mechanisms are disrupted, leading to large changes in decomposition rates, SOC losses are unlikely to be compensated for by increased in plant inputs. Therefore, we suggest that a critical challenge for ESMs is to achieve process-level understanding and the ability to predict whether, and how, the large stores of old SOC can be made rapidly accessible to microbial transformation.

  8. Constructing Understanding in Primary Science: An Exploration of Process and Outcomes in the Topic Areas of Light and the Earth in Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Grant, G.; Topping, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the process and outcomes of constructivist methods of enhancing science understanding in the topic areas of light and the earth in space. The sample was drawn from a group of 41 nine-year-old children, delivered in four two-hour weekly sessions. Each session involved different combinations of interactive discussion and…

  9. Understanding our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forehand, Lon; Griner, Charlotte (Editor); Greenstone, Renny (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA has been studying the Earth and its changing environment by observing the atmosphere, oceans, land, ice, and snow and their influence on climate and weather since the agency's creation. This study has lead to a new approach to understanding the interaction of the Earth's systems, Earth System Science. The Earth Science Enterprise, NASA's comprehensive program for Earth System Science, uses satellites and other tools to intensively study the Earth. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of Earth-observing satellites, (2) an advanced data system and (3) teams of scientist who study the data. Key areas of study include: (1) clouds, (2) water and energy cycles, (3) oceans, (4) chemistry of the atmosphere, (5) land surface, water and ecosystems processes; (6) glaciers and polar ice sheets, and (7) the solid earth.

  10. Earth observing satellite: Understanding the Earth as a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    There is now a plan for global studies which include two very large efforts. One is the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program (IGBP) sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions. The other initiative is Mission to Planet Earth, an unbrella program for doing three kinds of space missions. The major one is the Earth Observation Satellite (EOS). EOS is large polar orbiting satellites with heavy payloads. Two will be placed in orbit by NASA, one by the Japanese and one or two by ESA. The overall mission measurement objectives of EOS are summarized: (1) the global distribution of energy input to and energy output from the Earth; (2) the structure, state variables, composition, and dynamics of the atmosphere from the ground to the mesopause; (3) the physical and biological structure, state, composition, and dynamics of the land surface, including terrestrial and inland water ecosystems; (4) the rates, important sources and sinks, and key components and processes of the Earth's biogeochemical cycles; (5) the circulation, surface temperature, wind stress, sea state, and the biological activity of the oceans; (6) the extent, type, state, elevation, roughness, and dynamics of glaciers, ice sheets, snow and sea ice, and the liquid equivalent of snow in the global cryosphere; (7) the global rates, amounts, and distribution of precipitation; and (8) the dynamic motions of the Earth (geophysics) as a whole, including both rotational dynamics and the kinematic motions of the tectonic plates.

  11. Distributed processing for speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.

    1983-01-01

    Continuous speech understanding is a highly complex artificial intelligence task requiring extensive computation. This complexity precludes real-time speech understanding on a conventional serial computer. Distributed processing technique can be applied to the speech understanding task to improve processing speed. In the paper, the speech understanding task and several speech understanding systems are described. Parallel processing techniques are presented and a distributed processing architecture for speech understanding is outlined. 35 references.

  12. Earth orbiting technologies for understanding global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leonard A.; Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.; Couch, Lana M.

    We are all becoming more aware of concerns such as the ozone hole and ozone layer depletion, the build-up of greenhouse gasses and the potential for global climate change, the damage to our lakes and forests from acid rain, and the loss of species and genetic diversity. These are not only of scientific interest, but are of growing public media, federal governmental, and international concern, with the potential for major impacts on the international economy, potential for future development, and global standard of living. Yet our current understanding of how our global environment behaves is embryonic, and does not allow us to predict with confidence the consequences or long term significance of these phenomena. NASA has a significant national responsibility in Global Change research, which will require a major agency investment over the next few decades in obtaining the science data associated with understanding the Earth as a total system. Technology research and development is a natural complement to this national scientific program. In her report to the NASA Administrator, Dr. Sally K. Ride states that Mission to Planet Earth "requires advances in technology to enhance observations, to handle and deliver the enormous quantities of data, and to ensure a long operating life." These three themes (1) space-based observation technologies, (2) data/information technologies, and (3) spacecraft/operations technologies form the basis for NASA's efforts to identify the technologies needed to support the Mission to Planet Earth. In the observation area, developments in spacecraft and space-based instrument technologies are required to enable the accurate measurement of key parameters crucial to the understanding of global change. In the data/information area, developments in technologies are required to enable the long-term documentation of these parameters and the timely understanding of the data. And in the spacecraft/operations area, developments in spacecraft, platform, and operations technologies are required to enable consistent long-term collection of data through increased system reliability and operations effectiveness. Development of automation technologies for ground-based planning and operations systems would enable more flexible spacecraft and inter-spacecraft operations. This paper summarizes the effort to identify these technology requirements.

  13. Understanding Ionospheric Connections to Sun and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immel, Thomas J.; Rowland, Doug; England, Scott; Talaat, Elsayed; Jones, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    Earth's ionosphere is the dense plasma environment that dominates the boundary between our atmosphere and space. In contrast with long-standing understanding of the ionosphere as a phenomenon influenced by changes in solar radiation and solar wind, observations over the past decade have shown us that its large day-to-day variability likely originates with forcing from the lower atmosphere. This realization came with a combination of key observations utilizing pioneering measurement techniques, the emergence of sophisticated whole-atmosphere modeling approaches, and the development and application of innovative analysis techniques. The large and unexpected signatures in the ionosphere drove real ingenuity in the development of modeling and analysis techniques, in part for the lack of needed measurements of key aspects of Earth's space environment. Still, the causal links are incomplete and a significant effort is now being mounted to make these necessary measurements and build a more complete view of the coupled space-atmosphere system. Here we will review these efforts, including the upcoming NASA missions ICON and GOLD, and discuss recent results that offer further promise for future ground-breaking observations and discovery.

  14. The Understanding Process: Problem Isomorphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.; Hayes, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A formal theory of human understanding was developed and embodied in a computer program, UNDERSTAND, which simulates the understanding processes. Due to the number of alternative processing choices, some assumptions were made which are analyzed based on their validity. (Author/DEP)

  15. Physical Processes Controlling Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genio, Anthony Del

    2013-01-01

    As background for consideration of the climates of the other terrestrial planets in our solar system and the potential habitability of rocky exoplanets, we discuss the basic physics that controls the Earths present climate, with particular emphasis on the energy and water cycles. We define several dimensionless parameters relevant to characterizing a planets general circulation, climate and hydrological cycle. We also consider issues associated with the use of past climate variations as indicators of future anthropogenically forced climate change, and recent advances in understanding projections of future climate that might have implications for Earth-like exoplanets.

  16. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  17. National Aeronautics and Space Administration UNDERSTANDING EARTH

    E-print Network

    on Earth are huge sources of dust, with the Sahara and Gobi Deserts as the main sources. Desert dust is one and Taklimakan Deserts A NASA scientist made this footprint in the dust, not on the moon, but in the Great Gobi. These particles, called mineral dust, can be blown by the wind and suspended in the atmosphere. The deserts

  18. Activites to Support and Assess Student Understanding of Earth Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prothero, W. A.; Regev, J.

    2004-12-01

    In order to use data effectively, learners must construct a mental model that allows them to understand and express spatial relationships in data, relationships between different data types, and relationships between the data and a theoretical model. Another important skill is the ability to identify gross patterns and distinguish them from details that may require increasingly sophisticated models. Students must also be able to express their understanding, both to help them frame their understanding for themselves, and for assessment purposes. Research in learning unequivocally shows that writing about a subject increases understanding of that subject. In UCSB's general education oceanography class, a series of increasingly demanding activities culminates in two science papers that use earth data. These activities are: 1) homework problems, 2) in-class short writing activities, 3) lab section exploration activities and presentations, and 4) the science paper. The subjects of the two papers are: Plate Tectonics and Ocean and Climate. Each student is a member of a group that adopts a country and must relate their paper to the environment of their country. Data are accessed using the "Our Dynamic Planet" and "Global Ocean Data Viewer" (GLODV) CD's. These are integrated into EarthEd Online, a software package which supports online writing, review, commenting, and return to the student. It also supports auto-graded homework assignments, grade calculation, and other class management functions. The writing assignments emphasize the construction of a scientific argument. This process is explained explicitly, requiring statements that: 1) include an observation or description of an observation (e.g. elevation profiles, quakes), 2) name features based on the observation (e.g. trench, ridge), 3) describe of features (e.g. trends NW, xxxkm long), 4) describe relationships between features (e.g. quakes are parallel to trench), 5) describe a model or theory (e.g. cartoon type representation of a subduction zone), and 6) describe the relationship between the model/theory and the data. Students generate and select data representations with the appropriate data display software, which seamlessly uploads each generated image to the student's personal storage area (on the class server). There they are available to be linked to the writing text. The assignment is "handed in" online, where it is commented, graded according to a rubric, and returned. Students rate the writing assignment as one of the most effective activities that contributes to their learning in the course.

  19. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291304 (2009)

    E-print Network

    Singer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 34, 291­304 (2009) Copyright.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1725 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Chichester, UKESPEarth Surface Processes and LandformsEARTH Geomorphological Research GroupEarth Surf. Process. Landforms0197-93371096-9837Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Connecting Earth Systems: Developing Holistic Understanding through the Earth-System-Science Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Valoree; Bradway, Heather

    2012-01-01

    For many years, Earth science concepts have been taught as thematic units with lessons in nice, neat chapter packages complete with labs and notes. But compartmentalized Earth science no longer exists, and implementing teaching methods that support student development of holistic understandings can be a time-consuming and difficult task. While…

  1. Exploring Space, Exploring Earth: New Understanding of the Earth from Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2002-08-01

    This book describes the impact of space flight on geology and geophysics, beginning with a foreword by Neil Armstrong, which illustrates how the exploration of space has lead us to a far deeper understanding of our own planet. Direct results from Earth-orbital missions include studies of Earth's gravity and magnetic fields. In contrast, the recognition of the economic and biological significance of impact craters on Earth is an indirect consequence of the study of the geology of other planets. The final chapter presents a new theory for the tectonic evolution of the Earth based on comparative planetology and the Gaia concept.

  2. Not So Rare Earth? New Developments in Understanding the Origin of the Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted model for the origin of the Earth and Moon has been a somewhat specific giant impact scenario involving an impactor to proto-Earth mass ratio of 3:7, occurring 50-60 Ma after T(sub 0), when the Earth was only half accreted, with the majority of Earth's water then accreted after the main stage of growth, perhaps from comets. There have been many changes to this specific scenario, due to advances in isotopic and trace element geochemistry, more detailed, improved, and realistic giant impact and terrestrial planet accretion modeling, and consideration of terrestrial water sources other than high D/H comets. The current scenario is that the Earth accreted faster and differentiated quickly, the Moon-forming impact could have been mid to late in the accretion process, and water may have been present during accretion. These new developments have broadened the range of conditions required to make an Earth-Moon system, and suggests there may be many new fruitful avenues of research. There are also some classic and unresolved problems such as the significance of the identical O isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, the depletion of volatiles on the lunar mantle relative to Earth's, the relative contribution of the impactor and proto-Earth to the Moon's mass, and the timing of Earth's possible atmospheric loss relative to the giant impact.

  3. Improved understanding of aerosol processes using satellite observations of aerosol optical properties 

    E-print Network

    Bulgin, Claire Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are the largest remaining uncertainty in the Earth’s radiative budget and it is important that we improve our knowledge of aerosol processes if we are to understand current radiative forcing and ...

  4. Science data processing in the Mission to Planet Earth era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. M.

    1992-01-01

    The data-processing systems developed to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MPE) are described in an overview of the system architectures. The MPE program is discussed in terms of flight segments and data types to examine the required elements of the information systems. The data-processing segments are described for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, the Earth Observing System, and the Geostationary Earth Observatory. The data and information systems for the separate segments provide some redundant processing services. Distributed active archive centers are employed for each segment composed of three subelements: (1) a product-generation system, (2) a data archive and distribution system, and (3) an information management system. The data processing design for the MPE is expected to facilitate the understanding of the entire earth system on a global scale.

  5. Destinations Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    Destinations ­ Careers in Earth & Ocean Sciences #12;#12;An understanding of Earth and Ocean Sciences is vital if we are to sustainably manage Earth's energy, water, mineral, soil, coastal and biological resources.The Earth and Ocean Sciences are also the key to predicting and managing natural hazards

  6. Quantitative Modeling of Earth Surface Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, Jon D.

    This textbook describes some of the most effective and straightforward quantitative techniques for modeling Earth surface processes. By emphasizing a core set of equations and solution techniques, the book presents state-of-the-art models currently employed in Earth surface process research, as well as a set of simple but practical research tools. Detailed case studies demonstrate application of the methods to a wide variety of processes including hillslope, fluvial, aeolian, glacial, tectonic, and climatic systems. Exercises at the end of each chapter begin with simple calculations and then progress to more sophisticated problems that require computer programming. All the necessary computer codes are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521855976. Assuming some knowledge of calculus and basic programming experience, this quantitative textbook is designed for advanced geomorphology courses and as a reference book for professional researchers in Earth and planetary science looking for a quantitative approach to Earth surface processes.

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  8. Earth Science Week 2009, "Understanding Climate", Highlights and News Clippings

    SciTech Connect

    Robeck, Edward C.; Coulson, Doug

    2010-01-05

    The American Geological Institute (AGI) proposes to expand its influential Earth Science Week Program in 2009, with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy, to disseminate DOE's key messages, information, and resources on climate education and to include new program components. These components, ranging from online resources to live events and professional networks, would significantly increase the reach and impact of AGI's already successful geoscience education and public awareness effort in the United States and abroad in 2009, when the campaign's theme will be "Understanding Climate."

  9. EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (2009)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    2009-01-01

    Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.2006 Weathering the escarpment: chemical, Houston, TX 77210, USA. E-mail: bburke@alum.dartmouth.org ABSTRACT: Differences in chemical weathering to quantify chemical weathering rates and processes and how they may provide insight into scarp evolution

  10. Sun-earth environment study to understand earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2007-05-01

    Earthquake prediction is possible by looking into the location of active sunspots before it harbours energy towards earth. Earth is a restless planet the restlessness turns deadly occasionally. Of all natural hazards, earthquakes are the most feared. For centuries scientists working in seismically active regions have noted premonitory signals. Changes in thermosphere, Ionosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere are noted before the changes in geosphere. The historical records talk of changes of the water level in wells, of strange weather, of ground-hugging fog, of unusual behaviour of animals (due to change in magnetic field of the earth) that seem to feel the approach of a major earthquake. With the advent of modern science and technology the understanding of these pre-earthquake signals has become stronger enough to develop a methodology of earthquake prediction. A correlation of earth directed coronal mass ejection (CME) from the active sunspots has been possible to develop as a precursor of the earthquake. Occasional local magnetic field and planetary indices (Kp values) changes in the lower atmosphere that is accompanied by the formation of haze and a reduction of moisture in the air. Large patches, often tens to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres in size, seen in night-time infrared satellite images where the land surface temperature seems to fluctuate rapidly. Perturbations in the ionosphere at 90 - 120 km altitude have been observed before the occurrence of earthquakes. These changes affect the transmission of radio waves and a radio black out has been observed due to CME. Another heliophysical parameter Electron flux (Eflux) has been monitored before the occurrence of the earthquakes. More than hundreds of case studies show that before the occurrence of the earthquakes the atmospheric temperature increases and suddenly drops before the occurrence of the earthquakes. These changes are being monitored by using Sun Observatory Heliospheric observatory (SOHO) satellite data. Whatever the manifestations in the environment of the atmosphere or geosphere may be, there is a positive correlation of CMEs with change in magnetic field followed by aurora borealis or sudden spark of light from the sky before an earthquake. Any change in geomorphology in the pixel level, changes in groundwater level, geochemical anomalies of soils surrounding active faults and vegetation anomalies should be monitored in the mirror image position of sunspots on the earth facing side in reference to CME from the sun.

  11. Advances in the theoretical understanding of photon upconversion in rare-earth activated nanophosphors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guokui

    2015-03-21

    Photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors involves multiple mechanisms of electronic transitions. Stepwise optical excitation, energy transfer, and various nonlinear and collective light-matter interaction processes act together to convert low-energy photons into short-wavelength light emission. Upconversion luminescence from nanomaterials exhibits additional size and surface dependencies. A fundamental understanding of the overall performance of an upconversion system requires basic theories on the spectroscopic properties of solids containing rare earth ions. This review article surveys the recent progress in the theoretical interpretations of the spectroscopic characteristics and luminescence dynamics of photon upconversion in rare earth activated phosphors. The primary aspects of upconversion processes, including energy level splitting, transition probability, line broadening, non-radiative relaxation and energy transfer, are covered with an emphasis on interpreting experimental observations. Theoretical models and methods for analyzing nano-phenomena in upconversion are introduced with detailed discussions on recently reported experimental results. PMID:25286989

  12. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  13. Automating the Processing of Earth Observation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Pang, Wan-Lin; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Votava, Petr

    2003-01-01

    NASA s vision for Earth science is to build a "sensor web": an adaptive array of heterogeneous satellites and other sensors that will track important events, such as storms, and provide real-time information about the state of the Earth to a wide variety of customers. Achieving this vision will require automation not only in the scheduling of the observations but also in the processing of the resulting data. To address this need, we are developing a planner-based agent to automatically generate and execute data-flow programs to produce the requested data products.

  14. Understanding technology development processes theory & practice

    E-print Network

    Oswald, W. Andrew (William Andrew)

    2013-01-01

    Technology development is hard for management to understand and hard for practitioners to explain, however it is an essential component of innovation. While there are standard and predictable processes for product development, ...

  15. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  16. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The…

  17. Understanding MSFC/Earth Science Office Within NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the Marshal's Earth Science Office (ESO) and the relationship of the office to the NASA administration, the National Research Council and NASA's Science Directorate. The presentation also reviews the strategic goals for Earth Science, and briefly reviews the ESO's international partners that NASA is cooperating with.

  18. are exploring planet Earth is the part of earth science dealing with the physical processes and

    E-print Network

    Brückl, Ewald

    GeoKids are exploring planet Earth Geophysics is the part of earth science dealing of the children provides a good basis for effective learning. The reflection on selected themes of earth sciences with the physical processes and characteristics of the Earth and its environment. Volcanism, earthquakes

  19. Biological Modulation of Deep Earth Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, Norm

    2011-01-01

    The Earth became habitable once CO2 could be subducted into the deep mantle. It is likely that the Earth's surface became clement or even frigid within a few million years after it cooled to habitable temperatures (less than 120°C). Early life obtained its energy from chemical disequilibrium produced by internal processes within the Earth and photolysis in the air and water. The global productivity was tiny and life did not leave a useful record. By the time of the first good geological record at 3.8 billion years, life had evolved anoxygenic (sulfide and ferrous iron) photosynthesis on both water and land. By then, the effects of life were so pervasive that it is not straightforward to infer the prebiotic environment; serpentine existed and catalysts including Ni3Fe and Pt-group minerals were present in trace amounts. On land by 3.8 billion years ago, life had bountiful energy to enhance chemical weathering to liberate Fe(II). Microbial crusts covered available landscape. Life modulates crustal tectonics by producing sandstones, shales, and carbonates that form fold mountains. Melted shales became granitic rocks with quartz. The process is a climatic buffer as it replaced (black daisy) fresh basalts with (white daisy) sand deserts and granites. The subducted produces of photosynthesis control the sulfur content and oxidation state of arc lavas. Even the mantle is strongly affected by photosynthesis. Biology determines the mantle abundances of N and C. Kimberlites (in the general sense) return CO2-rich subducted shallow oceanic crust and sediments to the surface. The chemistry of these rocks provides a record of surface conditions. It is likely that the mantle in general and kimberlites in particular sequester information on the earliest Earth that is no longer preserved in the crust.

  20. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enloe, Y.; Ullman, R.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of NASA's Standards Process Group (SPG) is to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Data Systems through the endorsement of Earth science data systems standards. SPG's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for endorsement to the SPG are one of 4 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community; (4) A defacto standard already widely used. SPG's standards process has been revised to provide a comprehensive but not a redundant review of the proposed standard. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed and endorsed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format). We will discuss the potential defacto standards (Google's KML, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Directory Interchange Format (DIF), GeoTIFF file format) that could be identified and endorsed through our revised Standards Process in the future. We will discuss the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result of our experience.

  21. Earth Systems Education: Origins and Opportunities. Science Education for Global Understanding. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Colorado, Greeley.

    This publication introduces and provides a framework for Earth Systems Education (ESE), an effort to establish within U.S. schools more effective programs designed to increase the public's understanding of the Earth system. The publication presents seven "understandings" around which curriculum can be organized and materials selected in a section…

  1. Rules for understanding rare-earth magnetic compounds 

    E-print Network

    Roy, Lindsay Elizabeth

    2009-06-02

    , using semi-empirical calculations which closely simulates the exchange effects exerted by the 4f electrons. In a more speculative vein, ideas concerning the incorporation of anisotropic rare-earth metal atoms to the cluster framework are touched upon....

  2. The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

  3. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2010-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  4. Dynamics of the Earth's Inner Magnetosphere and Its Connection to the Ionosphere: Current Understanding and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua

    2011-01-01

    The Earth's inner magnetosphere, a vast volume in space spanning from 1.5 Re (Earth radii) to 10 Re, is a host to a variety of plasma populations (with energy from 1 eV to few MeV) and physical processes where most of which involve plasma and field coupling. As a gigantic particle accelerator, the inner magnetosphere includes three overlapping regions: the plasmasphere, the ring current, and the Van Allen radiation belt. The complex structures and dynamics of these regions are externally driven by solar activities and internally modulated by intricate interactions and coupling. As a major constituent of Space Weather, the inner magnetosphere is both scientifically intriguing and practically important to our society. In this presentation, I will discuss our recent results from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model, in the context of our current understanding of the inner magnetosphere in general and challenges ahead in making further progresses.

  5. The Moon: Keystone to Understanding Planetary Geological Processes and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Extensive and intensive exploration of the Earth's Moon by astronauts and an international array of automated spacecraft has provided an unequaled data set that has provided deep insight into geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology, chronology, geophysics and internal structure. This level of insight is unequaled except for Earth. Analysis of these data sets over the last 35 years has proven fundamental to understanding planetary surface processes and evolution, and is essential to linking surface processes with internal and thermal evolution. Much of the understanding that we presently have of other terrestrial planets and outer planet satellites derives from the foundation of these data. On the basis of these data, the Moon is a laboratory for understanding of planetary processes and a keystone for providing evolutionary perspective. Important comparative planetology issues being addressed by lunar studies include impact cratering, magmatic activity and tectonism. Future planetary exploration plans should keep in mind the importance of further lunar exploration in continuing to build solid underpinnings in this keystone to planetary evolution. Examples of these insights and applications to other planets are cited.

  6. How the World Gains Understanding of a Planet: Analysis of Scientific Understanding in Earth Sciences and of the Communication of Earth-Scientific Explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voute, S.; Kleinhans, M. G.; de Regt, H.

    2010-12-01

    A scientific explanation for a phenomenon is based on relevant theory and initial and background conditions. Scientific understanding, on the other hand, requires intelligibility, which means that a scientist can recognise qualitative characteristic consequences of the theory without doing the actual calculations, and apply it to develop further explanations and predictions. If explanation and understanding are indeed fundamentally different, then it may be possible to convey understanding of earth-scientific phenomena to laymen without the full theoretical background. The aim of this thesis is to analyze how scientists and laymen gain scientific understanding in Earth Sciences, based on the newest insights in the philosophy of science, pedagogy, and science communication. All three disciplines have something to say about how humans learn and understand, even if at very different levels of scientists, students, children or the general public. If different disciplines with different approaches identify and quantify the same theory in the same manner, then there is likely to be something “real” behind the theory. Comparing methodology and learning styles of the different disciplines within the Earth Sciences and by critically analyze earth-scientific exhibitions in different museums may provide insight in the different approaches for earth-scientific explanation and communication. In order to gain earth-scientific understanding, a broad suite of tools is used, such as maps and images, symbols and diagrams, cross-sections and sketches, categorization and classification, modelling, laboratory experiments, (computer) simulations and analogies, remote sensing, and fieldwork. All these tools have a dual nature, containing both theoretical and embodied components. Embodied knowledge is created by doing the actual modelling, intervening in experiments and doing fieldwork. Scientific practice includes discovery and exploration, data collection and analyses, verification or falsification and conclusions that must be well grounded and argued. The intelligibility of theories is improved by the combination of these two types of understanding. This is also attested by the fact that both theoretical and embodied skills are considered essential for the training of university students at all levels. However, from surprised and confounded reactions of the public to natural disasters it appears that just showing scientific results is not enough to convey the scientific understanding to the public. By using the tools used by earth scientists to develop explanations and achieve understanding, laymen could achieve understanding as well without rigorous theoretical training. We are presently investigating in science musea whether engaging the public in scientific activities based on embodied skills leads to understanding of earth-scientific phenomena by laymen.

  7. THE WRITING PROCESS Understand the Assignment

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Chongwu

    THE WRITING PROCESS #12; Understand the Assignment Plan Outline Write Body Paragraphs Write #12; Write body paragraphs 1st Feel free to skip around if you need to Write your Introduction or revelation Sometimes easiest to write immediately after finishing body paragraphs TIME TO WRITE! #12;What

  8. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, Jennifer C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David J.; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, L. Ruby; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-01

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale land models (as a component of Earth System Models, or ESMs) do not yet reflect the best hydrologic process understanding or utilize the large amount of hydrologic observations for model testing. This paper discusses the opportunities and key challenges to improve hydrologic process representations and benchmarking in ESM land models, suggesting that (1) land model development can benefit from recent advances in hydrology, both through incorporating key processes (e.g., groundwater-surface water interactions) and new approaches to describe multiscale spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; (2) accelerating model advances requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking in order to systematically evaluate competing alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs, and (3) stronger collaboration is needed between the hydrology and ESM modeling communities, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM land model development, and through rigorous evaluation of ESM hydrology performance in research watersheds or Critical Zone Observatories. Such coordinated efforts in advancing hydrology in ESMs have the potential to substantially impact energy, carbon, and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role hydrologic processes play in regulating these cycles.

  9. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullman, R.; Enloe, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Starting in January 2004, NASA instituted a set of internal working groups to develop ongoing recommendations for the continuing broad evolution of Earth Science Data Systems development and management within NASA. One of these Data Systems Working Groups is called the Standards Process Group (SPG). This group's goal is to facilitate broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the approval of proposed standards and directing the evolution of standards. We have found that the candidate standards that self defined communities are proposing for approval to the SPG are one of 3 types: (1) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are expected to be developed from scratch, using the proposed standard as the implementation specification; (2) A NASA community developed standard used within at least one self defined community where the proposed standard has not been approved or adopted by an external standards organization and where new implementations are not expected to be developed from scratch but use existing software libraries or code;. (3) A standard already approved by an external standards organization but is being proposed for use for the NASA Earth science community. There are 3 types of reviews potentially needed to evaluate a proposed standard: (1) A detailed technical review to determine the quality, accuracy, and clarity of the proposed specification and where a detailed technical review ensures that implementers can use the proposed standard as an implementation specification for any future implementations with confidence; (2) A "usefulness" user review that determines if the proposed standard is useful or helpful or necessary to the user to carry out his work; (3) An operational review that evaluates if the proposed standard works in an operational setting in a NASA environment with NASA data. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed (i.e. OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server, and the Hierarchical Data Format), the issues with the original Standards Process that arose, and the modifications to the Standards Process that we are envisioning as a result.

  10. Understanding stellar activity and flares to search for Earth-like exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sordo, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    The radial velocity method is a powerful way to search for exoplanetary systems and it led to many discoveries of exoplanets in the last 20 years. Nowadays, understanding stellar activity, flares and noise is a key factor for achieving a substantial improvement in such technique.Radial-velocity data are time-series containing the effect of both planets and stellar disturbances: the detection of Earth-like planets requires to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, i.e. it is central to understand the noise present in the data. Noise is caused by physical processes which operate on different time-scales, oftentimes acting in a non-periodic fashion. We present here an approach to such problem: to look for multifractal structures in the time-series coming from radial velocity measurements, identifying the underlying long-range correlations and fractal scaling properties, connecting them to the underlying physical processes (stellar oscillations, stellar wind, granulation, rotation, magnetic activity). This method has been previously applied to satellite data related to Arctic sea albedo, relevant for identify trends and noise in the Arctic sea ice (Agarwal, Moon, Wettlaufer, 2012). Here we suggest to use such analysis for exoplanetary data related to possible Earth-like planets.

  11. Improving the representation of hydrologic processes in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Martyn P.; Fan, Ying; Lawrence, David M.; Adam, J. C.; Bolster, Diogo; Gochis, David; Hooper, Richard P.; Kumar, Mukesh; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Mackay, D. Scott; Maxwell, Reed M.; Shen, Chaopeng; Swenson, Sean C.; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-08-21

    Many of the scientific and societal challenges in understanding and preparing for global environmental change rest upon our ability to understand and predict the water cycle change at large river basin, continent, and global scales. However, current large-scale models, such as the land components of Earth System Models (ESMs), do not yet represent the terrestrial water cycle in a fully integrated manner or resolve the finer-scale processes that can dominate large-scale water budgets. This paper reviews the current representation of hydrologic processes in ESMs and identifies the key opportunities for improvement. This review suggests that (1) the development of ESMs has not kept pace with modeling advances in hydrology, both through neglecting key processes (e.g., groundwater) and neglecting key aspects of spatial variability and hydrologic connectivity; and (2) many modeling advances in hydrology can readily be incorporated into ESMs and substantially improve predictions of the water cycle. Accelerating modeling advances in ESMs requires comprehensive hydrologic benchmarking activities, in order to systematically evaluate competing modeling alternatives, understand model weaknesses, and prioritize model development needs. This demands stronger collaboration, both through greater engagement of hydrologists in ESM development and through more detailed evaluation of ESM processes in research watersheds. Advances in the representation of hydrologic process in ESMs can substantially improve energy, carbon and nutrient cycle prediction capabilities through the fundamental role the water cycle plays in regulating these cycles.

  12. Understanding processes and how to improve them.

    PubMed

    Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Gillam, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles about the science of quality improvement. Many quality improvement initiatives are aimed at improving the process of care and ensuring that high-quality care is delivered reliably. In this article, we explain why it is important to understand healthcare processes in order to improve them and how this can be achieved. We explain the use of logic models to determine what information to collect (from surveys, interviews, direct observations and other sources) and how to analyse this information (using techniques such as process maps, critical-to-quality trees, driver diagrams and cause-and-effect diagrams) to design more reliable and higher quality healthcare processes. PMID:23968268

  13. Experiments for understanding soil erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion processes are usually quantified by observation and measurement of their related forms. Rill, and gullies, moulds or sediment sinks are often used to estimate the soil loss. These forms are generally related directly to different types of processes, thus are also used to identify the dominant processes on a certain type of land-use. Nevertheless, the direct observation of erosion processes is constrained by their temporal and spatial erratic occurrence. As a consequence, the process understanding is generally deduced by analogies. Another possibility is to reproduce processes in experiments in both, the lab and in the field. Laboratory experiments are implemented when we want to have full control over all parameters we think are relevant for the process in our focus. So are very useful for identification of parameters influencing processes and their intensities, but also as physical models of the processes and process interactions in our focus. Therefore, we can use them to verify our concepts, and to define relevant parameters. Field experiments generally only simulate with controlled driving forces, this is the rain or the runoff, but dealing with the uncertainty of our study object, the soil. This enables two things: 1) similar as with lab experiments, we are able to identify processes and process interactions and so, to get a deeper understanding of soil erosion; 2) experiments are suitable for providing data about singular processes in the field and thus, to provide data suitable for model parametrisation and calibration. These may be quantitative data about erodibility or soil resistance, sediment detachment or transport. The Physical Geography Group at Trier University has a long lasting experience in the application of experiments in soil erosion research in the field, and has become lead in the further development conception and of devices and procedures to investigate splash detachment and initial transport of soil particles by wind and water, rill erosion and the transport of fine and coarse sediments. Herein, rainfall simulations are one of our principal methods, as they can be used easily to study splash processes and to get data about soil erodibility. But therefore, measurements need to be comparable and the methodology very well established and documented. The incorporation of wind into rainfall events, as they usually appear in nature, is a challenge in field experimentation, which has been tackled in cooperation with colleagues from Basel (Switzerland). So, we are one of the few groups in the world able to use a low cost, but efficient rainfall-wind simulator in the field. In addition, to cover erosion processes by concentrated flow, a methodology has been developed for field measurement of erosion processes. In this context, we are focusing now also on the development of sensors to understand the movement of coarse particles (as pebbles) in concentrated flow and to investigate their influence on soil erosion. With this contribution, I would like to promote the use of experiments for soil erosion research, and to provide information and expertise on the design and application of lab and field experiments on all partial processes of soil erosion.

  14. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  15. Mission to Planet Earth: A program to understand global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    A description of Mission to Planet Earth, a program to understand global environmental change, is presented. Topics discussed include: changes in the environment; global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; and NASA's role in global change research.

  16. Is the Earth Flat or Round? Primary School Children's Understandings of the Planet Earth: The Case of Turkish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özsoy, Sibel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore primary school children's understandings about the shape of the Earth. The sample is consisted of 124 first-graders from five primary schools located in an urban city of Turkey. The data of the study were collected through children's drawings and semi-structured interviews. Results obtained from the drawings…

  17. Understanding the distribution of near-earth asteroids

    PubMed

    Bottke; Jedicke; Morbidelli; Petit; Gladman

    2000-06-23

    We have deduced the orbital and size distributions of the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) by (i) numerically integrating NEAs from their source regions to their observed orbits, (ii) estimating the observational biases and size distribution associated with asteroids on those orbits, and (iii) creating a model population that can be fit to the known NEAs. We predict that there are approximately 900 NEAs with absolute magnitude less than 18 (that is, kilometer-sized), of which 29, 65, and 6% reside on Amor, Apollo, and Aten orbits, respectively. These results suggest that roughly 40% of the kilometer-sized NEAs have been found. The remainder, on highly eccentric and inclined orbits, are more difficult to detect. PMID:10864864

  18. Using 3D Printers to Model Earth Surface Topography for Increased Student Understanding and Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thesenga, David; Town, James

    2014-05-01

    In February 2000, the Space Shuttle Endeavour flew a specially modified radar system during an 11-day mission. The purpose of the multinational Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) was to "obtain elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth" by using radar interferometry. The data and resulting products are now publicly available for download and give a view of the landscape removed of vegetation, buildings, and other structures. This new view of the Earth's topography allows us to see previously unmapped or poorly mapped regions of the Earth as well as providing a level of detail that was previously unknown using traditional topographic mapping techniques. Understanding and appreciating the geographic terrain is a complex but necessary requirement for middle school aged (11-14yo) students. Abstract in nature, topographic maps and other 2D renderings of the Earth's surface and features do not address the inherent spatial challenges of a concrete-learner and traditional methods of teaching can at times exacerbate the problem. Technological solutions such as 3D-imaging in programs like Google Earth are effective but lack the tactile realness that can make a large difference in learning comprehension and retention for these young students. First developed in the 1980's, 3D printers were not commercial reality until recently and the rapid rise in interest has driven down the cost. With the advent of sub US1500 3D printers, this technology has moved out of the high-end marketplace and into the local office supply store. Schools across the US and elsewhere in the world are adding 3D printers to their technological workspaces and students have begun rapid-prototyping and manufacturing a variety of projects. This project attempted to streamline the process of transforming SRTM data from a GeoTIFF format by way of Python code. The resulting data was then inputted into a CAD-based program for visualization and exporting as a .stl file for 3D printing. A proposal for improving the method and making it more accessible to middle school aged students is provided. Using the SRTM data to print a hand-held visual representation of a portion of the Earth's surface would utilize existing technology in the school and alter how topography can be taught in the classroom. Combining methods of 2D paper representations, on-screen 3D visualizations, and 3D hand-held models, give students the opportunity to truly grasp and retain the information being provided.

  19. Understanding Combustion Processes Through Microgravity Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of gravity on combustion processes is presented, with an emphasis on a discussion of the ways in which reduced-gravity experiments and modeling has led to new understanding. Comparison of time scales shows that the removal of buoyancy-induced convection leads to manifestations of other transport mechanisms, notably radiative heat transfer and diffusional processes such as Lewis number effects. Examples from premixed-gas combustion, non-premixed gas-jet flames, droplet combustion, flame spread over solid and liquid fuels, and other fields are presented. Promising directions for new research are outlined, the most important of which is suggested to be radiative reabsorption effects in weakly burning flames.

  20. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  1. Understanding the Distribution of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W. F.; Jedicke, R.; Morbidelli, A.; Gladman, B.; Petit, J.-M.

    1999-09-01

    No accurate estimate of the orbital and absolute magnitude distribution of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) currently exists, largely because: (i) the known NEOs are biased by complicated observational selection effects which favor the discovery of bright or large objects that come close to Earth; (ii) relatively few NEOs have been discovered, making debiasing efforts difficult; (iii) NEO orbits are chaotic on short timescales (< 1000 years); and (iv) the source regions and replenishment mechanisms for the NEOs are not well understood. For these reasons, observers are still struggling to increase NEO detection rates, while the interpretation of existing data continues to be problematic. We propose a new method to attack this problem, one which takes advantage of theoretical advances and new numerical tools. To treat observational biases, we have applied a model-independent, semi-analytical method for calculating the probability that an asteroid observation program will find a given asteroid in a (a, e, i, and H; semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and absolute magnitude, respectively) bin per square degree at opposition at the Vernal Equinox (Jedicke and Metcalfe 1998). To discover how NEOs are replenished, we have used symplectic numerical integration techniques which can track the orbital paths of test bodies started in several potential NEO source regions (e.g., 3:1 resonance, v_6 resonance, multiple weak mean-motion resonances). By merging the observational biases with these NEO dynamical ``roadmaps" (and an NEO absolute magnitude distribution), we get a probability distribution which, if the sources have been weighted correctly, can be directly compared to the known NEOs. By testing a range of possible source combinations, we have produced a ``best-fit'' distribution which not only yields the normalized and debiased NEO orbital and absolute magnitude distribution (over various NEO sizes) but also the relative importance of each NEO replenishment source. These results have several important applications for NEO observers and for studies of the impact rates of asteroids onto the terrestrial planets. These issues are discussed in an abstract by Morbidelli et al. (this issue).

  2. Explicitly representing soil microbial processes in Earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieder, William R.; Allison, Steven D.; Davidson, Eric A.; Georgiou, Katerina; Hararuk, Oleksandra; He, Yujie; Hopkins, Francesca; Luo, Yiqi; Smith, Matthew J.; Sulman, Benjamin; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xia, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2015-10-01

    Microbes influence soil organic matter decomposition and the long-term stabilization of carbon (C) in soils. We contend that by revising the representation of microbial processes and their interactions with the physicochemical soil environment, Earth system models (ESMs) will make more realistic global C cycle projections. Explicit representation of microbial processes presents considerable challenges due to the scale at which these processes occur. Thus, applying microbial theory in ESMs requires a framework to link micro-scale process-level understanding and measurements to macro-scale models used to make decadal- to century-long projections. Here we review the diversity, advantages, and pitfalls of simulating soil biogeochemical cycles using microbial-explicit modeling approaches. We present a roadmap for how to begin building, applying, and evaluating reliable microbial-explicit model formulations that can be applied in ESMs. Drawing from experience with traditional decomposition models, we suggest the following: (1) guidelines for common model parameters and output that can facilitate future model intercomparisons; (2) development of benchmarking and model-data integration frameworks that can be used to effectively guide, inform, and evaluate model parameterizations with data from well-curated repositories; and (3) the application of scaling methods to integrate microbial-explicit soil biogeochemistry modules within ESMs. With contributions across scientific disciplines, we feel this roadmap can advance our fundamental understanding of soil biogeochemical dynamics and more realistically project likely soil C response to environmental change at global scales.

  3. Understanding Interior Dynamics in Earth and Terrestrial Planets: The Essential role of Analytical and Computational Mathematics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackley, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The widespread acceptance that slow convection of the solid, rocky mantle drives continental drift caused a revolution in our understanding of solid Earth and planetary dynamics. Mathematical approaches, both analytical and computational, have been essential for research progress in this area, and have facilititated the understanding of many aspects of mantle convection and plate tectonics. Even so, some fundamental questions - particularly "why does Earth have plate tectonics?" - still remain. This understanding gap is troubling, particularly given the current interest in applying our knowledge of solar system planets such as Earth, Venus and Mars to newly-discovered terrestrial planets around other stars, including so-called super-Earths. A major reason for this understanding gap is the complexity of rock rheology: viscous, elastic, brittle, plastic, nonlinear, grainsize- history- and composition-dependent - which makes the appropriate mathematical description uncertain, as well as implying the impossibility of a full numerical solution of the resulting multi-timescale (seconds to billions of years), multi-lengthscale (mm to 1000s km) processes. This presentation reviews the historical development of the field, the current state of the art, and possible ways forward.

  4. Chinese and Australian children's understandings of the Earth: a cross cultural study of conceptual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province, central south China ( n = 38) and Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Western Australia ( n = 36). In-depth interviews including drawings were carried out to explore the participants' conceptual understandings of the Earth's shape, gravity, day/night cycle and seasons. The results showed that, regardless of different cultures, children from the same year group constructed similar concepts about the Earth. The Year 3 children were more likely than the Year 6 children to demonstrate intuitive conceptions of a round and flat Earth. The Year 6 children were more likely to demonstrate consistent understandings of a spherical Earth. The findings supported the universality of entrenched presuppositions hypothesis. Cultural mediation was found to have a subtle impact on children's understanding of the Earth. A model of conceptual development is proposed.

  5. Collective Mathematical Understanding as an Improvisational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of mathematical understanding, and offers a response to the question raised by Martin (2001) at PME-NA about the possibility for and nature of collective mathematical understanding. In referring to collective mathematical understanding we point to the kinds of learning and understanding we may see occurring when…

  6. North Pole, South Pole: the quest to understand the mystery of Earth's magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    The story of the quest to understand Earth’s magnetic field is one of the longest and richest in the history of science. It weaves together Greek philosophy, Chinese mysticism, the development of the compass and navigation, the physics of electromagnetism and the jig-saw like piecing together of the internal structure of the planet beneath our feet. The story begins with Magnes, an old shepherd, trudging up the mountainside after a violent thunder storm, astonished at how the iron studs in his boots stick to the rocks. It was Alexander von Humboldt who, three millennia on, pointed to lightning as the source of such magnetization. The first compass was made 2000 years ago in China - to divine the ways of feng shui - a guide to planting crops, planning streets, orienting buildings and more. It reached Europe as a navigational tool in the 12th century - no-one is quite sure how, but en route it changed from south-pointing to the north-pointing compasses of today. The earliest truly scientific experiments and writings concerned magnets and geomagnetism: Petrus Peregrinus’ Epistola of 1269, and William Gilbert’s De Magnete of1600, in which he declared Magnus magnes globus terrestris ipse est - the Earth itself is a great magnet. By then it was recognized that the compass didn’t point exactly north, and the discrepancy varied from place to place and changed over time - something of a problem for Gilbert’s idea of a geocentric axial dipole. However declination and secular variation were problems well known to Edmund Halley, who, in 1700, charted the angle of declination over the Atlantic Ocean, and in the process introduced the Halleyan line - the contour. Many of the world’s greatest scientists have turned their minds to the problem of magnetism and geomagnetism in particular - Coulomb, Gauss, Faraday, Maxwell - yet in 1905, Einstein described geomagnetism as “one of the great unsolved problems of physics”. In the mid-late nineteenth century new areas of geophysics emerged: geodesy and seismology, and from these came the discoveries of the liquid iron outer core and the inner core. Later, with the recognition and validation of the palaeomagnetic method came the amazing discovery that as well as the gradual secular variation, the polarity of the field has reversed, not once but many times over history. The idea of a simply connected, self-sustaining hydromagnetic dynamo was first proposed by Larmor in 1919, but through most of the 20th century attempts to demonstrate its feasibility were hampered by lack of computational power. When, in the 1990s, supercomputers burst onto the scene it became possible to programme, albeit with some compromises, the many calculations needed to simulate Earth’s core - its motion, electric currents and magnetic fields over a significant part of the life of the Earth. The result was a model that reproduced in character the predominant geocentric axial dipole, the secular variation, and, finally the ability to reverse polarity - the Earth itself is a great hydromagnetic dynamo. The story is told in a new book, published by Awa Press, New Zealand this year, and which is scheduled for publication in the United States early in 2011. Written for a wide audience, it is readily accessible to non-experts and students of any area of earth science.

  7. Investigating Students' Understanding of the Dissolving Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naah, Basil M.; Sanger, Michael J.

    2013-04-01

    In a previous study, the authors identified several student misconceptions regarding the process of dissolving ionic compounds in water. The present study used multiple-choice questions whose distractors were derived from these misconceptions to assess students' understanding of the dissolving process at the symbolic and particulate levels. The symbolic-level questions were based on balanced equations, and the particulate-level questions used multiple-choice questions involving dynamic animations or static pictures. This paper analyzes students' responses to these questions to look for associations among four variables—Answer (the correct answer and three misconceptions), Representation (symbolic or particulate question), Visualization (static or animated pictures), and Representation Order (symbolic questions before or after the particulate questions). The results indicate that the correct answer and the acid-base misconception were more popular than the ion-pair or subscript error misconceptions, the ion-pair misconception was more popular for the particulate questions than the symbolic questions, and that participants were more likely to select the correct answer when viewing static particulate questions compared to animated particulate questions, especially if the particulate questions are seen first. These results suggest that the animated motion of dissolving these compounds in water may be distracting for students.

  8. Facilitating NASA Earth Science Data Processing Using Nebula Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A.; Pham, L.; Kempler, S.; Theobald, M.; Esfandiari, A.; Campino, J.; Vollmer, B.; Lynnes, C.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud Computing technology has been used to offer high-performance and low-cost computing and storage resources for both scientific problems and business services. Several cloud computing services have been implemented in the commercial arena, e.g. Amazon's EC2 & S3, Microsoft's Azure, and Google App Engine. There are also some research and application programs being launched in academia and governments to utilize Cloud Computing. NASA launched the Nebula Cloud Computing platform in 2008, which is an Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to deliver on-demand distributed virtual computers. Nebula users can receive required computing resources as a fully outsourced service. NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Service Center (GES DISC) migrated several GES DISC's applications to the Nebula as a proof of concept, including: a) The Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor for Measurements (S4PM) for processing scientific data; b) the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data process workflow for processing AIRS raw data; and c) the GES-DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) for online access to, analysis, and visualization of Earth science data. This work aims to evaluate the practicability and adaptability of the Nebula. The initial work focused on the AIRS data process workflow to evaluate the Nebula. The AIRS data process workflow consists of a series of algorithms being used to process raw AIRS level 0 data and output AIRS level 2 geophysical retrievals. Migrating the entire workflow to the Nebula platform is challenging, but practicable. After installing several supporting libraries and the processing code itself, the workflow is able to process AIRS data in a similar fashion to its current (non-cloud) configuration. We compared the performance of processing 2 days of AIRS level 0 data through level 2 using a Nebula virtual computer and a local Linux computer. The result shows that Nebula has significantly better performance than the local machine. Much of the difference was due to newer equipment in the Nebula than the legacy computer, which is suggestive of a potential economic advantage beyond elastic power, i.e., access to up-to-date hardware vs. legacy hardware that must be maintained past its prime to amortize the cost. In addition to a trade study of advantages and challenges of porting complex processing to the cloud, a tutorial was developed to enable further progress in utilizing the Nebula for Earth Science applications and understanding better the potential for Cloud Computing in further data- and computing-intensive Earth Science research. In particular, highly bursty computing such as that experienced in the user-demand-driven Giovanni system may become more tractable in a Cloud environment. Our future work will continue to focus on migrating more GES DISC's applications/instances, e.g. Giovanni instances, to the Nebula platform and making matured migrated applications to be in operation on the Nebula.

  9. Preparing Teachers to Design Instruction for Deep Understanding in Middle School Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; Gallagher, Lawrence P.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 3 approaches to professional development in middle school Earth science organized around the principles of Understanding by Design (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998) in a sample of 53 teachers from a large urban district. Teachers were randomly assigned to a control group or to 1 of 3 conditions that varied with respect…

  10. Chinese and Australian Children's Understandings of the Earth: A Cross Cultural Study of Conceptual Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary; Venville, Grady

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Chinese and Australian primary children's conceptual understandings of the Earth. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and was designed to be descriptive with comparative and cross sectional elements. Participants were Year 3 and Year 6 children from three schools in Hunan Province,…

  11. Chapter 8: Understanding How the Earth Works: A Geodynamic Revolution Based on Linux Computing INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Müller, Dietmar

    Chapter 8: Understanding How the Earth Works: A Geodynamic Revolution Based on Linux Computing-caps, or are there other mechanisms that may result in major fluctuations of relative sea-level? LINUX BEOWULF PARALLEL LINUX operating system that is intended for clusters of PCs linked together to operate as a single

  12. Understanding the Earth Systems of Malawi: Ecological Sustainability, Culture, and Place-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasson, George E.; Frykholm, Jeffrey A.; Mhango, Ndalapa A.; Phiri, Absalom D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year study was to investigate Malawian teacher educators' perspectives and dispositions toward teaching about ecological sustainability issues in Malawi, a developing country in sub-Sahara Africa. This study was embedded in a larger theoretical framework of investigating earth systems science through the understanding of…

  13. Understanding of Earth and Space Science Concepts: Strategies for Concept-Building in Elementary Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2009-01-01

    This research is concerned with preservice teacher understanding of six earth and space science concepts that are often taught in elementary school: the reason for seasons, phases of the moon, why the wind blows, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. Specifically, this study examines the effect of readings, hands-on learning stations,…

  14. Volcanoes and the environment: Lessons for understanding Earth's past and future from studies of present-day volcanic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    2015-10-01

    Volcanism has affected the environment of our planet over a broad range of spatial (local to global) and temporal (< 1 yr to 100s Myr) scales and will continue to do so. As well as examining the Earth's geological record and using computer modelling to understand these effects, much of our knowledge of these processes comes from studying volcanism on the present-day planet. Understanding the full spectrum of possible routes and mechanisms by which volcanism can affect the environment is key to developing a realistic appreciation of possible past and potential future volcanic impact scenarios. This review paper seeks to give a synoptic overview of these potential mechanisms, focussing on those that we can seek to understand over human timescales by studying current volcanic activity. These effects are wide ranging from well-documented planetary-scale impacts (e.g., cooling by stratospheric aerosol veils) to more subtle or localised processes like ash fertilisation of ocean biota and impacts on cloud properties, atmospheric oxidant levels and terrestrial ecosystems. There is still much to be gained by studying present-day volcanic emissions. This review highlights the need for further work in three example areas. Firstly, to understand regional and arc-scale volcanic emissions, especially cycling of elements through subduction zones, more volatile measurements are needed to contribute to a fundamental and systematic understanding of these processes throughout geological time. Secondly, there is still uncertainty surrounding whether stratospheric ozone depletion following volcanic eruptions results solely from activation of anthropogenic halogen species. We should be poised to study future eruptions into the stratosphere with regard to their impacts and halogen load and work to improve our models and understanding of the relevant underlying processes within the Earth and the atmosphere. Thirdly, we lack a systematic understanding of trace metal volatility from magmas, which is of importance in terms of understanding their geochemical cycling and use as tracers in environmental archives and of igneous processes on Earth and more broadly on silicate planetary bodies. Measurements of volcanic rock suites and metals in volcanic plumes have an important part to play in moving towards this goal.

  15. From pattern to process: The strategy of the Earth Observing System: Volume 2: EOS Science Steering Committee report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) represents a new approach to the study of the Earth. It consists of remotely sensed and correlative in situ observations designed to address important, interrelated global-scale processes. There is an urgent need to study the Earth as a complete, integrated system in order to understand and predict changes caused by human activities and natural processes. The EOS approach is based on an information system concept and designed to provide a long-term study of the Earth using a variety of measurement methods from both operational and research satellite payloads and continuing ground-based Earth science studies. The EOS concept builds on the foundation of the earlier, single-discipline space missions designed for relatively short observation periods. Continued progress in our understanding of the Earth as a system will come from EOS observations spanning several decades using a variety of contemporaneous measurements.

  16. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1994-08-09

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner. 1 fig.

  17. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL); Johnson, Terry R. (Wheaton, IL)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  18. THE RARE EARTH PEAK: AN OVERLOOKED r-PROCESS DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, G. C.; Surman, Rebecca E-mail: gail_mclaughlin@ncsu.edu

    2012-06-20

    The astrophysical site or sites responsible for the r-process of nucleosynthesis still remains an enigma. Since the rare earth region is formed in the latter stages of the r-process, it provides a unique probe of the astrophysical conditions during which the r-process takes place. We use features of a successful rare earth region in the context of a high-entropy r-process (S {approx}> 100k{sub B} ) and discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions.

  19. Process to remove rare earth from IFR electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of rare earths from molten chloride electrolyte salts used in the reprocessing of integrated fast reactor fuel (IFR). The process can be used either continuously during normal operation of the electrorefiner or as a batch process. The process consists of first separating the actinide values from the salt before purification by removal of the rare earths. After replacement of the actinides removed in the first step, the now-purified salt electrolyte has the same uranium and plutonium concentration and ratio as when the salt was removed from the electrorefiner.

  20. Understanding Consulting as an Adult Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    1993-01-01

    Interprets the process of consulting as an adult education process. Identifies four core adult education activities: encouraging self-directedness; honoring and analyzing experience; engaging in critical conversation; fostering critical reflection. (Author)

  1. Understanding Customer Choice Processes Using Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Kosters, Walter

    to understand the behaviour of the customers. In both models customers and products are modelled as points consumer behaviour, such as price, product quality, appearance and so on. Without using any interpretation are grouped into a small number of cat- egories. Every customer has to buy a product from each category

  2. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  3. Understanding the Costs of Business Process Management Technology

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    Understanding the Costs of Business Process Management Technology Bela Mutschler and Manfred management tools, and supporting methods have emerged. Summarized un- der the term Business Process Reichert Abstract Providing effective IT support for business processes has become cru- cial

  4. Design requirements for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J.; Bradford, L. H.; Burnett, E. S.; Hutson, D. E.; Kinsler, B. A.; Kugle, D. R.; Webber, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    Realistic tradeoff data and evaluation techniques were studied that permit conceptual design of operational earth resources ground processing systems. Methodology for determining user requirements that utilize the limited information available from users is presented along with definitions of sensor capabilities projected into the shuttle/station era. A tentative method is presented for synthesizing candidate ground processing concepts.

  5. Spatial abilities, Earth science conceptual understanding, and psychological gender of university non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Alice A. (Jill)

    Research has shown the presence of many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties that may impede concept understanding, and has also identified a number of categories of spatial ability. Although spatial ability has been linked to high performance in science, some researchers believe it has been overlooked in traditional education. Evidence exists that spatial ability can be improved. This correlational study investigated the relationship among Earth science conceptual understanding, three types of spatial ability, and psychological gender, a self-classification that reflects socially-accepted personality and gender traits. A test of Earth science concept understanding, the Earth Science Concepts (ESC) test, was developed and field tested from 2001 to 2003 in 15 sections of university classes. Criterion validity was .60, significant at the .01 level. Spearman/Brown reliability was .74 and Kuder/Richardson reliability was .63. The Purdue Visualization of Rotations (PVOR) (mental rotation), the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (spatial perception), the Differential Aptitude Test: Space Relations (DAT) (spatial visualization), and the Bem Inventory (BI) (psychological gender) were administered to 97 non-major university students enrolled in undergraduate science classes. Spearman correlations revealed moderately significant correlations at the .01 level between ESC scores and each of the three spatial ability test scores. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that PVOR scores were the best predictor of ESC scores, and showed that spatial ability scores accounted for 27% of the total variation in ESC scores. Spatial test scores were moderately or weakly correlated with each other. No significant correlations were found among BI scores and other test scores. Scantron difficulty analysis of ESC items produced difficulty ratings ranging from 33.04 to 96.43, indicating the percentage of students who answered incorrectly. Mean score on the ESC was 34%, indicating that the non-majors tested exhibited many Earth science misconceptions and conceptual difficulties. A number of significant results were found when independent t-tests and correlations were conducted among test scores and demographic variables. The number of previous university Earth science courses was significantly related to ESC scores. Preservice elementary/middle majors differed significantly in several ways from other non-majors, and several earlier results were not supported. Results of this study indicate that an important opportunity may exist to improve Earth science conceptual understanding by focusing on spatial ability, a cognitive ability that has heretofore not been directly addressed in schools.

  6. Metadata for numerical models of deep Earth and Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbert, A.; Peckham, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Model metadata aims to provide an unambiguous and complete description of a numerical model that would allow an end user scientist an immediate snapshot of the pertinent physical laws, assumptions, and numerical approximations. A rigorous metadata format that allows machine parsing of this information also makes it possible for model coupling frameworks to provide automatic and reliable semantic matching of input and output variables when models are coupled. Model metadata hinges in part on a controlled vocabulary that consists of human- and machine-readable terms that are unambiguously defined across modeling domains. The Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System (CSDMS) Standard Names are a set of generic naming conventions that have been used to generate a self-consistent controlled vocabulary for surface dynamics processes. As part of the NSF's EarthCube "Earth System Bridge" project, we extend the rich controlled vocabulary of CSDMS standard names to solid Earth modeling domains, including geodynamics, seismology, magnetotellurics, and petrology. We proceed to create a standard for Model Coupling Metadata (MCM) that is flexible enough to serve both the surface dynamics modeling community, and the deep Earth process modelers, thus bridging CSDMS and the Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) communities with a common semantic network. Here, we focus on our progress towards establishing an MCM standard for numerical models of solid Earth and Earth surface processes, and on the tools that facilitate creation and maintenance of such metadata. In development of the MCM standard, we leverage the Common Information Model (CIM) of the climate modeling community, as well as the NSF-funded EarthCube GeoSoft project.

  7. The Surface Temperatures of the Earth: Steps towards Integrated Understanding of Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthiesen, Stephan; Merchant, Chris; Rayner, Nick; Remedios, John; Høyer, Jacob L.; Jones, Phil; Olesen, Folke; Roquet, Hervé; Sobrino, José; Thorne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, relevant to human health, agriculture and leisure, ecosystem services, infrastructure development and economic activity. In a community-based activity, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from 5 continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The Network idenitified key needs for progress towards meeting societal needs for surface temperature understanding and information, which will be reviewed and discussed in this contribution. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships of different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information. Steps are also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  8. The surface temperatures of Earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-12-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information, which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  9. The surface temperatures of the earth: steps towards integrated understanding of variability and change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, C. J.; Matthiesen, S.; Rayner, N. A.; Remedios, J. J.; Jones, P. D.; Olesen, F.; Trewin, B.; Thorne, P. W.; Auchmann, R.; Corlett, G. K.; Guillevic, P. C.; Hulley, G. C.

    2013-06-01

    Surface temperature is a key aspect of weather and climate, but the term may refer to different quantities that play interconnected roles and are observed by different means. In a community-based activity in June 2012, the EarthTemp Network brought together 55 researchers from five continents to improve the interaction between scientific communities who focus on surface temperature in particular domains, to exploit the strengths of different observing systems and to better meet the needs of different communities. The workshop identified key needs for progress towards meeting scientific and societal requirements for surface temperature understanding and information which are presented in this community paper. A "whole-Earth" perspective is required with more integrated, collaborative approaches to observing and understanding Earth's various surface temperatures. It is necessary to build understanding of the relationships between different surface temperatures, where presently inadequate, and undertake large-scale systematic intercomparisons. Datasets need to be easier to obtain and exploit for a wide constituency of users, with the differences and complementarities communicated in readily understood terms, and realistic and consistent uncertainty information provided. Steps were also recommended to curate and make available data that are presently inaccessible, develop new observing systems and build capacities to accelerate progress in the accuracy and usability of surface temperature datasets.

  10. Understanding the Term Gifted: Process? Product? Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented that views gifted individuals as being process oriented, creative individuals as product oriented, and talented individuals as performance oriented. Approaches to acting that differ based on elements of giftedness, creativity, talent, and combinations thereof are explored. (JDD)

  11. Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) Model: Application for Understanding Preciptation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to climate system interactions and the key to understanding their behavior. Rainfall and its associated precipitation processes are a key link in the hydrologic cycle. Fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability can exert a large impact upon the structure of the upper ocean layer. In addition, approximately two-thirds of the global rain falls in the Tropics, while the associated latent heat release accounts for about three-fourths of the total heat energy for the Earth's atmosphere. Precipitation from convective cloud systems comprises a large portion of tropical heating and rainfall. Furthermore, the vertical distribution of convective latent-heat releases modulates large-scale tropical circulations (e.g., the 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation), which, in turn, impacts midlatitude weather through teleconnection patterns such as those associated with El Nino. Shifts in these global circulations can result in prolonged periods of droughts and floods, thereby exerting a tremendous impact upon the biosphere and human habitation. And yet, monthly rainfall over the tropical oceans is still not known within a factor of two over large (5 degrees latitude by 5 degrees longitude) areas. Hence, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan space project, can provide a more accurate measurement of rainfall as well as estimate the four-dimensional structure of diabatic heating over the global tropics. The distributions of rainfall and inferred heating can be used to advance our understanding of the global energy and water cycle. In addition, this information can be used for global circulation and climate models for testing and improving their parameterizations.

  12. The Rare Earth Peak: An Overlooked r-Process Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpower, Matthew Ryan

    2012-06-01

    Where do the heavy elements in the universe come from? While the basic principles of nucleosynthesis have been established, a definite answer to this and many related questions still eludes us. The 'rapid' neutron capture process or r-process is believed to be responsible for generating roughly half the nuclei with atomic mass A ? 100. However, the astrophysical site of this process still remains uncertain. Still further, nucleosynthesis calculations of this process must rely on theoretical extrapolations as the bulk of nuclides participating in this process are short-lived.We examine the formation and final structure of the rare earth peak (A ˜ 160) of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Since rare earth peak formation does not occur during (n, gamma) ? (gamma, n) equilibrium it is sensitive to the strong interplay between late time thermodynamic evolution and nuclear physics input. We show that under high entropy conditions (S > 100 kB), the rare earth peak forms at late times in the r-process after neutron exhaustion (neutron-to-seed ratio unity or R = 1) as matter decays back to stability. Depending on the conditions the peak forms either because of the pattern of the neutron capture rates or because of the pattern of the separation energies. We use features of a successful rare earth region to discuss the types of astrophysical conditions that produce abundance patterns that best match meteoritic and observational data. Despite uncertainties in nuclear physics input, this method effectively constrains astrophysical conditions. We study the sensitivity of the r-process abundance pattern to neutron capture rates and beta-decay rates in the region. We identify the range of nuclei which are in uential in rare earth peak formation.

  13. Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions

    E-print Network

    Social Signal Processing: Understanding Nonverbal Communication in Social Interactions Alessandro Processing, human-human communication, nonverbal behavior, social interactions. ACM Classification Keywords A in human sciences have shown that nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we express

  14. Understanding the Process of Fascial Unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Minasny, Budiman

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fascial or myofascial unwinding is a process in which a client undergoes a spontaneous reaction in response to the therapist’s touch. It can be induced by using specific techniques that encourage a client’s body to move into areas of ease. Unwinding is a popular technique in massage therapy, but its mechanism is not well understood. In the absence of a scientific explanation or hypothesis of the mechanism of action, it can be interpreted as “mystical.” Purpose: This paper proposes a model that builds on the neurobiologic, ideomotor action, and consciousness theories to explain the process and mechanism of fascial unwinding. Hypothetical Model: During fascial unwinding, the therapist stimulates mechanoreceptors in the fascia by applying gentle touch and stretching. Touch and stretching induce relaxation and activate the parasympathetic nervous system. They also activate the central nervous system, which is involved in the modulation of muscle tone as well as movement. As a result, the central nervous system is aroused and thereby responds by encouraging muscles to find an easier, or more relaxed, position and by introducing the ideomotor action. Although the ideomotor action is generated via normal voluntary motor control systems, it is altered and experienced as an involuntary response. Conclusions: Fascial unwinding occurs when a physically induced suggestion by a therapist prompts ideomotor action that the client experiences as involuntary. This action is guided by the central nervous system, which produces continuous action until a state of ease is reached. Consequently, fascial unwinding can be thought of as a neurobiologic process employing the self-regulation dynamic system theory. PMID:21589734

  15. Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-07-01

    The dancing glow of the aurorae, the long tendrils of light that seem to reach up into space, has mesmerized scientists for centuries. More than a beautiful display, the aurorae tell us about the Earth—about its atmosphere, its magnetic field, and its relationship with the Sun. As technology developed, researchers looking beyond Earth's borders discovered an array of auroral processes on planets throughout the solar system. In the AGU monograph Auroral Phenomenology and Magnetospheric Processes: Earth and Other Planets, editors Andreas Keiling, Eric Donovan, Fran Bagenal, and Tomas Karlsson explore the many open questions that permeate the science of auroral physics and the relatively recent field of extraterrestrial aurorae. In this interview, Eos talks to Karlsson about extraterrestrial aurorae, Alfvén waves, and the sounds of the northern lights.

  16. Understanding Gaussian Process Regression Using the Equivalent Kernel

    E-print Network

    Sollich, Peter

    Silverman [1] called the idealized weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structureUnderstanding Gaussian Process Regression Using the Equivalent Kernel Peter Sollich1.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract. The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian process regression works

  17. Social Information Processing and Emotional Understanding in Children with LD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit; Edelsztein, Hany Schorr; Morash, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively examine social cognition processes in children with and without learning disabilities (LD), focusing on social information processing (SIP) and complex emotional understanding capabilities such as understanding complex, mixed, and hidden emotions. Participants were 50 children with LD (age range 9.4-12.7;…

  18. Understandability Issues of Approaches Supporting Business Process Variability

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    of tools managing business process variability. 1 Introduction The increasing adoption of ProcessUnderstandability Issues of Approaches Supporting Business Process Variability Victoria Torres1 of related process model variants. For managing such related model collections two types of approaches exist

  19. Microbial Communities: Tracing Growth Processes from Antarctic Lakes to Early Earth to Other Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Life in the Universe is dominated by microbes: they are numerically the most abundant cells in our bodies and in Earth's biosphere, and they are the only life that might be present elsewhere in our solar system. Life beyond our solar system could include macroscopic organisms, but everything we understand about the origin of life suggests it must start with microbes. Thus, understanding microbial ecosystems, in the absence of macroscopic organisms, is critical to understanding early life on Earth and life elsewhere in the Universe - if it exists. But what are the general principles of microbial ecology in the absence of predation? What happens when each cell is a chemical factory that can swap among metabolic processes in response to environmental and emergent cues? Geobiologists and astrobiologists are addressing these questions in diverse ways using both Earth's modern biosphere and its fossil record. Modern microbial communities in shallow, ice-covered lakes, Antarctica (Fig.), provide a model for high productivity microbial ecosystems with no to low predation. In these lakes, photosynthetic communities create macroscopic pinnacles and domes, sometime lithified into stromatolites. They provide an ecological, geochemical and morphological model for Precambrian microbial communities in low sedimentation, low current environments. Insights from these communities include new growth processes for ancient mats, especially some that grew prior to the oxidation of Earth's atmosphere. The diversity of biosignatures created in these communities also provides context for models of life under ice elsewhere in our solar system such as paleolakes on Mars and on icy moons. Results from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team document formerly habitable fluvial and lacustrine environments. Lacustrine environments, in particular, are favorable for preserving biosignatures, and continued investigations by MSL will provide a deeper understanding of the duration of habitable environments and the preservation potential of biosignatures in those environments. A specific search for evidence of microbial ecosystems is warranted, but investigation of old sedimentary rocks on Earth demonstrates that biosignature preservation is rare.

  20. Chemical evolution of the Earth: Equilibrium or disequilibrium process?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, M.

    1985-01-01

    To explain the apparent chemical incompatibility of the Earth's core and mantle or the disequilibrium process, various core forming mechanisms have been proposed, i.e., rapid disequilibrium sinking of molten iron, an oxidized core or protocore materials, and meteorite contamination of the upper mantle after separation from the core. Adopting concepts used in steady state thermodynamics, a method is devised for evaluating how elements should distribute stable in the Earth's interior for the present gradients of temperature, pressure, and gravitational acceleration. Thermochemical modeling gives useful insights into the nature of chemical evolution of the Earth without overly speculative assumptions. Further work must be done to reconcile siderophile elements, rare gases, and possible light elements in the outer core.

  1. TERRA-1: Understanding the terrestrial environment, the role of earth observations from space

    SciTech Connect

    Mather, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    TERRA-1 provides an account of the proceedings of a specialists' conference held at the Royal Geographical Society in August 1989 on land surface remote sensing, its relationship to global environmental research and earth system science, and its role in understanding global climate. The book is a collection of 19 articles from a diverse group of geologists, geographers, hydrologists, meteorologists, soil scientists, terrestrial ecologists, volcanologists, and remote sensing specialists. The articles provide a useful overview in a number of disciplines on how space-based remote sensing is helping address problems associated with monitoring and predicting the global environment and its climate.

  2. Understanding complex Earth systems: volatile metabolites as microbial ecosystem proxies and student conceptual model development of coastal eutrophication 

    E-print Network

    McNeal, Karen Sue

    2009-05-15

    research strands which contribute to the scientific and pedagogical understanding of complex Earth systems. In the first strand, a method that characterizes volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as ecological proxies of soil microbial ecosystems was validated...

  3. Understanding of earth and space science concepts: Strategies for concept building in elementary teacher preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    Research on conceptual change provides strong evidence that not only children but also many adults have incorrect or incomplete understanding of science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with preservice and inservice teachers' understanding of six earth and space science concepts commonly taught in elementary school: reasons for seasons, phases of the moon, reasons for the wind, the rock cycle, soil formation, and earthquakes. The first part of the study determined and compared the level of conceptual understanding held by both groups on topics they will need to teach in the Georgia Performance Standards [GPS]. The second part focused on whether readings or hands-on learning stations, in some cases combined with concept mapping, improves preservice teachers' understanding of these concepts. The third part described the application of conceptual change strategies of one group of preservice teachers during their field placements. The overall sample was two cohorts of preservice teachers, one cohort of preservice teachers from an alternative initial certification program, and two masters' cohorts consisting of inservice teachers. Four data sources were: a six item open-ended survey, concept maps, the field assignments, and the researcher's field notes. Rubrics were used to score answers to each survey question. Concept map scores were calculated based on the criteria developed by Novak and Gowin (1984). The first part of the study shows that both preservice and inservice teachers have low conceptual understanding of the earth science concepts taught in elementary school. Independent samples t-tests results indicate that both groups have similar understanding about these concepts. A two way ANOVA with repeated measures analysis demonstrated that readings and learning stations are both successful in building preservice teacher's understanding and that benefits from the hands-on learning stations approached statistical significance. A paired samples t-test shows that concept mapping added to the participants' conceptual understanding whether the participants learned the concepts through readings or stations. Finally, field assignments allowed the participants to apply knowledge that they learned in their science methods course in their classroom placements. This study has implications for teacher preparation programs, staff development, and conceptual change practices in field placements.

  4. A substantiation of cyclic process of the system Earth-Moon-Sun tidal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avsyuk, Y.

    2007-12-01

    The present-day knowledge of the Earth and thorough description of the tidal force affecting the system Earth-Moon-Sun permits us to work out in detail a tidal evolution model. Thus we get a possibility to reconstruct global variations of the climate. The tidal evolution of natural processes on the Earth that has a huge satellite (the Moon mass is only 81 times less than the Earth mass) essentially differs from the evolution on a planet that has no satellite. There are some natural processes that are well-known in astrometry and geophysics but disregarded by experts in geodynamics and geotectonics. The movement of the rotation axis in the Earth's body is discovered more a century ago, but there is no a model explaining the mechanism of this process. Our predecessors emphasized importance of the discovery and suggested desire of such a model. G.H.Darwin in his comments on "Z-term" in the latitude variation wrote this movement could be due to alternate displacement of the Earth center. To explain the scale of that phenomena it is enough to adopt a displacement of the Earth center by twelve feet. A question is to the point is whether the Earth axis movement concerns with the Inner core (IC) displacements. There are some reasons testifying to forced movements of the IC. To understand the forcing influence one must not simplify the Earth's real orbital movement. In fact the system Earth-Moon rotates around the Sun with the period of year. The ecliptic is a plane containing the orbit of the Earth and the Moon mass center (barycenter). The Sun attraction is balanced dynamically in the barycenter but not in the Earth center. As a result, the Earth rotates just as the Moon round the barycenter with the period of the Moon month, and therefore the IC is subjected to a variable tidal force (1910). Newton in Append. XXV, problem VI, underlined that inasmuch as the Earth and the Moon rotate round their common mass center, the Earth movement is disturbed with similar forces. Laplace formula describes imperfectly the tidal force. One should not ignore perturbation terms. The first model was proposed by Kelvin and worked out in detail by G.H.Darwin. The model became a classic part of scientific and educational literature but without perturbations in the Earth orbit by the Sun. Provided the principal conception of the tidal evolution model is kept, we defined more accurately a model of the Earth structure and its orbital perturbations. The gravity variations due to the IC displacements are of the same order as the Moon tidal effect without perturbations. The both effects influence similarly the ocean currents and the hydrosphere dynamical figure. One can compare the model above with data of historical geology. Climatologists distinguish at least three epochs: transitions Algonk-Cambrian and Carbon-Perm, and Quaternary. Duration of mid-glaciations is of 200-250 Myear. Taken this value for the cycle duration and 2×1012 W for the power of variability of the rotation kinetic energy, one can estimate ranges of variation: ±4R for the Earth-Moon distance, ±6° for the ecliptic tilt, and 3.8×1018 erg/s for the power of the IC moves the outer liquids. Our studies are now at a first stage. The aim of the presentation is to show untapped possibilities in the tidal evolution model. Its updating bases on the data that were absent before and must be taken now into account for a discussion of ideas of historical geology and paleomagnetism.

  5. Potential synergy: the thorium fuel cycle and rare earths processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ault, T.; Wymer, R.; Croff, A.; Krahn, S.

    2013-07-01

    The use of thorium in nuclear power programs has been evaluated on a recurring basis. A concern often raised is the lack of 'thorium infrastructure'; however, for at least a part of a potential thorium fuel cycle, this may less of a problem than previously thought. Thorium is frequently encountered in association with rare earth elements and, since the U.S. last systematically evaluated the large-scale use of thorium (the 1970's,) the use of rare earth elements has increased ten-fold to approximately 200,000 metric tons per year. Integration of thorium extraction with rare earth processing has been previously described and top-level estimates have been done on thorium resource availability; however, since ores and mining operations differ markedly, what is needed is process flowsheet analysis to determine whether a specific mining operation can feasibly produce thorium as a by-product. Also, the collocation of thorium with rare earths means that, even if a thorium product stream is not developed, its presence in mining waste streams needs to be addressed and there are previous instances where this has caused issues. This study analyzes several operational mines, estimates the mines' ability to produce a thorium by-product stream, and discusses some waste management implications of recovering thorium. (authors)

  6. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  7. Understanding the Complexity of Social Issues through Process Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to capture the process of understanding and questioning deforestation through process drama (in which students and teacher work both in and out of role to explore a problem, situation, or theme). Notes that moving topics such as the destruction of a rainforest into process drama introduces complexity into social issues. Considers how…

  8. Why Earth Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  9. Communicating with Parents: Understanding the Process, Improving Your Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Communication is the exchange of information, ideas and/or feelings from one person to another. The goal of communication is understanding. Without understanding, there is no communication. The communication process consists of verbal and nonverbal communication and listening. The spoken word is self-explanatory. Communication problems between…

  10. Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression

    E-print Network

    Sollich, Peter

    ] called the idealized weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structure of the remainderUsing the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro- cess regression works

  11. Using the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression

    E-print Network

    Sollich, Peter

    weight function the equivalent kernel (EK). The structure of the remainder of the paper is as followsUsing the Equivalent Kernel to Understand Gaussian Process Regression Peter Sollich Dept.k.i.williams@ed.ac.uk Abstract The equivalent kernel [1] is a way of understanding how Gaussian pro­ cess regression works

  12. A novel process for recovering rare earth from weathered black earth

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, R.; Zhu, G.; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z.

    2000-02-01

    A novel process for recovering rare-earth (RE) elements from weathered-black-earth slime is developed. This process involves the initial removal of Mn by reduction leaching using SO{sub 2} followed by ammonium chloride roasting of the residual solids from the leaching process. The controlled roasting selectively converts RE oxides to water-soluble RE chlorides. The roasted materials are then dispersed in warm water (75 C) to extract RE, while water-insoluble iron oxides remain in gangue sludge, minimizing iron impurities in final RE products and hence simplifying the purification process. Lead chloride precipitates are obtained by cooling the leachate to {minus}10 C, and RE is recovered using oxalic acid precipitation. With this new process, a product of 92 pct purity at a RE recovery greater than 65 pct is obtained. In addition, Mn and Pb are recovered as by-products, with a recovery of 64 and 54 pct, respectively. The effect of operating variables on RE recovery is examined and the process chemistry described.

  13. Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of global atmospheric and earth system processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Taiping; Verbitsky, Mikhail; Saltzman, Barry; Mann, Michael E.; Park, Jeffrey; Lall, Upmanu

    1995-01-01

    During the grant period, the authors continued ongoing studies aimed at enhancing their understanding of the operation of the atmosphere as a complex nonlinear system interacting with the hydrosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere in response to external radiative forcing. Five papers were completed with support from the grant, representing contributions in three main areas of study: (1) theoretical studies of the interactive atmospheric response to changed biospheric boundary conditions measurable from satellites; (2) statistical-observational studies of global-scale temperature variability on interannual to century time scales; and (3) dynamics of long-term earth system changes associated with ice sheet surges.

  15. Understanding Our Changing Planet: NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. 1998 Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD. Goddard Space Flight Center.

    This document describes NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a comprehensive program to study the earth as an environmental system. The Earth Science Enterprise has three main components: (1) a series of earth-observing satellites; (2) an advanced data system; and (3) teams of scientists who will study the data. Contents include: (1) "The Earth

  16. Stochastic Growth and Nonlinear Processes in Earth's Foreshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver; Robinson, P. A.; Connors, Timothy

    2000-10-01

    Langmuir-like waves driven by electron beams in Earth's foreshock have been observed for many years. The foreshock is also a source of radiation near the electron plasma frequency fp and near 2f_p, long interpreted in terms of Langmuir waves undergoing nonlinear processes. However, standard plasma theory, in which homogeneous waves grow exponentially until saturated by a nonlinear process, encounters great difficulties explaining the burstiness, widely varying fields, and persistence far from the bow shock of the foreshock Langmuir waves Recently, however, stochastic growth theory (SGT) has been shown to provide a detailed explanation for the burstiness, field statistics, persistence, and spatial evolution of Langmuir waves in Earth's foreshock. This paper reviews this evidence for SGT and then presents a new, strong argument based on SGT that a nonlinear Langmuir process occurs near the upstream edge of Earth's foreshock. The argument involves the SGT prediction that the probability distribution P(log E) of wave electric fields E should suffer an abrupt fall-off at fields higher than the threshold field of an active nonlinear process. For two intervals of ISEE-1 data it is shown that the P(log E) distributions are well described by SGT with an active nonlinear process at fields of a few mV m-1. Based on calculated thresholds for foreshock beam parameters, the nonlinear process is most likely the electrostatic decay L arrow L' + S (L, L' and S denote Langmuir, Langmuir, and ion acoustic waves, respectively). Accordingly, these data are consistent with stochastic growth physics dominating the evolution of the Langmuir waves, and electrostatic decay occurring only near the foreshock's edge for the most intense Langmuir waves, similar to previous results for type III radio sources.

  17. Understanding Business Process Quality Matthias Lohrmann and Manfred Reichert

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    Organizations have taken benefit from quality management prac- tices in manufacturing and logistics with respect business process quality are thus a fundamental requirement to further establish BPM as a managementUnderstanding Business Process Quality Matthias Lohrmann and Manfred Reichert Abstract

  18. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  19. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

  20. Quasi-static MHD processes in earth's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, Gerd-Hannes

    1988-01-01

    An attempt is made to use the MHD equilibrium theory to describe the global magnetic field configuration of earth's magnetosphere and its time evolution under the influence of magnetospheric convection. To circumvent the difficulties inherent in today's MHD codes, use is made of a restriction to slowly time-dependent convection processes with convective velocities well below the typical Alfven speed. This restriction leads to a quasi-static MHD theory. The two-dimensional theory is outlined, and it is shown how sequences of two-dimensional equilibria evolve into a steady state configuration that is likely to become tearing mode unstable. It is then concluded that magnetospheric substorms occur periodically in earth's magnetosphere, thus being an integral part of the entire convection cycle.

  1. Linking rare earth element zoning in major and accessory minerals to better understand metasedimentary migmatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. A.; Kelly, N. M.; Koenig, A.; Harley, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Trace element signatures from major and accessory minerals are increasingly used to place constraints on the ages of tectonothermal events and gain insights into processes operating in the deep continental crust. Minerals such as garnet, zircon or monazite represent sensitive recorders of events if a solid understanding exists of what trace element signatures represent. A study underway on granulite facies migmatites is providing insights into trace element signatures in garnet, and when integrated with in situ, microbeam analysis of zircon and monazite, is allowing a complex polymetamorphic history to be deciphered. The Larsemann Hills, east Antarctica, are composed of felsic orthogneisses and metasediments that were affected by high-grade metamorphism and partial melting at c. 7 kbar and >800 °C. Initially interpreted to have experienced a single cycle of metamorphism at c. 550-530 Ma, recent ages suggest that the area was affected by an earlier high-grade event at c. 900 Ma; the timing of migmatization relative to these two events remains uncertain. To address this, a detailed study has targeted metasedimentary migmatites. Garnet, zircon and monazite were analysed from melanosome, leucosome and selvage domains. Garnet (predominantly almandine-pyrope) preserves little, if any, major element zoning. In contrast, it records systematic within-grain variations in heavy rare earth element (HREE) concentration depending on textural context. Garnet within residuum domains displays broad cores with flat HREE slopes in chondrite-normalized plots, but are HREE-depleted (negative slopes) at boundaries adjacent to leucosome. In contrast, garnet boundaries adjacent to cordierite-rich selvages are typically HREE-enriched, with positive-sloping patterns. It is interpreted that core-rim depletions in HREE may reflect evolution of the whole-rock reservoir towards depletion during migmatization and garnet growth. Enrichment in garnet HREE adjacent to selvage domains likely resulted from local reaction between solids and melts either during melt transit and/or crystallization. Monazite, which is preferentially located in leucosome domains, preserves ages that reflect growth at c. 900 Ma and c. 530 Ma, although trace element signatures are ambiguous. However, zircon, which is preferentially located in selvage domains, preserves c. 530 Ma rims with depleted, flat to negatively sloping HREE patterns. It is interpreted that these zircon rims grew in, or near to equilibrium with garnet cores and rims during partial melting, and may date at least part of migmatite formation in the Larsemann Hills. They do not date the final crystallization of melts and development of selvage domains. Preliminary results of this study have shown that the trace element composition of garnet from high-temperature terrains can be a powerful tool in tracking metamorphic and melting processes where major elements zoning is no longer preserved. This study also demonstrates the utility of textural context when interpreting trace element patterns and ages from dateable accessory minerals in rocks from polycyclic metamorphic terrains.

  2. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  3. The history of Earth climate In order to understand the history of the

    E-print Network

    McCready, Mark J.

    fundamental questions: .How old is the Earth? . How do we know the age of the Earth?? . What was the origin handed out in class due March 28th in class #12;#12;#12;So, how old is the Earth? Ancient rocks exceeding radiometric ages 4.3 billion years. The Earth is at least 4.3 billion years old. The best age for the Earth (4

  4. Understanding Thermal Behavior in Lens Processing of Structural Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ensz, M.T.; Greene, D.L.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.; Hofmeister, W.H.; Nelson, D.V.; Robino, C.V.; Schlienger, M.E.; Smugeresky, J.E.; Wert, M.J.

    1998-11-05

    In direct laser metal deposition technologies, such as the Laser (LENS) process, it is important to understand and control the Engineered Net Shaping thermal behavior during fabrication. With this control, components can be reliably fabricated with desired structural material properties. This talk will describe the use of contact and imaging techniques to monitor the thermal signature during LENS processing. Recent results show a direct correlation between thermal history and material properties, where the residual stress magnitude decreases as the laser power, and therefore thermal signature, increases. Development of an understanding of solidification behavior, residual stress, and microstructural evolution with respect to thermal behavior will be discussed.

  5. Understanding the College Choice Process of Catholic Homeschooled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Linda M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how Catholic homeschooled students navigate the college choice process. With the growth of homeschooling in the United States nearly doubling in the past eight years (Cogan, 2010), this study explored a segment of this growing population to give researchers and practitioners a deeper…

  6. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  7. Understanding Soil Acidification Process Using Animation and Text: An Empirical

    E-print Network

    Çöltekin, Arzu

    the animation or the text in an ``open book'' setting. The tested media have been assessed through the classicalUnderstanding Soil Acidification Process Using Animation and Text: An Empirical User Evaluation of presenting information: animation and text. The stimuli contain equivalent information, but use fundamentally

  8. Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn

    E-print Network

    Understanding Hydraulic Processes Primary Investigator: Frank H. Quinn Overview The hydraulic and connecting channel hydraulics models for use in Great Lakes water resource studies. 2000 Plans Niagara River Hydraulic Studies: Detailed analysis of the impact of hydraulic regime changes in the Niagara River

  9. Understanding Scientific Texts: From Structure to Process and General Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensar, Ferhat; Sallabas, Muhammed Eyyüp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the historical development of experimental research on learning processes from scientific texts has been introduced. Then a detailed analysis of the main contributions of cognitive science has been provided and the theoretical developments that are considered to have had a major role in the comprehension and understanding of…

  10. Overcoming extinction: understanding processes of recovery of the Tibetan antelope

    E-print Network

    Courchamp, Franck

    Overcoming extinction: understanding processes of recovery of the Tibetan antelope C. LECLERC, C of recovery of the Tibetan antelope. Ecosphere 6(9):171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/ES15-00049.1 Abstract. Since the middle of the 20th century, the Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) has been poached

  11. Understanding How Astronauts Adapt to Space and to Earth: Anatomical Studies of Central Vestibular Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, Gay; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Significant changes take place in the nervous systems of astronauts during and following exposure to microgravity. These changes, particularly in the part of the brain that controls balance, the vestibular system, can cause sensations of rotation, dizziness, and vertigo, as well as space adaptation syndrome. Adaptation to the microgravity environment usually occurs within one week, and a subsequent re-adaptation period of several days is often required upon return to Earth. In order to realize long-term spaceflight, effective countermeasures for these symptoms must be developed. The structural changes that take place in one of the vestibular regions of the brain (the cerebellar cortex) during the process of adaptation to Earth's gravity remain unclear and are the subject of an experiment being conducted on STS-107 by Dr. Gay Holstein of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. Using the rat as a model, Dr. Holstein and her team will seek to identify the cellular changes underlying the vestibular changes experienced by astronauts.

  12. Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the planet Earth are discussed: plate tectonics, the interior of the planet, the formation of the Earth, and the evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The Earth's crust, mantle, and core are examined along with the bulk composition of the planet.

  13. The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhin, Lev M.; Gerasimov, M. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of impacting processes in the chemical evolution of the atmosphere of primordial Earth is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: (1) Earth's initial atmosphere; (2) continuous degassing; (3) impact processes and the Earth's protoatmosphere; and (4) the evolution of an impact-generated atmosphere.

  14. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  15. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, II, Charles,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  16. Exploring the geophysical signatures of microbial processes in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, L.; Atekwana, E.; Brantley, S.; Gorby, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Knight, R.; Morgan, D.; Revil, A.; Rossbach, S.; Yee, N.

    2009-05-15

    AGU Chapman Conference on Biogeophysics; Portland, Maine, 13-16 October 2008; Geophysical methods have the potential to detect and characterize microbial growth and activity in subsurface environments over different spatial and temporal scales. Recognition of this potential has resulted in the development of a new subdiscipline in geophysics called 'biogeophysics,' a rapidly evolving Earth science discipline that integrates environmental microbiology, geomicrobiology, biogeochemistry, and geophysics to investigate interactions that occur between the biosphere (microorganisms and their products) and the geosphere. Biogeophysics research performed over the past decade has confirmed the potential for geophysical techniques to detect microbes, microbial growth/biofilm formation, and microbe-mineral interactions. The unique characteristics of geophysical data sets (e.g., noninvasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) present opportunities to explore geomicrobial processes outside of the laboratory, at unique spatial scales unachievable with microbiological techniques, and possibly in remote environments such as the deep ocean. In response to this opportunity, AGU hosted a Chapman Conference with a mission to bring together geophysicists, biophysicists, geochemists, geomicrobiologists, and environmental microbiologists conducting multidisciplinary research with potential impact on biogeophysics in order to define the current state of the science, identify the critical questions facing the community, and generate a road map for establishing biogeophysics as a critical subdiscipline of Earth science research. For more information on the conference, see http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2008/fcall/.

  17. Understanding uncertainty in process-based hydrological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. P.; Kavetski, D.; Slater, A. G.; Newman, A. J.; Marks, D. G.; Landry, C.; Lundquist, J. D.; Rupp, D. E.; Nijssen, B.

    2013-12-01

    Building an environmental model requires making a series of decisions regarding the appropriate representation of natural processes. While some of these decisions can already be based on well-established physical understanding, gaps in our current understanding of environmental dynamics, combined with incomplete knowledge of properties and boundary conditions of most environmental systems, make many important modeling decisions far more ambiguous. There is consequently little agreement regarding what a 'correct' model structure is, especially at relatively larger spatial scales such as catchments and beyond. In current practice, faced with such a range of decisions, different modelers will generally make different modeling decisions, often on an ad hoc basis, based on their balancing of process understanding, the data available to evaluate the model, the purpose of the modeling exercise, and their familiarity with or investment in an existing model infrastructure. This presentation describes development and application of multiple-hypothesis models to evaluate process-based hydrologic models. Our numerical model uses robust solutions of the hydrology and thermodynamic governing equations as the structural core, and incorporates multiple options to represent the impact of different modeling decisions, including multiple options for model parameterizations (e.g., below-canopy wind speed, thermal conductivity, storage and transmission of liquid water through soil, etc.), as well as multiple options for model architecture, that is, the coupling and organization of different model components (e.g., representations of sub-grid variability and hydrologic connectivity, coupling with groundwater, etc.). Application of this modeling framework across a collection of different research basins demonstrates that differences among model parameterizations are often overwhelmed by differences among equally-plausible model parameter sets, while differences in model architecture lead to pronounced differences in model simulations at larger spatial scales. Work is ongoing to use this modeling framework to understand differences among existing models, especially, to understand why different hydrologic models have a very different portrayal of the impacts of climate change on water resources.

  18. A Sun-Earth-Moon Activity to Develop Student Understanding of Lunar Phases and Frames of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Moon is an ever-present subject of observation, and it is a recurring topic in the science curriculum from kindergarten's basic observations through graduate courses' mathematical analyses of its orbit. How do students come to comprehend Earth's nearest neighbor? What is needed for them to understand the lunar phases and other phenomena and…

  19. Earth Science: It's All about the Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Readers of the draft new English primary science curriculum (DfE, 2012) might be concerned to see that there is much more detail on the Earth science content than previously in the United Kingdom. In this article, Chris King, a professor of Earth Science Education at Keele University and Director of the Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU),…

  20. Earth observations satellite data policy: Process and outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.R.

    1994-12-31

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) develops, launches, and operates satellites to observe and monitor the Earth and its environment. This study categorizes each program based on the relationship between NASA and external organizations. A program can be an autonomous mission undertaken for NASA`s own constituency, or it can involve a client agency or a partner. These relationships affect how data policy decisions are made and implemented, and how the valuable output of NASA`s Earth observations satellites is managed. The process in NASA for determining which programs will be approved is very informal. Ideas and concepts surface and reach the consciousness of NASA management; if sufficient support is achieved, a proposal can move to the feasibility study phase and from there become an approved and funded mission. The handling of data can be an important consideration in generating political support for program approval. Autonomous programs tend to have decisions made at lower levels and documented informally or not at all. Data policy is part of routine implementation of programs and does not generally rise to the visibility of the agency head or congressional staff or the Executive Office of the President. Responsibility for data management for autonomous missions is retained at NASA centers. Client programs involve higher level decision makers, and are the subject of political interest because they cross agency boundaries. The data policy process includes presidential statements on data access. As part of the client relationship, NASA often provides resources to the client for data handling and analysis, and shares these responsibilities. Data policy for partner programs is the result of bargaining between the partners, either foreign government agencies or private companies.

  1. Groundwater in the Earth's critical zone: Relevance to large-scale patterns and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ying

    2015-05-01

    Although we have an intuitive understanding of the behavior and functions of groundwater in the Earth's critical zone at the scales of a column (atmosphere-plant-soil-bedrock), along a toposequence (ridge to valley), and across a small catchment (up to third-order streams), this paper attempts to assess the relevance of groundwater to understanding large-scale patterns and processes such as represented in global climate and Earth system models. Through observation syntheses and conceptual models, evidence are presented that groundwater influence is globally prevalent, it forms an environmental gradient not fully captured by the climate, and it can profoundly shape critical zone evolution at continental to global scales. Four examples are used to illustrate these ideas: (1) groundwater as a water source for plants in rainless periods, (2) water table depth as a driver of plant rooting depth, (3) the accessibility of groundwater as an ecological niche separator, and (4) groundwater as the lower boundary of land drainage and a global driver of wetlands. The implications to understanding past and future global environmental change are briefly discussed, as well as critical discipline, scale, and data gaps that must be bridged in order for us to translate what we learn in the field at column, hillslope and catchment scales, to what we must predict at regional, continental, and global scales.

  2. A novel sequential process for remediating rare-earth wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Kang, Kyounglim; Kim, Dukmin; Snyder, Shane A; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2016-02-01

    A novel and economic sequential process consisting of precipitation, adsorption, and oxidation was developed to remediate actual rare-earth (RE) wastewater containing various toxic pollutants, including radioactive species. In the precipitation step, porous air stones (PAS) containing waste oyster shell (WOS), PASWOS, was prepared and used to precipitate most heavy metals with >97% removal efficiencies. The SEM-EDS analysis revealed that PAS plays a key role in preventing the surface coating of precipitants on the surface of WOS and in releasing the dissolved species of WOS successively. For the adsorption step, a polyurethane (PU) impregnated by coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS), PUCMDS, was synthesized and applied to deplete fluoride (F), arsenic (As), uranium (U), and thorium (Th) that remained after precipitation. The continuous-mode sequential process using PASWOS, PUCMDS, and ozone (O3) had 99.9-100% removal efficiencies of heavy metals, 99.3-99.9% of F and As, 95.8-99.4% of U and Th, and 92.4% of CODCr for 100 days. The sequential process can treat RE wastewater economically and effectively without stirred-tank reactors, pH controller, continuous injection of chemicals, and significant sludge generation, as well as the quality of the outlet met the EPA recommended limits. PMID:26583290

  3. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles, II,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http://geology.wr.usgs.gov. More information is available about the WESPT is available on-line at the team website.

  4. Anelasticity of the HCP Metal Zinc: a Key to Understanding the Dynamics of Earth's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, S. A.; Walker, A.; Lord, O. T.; Stackhouse, S.; Armstrong, L. S.; Parsons, A. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Whitaker, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The solid inner core is the most remote and inaccessible part of our planet but its structure and composition may provide a key record needed to reveal the timing and nature of the onset of Earth's protective magnetic field generated and even of long-term changes in the way the mantle convects driving surface dynamics. Key to developing our understanding of the inner core is our ability to use seismic observations to constrain its structure on all scales. Seismic wave velocities are mostly sensitive to the atomic scale crystal structure, temperature and composition. On a larger scale the microstructure of the inner core, reflecting its deformation and crystallization history, can be probed by seismic studies of elastic anisotropy and anelasticity [Makinen & Deuss (2013) Geophys. J. Int. 194:401]. The inner core is at temperatures in excess of ~0.95Tm and interpretation of the properties and history of the inner core must therefore include careful understanding of the anelastic properties of HCP iron and its alloys. The most recent study of the anelasticity of iron and iron alloys is now over a decade old [Jackson et al., (2000) J. Geophys. Res. 105:23605] and is limited to low pressure where iron adopts the body centered cubic (BCC) or face centered cubic (FCC) structure. It is now widely, although not universally, accepted that iron in the core adopts the hexagonally close packed (HCP) epsilon-iron structure stable above 10 GPa and there are currently no results that reveal the anelasticity of this core-forming phase. We have used Zinc as a low pressure analogue for HCP-iron and measured its anelastic response as a function of frequency (periods 10-300s), temperature and pressure (P<7GPa). Our experiments use the D-DIA to apply a sinusoidally varying strain to the sample and a corundum elastic standard. We image changes in length of the sample and standard in response to the driving strain X-radiographically. The amplitude and phase of sample length change relative to that of the elastic standard gives us the effective Young's modulus (amplitude) and internal friction (frequency dependent phase lag). Above ~0.7Tm, we observe significant reduction in the sample's effective Young's modulus and an increase in internal friction; both of these are frequency dependent.

  5. Mental Models and other Misconceptions in Children's Understanding of the Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Potton, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the claim (e.g., Vosniadou & Brewer's, 1992) that children have naive ''mental models'' of the earth and believe, for example, that the earth is flat or hollow. It tested the proposal that children appear to have these misconceptions because they find the researchers' tasks and questions to be confusing and ambiguous.…

  6. SensePath: Understanding the Sensemaking Process Through Analytic Provenance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phong H; Xu, Kai; Wheat, Ashley; Wong, B L William; Attfield, Simon; Fields, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Sensemaking is described as the process of comprehension, finding meaning and gaining insight from information, producing new knowledge and informing further action. Understanding the sensemaking process allows building effective visual analytics tools to make sense of large and complex datasets. Currently, it is often a manual and time-consuming undertaking to comprehend this: researchers collect observation data, transcribe screen capture videos and think-aloud recordings, identify recurring patterns, and eventually abstract the sensemaking process into a general model. In this paper, we propose a general approach to facilitate such a qualitative analysis process, and introduce a prototype, SensePath, to demonstrate the application of this approach with a focus on browser-based online sensemaking. The approach is based on a study of a number of qualitative research sessions including observations of users performing sensemaking tasks and post hoc analyses to uncover their sensemaking processes. Based on the study results and a follow-up participatory design session with HCI researchers, we decided to focus on the transcription and coding stages of thematic analysis. SensePath automatically captures user's sensemaking actions, i.e., analytic provenance, and provides multi-linked views to support their further analysis. A number of other requirements elicited from the design session are also implemented in SensePath, such as easy integration with existing qualitative analysis workflow and non-intrusive for participants. The tool was used by an experienced HCI researcher to analyze two sensemaking sessions. The researcher found the tool intuitive and considerably reduced analysis time, allowing better understanding of the sensemaking process. PMID:26357398

  7. Image data processing system requirements study. Volume 1: Analysis. [for Earth Resources Survey Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honikman, T.; Mcmahon, E.; Miller, E.; Pietrzak, L.; Yorsz, W.

    1973-01-01

    Digital image processing, image recorders, high-density digital data recorders, and data system element processing for use in an Earth Resources Survey image data processing system are studied. Loading to various ERS systems is also estimated by simulation.

  8. Rare Earth Elements: A Tool for Understanding the Behaviour of Trivalent Actinides in the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Buil, Belen; Gomez, Paloma; Garralon, Antonio; Turrero, M. Jesus

    2007-07-01

    Rare earth element (REE) concentrations have been determined in groundwaters, granite and fracture fillings in a restored uranium mine. The granitoids normalized REE patterns of groundwaters show heavy rare earth elements (HREE)-enrichment and positive Eu anomalies. This suggests that the REE are fractionated during leaching from the source rocks by groundwaters. Preferential leaching of HREE would be consistent with the greater stability of their aqueous complexes compared to those of the light rare earth elements (LREE), together with the dissolution of certain fracture filling minerals, dissolution/alteration of phyllosilicates and colloidal transport. (authors)

  9. Developing a Simple Unified Web API for Earth Science Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, T. D.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) Core System (ECS) has, for over a decade, provided a vast catalog of remote sensing data to the scientific community. This data is invaluable to increasing the understanding of our dynamic planet. Over time, technological advances and changes in user demands have brought about huge changes. While data was originally stored in huge tape silos, requiring complicated software and a sizeable lag time for delivery to end users, data is now available on network connected storage devices and can be downloaded in real time. The online access to ECS data opens the door to a wide array of possible applications which were not previously feasible. In order to capitalize on this opportunity, ECS set out to develop an API for accessing and processing Earth Science data in real time. This API was designed to provide the most common types of data processing in a simple and straightforward fashion. Many options, such as Web Coverage Service (WCS) and Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPenDAP), were considered as starting points to develop this API, but in the end, a mostly customized interface based on EOSDIS' Simple Subset Wizard (SSW) was chosen. The ECS implementation of the API was designed in such a way as to allow EOSDIS data centers to plug in their own desired processing tools in such a way that end users can get the most appropriate type of processing for each datatype without any need to know what specific tool is being used and via a single API. Thus, the focus is on the end result of processing, not the tools and processes used to get there. In the past, in order to have ECS data processed (e.g. subsetted or reprojected), users were required to download data and tools to their own systems and perform the processing there. This often required detailed knowledge of the specifics of the data involved and of Geospatial data concepts. Alternatively, users could submit processing requests via the ECS DataPool Web Access interface, which offered limited options and made it very easy for user error to result in long processing times or useless data. DataPool Web Access processing was not however available in real time and required the submission of asynchronous requests. The new API, entitled EOSDIS Service Interface (ESI), provides an interface via which users can request data with the processing they desire using a simple and intuitive method. Combined with a next generation user interface such as Earth Observing System (EOS) Clearinghouse (ECHO)'s Reverb, ESI widely increases the level of access to Earth Science data. In the process of developing this system, many hurdles were encountered, which will be discussed. These include: -Weighing existing versus custom APIs to determine suitability. -Developing an mapping between community and custom APIs. -Defining a set of request valids from a sea of competing syntaxes. In addition, the reasons for settling on a custom API will be discussed. ESI provides a interface for Earth Science data processing which should prove useful for other data providers. The lessons learned in the ESI development process should be very useful for other providers faced with similar problems.

  10. Middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the Earth and life on Earth as a function of deep time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulling, Azalie Cecile

    The purpose of this study was to use deep time, that is geologic time as a mechanism to explore middle school students' understanding of the natural history of the earth and the evolution of life on earth. Geologic time is a logical precursor to middle school students' understanding of biological evolution. This exploratory, mixed model study used qualitative and quantitative methods in each stage of the research to explore sixth grade students, understanding of geologic time, their worldviews (e.g., conceptual ecology), and conceptual change. The study included fifty-nine students in the large group study and four case studies. The primary data collection instrument was the Geologic Timeline Survey. Additional data collection instruments and methods (e.g., concept evaluation statement, journal entries, word associations, interviews, and formal tests) were used to triangulate the study findings. These data were used to create narrative modal profiles of the categories of student thinking that emerged from the large group analysis: Middle School (MS) Scientists (correct science), MS Protoscientists (approaching correct science), MS Prescientists (dinosaur understanding), and MS Pseudoscientists (fundamental religious understanding). Case studies were used to provide a thick description of each category. This study discovered a pattern of student thinking about geologic time that moved along a knowledge continuum from pseudoscience (fundamental creationist understanding) to prescience (everyday-science understanding) to science (correct or approaching correct science). The researcher described the deep-seated misconceptions produced by the prescience thinking level, e.g., dinosaur misconceptions, and cautioned the science education community about using dinosaurs as a glamour-science topic. The most limiting conceptual frameworks found in this study were prescience (a dinosaur focus) and pseudoscience (a fundamental religious focus). An understanding of geologic time as Piaget's system of time (e.g., chronological ordering of events, before and after relationships, duration or evolutionary time) was a necessary conceptual framework for students to develop a scientific understanding of deep time. An examination of students, worldviews and the interface of science and religion indicated that students often successfully applied a demarcation between science and religion in their public thinking (e.g., the formal classroom setting), but in their private thinking, the demarcation was often blurred.

  11. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new ?18O and ?D measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from ?18O, ?D, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ?Nd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  12. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking Among University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-04-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics—dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking—focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The study's first part was quantitative. Its population consisted of a research group (223 students majoring in geology or physical geography) and a control group (312 students with no background in geology). The students were asked to rate their agreement with each statement on a Likert scale. Overall, the students in the research group expressed higher levels of dynamic thinking than those in the control group. The geology students showed relatively strong dynamic thinking toward the geosphere and hydrosphere, but not the biosphere. In cyclic thinking, their levels were significantly higher for all Earth systems, suggesting a connection between learning about different cycles in Earth systems, developing cyclic thinking and applying it to other Earth cycles. The second part was qualitative and administered only to the students who majored in geology. They were asked to freely explain their answers to the questionnaire's statements. Our aim was to identify recurring patterns in how these students express their dynamic and cyclic thinking. Their explanations were given to four experts in the field of Earth science, who then presented, in a semi-structured interview, the recurring characteristics of dynamic thinking that they found in the students' explanations.

  13. Understanding the thermal annealing process on metallic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonzo-Medina, G. M.; González-González, A.; Sacedón, J. L.; Oliva, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    Thermal annealing is an usual process used for intrinsic stress liberation, structural improving, and surface roughness control in materials. In a qualitative way, annealing modifies the surface morphology of materials with temperature and time. In this work, a methodology to explain the surface modification of thin films when they are submitted to an annealing process is discussed. Two thermally evaporated Au films with 200 nm-thicknesses were post-annealed in a vacuum chamber at 100 °C with an argon atmosphere, and annealing times from 0 to 1000 minutes. Each Au film grown at different rate deposition was cyclical annealed and imaged under different annealing times. Data obtained from high quality AFM images after different annealing times of Au samples were used to calculate surface parameters such as roughness, grain size, and slope at the border, also the respective exponents as a function of the annealing time. The experimental results allow understanding the temporal evolution of the annealing process, as a rearrangement of the surface protrusions.

  14. Understand assumptions and know uncertainties: Boscovich and the motion of the Earth

    E-print Network

    Krajnovic, Davor

    2015-01-01

    The general prohibition of books advocating heliocentric theory put many progressive Jesuits in a difficult position. One of the most prominent Jesuit scientists of the 18th century, Rogerius Boscovich, was in particularly affected by conflicts between a beautifully simple theory of gravity by Newton, his Jesuit peripatetic education, Church doctrine and the lack of crucial experimental evidence for the motion of the Earth. I present the development of Boscovich's ideas prior to the lifting of the ban, and his retrospective considerations in later writings. These show that Boscovich's acceptance of the motion of the Earth was primarily driven by the existence of a working physical theory that also explained the motion of the Earth, and the lack of a consistent theory that supported any variation of a geocentric system.

  15. Catchments as filters: Understanding catchment processes through annual duration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archfield, S. A.; Wagener, T.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the response of a catchment to climate forcing and thereby linking this response to functional catchment properties can increase our understanding of the effects of climate change on water availability and identify those catchments most sensitive to climate. By viewing a catchment as a filter of the precipitation signal, we present a novel approach for comparing the annual variability in precipitation with the annual variability in streamflow using the concept of the annual duration curve (ADC). The ADC constructs a 365-day duration curve for each year of observed record, and has not previously been utilized to examine catchment behavior and understand similarity in catchment response. We compare the year-to-year changes in ADCs of precipitation to the year-to-year changes in the ADCs of streamflow for 42 unregulated catchments across the United States having at least 55 years of observed daily streamflow and precipitation records. We find that the annual variability in precipitation is relatively constant across the study catchments; however, the variability in streamflow can differ quite substantially. This result indicates that the extent to which annual variability in streamflow represents the annual variability in precipitation is likely related to the filtering process, which differs across catchments. Future research will determine if these differences can be explained by functional catchment properties.

  16. Advancing the understanding of the Sun-Earth interaction—the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) II program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka; Shepherd, Marianna; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2015-12-01

    The Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) of the International Council for Science (ICSU) implemented an international collaborative program called Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES), which was active from 2004 to 2008; this was followed by the CAWSES II program during the period of 2009-2013. The CAWSES program was aimed at improving the understanding of the coupled solar-terrestrial system, with special emphasis placed on the short-term (weather) and long-term (climate) variability of solar activities and their effects on and responses of Geospace and Earth's environment. Following the successful implementation of CAWSES, the CAWSES II program pursued four fundamental questions addressing the way in which the coupled Sun-Earth system operates over time scales ranging from minutes to millennia, namely, (1) What are the solar influences on the Earth's climate? (2) How will Geospace respond to an altered climate? (3) How does short-term solar variability affect the Geospace environment? and (4) What is the Geospace response to variable inputs from the lower atmosphere? In addition to these four major tasks, the SCOSTEP and CAWSES promoted E-science and informatics activities including the creation of scientific databases and their effective utilization in solar-terrestrial physics research. Capacity building activities were also enhanced during CAWSES II, and this represented an important contribution of SCOSTEP to the world's solar-terrestrial physics community. This introductory paper provides an overview of CAWSES II activities and serves as a preface to the dedicated review papers summarizing the achievements of the program's four task groups (TGs) and the E-science component.

  17. Using GRIDVIEW to Better Understand the Early Bombardment History of the Moon, Mars and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade we have used GRIDVIEW to help analyze topographic and related data for Mars and more recently for the Moon. Our focus has been to employ the stretching, contouring, profiling, circle-fitting and other capabilities of GRIDVIEW to search for Quasi-Circular Depressions (CTAs) in MOLA, LOLA and other topographic data, and for Circular Thin Areas (CTAs) in Mars and Moon model crustal thickness data. Both QCDs and CTAs likely represent buried or obscured impact craters not readily visible in image data. We found clear evidence for a much larger population of buried impact craters in the northern lowlands of Mars (Frey et al. 2002), suggesting that part of the Red Planet is not significantly younger than the southern highlands. Edgar and Frey (2008) found that the N(300) crater retention ages of both areas were essentially identical, a conclusion confirmed by Wyatt (unpublished data) using more recent crustal thickness data for Mars. MOLA topographic data and MOLA-derived crustal thickness data were used to both identify a large number of previously unrecognized very large impact basins (D> 1000 km) on Mars and to determine relative crater retention ages for them (Frey, 2008). The distribution of N(300) CRAs suggested most formed in a relatively short interval of time. This dating also suggested the main magnetic field of Mars disappeared during this period (Lillis et al., 2008), because only the youngest basins systematically lack a remagnetized signature. Similar QCD and CTA analysis of first Clementine (Frey, 2011) and more recently LOLA topographic and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data for the Moon (Frey et al., 2011) revealed a significantly larger population of impact basins > 300 km in diameter than previously known. N(50) CRAs suggest a two-peak distribution of ages (Frey, 2012). An improved counting process confirms the two peaks, perhaps indicating both a pre-Nectaris Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) as well as a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) on the Moon (Frey and Burgess, 2012, this meeting), with obvious implications for the early bombardment history of the Earth.

  18. Processing Earth Observing images with Ames Stereo Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, R. A.; Moratto, Z. M.; Alexandrov, O.; Fong, T.; Shean, D. E.; Smith, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    ICESat with its GLAS instrument provided valuable elevation measurements of glaciers. The loss of this spacecraft caused a demand for alternative elevation sources. In response to that, we have improved our Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) software (version 2.1+) to ingest satellite imagery from Earth satellite sources in addition to its support of planetary missions. This enables the open source community a free method to generate digital elevation models (DEM) from Digital Globe stereo imagery and alternatively other cameras using RPC camera models. Here we present details of the software. ASP is a collection of utilities written in C++ and Python that implement stereogrammetry. It contains utilities to manipulate DEMs, project imagery, create KML image quad-trees, and perform simplistic 3D rendering. However its primary application is the creation of DEMs. This is achieved by matching every pixel between the images of a stereo observation via a hierarchical coarse-to-fine template matching method. Matched pixels between images represent a single feature that is triangulated using each image's camera model. The collection of triangulated features represents a point cloud that is then grid resampled to create a DEM. In order for ASP to match pixels/features between images, it requires a search range defined in pixel units. Total processing time is proportional to the area of the first image being matched multiplied by the area of the search range. An incorrect search range for ASP causes repeated false positive matches at each level of the image pyramid and causes excessive processing times with no valid DEM output. Therefore our system contains automatic methods for deducing what the correct search range should be. In addition, we provide options for reducing the overall search range by applying affine epipolar rectification, homography transform, or by map projecting against a prior existing low resolution DEM. Depending on the size of the images, parallax, and image quality, one of these methods will perform better than the others. Because our software requires minimal user input in the form of command line arguments and has no graphical user interface (GUI), it is uniquely adept for clustering computer environments as well as normal workstations. Users can run multiple stereo sessions simultaneously to process a large number of stereo pairs. We also provide a tool called ';parallel_stereo' which utilizes GNU's parallel command to split a single stereo pair session across multiple nodes that have a shared file system. This greatly reduces the processing time of a single stereo pair. Our primary system of testing was NASA's Pleiades super computer that is freely available to NASA sponsored scientists and engineers via the High End Computing Capability (HECC) project. ASP is freely available for download from our website at irg.arc.nasa.gov/ngt/stereo. Source code for all releases and current development code is available from our Github account at github.com/NeoGeographyToolkit/StereoPipeline. In addition to being free, ASP is Apache 2 licensed which offers free license to copy, redistribute, and sell the software and results pending the license of the input imagery. It is our goal that this software will make DEMs and the processing of satellite imagery more accessible to scientists of all fields.

  19. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  20. A Special Assignment from NASA: Understanding Earth's Atmosphere through the Integration of Science and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Justine E.; Glen, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Have your students ever wondered what NASA scientists do? Have they asked you what their science and mathematics lessons have to do with the real world? This unit about Earth's atmosphere can help to answer both of those questions. The unit described here showcases "content specific integration" of science and mathematics in that the lessons meet…

  1. Understanding the Earth Systems: Expressions of Dynamic and Cyclic Thinking among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batzri, Or; Ben Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Cohen, Carmit; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    In this two-part study, we examine undergraduate university students' expression of two important system thinking characteristics--dynamic thinking and cyclic thinking--focusing particularly on students of geology. The study was conducted using an Earth systems questionnaire designed to elicit and reflect either dynamic or cyclic thinking. The…

  2. Understanding Aquatic Rhizosphere Processes Through Metabolomics and Metagenomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Mynampati, Kalyan; Drautz, Daniela; Arumugam, Krithika; Williams, Rohan; Schuster, Stephan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The aquatic rhizosphere is a region around the roots of aquatic plants. Many studies focusing on terrestrial rhizosphere have led to a good understanding of the interactions between the roots, its exudates and its associated rhizobacteria. The rhizosphere of free-floating roots, however, is a different habitat that poses several additional challenges, including rapid diffusion rates of signals and nutrient molecules, which are further influenced by the hydrodynamic forces. These can lead to rapid diffusion and complicates the studying of diffusible factors from both plant and/or rhizobacterial origins. These plant systems are being increasingly used for self purification of water bodies to provide sustainable solution. A better understanding of these processes will help in improving their performance for ecological engineering of freshwater systems. The same principles can also be used to improve the yield of hydroponic cultures. Novel toolsets and approaches are needed to investigate the processes occurring in the aquatic rhizosphere. We are interested in understanding the interaction between root exudates and the complex microbial communities that are associated with the roots, using a systems biology approach involving metabolomics and metagenomics. With this aim, we have developed a RhizoFlowCell (RFC) system that provides a controlled study of aquatic plants, observed the root biofilms, collect root exudates and subject the rhizosphere system to changes in various chemical or physical perturbations. As proof of concept, we have used RFC to test the response of root exudation patterns of Pandanus amaryllifolius after exposure to the pollutant naphthalene. Complexity of root exudates in the aquatic rhizosphere was captured using this device and analysed using LC-qTOF-MS. The highly complex metabolomic profile allowed us to study the dynamics of the response of roots to varying levels of naphthalene. The metabolic profile changed within 5mins after spiking with 20mg/L of naphthalene and reached a new steady state within 72 hours. An active microbial biofilm was formed during this process, which was imaged by light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy and showed active changes in the biofilm. We have begun to unravel the complexity of rhizobacterial communities associated with aquatic plants. Using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and Illumina Miseq Next Generation Sequencing of metagenomic DNA, we investigated the root-associated microbial community of P. amaryllifolius grown in two different water sources. The community structure of rhizobacteria from plants grown in freshwater lake or rainwater stored in tanks are highly similar. The top three phyla in both setups belonged to Proteobacteria, Bacteriocedes and Actinobacteria, as validated by FISH analyses. This suggests that the rhizosphere have an innate ability to attract and recruit rhizobacterial communities, possibly through the metabolic compounds secreted through root exudation. The selection pressure through plant host is higher compared to environmental pressures that are different between the two water sources. In comparison with the terrestrial rhizosphere, the aquatic rhizosphere microbiome seems more specialised and has a high influence by the host. We are using these findings to further understand the role of microbes in the performance of freshwater aquatic plants.

  3. A Science-Based Understanding of Cermet Processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Cesarano, Joseph; Roach, Robert Allen; Kilgo, Alice C.; Susan, Donald F.; Van Ornum, David J.; Stuecker, John N.

    2006-04-01

    AbstractThis report is a summary of the work completed in FY01 for science-based characterization of the processes used to fabricate 1) cermet vias in source feedthrus using slurry and paste-filling techniques and 2) cermet powder for dry pressing. Common defects found in cermet vias were characterized based on the ability of subsequent processing techniques (isopressing and firing) to remove the defects. Non-aqueous spray drying and mist granulation techniques were explored as alternative methods of creating CND50, the powder commonly used for dry pressed parts. Compaction and flow characteristics of these techniques were analyzed and compared to standard dry-ball-milled CND50. Due to processing changes, changes in microstructure can occur. A microstructure characterization technique was developed to numerically describe cermet microstructure. Machining and electrical properties of dry pressed parts were also analyzed and related to microstructure using this analytical technique.3 Executive SummaryThis report outlines accomplishments in the science-based understanding of cermet processing up to fiscal year 2002 for Sandia National Laboratories. The three main areas of work are centered on 1) increasing production yields of slurry-filled cermets, 2) evaluating the viability of high-solids-loading pastes for the same cermet components, and 3) optimizing cermet powder used in pressing processes (CND50). An additional development that was created as a result of the effort to fully understand the impacts of alternative processing techniques is the use of analytical methods to relate microstructure to physical properties. Recommendations are suggested at the end of this report. Summaries of these four efforts are as follows:1.Increase Production Yields of Slurry-Filled Cermet Vias Finalized slurry filling criteria were determined based on three designs of experiments where the following factors were analyzed: vacuum time, solids loading, pressure drop across the filter paper, slurry injection rate, via prewetting, slurry injection angle, filter paper prewetting, and slurry mixing time. Many of these factors did not have an influence on defect formation. In order of decreasing importance, critical factors for defect formation by slurry filling are vacuum time (20 sec. optimal), slurry solids loading (20.0 g of cermet with 13.00 g of DGBEA solvent (21.2 vol%)), filling with the pipette in a vertical position, and faster injection rates (~765 l/s) as preferable to slower. No further recommendations for improvement to this process can be suggested. All findings of the slurry filling process have been transferred to CeramTec, the supplier. Paste filling methods appear to show more promise of increasing production yields. The types of flaws commonly found in slurry-filled vias were identified and followed throughout the entire source feedthru process. In general, all sizes of cracks healed during isopressing and firing steps. Additionally, small to medium sized voids (less than 1/3 the via diameter) can be healed. Porosity will usually lead to via necking, which may cause the part to be out of specification. Large voids (greater 4 than 1/3 of the diameter) and partial fills are not healed or produce significant necking. 2.Viability of High-Solids-Loading-Cermet Paste for Filling Source Feedthru ViaThe paste-filling process is easy to implement and easier to use. The high solids loading (>40 vol %) reduces the incidence of drying defects, which are seen in slurry filled (~23 vol %) vias. Additionally, the way in which the vias are filled (the paste is pushed from entrance to exit, displacing air as the paste front progresses), reduces the chance of entrapped voids, which are common in the slurry filling process. From the fair number of samples already filled, the likelihood of this process being a viable and reliable process is very good. Issues of concern for the paste process, as with any new process, are any problems that may arise in subsequent manufacturing stages of the neutron tube that may be affected by subtle changes in

  4. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  5. Framework for Understanding Lenr Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-02-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C&C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx, these fluctuations begin to occur as x ? 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdDx, the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

  6. Functional design for operational earth resources ground data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, C. J. (principal investigator); Bradford, L. H.; Hutson, D. E.; Jugle, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Study emphasis was on developing a unified concept for the required ground system, capable of handling data from all viable acquisition platforms and sensor groupings envisaged as supporting operational earth survey programs. The platforms considered include both manned and unmanned spacecraft in near earth orbit, and continued use of low and high altitude aircraft. The sensor systems include both imaging and nonimaging devices, operated both passively and actively, from the ultraviolet to the microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

  7. Classroom virtual lab experiments as teaching tools for explaining how we understand planetary processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, C. N.; Schools, H.; Research Team Members

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will report on a classroom pilot study in which we teamed with school teachers in four middle school classes to develop and deploy course modules that connect the real-world to virtual forms of laboratory experiments.The broad goal is to help students realize that seemingly complex Earth system processes can be connected to basic properties of the planet and that this can be illustrated through idealized experiment. Specifically the presentation will describe virtual modules based on on-demand cloud computing technologies that allow students to test the notion that pole equator gradients in radiative forcing together with rotation can explain characteristic patterns of flow in the atmosphere. The module developed aligns with new Massachusetts science standard requirements regarding understanding of weather and climate processes. These new standards emphasize an appreciation of differential solar heating and a qualitative understanding of the significance of rotation. In our preliminary classroom pilot studies we employed pre and post evaluation tests to establish that the modules had increased student knowledge of phenomenology and terms. We will describe the results of these tests as well as results from anecdotal measures of student response. This pilot study suggests that one way to help make Earth science concepts more tractable to a wider audience is through virtual experiments that distill phenomena down, but still retain enough detail that students can see the connection to the real world. Modern computer technology and developments in research models appear to provide an opportunity for more work in this area. We will describe some follow-up possibilities that we envisage.

  8. Bigger eyes in a wider universe: The American understanding of Earth in outer space, 1893--1941

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, Jodicus Wayne

    Between 1893 and 1941, the understanding of the Milky Way galaxy within the American culture changed from a sphere to a spiral and Earth's location within it changed from the center to the periphery. These changes were based primarily upon scientific theories developed at Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, California. This dissertation is an "astrosophy" that traces the history of changing depictions of the Milky Way in selected published sources and identifies key individuals, theories and technologies involved. It also demonstrates why the accepted depictions of the universe envisioned at Mount Wilson were cultural-scientific products created, in part, as the result of place. Southern California became the hearth of a culture that justified its superiority based upon its unique climate. Clear skies, remarkable visibility, and a perceived existence of intense natural light became the basis for the promotion of Mount Wilson as the premier location for astronomical observations. Conservation, en plein air paintings, and the concept of pays age moralisé are Southern Californian cultural products of the early 1900s that promoted an idealized society capable of exceptional intellectual endeavors and scientific accomplishments. The efforts of astronomers Hale, Shapley, Adams, Hubble and Ritchey resulted in the changing American understanding of the universe. This dissertation reveals how the diverse social interactions of these astronomers intersected Arroyo Seco meetings, women's organizations, the Valley Hunt Club elites, and philanthropic groups that comprised the schizophrenic culture of Pasadena. Their astronomical theories are compared to other aspects of the Southern Californian culture revealed in the writings of Raymond Chandler, Nathanael West and John Fante. The desire of astronomers to gain prestige from their discoveries is compared to competition in the creative processes of Hollywood. The theories created by astronomers and the films of the motion picture industry relied upon establishing an accepted second space within the minds of their audiences. By the end of the study period, the universe accepted by most Americans was a "California Universe". It was not a discovery of pure science, but rather a cultural-scientific product of the Mount Wilson astronomers, the Pasadena community and the landscape and culture of Southern California.

  9. Recent Observational Advances in our Understanding of Magnetic Reconnection in Earth's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    2014-12-01

    The availability of multi-point observations through the ion diffusion region has provided a wealth of information on the workings of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause and at the nightside plasma sheet. Ion inertia and finite gyroradius result in clear Hall effects on ion inertial length scales that have been observed by single and multi-point spacecraft resulting in a fairly detailed understanding of that physics. The role of Hall dynamics on establishing the reconnection rate, and the outflow conditions is well understood. Electron violation of the frozen-in condition is much more subtle and rarely observed at the X-point; indirect evidence has been more frequently observed in parallel electric fields. The waves responsible for this violation and for resultant energy conversion are at the forefront of observational studies. The contraction of islands centered at multiple O-points could provide for rapid energy conversion. However, observations of in vivo FTEs at the dayside and classical plasmoids at the nightside, are rare even near the expected most probable location of reconnection. Rather, asymmetric proto-plasmoids and dipolarization (a.k.a reconnection) fronts at the nightside signify distinctly different evolution of the reconnection geometry from that of X and O points. Operating within meso-scale (1-3Re) flows the inherently kinetic (at electron inertial scales embeded in ion inertial scale current systems) processes at such fronts play a significant role in the dynamics and drive global magnetospheric energy conversion and flux transport. Recent studies suggest that the entire magnetosphere is, in fact, connected front-to-back by reconnection pulses resulting in meso-scale flows. The upcoming Heliophysics System Observatory, motivated by the launch of MMS and the coordinated observations of THEMIS, ARTEMIS, Van Allen probes and other space and ground assets will answer key questions on this subject locally, regionally and globally.

  10. The Earth: Plasma Sources, Losses, and Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, Daniel T.; André, Mats; Dandouras, Iannis; Delcourt, Dominique; Fazakerley, Andrew; Fontaine, Dominique; Foster, John; Ilie, Raluca; Kistler, Lynn; Lee, Justin H.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Slavin, James A.; Wang, Chih-Ping; Wiltberger, Michael; Yau, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge concerning the source of magnetospheric plasma at Earth. Source of plasma, its acceleration and transport throughout the system, its consequences on system dynamics, and its loss are all discussed. Both observational and modeling advances since the last time this subject was covered in detail (Hultqvist et al., Magnetospheric Plasma Sources and Losses, 1999) are addressed.

  11. Mission to Planet Earth's Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V.; Beranek, R.; Herrmann, M.; Koczor, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Geostationary Earth Observatories (GEO's) are the space-based element of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program which provide the excellent temporal resolution data required for a thorough understanding of earth processes and their role in global climate change. This paper discusses the scientific rationale, required instrumentation, observatory configuration, and data system of the GEO program.

  12. Tectonic and Aqueous Processes in the Formation of Mass-wasting Features on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Jessica

    2015-10-01

    Fundamental to the advancement of planetary geology is an understanding of the interaction between tectonic and aqueous processes on planetary surfaces. This dissertation examines this interaction within two geomorphologic processes: landslide emplacement, on Mars and on Earth, and the formation of seasonal slope features on Mars. Long-runout landsliding in equatorial Valles Marineris, Mars is among the most prominent geomorphic occurrences shaping the canyon. However, the mechanism of landslide long-distance transport, and the highly debated role of water therein, remains elusive. Through systematic mapping of high-resolution satellite images, integrated with spectral analysis, we show that hydrated silicates played a decisive role in facilitating landslide transport by lubricating the basal sliding zone. This conclusion implies that clay minerals, generated by ancient water-rock interactions, exert a long-lasting influence on Mars surface processes. The Eureka Valley (EV) landslide is an unexamined, well-preserved long-runout landslide in arid southeast Eureka Valley, California. The field, photogeologic, spectral, and luminescence dating investigation presented here support initiation as a result of fault-generated fracture during the mid to early Holocene at minimum, and transport lubricated by the presence of basal clays, characterized by 3-D internal deformation, as the most likely EV landslide emplacement mechanism. This geomorphological characterization may be applied to long-runout landslides on Earth and other planetary surfaces, suggesting that their emplacement likely does not require the participation of water. Recurring slope lineae (RSL) are seasonal, narrow, low-albedo features extending down steep, equator-facing Mars slopes. RSL formation has been largely attributed to the seepage of near-surface water, though its source is not well understood. Through detailed analysis of high-resolution satellite images of RSL geologic contexts, we quantify the significant spatial correlation between RSL source regions and fractures in several geologic settings, indicating that fractures may act as conduits for fluid flow in the formation of RSL. This work provides insight into the hydrological cycle and the potential presence of habitable conditions on present-day Mars. This new understanding of the formation processes of these planetary surface features implicates the persistent role of aqueous and tectonic processes in the formation of geomorphic features on widespread planetary surfaces throughout geologic time.

  13. The Effect of the Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction through Cooperative Learning on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Earth and Sky Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikten, Oksan; Ipekcioglu, Sevgi; Ertepinar, Hamide; Geban, Omer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the conceptual change oriented instruction through cooperative learning (CCICL) and traditional science instruction (TI) on 4th grade students' understanding of earth and sky concepts and their attitudes toward earth and sky concepts. In this study, 56 fourth grade students from the…

  14. SCOSTEP: Understanding the Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The international solar-terrestrial physics community had recognized the importance of space weather more than a decade ago, which resulted in a number of international collaborative activities such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP). The CAWSES program is the current major scientific program of SCOSTEP that will continue until the end of the year 2013. The CAWSES program has brought scientists from all over the world together to tackle the scientific issues behind the Sun-Earth connected system and explore ways of helping the human society. In addition to the vast array of space instruments, ground based instruments have been deployed, which not only filled voids in data coverage, but also inducted young scientists from developing countries into the scientific community. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and other SCOSTEP activities that promote space weather science via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach.

  15. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  16. Research Data Alliance: Understanding Big Data Analytics Applications in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Morris; Ramachandran, Rahul; Baumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Research Data Alliance (RDA) enables data to be shared across barriers through focused working groups and interest groups, formed of experts from around the world - from academia, industry and government. Its Big Data Analytics (BDA) interest groups seeks to develop community based recommendations on feasible data analytics approaches to address scientific community needs of utilizing large quantities of data. BDA seeks to analyze different scientific domain applications (e.g. earth science use cases) and their potential use of various big data analytics techniques. These techniques reach from hardware deployment models up to various different algorithms (e.g. machine learning algorithms such as support vector machines for classification). A systematic classification of feasible combinations of analysis algorithms, analytical tools, data and resource characteristics and scientific queries will be covered in these recommendations. This contribution will outline initial parts of such a classification and recommendations in the specific context of the field of Earth Sciences. Given lessons learned and experiences are based on a survey of use cases and also providing insights in a few use cases in detail.

  17. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (II): Web-Based Projects for Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Kastens, K. A.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science. Highlights of current efforts are described in paired posters. Part 2 focuses on web-based activities that foster access to LDEO cutting-edge research for worldwide audiences. “Geoscience Data Puzzles" are activities that purposefully present a high ratio of insight-to-effort for students. Each Puzzle uses selected authentic data to illuminate fundamental Earth processes typically taught in Earth Science curricula. Data may be in the form of a graph, table, map, image or combination of the above. Some Puzzles involve downloading a simple Excel file, but most can be worked from paper copies. Questions guide students through the process of data interpretion. Most Puzzles involve calculations, with emphasis on the too-seldom-taught skill of figuring out what math process is useful to answer an unfamiliar question or solve a problem. Every Puzzle offers "Aha" insights, when the connection between data and process or data and problem comes clear in a rewarding burst of illumination. Time needed to solve a Puzzle is between 15 minutes and an hour. “GeoMapApp” is a free, map-based data exploration and visualization application from the LDEO Marine Geoscience Data System group. GeoMapApp provides direct access to hundreds of data sets useful to geoscience educators, including continuously-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography compilations that incorporates high-resolution bathymetry in the oceans and Space Shuttle elevations over land. A new User Guide, multi-media tutorials and webinar offer follow-along help and examples. “Virtual Ocean” integrates GeoMapApp functionality with NASA World Wind code to provide a powerful new 3-D platform for interdisciplinary geoscience research and education. Both GeoMapApp and Virtual Ocean foster scientific understanding and provide training in new data visualization technologies. LDEO scientists have contributed to the extensive collection of education resources developed by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership’s Deep Earth Academy). As part of the international research effort to interpret Earth's history by retrieving seafloor samples and monitoring subseafloor environments, LDEO's Borehole Research Group deploys downhole tools to acquire a wide variety of situ geophysical measurements. LDEO scientists contribute significantly to the web portal that facilitates communication between the drillship and the public. It features blogs, games, a graphic novel, teacher resources, and integration with Facebook and Twitter social networking sites Participants in LDEO's monthly "Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers" have created one of the most extensive collections of resources available in Earth Science education. These include curriculum units; teacher-developed lessons, activities, and power points; peer-provided tips for effective teaching; review guides to help prepare for standardized tests; selected web links, and more. Thousands of teachers and students around the world access these LDEO-developed resources every month during the school year.

  18. Understanding Collaborative Learning Processes in New Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Chernobilsky, Ellina; Jordan, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Trying to understand the complexity of computer-mediated problem-based learning environments is not easy. Sociocultural theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding such environments because it emphasizes the socially situated nature of learning and the critical role of tools in mediating learning. To examine how different aspects of…

  19. Processed by ____________________ Date ______________________ Updated: 07/01/2015 Earth Systems Science BS

    E-print Network

    Oviedo, Néstor J.

    Processed by ____________________ Date ______________________ Updated: 07/01/2015 Earth Systems Science BS Physics BS - Mathematical Physics Physics BS - Custom Emphasis Physics BS - Biophysics Physics BS - Atomic/Molecular/Optic Physics BS Chemical Sciences BS - Material Chemistry Chemical Sciences BS

  20. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  1. An Investigation into the Understanding of Earth Sciences among Students Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dal, Burckin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the students teachers' opinions, including rock formation and improper terms related to or different from these ideas, all of which are considered or must be considered in geology classes, have been analyzed. Alternative conception is used to inform our understanding of students teachers' ideas and describe any conceptual…

  2. UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS

    E-print Network

    McGovern, Amy

    the formation of tornadoes near strong frontal boundaries, and understanding the translation of drought across. For example, a thunderstorm evolves over time and may eventually produce a tornado through the spatiotemporal

  3. Periglacial process research for improved understanding of climate change in periglacial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hvidtfeldt Christiansen, Hanne

    2010-05-01

    Periglacial landscapes extend widely outside the glaciated areas and the areas underlain by permafrost and with seasonal frost. Yet recently significant attention has in cryosphere research, related to periglacial geomorphology, been given to a direct climate permafrost relationship. The focus is on the permafrost thermal state including the thickness of the active layer, and often simplifying how these two key conditions are directly climatically controlled. There has been less focus on the understanding and quantification of the different periglacial processes, which largely control the consequences of changing climatic conditions on the permafrost and on seasonal frost all over the periglacial environments. It is the complex relationship between climate, micro-climate and local geomorphological, geological and ecological conditions, which controls periglacial processes. In several cases local erosion or deposition will affect the rates of landform change significantly more than any climate change. Thus detailed periglacial process studies will sophisticate the predictions of how periglacial landscapes can be expected to respond to climatic changes, and be built into Earth System Modelling. Particularly combining direct field observations and measurements with remote sensing and geochronological studies of periglacial landforms, enables a significantly improved understanding of periglacial process rates. An overview of the state of research in key periglacial processes are given focusing on ice-wedges and solifluction landforms, and seasonal ground thermal dynamics, all with examples from the high Arctic in Svalbard. Thermal contraction cracking and its seasonal meteorological control is presented, and potential thermal erosion of ice-wedges leading to development of thermokarst is discussed. Local and meteorological controls on solifluction rates are presented and their climatic control indicated. Seasonal ground thermal processes and their dependence on local vegetation and snow conditions as affecting active layer depths and top permafrost thermal regimes are discussed. An overview of other important periglacial processes such as weathering, rock glacier, pingo and palsa dynamics and their climatic and/or local condition controls are given. Finally an overall discussion on how periglacial processes can affect rock slope stability in periglacial environments close to the permafrost boundary is introduced, with an example from northern Norway.

  4. Hot plasma and energetic particles in the earth's outer magnetosphere: new understandings during the IMS

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.N.; Fritz, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we review the major accomplishments made during the IMS period in clarifying magnetospheric particle variations in the region from roughly geostationary orbit altitudes into the deep magnetotail. We divide our review into three topic areas: (1) acceleration processes; (2) transport processes; and (3) loss processes. Many of the changes in hot plasmas and energetic particle populations are often found to be related intimately to geomagnetic storm and magnetospheric substorm effects and, therefore, substantial emphasis is given to these aspects of particle variations in this review. The IMS data, taken as a body, allow a reasonably unified view as one traces magnetospheric particles from their acceleration source through the plasma sheet and outer trapping regions and, finally, to their loss via ionospheric precipitation and ring current formation processes. It is this underlying, unifying theme which is pursued here. 52 references, 19 figures.

  5. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  6. Understanding Local Structure Globally in Earth Science Remote Sensing Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Fetzer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Empirical probability distributions derived from the data are the signatures of physical processes generating the data. Distributions defined on different space-time windows can be compared and differences or changes can be attributed to physical processes. This presentation discusses on ways to reduce remote sensing data in a way that preserves information, focusing on the rate-distortion theory and using the entropy-constrained vector quantization algorithm.

  7. Two-way feedback between biology and deep Earth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.; Pope, E.; Bird, D.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of the metamorphic products of banded iron formation and black shale indicate that the Earth teemed with life by the time of the earliest preserved rocks, ca. 3.85 Ga. Iron and sulfur-based anoxygenic photosynthesis with full carbon cycles was present by this time. The pH of the ocean was ~8. The lack of older rock record cloaks pre-biotic evolution and the origin of life. Nascent and early life obtained energy from chemical disequilibria in rocks rather than sunlight. Appraising putative rock pre-biological environments is difficult in that life has modified the composition of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and sedimentary rocks. It has greatly affected the composition of crystalline crustal rocks and measurably modified the mantle. Conversely, hard crustal rocks and the mantle likely sequester a very ancient record of last resort. Theory provides additional insight. The Earth's surface and interior cooled following the moon-forming impact. The oceans passed through conditions favored by thermophile organisms before becoming clement. Ocean pH was ~6 and bars of CO2 existed in the atmosphere. Subduction removed the CO2 into the mantle before the time of rock record. Serpentinite likely existed in land, tidal, and marine environments as it does today. Seafloor spreading and arc volcanism likely drove hydrothermal circulation. The late heavy bombardment occurred after ca. 4.1 Ga; low heat flow environments and hence habitable subsurface refugia existed. It is conceivable that one or a few ocean-boiling impacts left thermophile survivors in their wake. Overall, the molecular biology of extant life likely conserves features that relate to its earliest abodes.

  8. Review of Understanding of Earth's Hydrological Cycle: Observations, Theory and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-05-01

    Water is our most precious and arguably most undervalued natural resource. It is essential for life on our planet, for food production and economic development. Moreover, water plays a fundamental role in shaping weather and climate. However, with the growing global population, the planet's water resources are constantly under threat from overuse and pollution. In addition, the effects of a changing climate are thought to be leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather causing floods, landslides and drought. The need to understand and monitor our environment and its resources, including advancing our knowledge of the hydrological cycle, has never been more important and apparent. The best approach to do so on a global scale is from space. This paper provides an overview of the major components of the hydrological cycle, the status of their observations from space and related data products and models for hydrological variable retrievals. It also lists the current and planned satellite missions contributing to advancing our understanding of the hydrological cycle on a global scale. Further details of the hydrological cycle are substantiated in several of the other papers in this Special Issue.

  9. Process for preparing higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Bell, A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    High purity inorganic higher oxides of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are prepared by subjecting the hydroxide of the alkali and alkaline earth metal to a radio frequency discharge sustained in oxygen. The process is particulary adaptable to the production of high purity potassium superoxide by subjecting potassium hydroxide to glow discharge sustained in oxygen under the pressure of about 0.75 to 1.00 torr.

  10. Quantitative Understanding of Advanced Oxidation Processes for the

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    Processes (AOPs) AOPs project Background and Objective Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFERs a task to assess their removal efficiency during water treatment Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs compounds. AOPs may be used to control the emerging contaminants. Non-selectivity of HO· and radical chain

  11. Digital image processing for the earth resources technology satellite data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, P. M.; Bakis, R.; Wesley, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of digital processing of the large volumes of multispectral image data that are expected to be received from the ERTS program. Correction of geometric and radiometric distortions are discussed and a byte oriented implementation is proposed. CPU timing estimates are given for a System/360 Model 67, and show that a processing throughput of 1000 image sets per week is feasible.

  12. Google Earth in the middle school geography classroom: Its impact on spatial literacy and place geography understanding of students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgard, Kerri S. W.

    Success in today's globalized, multi-dimensional, and connected world requires individuals to have a variety of skill sets -- i.e. oracy, numeracy, literacy, as well as the ability to think spatially. Student's spatial literacy, based on various national and international assessment results, indicates that even though there have been gains in U.S. scores over the past decade, overall performance, including those specific to spatial skills, are still below proficiency. Existing studies focused on the potential of virtual learning environment technology to reach students in a variety of academic areas, but a need still exists to study specifically the phenomenon of using Google Earth as a potentially more useful pedagogical tool to develop spatial literacy than the currently employed methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which graphicacy achievement scores of students who were immersed in a Google Earth environment were different from students who were provided with only two-dimensional instruction for developing spatial skills. Situated learning theory and the work of Piaget and Inhelder's Child's Conception of Space provided the theoretical grounding from which this study evolved. The National Research Council's call to develop spatial literacy, as seen in Learning to Think Spatially , provided the impetus to begin research. The target population (N = 84) for this study consisted of eighth grade geography students at an upper Midwest Jr. High School during the 2009-2010 academic year. Students were assigned to the control or experimental group based on when they had geography class. Control group students ( n = 44) used two-dimensional PowerPoint images to complete activities, while experimental group students (n = 40) were immersed in the three-dimensional Google Earth world for activity completion. Research data was then compiled and statistically analyzed to answer five research questions developed for this study. One-way ANOVAs were run on data collected and no statistically significant difference was found between the control and experimental group. However, two of the five research questions yielded practically significant data that indicates students who used Google Earth outperformed their counterparts who used PowerPoint on pattern prediction and spatial relationship understanding.

  13. Irregular phenomena in the Earth pole oscillation process and temporal variations of geopotential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, V.; Perepelkin, V.

    2015-08-01

    The observed irregular effects in the oscillatory process of the Earth Pole are of significant variability. They may be caused by the hydrosphere oscillations as well as the perturbations associated with the process of excitation and maintenance of the main oscillations components. Previously while carrying out the modeling of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP) in short time intervals (interyear periods) the tidal coefficients correction procedure, which took into account high-frequency unstable fluctuations with small amplitudes, was considered alongside with the regular model components. Such a short-period variations caused by geophysical processes don't make a significant influence on the quasi-periodical Earth motion and can be presented in the model as the additional components - residuals. According to the modeling results and the processing of the high-precise series of the IERS observations in the oscillation process of the Earth Pole "irregular effects" can be defined, that are associated with intrayear variation of the main oscillation components. That sort of effects that are registered by IERS, are significantly different than the ones in earlier researches. They are presented as "anomalous" fluctuations of the Earth Pole coordinates, which have a negative impact on the interpolation and prognosis of the mathematical model.

  14. Earth observing SAR data processing systems at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - Seasat to EOS SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, David A.; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of SAR digital data processing and management ground systems developed at the JPL for earth science missions is discussed. Attention is given to the SAR ground data system requirements, the early data processing systems, the Seasat SAR system, and the SIR-B data processing system. Special consideration is given to two currently operational SAR data systems: the JPL aircraft SAR processing system that flies on the NASA DC-8 and the Alaska SAR Facility at Fairbanks.

  15. Process Description for the Retrieval of Earth Covered Transuranic (TRU) Waste Containers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    2000-01-13

    This document describes process and operational options for retrieval of the contact-handled suspect transuranic waste drums currently stored below grade in earth-covered trenches at the Hanford Site. Retrieval processes and options discussed include excavation, container retrieval, venting, non-destructive assay, criticality avoidance, incidental waste handling, site preparation, equipment, and shipping.

  16. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, EARTH TECH, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  17. EARTH TECH INC.'S ENHANCED IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA conducted an evaluation of the Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation process, a biostimulation technology developed by the USDOE at the Westinghouse Savannah River Plant site in Aiken, SC. DOE has licensed the process to Earth Tech, Inc. The evaluation described in this bulle...

  18. Understanding the Legislative Process: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Alyson

    1980-01-01

    Government publications, indexes, periodicals and selected articles, booklets and pamphlets, books, and other useful information dealing with the legislative process in the United States at the local, state, and federal levels are described. (CMJ)

  19. Suffering transaction: a process of reflecting and understanding 

    E-print Network

    Wong, Shyh-Heng

    2011-11-25

    This study examines the transaction of the lived experience of ‘suffering’ in the process of psychotherapy. ‘Suffering’ is conceptualised as having its weight and value transacted between a psychotherapist and his or her ...

  20. Manure to Energy: Understanding Processes, Principles and Jargon 

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    2006-11-30

    The increasing demand for energy and the high costs of oil and natural gas have emphasized the need for consumers to seek alternative energy resources. This publication explains the processes for converting manure to energy....

  1. [Skin aging: Molecular understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic processes].

    PubMed

    Makrantonaki, E; Vogel, M; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K; Zouboulis, C C

    2015-10-01

    In an ever-aging society, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms accompanying skin aging has become essential. Most age-related morphological skin changes are triggered by a combination of intrinsic factors (e.g., genetics, hormones) and extrinsic ones (e.g., ultarviolet/infrared light exposure, smoking, pollution). In this article, new insights on the latest findings regarding the pathogenesis of skin aging are summarised, addressing the extent to which the aforementioned factorsmay influence the progress of skin aging and identifying the consequences on the morphology and physiology of skin. PMID:26385893

  2. Microbial Life in the Subseafloor at Mid-Ocean Ridges: A Key to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems on Earth and Elsewhere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baross, J. A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    Some planets and moons in our solar system were similar to Earth in their geological properties during the first few hundred million years after accretion. This is the period when life arose and became established on Earth. It follows that understanding the geophysical and geochemical characteristics of early Earth could provide insight into life-supporting environments on other solar bodies that have not evolved "Garden of Eden" conditions. Hydrothermal systems are primordial and their emergence coincided with the accumulation of liquid water on Earth. The interactions of water and rock associated with hydrothermal systems result in predictable suites of dissolved elements and volatiles. While the concentrations of these chemicals vary at different vent locations and were certainly different during the early Archaean, the overall chemical composition of aqueous hydrothermal fluid is likely to be the same because of the basaltic nature of oceanic crust. In present-day hydrothermal systems, those environments not contaminated by electron acceptors produced from pelagic photosynthesis would most closely mimic the earliest conditions on Earth. These conditions include the subseafloor and high temperature, anaerobic environments associated with hydrothermal systems. The microorganisms associated with these environments derive energy from sulfur, iron, hydrogen and organic compounds. New seafloor eruptions and diffuse flow vents provide unprecedented access to deep subseafloor microbial communities. For example, 12 new eruptions have occurred in the past 15 years including five in the Northeast Pacific. Hyperthermophiles were isolated from 5-30oC diffuse vent fluids from new eruption sites at CoAxial within months of the June, 1993 eruption and from the 1998 eruption at Axial Volcano, and from plume fluids within days of the February, 1996 eruption at the N. Gorda Ridge. The presence of such organisms in fluids that are 20 to 50°C below their minimum growth temperature indicates that they originated from a hot subseafloor habitat. Based on the 16S rRNA sequences and the RFLP patterns of the 500 base sequence between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (intergenic spacer region), these heterotrophic archaea represent new species, and a new genus, within the Thermococcales (Summit and Baross, 1998; 2001). These isolates grow over an unusually wide temperature range and in low levels of organic material. While Thermococcus and Methanococcus species are the most commonly isolated species of hyperthermophiles from subseafloor biotopes, preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequences of microbial communities in the diffuse flow fluids at new eruption sites show a high diversity of archaea that are not related to cultured organisms. Results to date support the hypothesis that subseafloor microbes associated with hydrothermal systems have nutritional, physiological and bioenergetic characteristics that reflect the physical and geochemical properties of their habitat. Moreover, we propose that deep-sea subsurface environments are analogs of ecosystems on other solar bodies. Thus, by examining the chemical and microbial ecology and energetics of the subsurface, and particularly the subsurface associated with hydrothermal systems, a framework for studying the prospects of extraterrestrial life can be developed. It is predicted that if there were life on other hydrothermally active solar bodies, the same energy sources would fuel microbial metabolism even though the molecular characteristics of these life forms may not resemble Earth organisms having identical metabolisms.

  3. Integrating high-precision U-Pb geochronologic data with dynamic models of earth processes

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, Terrence (Terrence Joseph)

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopic dating can provide critical constraints for understanding the rates of tectonic, dynamic and biologic processes operating on our planet. Improving the interpretation and implementation of geochronologic data ...

  4. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  5. Toward an understanding of energetic healing, Part 2: Energetic processes.

    PubMed

    Slater, V E

    1995-09-01

    The purposes of the article are to discuss the role of consciousness and quantum processes in energetic healing and to present the author's theory of energetic healing. Two opposing views of consciousness are reviewed: consciousness as emerging from material processes and consciousness as primary. Three quantum physics' theories are discussed: potentiality/actuality, observer-created reality, and consciousness-created reality. Psychosynthesis is offered as a model for the dimensions of a psyche that could be involved in consciousness-created reality and in energetic healing. A theory of energetic healing is outlined and applied to holistic nursing. PMID:7650349

  6. Understanding the Process of Fibrosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kharraz, Yacine; Guerra, Joana; Serrano, Antonio L.; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is the aberrant deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components during tissue healing leading to loss of its architecture and function. Fibrotic diseases are often associated with chronic pathologies and occur in a large variety of vital organs and tissues, including skeletal muscle. In human muscle, fibrosis is most readily associated with the severe muscle wasting disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by loss of dystrophin gene function. In DMD, skeletal muscle degenerates and is infiltrated by inflammatory cells and the functions of the muscle stem cells (satellite cells) become impeded and fibrogenic cells hyperproliferate and are overactivated, leading to the substitution of skeletal muscle with nonfunctional fibrotic tissue. Here, we review new developments in our understanding of the mechanisms leading to fibrosis in DMD and several recent advances towards reverting it, as potential treatments to attenuate disease progression. PMID:24877152

  7. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  8. Understanding the Writing Process through Brain Hemisphere Neurology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogge, Joan Ellet

    Acknowledging that ordering, spatial orientation, and synthesis are important properties in achieving clarity in writing, a study investigated the biological influences on students' writing processes and ways to help writers produce more coherent written products. Subjects, two males and four females ranging in age from 19 to 40, were tested using…

  9. Researcher breaks new ground in understanding chemical reaction process

    E-print Network

    Glaser, Rainer

    texts, aids cancer research back tochemistry textbook authors have written in a variety of applications, including dyes, but also represent a basic chemical molecular structure found in nature. Now, a professor of chemistry has found that this chemical process has been incorrectly described

  10. Neuronal deactivation is equally important for understanding emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Jacob M; Dukes, Amber; Coulombe, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    In their analyses of the neural correlates of discrete emotionality, Lindquist et al. do not consider the numerous drawbacks to inferring psychological processes based on currently available cognitive neurometric technology. The authors also disproportionately emphasize the relevance of neuronal activation over deactivation, which, in our opinion, limits the scope and utility of their conclusions. PMID:22617677

  11. Understanding the Processes behind Student Designing: Cases from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Susan Siok Hiang; Lim-Ratnam, Christina; Atencio, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    A common perception of designing is that it represents a highly complex activity that is manageable by only a few. However it has also been argued that all individuals are innately capable of designing. Taking up this latter view, we explored the processes behind student designing in the context of Design and Technology (D&T), a subject taught at…

  12. Primary School Children's Understanding of Municipal Waste Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazar, S. A.; Vrtacnik, M.; Bacnik, A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the basic features and goals of environmental education incorporated into curricula in Slovenia. Findings suggest that waste-processing products are not well known and that Slovene children should be taught about environmental problems that are part of everyday life. (DDR)

  13. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Judith F; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  14. Understanding the Consequences of Bilingualism for Language Processing and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Judith F.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research on bilingualism has been framed by two major discoveries. In the realm of language processing, studies of comprehension and production show that bilinguals activate information about both languages when using one language alone. Parallel activation of the two languages has been demonstrated for highly proficient bilinguals as well as second language learners and appears to be present even when distinct properties of the languages themselves might be sufficient to bias attention towards the language in use. In the realm of cognitive processing, studies of executive function have demonstrated a bilingual advantage, with bilinguals outperforming their monolingual counterparts on tasks that require ignoring irrelevant information, task switching, and resolving conflict. Our claim is that these outcomes are related and have the overall effect of changing the way that both cognitive and linguistic processing are carried out for bilinguals. In this article we consider each of these domains of bilingual performance and consider the kinds of evidence needed to support this view. We argue that the tendency to consider bilingualism as a unitary phenomenon explained in terms of simple component processes has created a set of apparent controversies that masks the richness of the central finding in this work: the adult mind and brain are open to experience in ways that create profound consequences for both language and cognition. PMID:24223260

  15. Regional Arctic System Model (RASM): A Tool to Advance Understanding and Prediction of Arctic Climate Change at Process Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowski, W.; Roberts, A.; Osinski, R.; Brunke, M.; Cassano, J. J.; Clement Kinney, J. L.; Craig, A.; Duvivier, A.; Fisel, B. J.; Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Hamman, J.; Hughes, M.; Nijssen, B.; Zeng, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic changes, which are some of the most coordinated changes currently occurring anywhere on Earth. They are exemplified by the retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, which integrates forcing by, exchanges with and feedbacks between atmosphere, ocean and land. While historical reconstructions from Global Climate and Global Earth System Models (GC/ESMs) are in broad agreement with these changes, the rate of change in the GC/ESMs remains outpaced by observations. Reasons for that stem from a combination of coarse model resolution, inadequate parameterizations, unrepresented processes and a limited knowledge of physical and other real world interactions. We demonstrate the capability of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) in addressing some of the GC/ESM limitations in simulating observed seasonal to decadal variability and trends in the sea ice cover and climate. RASM is a high resolution, fully coupled, pan-Arctic climate model that uses the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. It uses the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP) configured at an eddy-permitting resolution of 1/12° as well as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) models at 50 km resolution. All RASM components are coupled via the CESM flux coupler (CPL7) at 20-minute intervals. RASM is an example of limited-area, process-resolving, fully coupled earth system model, which due to the additional constraints from lateral boundary conditions and nudging within a regional model domain facilitates detailed comparisons with observational statistics that are not possible with GC/ESMs. In this talk, we will emphasize the utility of RASM to understand sensitivity to variable parameter space, importance of critical processes, coupled feedbacks and ultimately to reduce uncertainty in arctic climate change projections.

  16. Inverse modelling of surface subsidence to better understand the Earth's subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, A. G.; Fokker, P. A.; Kroon, I. C.; de Lange, G.

    2007-12-01

    Surface subsidence can have major repercussions. A classic example is the seabed above the Ekofisk oil field, offshore Norway, where excessive subsidence made it necessary to raise the production platform by 6 m in the 1980s. On land, subsidence may significantly increase the risk of damage to buildings and infrastructure. But, observations of subsidence can also give us a better handle on the subsurface processes like compaction behaviour of a reservoir, (un)drained compartments, or the strength of the aquifer. However, to get this information from subsidence data, you have to carefully follow an inversion procedure. This inversion exercise is a big challenge in which all the available knowledge has to be used to the fullest possible extent. Without the use of this prior knowledge the solution will be non-unique or very ill-conditioned. In our method we distinguish and quantify shallow and deep causes of subsidence in a time-resolved procedure. We take full advantage of all the available knowledge in the form of a prior model, the prior model covariance matrix, and the data covariance matrix. The covariances quantify the expected spatial and temporal relationships between the model points and the data points. As an example, the incorporation of the model covariance implicitly guarantees smoothness of the model estimate, while maintaining specific geological features like sharp boundaries. In two examples we demonstrate the strength of the method. The first example shows that prior knowledge in the form of a correct model parameterization (deep and shallow compaction) is crucial for a reliable result. The second example demonstrates the significant added value of fully accounting for the geology and the reservoir engineering information. Probabilistic information is entered using Monte Carlo simulations with a standard reservoir simulator, with several driving parameters being uncertain. The Monte Carlo runs deliver the prior model estimate and its covariance matrix. The inversion results in a good approximation of the driving parameters, even while their effects in terms of subsidence are highly correlated.

  17. Process evaluation for complex interventions in primary care: understanding trials using the normalization process model

    PubMed Central

    May, Carl R; Mair, Frances S; Dowrick, Christopher F; Finch, Tracy L

    2007-01-01

    Background The Normalization Process Model is a conceptual tool intended to assist in understanding the factors that affect implementation processes in clinical trials and other evaluations of complex interventions. It focuses on the ways that the implementation of complex interventions is shaped by problems of workability and integration. Method In this paper the model is applied to two different complex trials: (i) the delivery of problem solving therapies for psychosocial distress, and (ii) the delivery of nurse-led clinics for heart failure treatment in primary care. Results Application of the model shows how process evaluations need to focus on more than the immediate contexts in which trial outcomes are generated. Problems relating to intervention workability and integration also need to be understood. The model may be used effectively to explain the implementation process in trials of complex interventions. Conclusion The model invites evaluators to attend equally to considering how a complex intervention interacts with existing patterns of service organization, professional practice, and professional-patient interaction. The justification for this may be found in the abundance of reports of clinical effectiveness for interventions that have little hope of being implemented in real healthcare settings. PMID:17650326

  18. Understanding the impact of upscaling THM processes on performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.; Zhou, Q.; Rutqvist, J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-06-10

    The major objective of Benchmark Test 2 (BMT2) is to quantitatively examine the reliability of estimates of repository host rock performance, using large-scale performance assessment (PA) models that are developed by upscaling small-scale parameters and processes. These small-scale properties and processes can be investigated based on either discrete-fracture-network (DFN) models or heterogeneous-porous-medium (HPM) models. While most research teams use DFN, we employ fractal-based HPM for upscaling purposes. Comparison of results based on fundamentally different approaches is useful for evaluating and bounding the uncertainties in estimating repository host rock performance. HPM has both advantages and limitations when compared with DFN. DFM is conceptually more appealing because it explicitly describes fractures and the flow and transport processes that occur within them. However, HPM is more consistent with approaches used to derive field measurements of hydraulic properties (such as permeability). These properties are generally determined based on assumptions related to the continuum approach. HPM is also more straightforward in describing spatial-correlation structures of measured hydraulic properties. For example, potential flow features in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG) were found to show marked spatial clustering (Nirex, 1997), which is expected to result in a long range correlation in measured permeability distributions. This important behavior may not be captured with conventional DFNs, in which random distribution (or similar distributions) of individual fractures is assumed. The usefulness of HPM will be partially demonstrated in this report by a satisfactory description of the short interval testing data using Levy-stable fractals. (Recently, Jackson et al. (2000) also showed that equivalent HPMs could approximately describe flow processes within subgrid fracture networks.) We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine flow and transport parameters at different scales. Since we have used a fractal-based approach supported by field measurements, effective properties will be scale-dependent. Effects of mechanical processes on flow and transport properties will be also considered in the upscaling procedure. Then, large-scale thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) and transport processes will be modeled.

  19. The image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS), which will process video-tape recordings received from the satellite into imagery and digitized video data suitable for earth-resource study and analysis. The system is made up of three subsystems. The bulk processor produces 70-mm images and digitized records, corrected for systematic geometric and radiometric errors as well as for sensor-calibration and other errors. The precision processor modifies the bulk images to significantly increase geometric precision. The special processor transfers either bulk or precision data to computer-compatible tape.

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Image Processing and Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The titles in this section include: 1) Expansion in Geographic Information Services for PIGWAD; 2) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers; 3) Science-based Region-of-Interest Image Compression; 4) Topographic Analysis with a Stereo Matching Tool Kit; 5) Central Avra Valley Storage and Recovery Project (CAVSARP) Site, Tucson, Arizona: Floodwater and Soil Moisture Investigations with Extraterrestrial Applications; 6) ASE Floodwater Classifier Development for EO-1 HYPERION Imagery; 7) Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) Operations on EO-1 in 2004; 8) Autonomous Vegetation Cover Scene Classification of EO-1 Hyperion Hyperspectral Data; 9) Long-Term Continental Areal Reduction Produced by Tectonic Processes.

  1. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  2. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  3. Understanding the Generation Process of High Impact Floods in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, L. E.; Zink, M.; Thober, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-12-01

    Floods in Germany are the costliest natural disasters. The 2002 and the 2013 floods in the Danube and the Elbe river basins caused a havoc, with economic losses surpassing in each event the mark of 11 billion Euros. Considering the high impact of these events and the hydrometeorological records reached in both cases, it is worth trying to disentangle the impact of contributing factors of the flood generation process that lead to the development of these extreme events. Both summer events were caused by heavy rainfall triggered by low pressure systems over middle Europe (Vb and Tm circulation patterns respectively) that carry moist air from the Adriatic northeastward. Rainfall was intensified even further by orographic effects in mountainous regions. Preliminary evidence indicates that antecedent soil moisture conditions might have played a crucial role in the flood generating processes, specifically in the case of the 2013 event. To test this hypothesis, the process based hydrologic model mHM was used to estimate the top soil moisture and the surface runoff over whole Germany at a spatial resolution of 4x4 km2. mHM was forced with gridded daily precipitation and temperature, further disaggregated into hourly values. The gridded daily forcings were obtained with external drift Kriging from a dense network of meteorological stations operated by the German Weather Service. Resampling techniques were used to test the null hypothesis that the runoff generation of these two flood events is independent from antecedent soil moisture conditions. Results indicated that the soil moisture antecedent conditions, up to five days before the peak have had a statistically significant impact (p-value less than 5%) on flood generation processes. Moreover, the elasticity of the surface runoff to antecedent soil moisture exhibited a marked difference between events and basins. These differences are more pronounced in wet conditions rather than on dry ones, which in turn highlights that soil moisture is a key factor in the generation process. Soil moisture antecedent conditions before two high impact floods in Germany.

  4. Understanding processes affecting mineral deposits in humid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seal, Robert R., II; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interdisciplinary studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have resulted in substantial progress toward understanding the influence that climate and hydrology have on the geochemical signatures of mineral deposits and the resulting mine wastes in the eastern United States. Specific areas of focus include the release, transport, and fate of acid, metals, and associated elements from inactive mines in temperate coastal areas and of metals from unmined mineral deposits in tropical to subtropical areas; the influence of climate, geology, and hydrology on remediation options for abandoned mines; and the application of radiogenic isotopes to uniquely apportion source contributions that distinguish natural from mining sources and extent of metal transport. The environmental effects of abandoned mines and unmined mineral deposits result from a complex interaction of a variety of chemical and physical factors. These include the geology of the mineral deposit, the hydrologic setting of the mineral deposit and associated mine wastes, the chemistry of waters interacting with the deposit and associated waste material, the engineering of a mine as it relates to the reactivity of mine wastes, and climate, which affects such factors as temperature and the amounts of precipitation and evapotranspiration; these factors, in turn, influence the environmental behavior of mineral deposits. The role of climate is becoming increasingly important in environmental investigations of mineral deposits because of the growing concerns about climate change.

  5. Using Topographic Derivatives of High Resolution Data on Earth and Mars to Determine Active Processes on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S. J.; Balme, M. R.; Grindrod, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the severest problems in the field of martian geomorphology is that of convergence of form (i.e., that dissimilar processes can produce similar looking landforms). Since the discovery of recently formed km-scale gullies [1] on the martian surface, debate has raged about whether these features formed by dry mass wasting, fluidisation by CO2 gas, debris flow, unconcentrated water/brine flow, or by other, exotic processes. This is an important distinction, because if these gullies are found to be formed by water, which is currently unstable at the martian surface, then a mechanism has to be found to produce this water, and this has ramifications for our understanding of martian climate and hydrology. We approach this problem by studying newly available high resolution (~ 1 m/pix) elevation models derived from stereo HiRISE (High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) image pairs and comparing them to LiDAR datasets of analogous features on Earth. We have used hydrological topographic indices such as slope-area [e.g., 2], contributing area distribution [3] and the downslope index [4] to characterise slopes with known processes on Earth. We characterised slopes dominated by rockfall, debris flow and fluvial erosion. We then apply these same analysis techniques to gullied slopes on Mars and find that these slopes have a signal of both debris flow and fluvial processes. This suggests that Mars' recent climate has recently been more amenable to the existence of liquid water than has previously been assumed.

  6. Contributions to Public Understanding of Science by the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (I): Programs and Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.; Newton, R.; Buckley, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) continues its long history of contributions to public understanding of Science through “live” and web-based programs that provide teachers, students, and the other access to new discoveries and updates on key issues. We highlight current activities in paired posters. Part 1 focuses on events held at the Palisades, NY, campus. "Earth2Class (E2C)" is a unique program integrating science content with increased understanding about classroom learning and technology. Monthly workshops allow K-14 participants to combine talks by researchers about cutting-edge investigations with acquisition of background knowledge and classroom-ready applications. E2C has sponsored 100 workshops by more than 60 LDEO scientists for hundreds of teachers. A vast array of resources on earth2class.org> includes archived versions of workshops, comprehensive sets of curriculum units, and professional development opportunities. It has been well received by both workshop participants and others who have only accessed the web site. "Hudson River Snapshot Day" celebrates the Hudson River Estuary and educates participants on the uniqueness of our nearby estuary as part of the annual National Estuaries Week. The New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Hudson River Estuary Program and Hudson Basin River Watch coordinate the event. LDEO scientists help coordinate annual data collection by school classes to create a day-in-the-life picture all along the river. LDEO researchers also participate in "River Summer," bringing together participants from a variety of perspectives to look at the Hudson River and foster better understanding of how the same features can appear very differently to artists, writers, political scientists, economists, or scientists. These perspectives aid in recognizing the Hudson’s unique characteristics and history by identifying cross-disciplinary relationships and fostering new connections. LDEO’s Secondary School Field Research Program engages high school teachers and students as science interns. They work with scientists in a 6-week summer program collaborated with the Harlem Childrens' Society and the Columbia Summer Research Program. Participants collect samples of water, soil, air, plants and animals in local wetlands, forests and urban environments. They receive training at LDEO in basic laboratory skills as they measure many of their own samples. Through The Young Women’s Leadership School of East Harlem, students earn Field Science course credits. The Field Research Program also works with teachers to bring inquiry-based, hands-on field and laboratory science into the classroom during the school year. In addition, teachers and students from many other schools in the NYC region have cooperated with LDEO scientists on projects sponsored through NSF-funded Research Experiences, academic year internships, and other formats. The Public Lectures series began in 1999 in celebration of Lamont’s 50th anniversary. Annually since then, selected Lamont researchers give presentations on their current research. LDEO’s efforts to inspire and educate new generations continue to expand each year.

  7. Understanding Earthquake Processes in the Central and Eastern US and Implications for Nuclear Reactor Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seber, D.; Tabatabai, S.

    2012-12-01

    All of the early site permits and new reactor licensing applications, which have been submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC), are located in the Central and Eastern United States (CEUS). Furthermore, among the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) already licensed to operate in the US, 96 are located in the CEUS. While there are many considerations in siting commercial NPPs, the perceived lower seismic hazard in the CEUS compared to the Western United States is one of the reasons why the majority of operating and potential future nuclear reactors are located in the CEUS. However, one important criterion used in the licensing and safe operation of a nuclear power plant is its seismic design basis, which establishes the plant's ability to withstand ground motions produced by moderate- to large-sized earthquakes without suffering any damage to its critical safety related structures, systems, and components. The seismic design basis for a NPP is site specific and determined using up-to-date knowledge and information about seismic sources surrounding the site and seismic wave propagation characteristics. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of the processes generating earthquakes (tectonic or man-made) and the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the CEUS is crucial. The U.S. NRC's seismic review process for evaluating new reactor siting applications heavily relies upon up-to-date scientific knowledge of seismic sources within at least 320 km of a proposed site. However, the availability of up-to-date knowledge and information about potential seismic sources in low-seismicity regions is limited and relevant data are sparse. Recently, the NRC participated in a joint effort to develop new seismic source models to be used in the CEUS seismic hazard studies for nuclear facilities. In addition, efforts are underway to better understand the seismic potential of the Eastern Tennessee Seismic Zone. While very large and successful scientific experiments such as EarthScope, provide great opportunities to gather new data to further enhance our current understanding of the seismicity and tectonics of the CEUS region, there is also a heightened need for continuation of small-scale scientific missions geared toward understanding of seismic sources in low-seismicity regions. Although such regions are not high-priority areas of research and they do not usually receive the needed attention of funding agencies and the larger scientific community, extensive studies in these areas are still needed. Creating awareness and interest of the needs for seismic studies in such regions is a critical issue from a regulatory perspective. The U.S. NRC's open government philosophy based processes provide excellent opportunities for the involvement of research and educational communities in the regulatory processes related to seismic hazards in the US. This presentation will discuss the available processes for public participation in the US NRC new reactor licensing decisions and highlight some key research areas that will benefit seismic hazard estimations in the CEUS.

  8. Simulation approach to understanding the processes that structure food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, H.I.; Gardner, R.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Post, W.M.

    1984-08-01

    A simulation model of food web dynamics, WEB, was constructed and used in Monte Carlo experiments to study the relationship between structure and function in food webs. Four main experiments were designed using WEB. The first tested the robustness of food web structures at equilibrium to variations in the functional response of predators in the food web to the densities of their prey. The second experiment clarified the roles of predation and resource limitation in the process of structuring food webs. A third experiment studied the influence of productivity on food web structure and function using simulated food webs. The final experiment was designed to study the differential successes of generalists and specialists. The main advantage gained by using a simulation approach in each of these experiments was the ability to assess the roles played by processes of predation and competition in structuring model food webs. This was accomplished by interpreting the order of extinction events that occurred in the simulations and relating these to the species configurations at equilibrium. 61 references, 23 figures.

  9. Using Immersive Visualizations to Improve Decision Making and Enhancing Public Understanding of Earth Resource and Climate Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Raynolds, R. G.; Dechesne, M.

    2008-12-01

    New visualization technologies, from ArcGIS to Google Earth, have allowed for the integration of complex, disparate data sets to produce visually rich and compelling three-dimensional models of sub-surface and surface resource distribution patterns. The rendering of these models allows the public to quickly understand complicated geospatial relationships that would otherwise take much longer to explain using traditional media. We have impacted the community through topical policy presentations at both state and city levels, adult education classes at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (DMNS), and public lectures at DMNS. We have constructed three-dimensional models from well data and surface observations which allow policy makers to better understand the distribution of groundwater in sandstone aquifers of the Denver Basin. Our presentations to local governments in the Denver metro area have allowed resource managers to better project future ground water depletion patterns, and to encourage development of alternative sources. DMNS adult education classes on water resources, geography, and regional geology, as well as public lectures on global issues such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and resource depletion, have utilized the visualizations developed from these research models. In addition to presenting GIS models in traditional lectures, we have also made use of the immersive display capabilities of the digital "fulldome" Gates Planetarium at DMNS. The real-time Uniview visualization application installed at Gates was designed for teaching astronomy, but it can be re-purposed for displaying our model datasets in the context of the Earth's surface. The 17-meter diameter dome of the Gates Planetarium allows an audience to have an immersive experience---similar to virtual reality CAVEs employed by the oil exploration industry---that would otherwise not be available to the general public. Public lectures in the dome allow audiences of over 100 people to comprehend dynamically- changing geospatial datasets in an exciting and engaging fashion. In our presentation, we will demonstrate how new software tools like Uniview can be used to dramatically enhance and accelerate public comprehension of complex, multi-scale geospatial phenomena.

  10. Understanding processes contributing to regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Gregory, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    WCRP/IOC Workshop on Regional Sea-Level Change; Paris, France, 7-9 February 2011 . A joint World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)/Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) workshop was held to discuss regional changes of sea level. The workshop was attended by 41 experts from the world over who compared observed regional sea level changes with those inferred from numerical simulations and compared future predictions and their analyses in terms of processes. Satellite altimetry observations continue to be essential in revealing that sea level is changing prominently on a regional scale. However, existing climate models are largely in disagreement about patterns and magnitudes of observed sea level variability, and it is unclear how accurate they may be in predicting regional sea level.

  11. Partially Testing a Process Model for Understanding Victim Responses to an Anticipated Worksite Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study partially tested a recent process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure (W/FC) proposed by Blau [Blau, G. (2006). A process model for understanding victim responses to worksite/function closure. "Human Resource Management Review," 16, 12-28], in a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. Central to the model…

  12. Toward understanding early Earth evolution: Prescription for approach from terrestrial noble gas and light element records in lunar soils

    PubMed Central

    Ozima, Minoru; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Podosek, Frank A.; Miura, Yayoi N.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the almost total lack of geological record on the Earth's surface before 4 billion years ago, the history of the Earth during this period is still enigmatic. Here we describe a practical approach to tackle the formidable problems caused by this lack. We propose that examinations of lunar soils for light elements such as He, N, O, Ne, and Ar would shed a new light on this dark age in the Earth's history and resolve three of the most fundamental questions in earth science: the onset time of the geomagnetic field, the appearance of an oxygen atmosphere, and the secular variation of an Earth–Moon dynamical system. PMID:19001263

  13. Improved understanding of the spark plasma sintering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Dale; Livingston, Roger; Liebenberg, Donald

    2015-05-01

    The process by which spark plasma sintering produces high densification of powder specimens is examined to determine the role of sparks and plasma. Measurements are reported of the electromagnetic emission during the pulsing current using the state-of-the-art Tektronix MDO4104B-6 to obtain voltage vs time and simultaneously radio frequency (rf) emission in selected power vs frequency regions. The results show strong rf emission over the selected frequency region 0-160 kHz during pulsing and nearly an order of magnitude decrease of power during pulsing but in the gap (no pulse). These measurements showed no rf emission dependence on the electrical conductivity of the specimen or with current levels between 0-500 A and support the conclusion that no sparking or plasma production takes place in the specimen. The steep slope of the current vs time profile is demonstrated to produce the rf emission in a manner described by Hertz and is suggested to provide forces on the sintering material that encourage densification.

  14. Understanding patterns and processes in models of trophic cascades

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Michael R; Speirs, Douglas C; Steele, John H; Lafferty, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Climate fluctuations and human exploitation are causing global changes in nutrient enrichment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and declining abundances of apex predators. The resulting trophic cascades have had profound effects on food webs, leading to significant economic and societal consequences. However, the strength of cascades–that is the extent to which a disturbance is diminished as it propagates through a food web–varies widely between ecosystems, and there is no formal theory as to why this should be so. Some food chain models reproduce cascade effects seen in nature, but to what extent is this dependent on their formulation? We show that inclusion of processes represented mathematically as density-dependent regulation of either consumer uptake or mortality rates is necessary for the generation of realistic ‘top-down’ cascades in simple food chain models. Realistically modelled ‘bottom-up’ cascades, caused by changing nutrient input, are also dependent on the inclusion of density dependence, but especially on mortality regulation as a caricature of, e.g. disease and parasite dynamics or intraguild predation. We show that our conclusions, based on simple food chains, transfer to a more complex marine food web model in which cascades are induced by varying river nutrient inputs or fish harvesting rates. PMID:24165353

  15. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  16. Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: Implications for resource utilization

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    Granular processes on Itokawa, a small near-Earth asteroid: Implications for resource utilization of a ~300m-sized asteroid, Itokawa, which gives unique opportunity to discuss the nature of surface been resolved naturally, at least for one asteroid, by virtue of the unexpected discovery that Itokawa

  17. Agents for Development of Earth's Surface Interactive Dynamic Processes at the Surface

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    of the Global Environment Plate Tectonics: Unifying ConceptPlate Tectonics: Unifying Concept Ground shaking's surface as plates · Plates and Plate Boundaries · Concept and justification of plate divisions · Types of plate boundaries and processes · History of the Earth' Surface · Reconstructing the ancient face

  18. At the Earth's surface,a complex suite of chemical,biological,and physical processes

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    profiles; providing expertise in field-based data collection; and training a new cohort of weatheringAt the Earth's surface,a complex suite of chemical,biological,and physical processes combines; stan- dardizing data and sample collection for weathering systems; decoupling complex bio- physico

  19. Understanding the transport processes in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheah, May Jean

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are energy conversion devices suitable for automotive, stationary and portable applications. An engineering challenge that is hindering the widespread use of PEM fuel cells is the water management issue, where either a lack of water (resulting in membrane dehydration) or an excess accumulation of liquid water (resulting in fuel cell flooding) critically reduces the PEM fuel cell performance. The water management issue is addressed by this dissertation through the study of three transport processes occurring in PEM fuel cells. Water transport within the membrane is a combination of water diffusion down the water activity gradient and the dragging of water molecules by protons when there is a proton current, in a phenomenon termed electro-osmotic drag, EOD. The impact of water diffusion and EOD on the water flux across the membrane is reduced due to water transport resistance at the vapor/membrane interface. The redistribution of water inside the membrane by EOD causes an overall increase in the membrane resistance that regulates the current and thus EOD, thereby preventing membrane dehydration. Liquid water transport in the PEM fuel cell flow channel was examined at different gas flow regimes. At low gas Reynolds numbers, drops transitioned into slugs that are subsequently pushed out of the flow channel by the gas flow. The slug volume is dependent on the geometric shape, the surface wettability and the orientation (with respect to gravity) of the flow channel. The differential pressure required for slug motion primarily depends on the interfacial forces acting along the contact lines at the front and the back of the slug. At high gas Reynolds number, water is removed as a film or as drops depending on the flow channel surface wettability. The shape of growing drops at low and high Reynolds number can be described by a simple interfacial energy minimization model. Under flooding conditions, the fuel cell local current can be significantly reduced due to diffusional limitation of the transport of gaseous reactants through inerts such as water vapor and nitrogen gas. A non-uniform current distribution across the membrane electrode assembly can cause pinhole formation and ultimately, fuel cell failure.

  20. Establishment and Implementation of a Close Approach Evaluation and Avoidance Process for Earth Observing System Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri; Duncan, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In the fall of 2004, the Earth Science Mission Operations Project tasked the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSPC) Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch with establishment of a process to protect the high-value Earth Observing System (EOS) missions (Terra, Aqua, and Aura) from close approaches with space debris and other orbiting objects. An agreement between GSFC and the United States Strategic Command was put in place so that close approach predictions would be routinely generated. This paper describes the ESMO conjunction assessment process for the EOS satellites. Process details, including tools and algorithms developed, are discussed. Particular details for a predicted close approach between Terra and a piece of space debris that resulted in the execution of a debris avoidance maneuver are included. This close approach example is described in detail fiom the first screening identification through execution of the mitigation maneuver to illustrate both the process and lessons learned fiom its implementation.

  1. Simulating the Fate of an Earth-like Planet Inclined to the Ecliptic Plane to Improve Understanding of Planetary System Formation 

    E-print Network

    Nichols, Kristin

    2013-02-01

    huge gravitational perturbations. In order to better understand the effect that planetary giants have on bodies within our Solar System, this paper proposes to simulate the n-body problem for the Sun-Jupiter-Earth system so as to quantify the effect...

  2. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth like planets

    E-print Network

    Leconte, Jérémy; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-01-01

    Because the solar luminosity increases over geological timescales, Earth climate is expected to warm, increasing water evaporation which, in turn, enhances the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can "runaway" until all the oceans are evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause oceans to escape to space before the runaway greenhouse occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated with unidimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of Earth's climate. Here we use a 3D global climate model to show that the threshold for the runaway greenhouse is about 375 W/m$^2$, significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmo...

  3. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  4. CZ-Tope: Using Measurements of Multiple Isotopes in One Setting to Understand Critical Zone Processes Occurring over Different Timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Critical Zone (CZ) science includes the study of the inter-related chemical, physical, and biological processes happening at the earth surface. CZ science differs from watershed science or other similar initiatives in that it not only incorporates many disciplinary approaches and crosses spatial scales, but it also aims to understand processes occurring at timescales varying from those characterizing fast chemical reactions to the slow responses of surficial systems to tectonic change. Isotope systems are an important tool that can be used to assess processes at different timescales. Some isotopic systems are used as chronometers. Synthesizing isotopic data from different elemental systems to understand processes as complex as weathering at a ridgetop, hillslope transformation, or watershed evolution is a difficult task but is essential toward deciphering the complex coupling that characterizes surficial systems. A good example where isotopes are elucidating CZ processes is the analysis of weathering at ridgetops, along hillslopes, and in watersheds. Targetting these three types of study sites at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, we have used Mg, Fe, Li, Ca, Be, Sr, U and other isotopes to understand the effects of weathering in one-dimension (1D), 2D and 3D, respectively. Some of the systems such as Fe yield information about elemental losses due to biogeochemical weathering. Other isotopes such as U yield information about the development of particles from bedrock. In this talk I will synthesize data from many different researchers working at the CZO to show how disparate isotopic data for one set of sites can answer questions of how landforms develop and change. This effort to use many isotopes on the same CZ setting -- which we call "CZ-tope" science -- requires sharing of sites, samples, and data in team research. CZ-tope science delineates which processes control which features at each timescale of interest.

  5. Parallel architecture for labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing in speech understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, E.C.; Siegel, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Speech understanding is a complex task which requires extensive computation. To increase the processing speed, a speech understanding system is decomposed into tasks which can be performed by a series of distributed processing subsystems. An architecture to perform labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing is described. Using a parametric characterization of the speech signal, this system divides an utterance into labeled homogeneous regions. The system then performs dictionary lookups based on all probable labelings and segmentations in order to generate a complete set of word hypotheses. Using realistic assumptions from existing speech understanding systems, a statistical model of speech input, and simulations of the speech processing algorithms, the attributes of the parallel system to perform labeling, segmentation, and lexical processing for real-time speech understanding are derived. 36 references.

  6. Understanding surface processes 3D imaging from micro-scale to regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Abellan, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin; Guerin, Antoine; Humair, Florian; Matasci, Battista; Michoud, Clément; Nicolet, Pierrick; Penna, Ivanna; Rudaz, Benjamin; Voumard, Jeremie; Wyser, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The production of topography using remote sensing techniques has considerably been improved during the last fifteen years due to the advances in electronics and to the increase of computing power. The earth surface is monitored at all the scales using Space Shuttle Missions (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM), or using laser scanner (LS), both terrestrial (TLS) and airborne (ALS), with accuracies that can reach up to less than 50 microns for observations of objects at meter scale. Recently, photogrammetry has been pushed by the progress of LiDAR and thanks to the advance in image recognition. It led to the development of new techniques such as structure-from-motion (SFM), which allows obtaining 3D point cloud based on several pictures of the same object taken from several point of views. Both LiDAR and Photogrammetry produce 3D point clouds. One of the current 3D applications is the surface changes, which is often based simply on the subtraction of DEM at different time intervals, leading to a simple superficial description of the natural processes without information on the mass transport. However, a point cloud has much more information than a simple surface. For instance, shape recognition can be used to track objects or deformations such as a rock mass toppling, either using the shape of the point cloud or a specific moving element. Such method permits, for instance, to study in detail pre-failure accelerations, and are now routinely used in mining industry. Other methods are coupling images and DEMs and are used, for example, to capture the surface vectors of displacements in order to deduce the surface deformations of landslides. These types of surveys have now broad applications to all kinds of erosional processes. The coastal retreat can be monitored, and it displays in some places several centimetres per year of retreat on average. The sediment transports in torrent are now better constraint showing clearly pulses. The seasonal cycles can as well be detected either for debris-flows prone catchments or at the level of the soil erosion such as in black marls context. In addition, the application of these methods to micro-scale erosional processes such as raindrop erosion permits to open new perspective in the understanding of the soil erosion that is a major threat. Last but not least, these fine topographies can be used to map geology not only by the morphometric attribute but also by the intensity of the laser or by images from other sources, providing useful tools for lithological mapping. Therefore, the erosion processes are even better tackled, as it has been demonstrated for instance on granite cliffs. Furthermore, the use of surface information such as slope aspect etc. can give information on the ground structure. Large domains of research are now being opened, providing great perspectives in earth surface dynamics.

  7. A roast-leach process for extraction of rare earths from complex monazite-xenotime concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Franken, K.M.

    1995-04-01

    The proposed process approaches the problem of solubilizing rare-earth phosphates (monazite and zenotime) found at the Pea Ridge iron mine in Sullivan, MO, from both a pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical point of view. It utilizes a roasting operation that converts the rare-earth phosphates to rare-earth oxides (REOs), which eliminates some costly and hazardous processing steps currently in practice. Different combinations of roasting temperatures and acid concentrations have been investigated to selectively extract the rare-earth values. Cerium is selectively solubilized by roasting at 427{degrees}C and leaching with a sulfuric acid concentration of 265 g/L. After the cerium is removed, the neodymium and lanthanum can be solubilized at a roasting temperature of 500{degrees}C and a sulfuric acid concentration of 88 g/L. Finally, neodymium, praseodymium, and yttrium are solubilized at a roasting temperature of 871{degrees}C and a sulfuric acid concentration of 265 g/L. Alternative leaching media, such as thiourea, sulfuric acid-doped thiourea mixtures, ammonium thiosulfate, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid have also been investigated along with the addition of ultrasonic agitation. Using ultrasonics in addition to mechanical agitation, hydrochloric acid proved to be the best leaching medium. The best roasting temperatures for selective solubilization remained the same, but all of the leaching steps were conducted at 64 g/L hydrochloric acid.

  8. Professor Donald L Sparks and Drs Anthony Aufdenkampe and Lou Kaplan reveal the progress their cutting-edge project is making on understanding the complex interactions within the Earth's critical zone

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    their cutting-edge project is making on understanding the complex interactions within the Earth's critical zone goals? The Christina River Basin ­ Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) is one of six environmental and soils interact and shape the Earth's surface. The critical zone is the Earth's porous near-surface layer

  9. Shared Understanding, Sketching, and Information Seeking and Sharing Behavior in the New Product Design Process

    E-print Network

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Shared Understanding, Sketching, and Information Seeking and Sharing Behavior in the New Product Professor Andy Dong Fall 2004 #12;Shared Understanding, Sketching, and Information Seeking and Sharing Behavior in the New Product Design Process Copyright 2004 by Shuang Song #12;1 Abstract Shared

  10. DOI: 10.1002/chem.201301310 Understanding the Autocatalytic Process of Pro-kumamolisin Activation

    E-print Network

    DOI: 10.1002/chem.201301310 Understanding the Autocatalytic Process of Pro-kumamolisin Activation from Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) Free-Energy Simulations for regulating pro- tein function through proteolytic activation. Understanding the ways by which Nature prevents

  11. Understanding geological processes: Visualization of rigid and non-rigid transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, T. F.; Atit, K.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Resnick, I.; Tikoff, B.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizations are used in the geological sciences to support reasoning about structures and events. Research in cognitive sciences offers insights into the range of skills of different users, and ultimately how visualizations might support different users. To understand the range of skills needed to reason about earth processes we have developed a program of research that is grounded in the geosciences' careful description of the spatial and spatiotemporal patterns associated with earth processes. In particular, we are pursuing a research program that identifies specific spatial skills and investigates whether and how they are related to each other. For this study, we focus on a specific question: Is there an important distinction in the geosciences between rigid and non-rigid deformation? To study a general spatial thinking skill we employed displays with non-geological objects that had been altered by rigid change (rotation), and two types of non-rigid change ("brittle" (or discontinuous) and "ductile" (or continuous) deformation). Disciplinary scientists (geosciences and chemistry faculty), and novices (non-science faculty and undergraduate psychology students) answered questions that required them to visualize the appearance of the object before the change. In one study, geologists and chemists were found to be superior to non-science faculty in reasoning about rigid rotations (e.g., what an object would look like from a different perspective). Geologists were superior to chemists in reasoning about brittle deformations (e.g., what an object looked like before it was broken - here the object was a word cut into many fragments displaced in different directions). This finding is consistent with two hypotheses: 1) Experts are good at visualizing the types of changes required for their domain; and 2) Visualization of rigid and non-rigid changes are not the same skill. An additional important finding is that there was a broad range of skill in both rigid and non-rigid reasoning within the panels of science experts. In a second study, individual differences in reasoning about brittle deformations were correlated with reasoning about ductile deformations (e.g., what a bent plastic sheet would look like when unbent). Students who were good at visualizing what something looked like before it was broken were also good at visualizing what something looked like before it was bent, and this skill was not correlated to reasoning about rigid rotations. These findings suggest the cognitive processes that support reasoning about rigid and non-rigid events may differ and thus may require different types of support and training. We do not know if differences between experts and novices result from experience or self-selection, or both. Nevertheless, the range of spatial skill evinced by novices and experts strongly argues for designing visualizations to support a variety of users.

  12. Earth Sciences Changed Influence on the Public Policy Process, or How Congress Stopped Communicating with Geologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    Measured in political capital, the latter third of the twentieth century was tough for geoscientists. Federal funding for geoscience research and development decreased between 1960 and 2000. Furthermore, although funds devoted to natural resources remained stable as a proportion of total federal expenditures over the same time, they declined by a factor of ten in proportion to the GDP in constant dollars. The size of the natural resource industry sector of the economy declined, as did the number of employed geologists. Geologists even disappeared as a separate category in federal statistical reports by 2000. Each of these indicators tells a portion of the story of how and why Congress stopped communicating with geologists as well as other physical scientists. Changes within the institution of Congress (e.g., lengthened careers, candidate centered politics, and the rise of conservatism) in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in economic expertise replacing the scientific. At the same time, while research and development in the geosciences required larger budgets, the practical application of the discoveries became less obvious to the public. When this was added to the rise of environmental protection in public policy geology was rendered politically vulnerable. Geologists were easily perceived by political actors as the old guard, which made them part of the problem. The hard won favored position held by geology at mid-twentieth century, built by leaders such as Powell, Nolan, and Peck evaporated as national policy shifted from resource exploitation to preservation. The language of the policy debate also shifted, with geologists moving quickly from insiders to outsiders in the policy game. Further compounding the situation, and possibly catalyzing it was the politicization of scientific expertise written into environmental preservation legislation in the 1970s. The high-level nuclear waste site selection process at Yucca Mountain is but one example of Congress passing the political hot potato to the scientists. The like-minded community of geologists and public servants that developed in the mid twentieth century was not happenstance, but built from the foundation of the scientific agencies and societies founded in the late nineteenth century. The policy dialect of the late twentieth century was influenced by rational choice terminology and econometric models, not mapping and resource exploration and development. Geology speaks a language increasingly incomprehensible to politicians and their constituents. Re-establishing the strong bonds to the political process is critical for the country. If constituents don't understand why earth science research is important, their elected representatives cannot be expected to vote for public funding. Without the voice of geology, the solutions forged in policy compromises for the many complex physical problems facing the country and the world will be sub-optimal.

  13. Applications notice. [application of space techniques to earth resources, environment management, and space processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.

  14. TOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan G.

    . Ziegler, P.J.F. Bogaard, P.A.M. Andriessen, I.M. Artemieva, G. Bada, R.T. van Balen, F. Beekman, Z. BenTOPO-EUROPE: The geoscience of coupled deep Earth-surface processes S.A.P.L. Cloetingh ,1 , P.A-Avraham, J.-P. Brun, H.P. Bunge, E.B. Burov, R. Carbonell, C. Facenna, A. Friedrich, J. Gallart, A.G. Green

  15. Understanding the creative processes of phenomenological research: The life philosophy of Løgstrup

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Pia; Haahr, Anita; Martinsen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The creative processes of understanding patients’ experiences in phenomenological research are difficult to articulate. Drawing on life philosophy as represented by the Danish philosopher K.E. Løgstrup (1905–1981), this article aims to illustrate Løgstrup's thinking as a way to elaborate the creation of cognition and understanding of patients’ experiences. We suggest that Løgstrup's thoughts on sensation can add new dimensions to an increased understanding of the creative process of phenomenological research, and that his thinking can be seen as an epistemological ground for these processes. We argue with Løgstrup that sense-based impressions can facilitate an flash of insight, i.e., the spontaneous, intuitive flash of an idea. Løgstrup stresses that an “flash of insight” is an important source in the creation of cognition and understanding. Relating to three empirical phenomenological studies of patients’ experiences, we illustrate how the notions of impression and flash of insight can add new dimensions to increased understanding of the creative processes in phenomenological research that have previously not been discussed. We illustrate that sense-based impressions can facilitate creative flash of insights that open for understanding of patients’ experiences in the research process as well as in the communication of the findings. The nature of impression and flash of insight and their relevance in the creation of cognition and understanding contributes to the sparse descriptions in the methodological phenomenological research literature of the creative processes of this research. An elaboration of the creative processes in phenomenological research can help researchers to articulate these processes. Thus, Løgstrup's life philosophy has proven to be valuable in adding new dimensions to phenomenological empirical research as well as embracing lived experience. PMID:22076123

  16. Earth observing system: 1989 reference handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA is studying a coordinated effort called the Mission to Planet Earth to understand global change. The goals are to understand the Earth as a system, and to determine those processes that contribute to the environmental balance, as well as those that may result in changes. The Earth Observing System (Eos) is the centerpiece of the program. Eos will create an integrated scientific observing system that will enable multidisciplinary study of the Earth including the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar regions, and solid Earth. Science goals, the Eos data and information system, experiments, measuring instruments, and interdisciplinary investigations are described.

  17. NASA Remote Sensing Data in Earth Sciences: Processing, Archiving, Distribution, Applications at the GES DISC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory G.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) is one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) archiving and distributing remote sensing data from the NASA's Earth Observing System. In addition to providing just data, the GES DISC/DAAC has developed various value-adding processing services. A particularly useful service is data processing a t the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data). The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from data subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. Shifting processing and data management burden from users to the GES DISC, allows scientists to concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the data management and data processing at a lower cost. Several examples of successful partnerships with scientists in the area of data processing and mining are presented.

  18. Marking Tests to Certify Part Identification Processes for Use in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roxby, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose for the MISSE marking tests was to define Data Matrix symbol marking processes that will remain readable after exposure to Low Earth Orbit environments. A wide range of different Data Matrix symbol marking processes and materials, including some still under development, were evaluated. The samples flown on MISSE 1 and 2 were in orbit for 3 years and 348 days, MISSE 3 and 4 were in orbit for 1 year and 15 days, MISSE 6 was in orbit for 1 year and 130 days, and MISSE 8 was in orbit for 2 years and 55 days. The initial MISSE marking tests clearly reflected that intrusive marking processes can be successfully used for this purpose. All of the intrusive marking processes tested exceeded program expectations and met 100 percent of the principle investigators objectives. However, subsequent tests demonstrated that some additive marking processes will also satisfy the requirements. This was an unexpected result.

  19. Piloting a Geoscience Literacy Exam for Assessing Students' Understanding of Earth, Climate, Atmospheric and Ocean Science Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D. N.; Iverson, E. A.; Manduca, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    This research seeks to develop valid and reliable questions that faculty can use to assess geoscience literacy across the curriculum. We are particularly interested on effects of curricula developed to teach Earth, Climate, Atmospheric, and Ocean Science concepts in the context of societal issues across the disciplines. This effort is part of the InTeGrate project designed to create a population of college graduates who are poised to use geoscience knowledge in developing solutions to current and future environmental and resource challenges. Details concerning the project are found at http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/index.html. The Geoscience Literacy Exam (GLE) under development presently includes 90 questions. Each big idea from each literacy document can be probed using one or more of three independent questions: 1) a single answer, multiple choice question aimed at basic understanding or application of key concepts, 2) a multiple correct answer, multiple choice question targeting the analyzing to analysis levels and 3) a short essay question that tests analysis or evaluation cognitive levels. We anticipate multiple-choice scores and the detail and sophistication of essay responses will increase as students engage with the curriculum. As part of the field testing of InTeGrate curricula, faculty collected student responses from classes that involved over 700 students. These responses included eight pre- and post-test multiple-choice questions that covered various concepts across the four literacies. Discrimination indices calculated from the data suggest that the eight tested questions provide a valid measure of literacy within the scope of the concepts covered. Student normalized gains across an academic term with limited InTeGrate exposure (typically two or fewer weeks of InTeGrate curriculum out of 14 weeks) were found to average 16% gain. A small set of control data (250 students in classes from one institution where no InTeGrate curricula were used) was also collected from a larger bank of test questions. Discrimination indices across the full bank showed variation and additional work is underway to refine and field test in other settings these questions in the absence of InTeGrate curricula. When complete, faculty will be able to assemble sets of questions to track progress toward meeting literacy goals. In addition to covering geoscience content knowledge and understanding, a complementary attitudinal pre/post survey was also developed with the intent to probe InTeGrate students' ability and motivation to use their geoscience expertise to address problems of environmental sustainability. The final instruments will be made available to the geoscience education community as an assessment to be used in conjunction with InTeGrate teaching materials or as a stand-alone tool for departments to measure student learning and attitudinal gains across the major.

  20. Preparation of Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, William C.

    A preliminary draft of a "Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science" has been prepared on the basis of a careful analysis of the current practice of science. This manuscript attempts to formulate guidelines for an explanation of communicative processes of scientific inquiry to students without rigorous background…

  1. A Subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tesfa, Teklu K.; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Sun, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2014-05-20

    Realistically representing spatial heterogeneity and lateral land surface processes within and between modeling units in earth system models is important because of their implications to surface energy and water exchange. The traditional approach of using regular grids as computational units in land surface models and earth system models may lead to inadequate representation of lateral movements of water, energy and carbon fluxes, especially when the grid resolution increases. Here a new subbasin-based framework is introduced in the Community Land Model (CLM), which is the land component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Local processes are represented assuming each subbasin as a grid cell on a pseudo grid matrix with no significant modifications to the existing CLM modeling structure. Lateral routing of water within and between subbasins is simulated with the subbasin version of a recently-developed physically based routing model, Model for Scale Adaptive River Routing (MOSART). As an illustration, this new framework is implemented in the topographically diverse region of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The modeling units (subbasins) are delineated from high-resolution Digital Elevation Model while atmospheric forcing and surface parameters are remapped from the corresponding high resolution datasets. The impacts of this representation on simulating hydrologic processes are explored by comparing it with the default (grid-based) CLM representation. In addition, the effects of DEM resolution on parameterizing topography and the subsequent effects on runoff processes are investigated. Limited model evaluation and comparison showed that small difference between the averaged forcing can lead to more significant difference in the simulated runoff and streamflow because of nonlinear horizontal processes. Topographic indices derived from high resolution DEM may not improve the overall water balance, but affect the partitioning between surface and subsurface runoff. More systematic analyses are needed to determine the relative merits of the subbasin representation compared to the commonly used grid-based representation, especially when land surface models are approaching higher resolutions.

  2. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space

    PubMed Central

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipf’s law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x)?x??, where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from ?=2 to ?. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipf’s law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  3. Understanding scaling through history-dependent processes with collapsing sample space.

    PubMed

    Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hanel, Rudolf; Thurner, Stefan

    2015-04-28

    History-dependent processes are ubiquitous in natural and social systems. Many such stochastic processes, especially those that are associated with complex systems, become more constrained as they unfold, meaning that their sample space, or their set of possible outcomes, reduces as they age. We demonstrate that these sample-space-reducing (SSR) processes necessarily lead to Zipf's law in the rank distributions of their outcomes. We show that by adding noise to SSR processes the corresponding rank distributions remain exact power laws, p(x) ~ x(-?), where the exponent directly corresponds to the mixing ratio of the SSR process and noise. This allows us to give a precise meaning to the scaling exponent in terms of the degree to which a given process reduces its sample space as it unfolds. Noisy SSR processes further allow us to explain a wide range of scaling exponents in frequency distributions ranging from ? = 2 to ?. We discuss several applications showing how SSR processes can be used to understand Zipf's law in word frequencies, and how they are related to diffusion processes in directed networks, or aging processes such as in fragmentation processes. SSR processes provide a new alternative to understand the origin of scaling in complex systems without the recourse to multiplicative, preferential, or self-organized critical processes. PMID:25870294

  4. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  5. Zonal concentration of some geophysical process intensity caused by tides and variations in the Earth's rotation velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, B.; Domanski, A.; Sasorova, E.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed what kind of fundamental physical phenomena can be responsible for the generation of the anomalous latitudinal zones of the seismic activity, and the hotspots, and some other geophysical processes. The assessment of tidal effect contribution to the earthquake preparation process is discussed. A disk model of the Earth's rotation was proposed. The model is acceptable for the homogeneous Earth and for the heterogeneous one. The disk model explains the nucleation of two maximums of the gradient of the moment of inertia over latitude with respect to the Equator. Effects of the variations in the Earth's rotation angular velocity were estimated and the possible features caused by the rotation velocity instability were described. The variations in the relative velocity of the Earth's rotation (dimensionless value ? ? (T - P)/P) are approximately equal upon the average to 10-8, where T is the observed length of day for the Earth, and P is the astronomical day. These variations lead to the occurrence of the additional energy estimated as 1020 J. The authors proposed the hypothesis of a pulsating geoid based on effects of the Earth's rotation features, and tidal forces, and conception of critical latitudes in the solid Earth. This hypothesis may highlight the phenomenon of zonal intensification of some geological processes in the solid Earth (the seismic activity, and hotspot location, and major ore deposit locations).

  6. Understanding and shifting drug-related decisions: contributions of automatic decision-making processes.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Kenneth M; Bedi, Gillinder; Vadhan, Nehal P

    2015-08-01

    While substance use is common, only a minority of individuals who use drugs or alcohol develop problematic use. An understanding of the factors underlying the transition from substance use to misuse may improve prevention and intervention efforts. A key feature of substance misuse is ongoing decisions to use drugs or alcohol despite escalating negative consequences. Research findings highlight the importance of both relatively automatic, associative cognitive processes and relatively controlled, deliberative, and rational-analytic cognitive processes, for understanding situational decisions to use drugs. In this review, we discuss several cognitive component processes that may contribute to decision-making that promotes substance use and misuse, with a focus on more automatic processes. A growing body of evidence indicates that relative differences in the strength of these component processes can account for individual differences in the transition from substance use to misuse and may offer important avenues for developing novel intervention strategies. PMID:26084667

  7. Reliability of Using Piaget's Logic of Meanings to Analyze Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Conceptual Problems in Earth Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wavering, Michael; Mangione, Katherine; McBride, Craig

    2013-01-01

    A dissertation study looking at preservice teachers' alternative conceptions in earth science was completed by one of the authors. The data used for this study from the dissertation were a series of eleven interviews. (Purpose) The authors of this manuscript wanted to provide more in-depth analysis of these interviews, specifically to provide a…

  8. Six sigma: process of understanding the control and capability of ranitidine hydrochloride tablet.

    PubMed

    Chabukswar, Ar; Jagdale, Sc; Kuchekar, Bs; Joshi, Vd; Deshmukh, Gr; Kothawade, Hs; Kuckekar, Ab; Lokhande, Pd

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  9. Six Sigma: Process of Understanding the Control and Capability of Ranitidine Hydrochloride Tablet

    PubMed Central

    Chabukswar, AR; Jagdale, SC; Kuchekar, BS; Joshi, VD; Deshmukh, GR; Kothawade, HS; Kuckekar, AB; Lokhande, PD

    2011-01-01

    The process of understanding the control and capability (PUCC) is an iterative closed loop process for continuous improvement. It covers the DMAIC toolkit in its three phases. PUCC is an iterative approach that rotates between the three pillars of the process of understanding, process control, and process capability, with each iteration resulting in a more capable and robust process. It is rightly said that being at the top is a marathon and not a sprint. The objective of the six sigma study of Ranitidine hydrochloride tablets is to achieve perfection in tablet manufacturing by reviewing the present robust manufacturing process, to find out ways to improve and modify the process, which will yield tablets that are defect-free and will give more customer satisfaction. The application of six sigma led to an improved process capability, due to the improved sigma level of the process from 1.5 to 4, a higher yield, due to reduced variation and reduction of thick tablets, reduction in packing line stoppages, reduction in re-work by 50%, a more standardized process, with smooth flow and change in coating suspension reconstitution level (8%w/w), a huge cost reduction of approximately Rs.90 to 95 lakhs per annum, an improved overall efficiency by 30% approximately, and improved overall quality of the product. PMID:21607050

  10. Technology Readiness Level Assessment Process as Applied to NASA Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Romero, Raul A.; Dempsey, James A.; Carey, John P.; Cline, Helmut P.; Lively, Carey F.

    2015-01-01

    Technology assessments of fourteen science instruments were conducted within NASA using the NASA Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metric. The instruments were part of three NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey missions in pre-formulation. The Earth Systematic Missions Program (ESMP) Systems Engineering Working Group (SEWG), composed of members of three NASA Centers, provided a newly modified electronic workbook to be completed, with instructions. Each instrument development team performed an internal assessment of its technology status, prepared an overview of its instrument, and completed the workbook with the results of its assessment. A team from the ESMP SEWG met with each instrument team and provided feedback. The instrument teams then reported through the Program Scientist for their respective missions to NASA's Earth Science Division (ESD) on technology readiness, taking the SEWG input into account. The instruments were found to have a range of TRL from 4 to 7. Lessons Learned are presented; however, due to the competition-sensitive nature of the assessments, the results for specific missions are not presented. The assessments were generally successful, and produced useful results for the agency. The SEWG team identified a number of potential improvements to the process. Particular focus was on ensuring traceability to guiding NASA documents, including the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The TRL Workbook has been substantially modified, and the revised workbook is described.

  11. Environmental seismology: What can we learn on earth surface processes with ambient noise?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larose, Eric; Carrière, Simon; Voisin, Christophe; Bottelin, Pierre; Baillet, Laurent; Guéguen, Philippe; Walter, Fabian; Jongmans, Denis; Guillier, Bertrand; Garambois, Stéphane; Gimbert, Florent; Massey, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Environmental seismology consists in studying the mechanical vibrations that originate from, or that have been affected by external causes, that is to say causes outside the solid Earth. This includes for instance the coupling between the solid Earth and the cryosphere, or the hydrosphere, the anthroposphere and the specific sources of vibration developing there. Environmental seismology also addresses the modifications of the wave propagation due to environmental forcing such as temperature and hydrology. Recent developments in data processing, together with increasing computational power and sensor concentration have led to original observations that allow for the development of this new field of seismology. In this article, we will particularly review how we can track and interpret tiny changes in the subsurface of the Earth related to external changes from modifications of the seismic wave propagation, with application to geomechanics, hydrology, and natural hazard. We will particularly demonstrate that, using ambient noise, we can track 1) thermal variations in the subsoil, in buildings or in rock columns; 2) the temporal and spatial evolution of a water table; 3) the evolution of the rigidity of the soil constituting a landslide, and especially the drop of rigidity preceding a failure event.

  12. Comprehensive understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Youn, Sungmin; Zhu, Tongren; Kim, Ijung; Lau, Boris L T

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes has been limited by difficulties of nanoparticle characterization. In this study, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was deployed to evaluate the absolute particle size distributions in laboratory scale flocculation and filtration experiments with silver nanoparticles. The results from NTA were consistent with standard theories of particle destabilization and transport. Direct observations of changes in absolute particle size distributions from NTA enhance both qualitative and quantitative understanding of particle separation processes of nano-sized particles. PMID:26676021

  13. SESE 2009 Faculty Retreat 1 Earth Surface Processes Surface Process Studies in SESE

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    -biota feedbacks, relationships among chemical, physical and biological weathering Greatest Research Targets, and relations to earthquakes. 4. Quantifying how climate drives weathering processes, and influences: climate change, environmental issues and human impacts. 7. Biological aspects of weathering: climate

  14. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements

    E-print Network

    S. Goriely; J. -L. Sida; J. -F. Lemaitre; S. Panebianco; N. Dubray; S. Hilaire; A. Bauswein; H. -Thomas Janka

    2013-11-22

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r-nuclei with A > 140.

  15. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOEpatents

    Epperly, William R. (Summit, NJ); Deane, Barry C. (East Brunswick, NJ); Brunson, Roy J. (Buffalo Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  16. Earth Science System of the Future: Observing, Processing, and Delivering Data Products Directly to Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Komar, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Advancement of our predictive capabilities will require new scientific knowledge, improvement of our modeling capabilities, and new observation strategies to generate the complex data sets needed by coupled modeling networks. New observation strategies must support remote sensing from a variety of vantage points and will include "sensorwebs" of small satellites in low Earth orbit, large aperture sensors in Geostationary orbits, and sentinel satellites at L1 and L2 to provide day/night views of the entire globe. Onboard data processing and high speed computing and communications will enable near real-time tailoring and delivery of information products (i.e., predictions) directly to users.

  17. Informed consent in primary dental care: patients' understanding and satisfaction with the consent process.

    PubMed

    Hajivassiliou, E Constantine; Hajivassiliou, C A

    2015-09-11

    Aim The purpose of the consent process is to give patients enough information to allow them to make an informed decision and preserve their autonomy. The patient's satisfaction and also their understanding of the consent process are audited only rarely and reports of such audits in dental practice are sparse. Reports from other specialties indicate that patients' understanding of the process is incomplete and often incorrect. We set about to perform such an audit to assess both our patients' satisfaction and their understanding of the consent process itself.Design A prospective questionnaire study of adults with capacity.Setting Primary care dental practice.Design A two-part questionnaire was designed, based on a questionnaire used for a similar purpose in paediatric surgery; the first part assessed the patient's opinion and satisfaction with the consent obtained by their dental professional and the second part assessed their understanding of the consent process in general and the legal issues around it.Results Part 1 - satisfaction with the consent process. Patients reported high level of satisfaction with the consent process at the practice (near 100% in major factors analysed). Part 2 - Understanding of the consent process. Significant misconceptions were identified: 60% thought that the form was for the protection of the dentist/hospital and 10-16% thought that by signing a consent form they relinquish their rights. A high level of patients' uncertainty (19-27%) was also evident for several of the questions.Conclusions Although this study shows a very high level of patient satisfaction with the consent process at our dental practice, it also demonstrates very significant deficiencies in the patients' understanding of the consent process itself. This study corroborates the findings of other investigators in different medical disciplines and calls into question the adequacy of the current consent procedures as many patients are still unaware of the legal implications of consent; the majority of patients still do not recognise that the consent process should primarily be serving their interests by allowing them to express their autonomous choice pertaining to their treatment. Education will help reduce this discrepancy and promote a change from the past 'paternalistic' to the current 'informative, patient-centred' model of care. PMID:26361123

  18. Understanding a Basic Biological Process: Expert and Novice Models of Meiosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    The results of a study of the meiosis models utilized by individuals at varying levels of expertise while reasoning about the process of meiosis are presented. Based on these results, the issues of sources of misconceptions/difficulties and the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis are discussed. Five individuals from each of three…

  19. Intentional Response Distortion on Personality Tests: Using Eye-Tracking to Understand Response Processes when Faking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Intentional response distortion or faking among job applicants completing measures such as personality and integrity tests is a concern in personnel selection. The present study aimed to investigate whether eye-tracking technology can improve our understanding of the response process when faking. In an experimental within-participants design, a…

  20. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  1. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  2. Embedded Formative Assessment and Classroom Process Quality: How Do They Interact in Promoting Science Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decristan, Jasmin; Klieme, Eckhard; Kunter, Mareike; Hochweber, Jan; Büttner, Gerhard; Fauth, Benjamin; Hondrich, A. Lena; Rieser, Svenja; Hertel, Silke; Hardy, Ilonca

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the interplay between curriculum-embedded formative assessment--a well-known teaching practice--and general features of classroom process quality (i.e., cognitive activation, supportive climate, classroom management) and their combined effect on elementary school students' understanding of the scientific concepts of…

  3. Networking from the Inside Out: Understanding Learners' Processes, Activities, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Simone, Christina; Schmid, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    Research to date has demonstrated that networking can be an effective strategy for supporting meaningful learning. However, studies have shown that learners encounter difficulties using it. In an attempt to understand and thus reduce these difficulties, this study examined learners' underlying cognitive processes and activities while networking.…

  4. Marketing Yourself to Employers in Your Home Understanding the Recruitment Process in your Home Country

    E-print Network

    Lörinczi, József

    Marketing Yourself to Employers in Your Home Country Understanding the Recruitment Process in your. For advice on making speculative applications see the Careers Network Advice and Guidance pages and make and services of the Careers Network and other sources such as www.prospects.ac.uk to prepare yourself

  5. Towards Understanding the Negotiation and Decision-Making Process of Withdrawal from College: A Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project focused on the interviews of 27 low socio-economic students at a research university in the southwestern United States. The students had already withdrawn from the university or were in the process of withdrawing. The study seeks to provide increased understanding of how students negotiate the decision-making…

  6. The Role of Regulation and Processing Strategies in Understanding Science Text among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Ahopelto, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of regulation and processing strategies in understanding science text. A total of 91 student teachers answered open-ended questions concerning photosynthesis before and after reading either a traditional or a refutational science text. After this, they also answered parts of the Inventory of…

  7. Improved analyses for soil carbohydrates, amino acids, and phenols: Tools for understanding soil processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process-level understanding of soil carbon(C) and nitrogen (N) cycling will be facilitated by precise measurement of biochemical compounds in soil organic matter. This review summarizes some recent developments in analyses for soil carbohydrates, amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars), and...

  8. Elementary Education Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Biotechnology and Its Related Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Chitiyo, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study examined preservice teachers' understanding of biotechnology and its related processes. A sample comprised 88 elementary education preservice teachers at a large university in the Midwest of the USA. A total of 60 and 28 of the participants were enrolled in introductory and advanced science methods courses, respectively. Most…

  9. The Effect of Biotechnology Education on Australian High School Students' Understandings and Attitudes about Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Soames, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Our education system aims to equip young people with the knowledge, problem-solving skills and values to cope with an increasingly technological society. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of biotechnology education on adolescents' understanding and attitudes about processes associated with biotechnology. Data were drawn from…

  10. How Pre-Service Teachers' Understand and Perform Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabalengula, Vivien Mweene; Mumba, Frackson; Mbewe, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored pre-service teachers' conceptual understanding and performance on science process skills. A sample comprised 91 elementary pre-service teachers at a university in the Midwest of the USA. Participants were enrolled in two science education courses; introductory science teaching methods course and advanced science methods course.…

  11. Using PlayDoh Astronomy for Understanding the Size and Scale of the Earth-Moon System and as a Probe for Spatial Translation Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika

    2013-01-01

    To help students love science more and to help them understand the vast distances that pervade astronomy, we use kinesthetic modeling of the Earth-Moon system using PlayDoh. When coupled with discussion, we found (in a pilot study) that students of all ages (children up through adults) acquired a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. During early September 2012, we devised and implemented a curriculum unit that focused on the Earth-Moon system and how that relates to eclipses for six middle-Tennessee 6th grade public school classrooms. For this unit, we used PlayDoh as the kinesthetic modeling tool. First, we evaluated what the students knew about the size and scale prior to this intervention using paper and model pre-tests. Second, we used the PlayDoh to model the Earth-Moon system and when possible, conducted an immediate post-test. The students then engaged with the PlayDoh model to help them understand eclipses. Third, we conducted a one-month-later delayed post-test. One thing to note is that about half of the students had experienced the PlayDoh modeling part of a 5th grade pilot lesson during May 2012 therefore the pre-test acted as a four-month-later delayed post-test for these students. We find, among other things, that students retain relative size information more readily than relative distance information. We also find differences in how consistent students are when trying to translate the size/scale they have in their heads to the different modes of assessment utilized.

  12. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils: how well do we understand the processes and their controls?

    PubMed Central

    Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Dannenmann, Michael; Kiese, Ralf; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well established that soils are the dominating source for atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), we are still struggling to fully understand the complexity of the underlying microbial production and consumption processes and the links to biotic (e.g. inter- and intraspecies competition, food webs, plant–microbe interaction) and abiotic (e.g. soil climate, physics and chemistry) factors. Recent work shows that a better understanding of the composition and diversity of the microbial community across a variety of soils in different climates and under different land use, as well as plant–microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, may provide a key to better understand the variability of N2O fluxes at the soil–atmosphere interface. Moreover, recent insights into the regulation of the reduction of N2O to dinitrogen (N2) have increased our understanding of N2O exchange. This improved process understanding, building on the increased use of isotope tracing techniques and metagenomics, needs to go along with improvements in measurement techniques for N2O (and N2) emission in order to obtain robust field and laboratory datasets for different ecosystem types. Advances in both fields are currently used to improve process descriptions in biogeochemical models, which may eventually be used not only to test our current process understanding from the microsite to the field level, but also used as tools for up-scaling emissions to landscapes and regions and to explore feedbacks of soil N2O emissions to changes in environmental conditions, land management and land use. PMID:23713120

  13. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  14. ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.

    2012-12-01

    The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

  15. The precision-processing subsystem for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapelle, W. E.; Bybee, J. E.; Bedross, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the precision processor, a subsystem in the image-processing system for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS). This processor is a special-purpose image-measurement and printing system, designed to process user-selected bulk images to produce 1:1,000,000-scale film outputs and digital image data, presented in a Universal-Transverse-Mercator (UTM) projection. The system will remove geometric and radiometric errors introduced by the ERTS multispectral sensors and by the bulk-processor electron-beam recorder. The geometric transformations required for each input scene are determined by resection computations based on reseau measurements and image comparisons with a special ground-control base contained within the system; the images are then printed and digitized by electronic image-transfer techniques.

  16. Onboard Processing of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data of Volcanic Activity for Future Earth-Orbiting and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of eruption parameters and maps of thermal structure, has allowed these products to be delivered rapidly to volcanologists to aid them in assessing eruption risk and hazard. Such applications will enhance science return from future Earth-orbiting spacecraft and also from spacecraft exploring the Solar System, or beyond, which hope to image dynamic processes. Especially in the latter case, long communication times between the spacecraft and Earth exclude a rapid response to what may be a transient process - only using onboard autonomy can the spacecraft react quickly to such an event.

  17. Beyond Homophily: A Decade of Advances in Understanding Peer Influence Processes

    PubMed Central

    Brechwald, Whitney A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research. PMID:23730122

  18. New developments in understanding the r-process from observations of metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frebel, Anna

    2015-04-01

    In their atmospheres, old metal-poor Galactic stars retain detailed information about the chemical composition of the interstellar medium at the time of their birth. Extracting such stellar abundances enables us to reconstruct the beginning of the chemical evolution shortly after the Big Bang. About 5% of metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < - 2 . 5 display in their spectrum a strong enhancement of neutron-capture elements associated with the rapid (r-) nucleosynthesis process that is responsible for the production of the heaviest elements in the Universe. This fortuity provides a unique opportunity of bringing together astrophysics and nuclear physics because these objects act as ``cosmic lab'' for both fields of study. The so-called r-process stars are thought to have formed from material enriched in heavy neutron-capture elements that were created during an r-process event in a previous generation supernova. It appears that the few stars known with this rare chemical signature all follow the scaled solar r-process pattern (for the heaviest elements with 56 <= Z <= 90 that is). This suggests that the r-process is universal - a surprising empirical finding and a solid result that can not be obtained from any laboratory on earth. While much research has been devoted to establishing this pattern, little attention has been given to the overall level of enhancement. New results will be presented on the full extent of r-process element enrichment as observed in metal-poor stars. The challenge lies in determining how the r-process material in the earliest gas clouds was mixed and diluted. Assuming individual r-process events to have contributed the observed r-process elements. We provide empirical estimates on the amount of r-process material produced. This should become a crucial constraint for theoretical nuclear physics models of heavy element nucleosynthesis.

  19. Microprobe Monazite Geochronology: Understanding Geologic Processes by Integrating Composition and Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael L.; Jercinovic, Michael J.; Hetherington, Callum J.

    2007-05-01

    Monazite is a light rare earth element (LREE)-bearing phosphate mineral that is present in a wide variety of rock types, has an extremely variable composition reflecting host rock conditions, and is a robust geochronometer that can preserve crystallization ages through a long history of geological events. Monazite crystals typically contain distinct compositional domains that represent successive generations of monazite, which in turn, can provide a detailed record of the geologic history of its host rocks. The electron microprobe can be used to characterize the geometry of compositional domains, analyze the composition of each domain, and, when carefully configured, determine the U-Th-total Pb age for domains as small as 5 ?m in width. These data allow the monazite to be linked with, and place timing constraints on, silicate processes in the host rocks. Current applications span a broad range of geologic processes in igneous, metamorphic, hydrothermal, and sedimentary rocks.

  20. The PROCESS experiment: amino and carboxylic acids under Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Noblet, Audrey; Stalport, Fabien; Guan, Yuan Yong; Poch, Olivier; Coll, Patrice; Szopa, Cyril; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Raulin, Francois; Chaput, Didier; Cottin, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    The search for organic molecules at the surface of Mars is a top priority of the next Mars exploration space missions: Mars Science Laboratory (NASA) and ExoMars (ESA). The detection of organic matter could provide information about the presence of a prebiotic chemistry or even biological activity on this planet. Therefore, a key step in interpretation of future data collected by these missions is to understand the preservation of organic matter in the martian environment. Several laboratory experiments have been devoted to quantifying and qualifying the evolution of organic molecules under simulated environmental conditions of Mars. However, these laboratory simulations are limited, and one major constraint is the reproduction of the UV spectrum that reaches the surface of Mars. As part of the PROCESS experiment of the European EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station, a study was performed on the photodegradation of organics under filtered extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation that mimics Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions. Glycine, serine, phthalic acid, phthalic acid in the presence of a mineral phase, and mellitic acid were exposed to these conditions for 1.5 years, and their evolution was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy after their retrieval. The results were compared with data from laboratory experiments. A 1.5-year exposure to Mars-like surface UV radiation conditions in space resulted in complete degradation of the organic compounds. Half-lives between 50 and 150?h for martian surface conditions were calculated from both laboratory and low-Earth orbit experiments. The results highlight that none of those organics are stable under low-Earth orbit solar UV radiation conditions. PMID:22680690

  1. Undercooling, Rapid Solidification, and Relations to Processing in Low Earth Orbit (A Review of the Works of Bingbo Wei)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    1999-01-01

    This is a survey of the published works of Prof. Bingbo Wei of the Department of Applied Physics at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian P.R. China. Transformations among solid - liquid - and vapor are fundamental to the foundations of life and culture on Earth. The development and understanding of materials has lead the evolution and advancement of the human race since antiquity. Materials and fluids research is continuing today, with us standing on the shoulders of those that have gone before us. Technological and scientific breakthroughs continue due to studies of greater and greater complexity, that include for example, research done at high pressures, in high magnetic fields, at temperatures near absolute zero, and in the low gravity environment of low Earth orbit. Of particular technological importance is the liquid to solid transformation of metals and alloys. Solidification processing is generally the most important factor in the final properties of objects made of metal; and undercooling is the fundamental driving force for all solidification. The interest and resources dedicated to the study of solidification and undercooling are great and World wide. For many years B. Wei and his coworkers have been studying undercooling and rapid solidification and have amassed a significant body of published research in this important field, contributing to the leading edge of the state-of-the-art. It is the goal of this memorandum to provide a review of the research of B. Wei et al.; publications in Chinese are included in the reference list but are not discussed. The bulk of Wei's work has been in the area of undercooling and rapid solidification [1-11, 13-16, 24-36] with papers dating back to 1989, the same year he earned his Ph.D. Below, discussions of Wei's undercooling and rapid solidification research have been grouped together mostly on the basis of alloy type, such as eutectic, intermetallic, or monotectic.

  2. Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets.

    PubMed

    Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, Francois; Charnay, Benjamin; Wordsworth, Robin; Pottier, Alizée

    2013-12-12

    The increase in solar luminosity over geological timescales should warm the Earth's climate, increasing water evaporation, which will in turn enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Above a certain critical insolation, this destabilizing greenhouse feedback can 'run away' until the oceans have completely evaporated. Through increases in stratospheric humidity, warming may also cause evaporative loss of the oceans to space before the runaway greenhouse state occurs. The critical insolation thresholds for these processes, however, remain uncertain because they have so far been evaluated using one-dimensional models that cannot account for the dynamical and cloud feedback effects that are key stabilizing features of the Earth's climate. Here we use a three-dimensional global climate model to show that the insolation threshold for the runaway greenhouse state to occur is about 375?W?m(-2), which is significantly higher than previously thought. Our model is specifically developed to quantify the climate response of Earth-like planets to increased insolation in hot and extremely moist atmospheres. In contrast with previous studies, we find that clouds have a destabilizing feedback effect on the long-term warming. However, subsident, unsaturated regions created by the Hadley circulation have a stabilizing effect that is strong enough to shift the runaway greenhouse limit to higher values of insolation than are inferred from one-dimensional models. Furthermore, because of wavelength-dependent radiative effects, the stratosphere remains sufficiently cold and dry to hamper the escape of atmospheric water, even at large fluxes. This has strong implications for the possibility of liquid water existing on Venus early in its history, and extends the size of the habitable zone around other stars. PMID:24336285

  3. Web Services Implementations at Land Process and Goddard Earth Sciences Distributed Active Archive Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, M.; Bambacus, M.; Lynnes, C.; Sauer, B.; Falke, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's vast array of scientific data within its Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) is especially valuable to both traditional research scientists as well as the emerging market of Earth Science Information Partners. For example, the air quality science and management communities are increasingly using satellite derived observations in their analyses and decision making. The Air Quality Cluster in the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) uses web infrastructures of interoperability, or Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), to extend data exploration, use, and analysis and provides a user environment for DAAC products. In an effort to continually offer these NASA data to the broadest research community audience, and reusing emerging technologies, both NASA's Goddard Earth Science (GES) and Land Process (LP) DAACs have engaged in a web services pilot project. Through these projects both GES and LP have exposed data through the Open Geospatial Consortiums (OGC) Web Services standards. Reusing several different existing applications and implementation techniques, GES and LP successfully exposed a variety data, through distributed systems to be ingested into multiple end-user systems. The results of this project will enable researchers world wide to access some of NASA's GES & LP DAAC data through OGC protocols. This functionality encourages inter-disciplinary research while increasing data use through advanced technologies. This paper will concentrate on the implementation and use of OGC Web Services, specifically Web Map and Web Coverage Services (WMS, WCS) at GES and LP DAACs, and the value of these services within scientific applications, including integration with the DataFed air quality web infrastructure and in the development of data analysis web applications.

  4. Earth a One-of-a-Kind Planet? - Duration: 2 minutes, 36 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students analyze physical processes that occur on Earth and Mars and compare differences on how particular similar physical features occur. Students will use planetary comparisons in understanding ...

  5. [Synergetics--a possible hypothetical approach to better understanding of pathologic processes].

    PubMed

    Hecht, A

    1991-01-01

    Modern understanding of the human disease cannot be reduced only on the disturbed biological processes of the living organism. Disease as the consequence of the disorders of a complex system needs in the same sense a complex view. It is necessary to take in consideration the theory of systems, the concept of layers and the idea of the deterministic chaos. A helpful clamp to coordinate these different views seems to be the synergetics, the teaching of the cooperation in complex systems. Synergetics investigate the mechanisms of the self-organization, too. The self-organization is of great significance in the phylogenetic and ontogenetic morphogenesis. Especially all diseases which are characterized by the disorders in the differentiation the processes forming "Gestalten" are to understand as processes of the disturbed self-organization. These refers the malformations, the malignant tumours and the chronic diseases. Self-organization being a system-internal mechanism is to understand as a process which determines the behaviour of complex organized living systems in confrontation with their environment. PMID:1771909

  6. The Earth`s magnetosphere is 165 R{sub E} long: Self-consistent currents, convection, magnetospheric structure, and processes for northward interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Fedder, J.A.; Lyon, J.G.

    1995-03-01

    The subject of this paper is a self-consistent, magnetohydrodynamic numerical realization for the Earth`s magnetosphere which is in a quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium for a due northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Although a few hours of steady northward IMF are required for this asymptotic state to be set up, it should still be of considerable theoretical interest because it constitutes a `ground state` for the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Moreover, particular features of this ground state magnetosphere should be observable even under less extreme solar wind conditions. Certain characteristics of this magnetosphere, namely, NBZ Birkeland currents, four-cell ionospheric convection, a relatively weak cross-polar potential, and a prominent flow boundary layer, are widely expected. Other characteristics, such as no open tail lobes, no Earth-connected magnetic flux beyond 155 R(sub E) downstream, magnetic merging in a closed topology at the cusps, and a `tadpole` shaped magnetospheric boundary, might not be expected. In this paper, we will present the evidence for this unusual but interesting magnetospheric equilibrium. We will also discuss our present understanding of this singular state.

  7. Glacial Processes on Earth and Mars: New Perspectives from Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Alicia Marie

    Chemical and physical interactions of flowing ice and rock have inexorably shaped planetary surfaces. Weathering in glacial environments is a significant link in biogeochemical cycles --- carbon and strontium --- on Earth, and may have once played an important role in altering Mars' surface. Despite growing recognition of the importance of low-temperature chemical weathering, these processes are still not well understood. Debris-coated glaciers are also present on Mars, emphasizing the need to study ice-related processes in the evolution of planetary surfaces. During Earth's history, subglacial environments are thought to have sheltered communities of microorganisms from extreme climate variations. On Amazonian Mars, glaciers such as lobate debris aprons (LDA) could have hosted chemolithotrophic communities, making Mars' present glaciers candidates for life preservation. This study characterizes glacial processes on both Earth and Mars. Chemical weathering at Robertson Glacier, a small alpine glacier in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, is examined with a multidisciplinary approach. The relative proportions of differing dissolution reactions at various stages in the glacial system are empirically determined using aqueous geochemistry. Synthesis of laboratory and orbital thermal infrared spectroscopy allows identification of dissolution rinds on hand samples and characterization of carbonate dissolution signals at orbital scales, while chemical and morphological evidence for thin, discontinuous weathering rinds at microscales are evident from electron microscopy. Subglacial dissolution rates are found to outpace those of the proglacial till plain; biologically-mediated pyrite oxidation drives the bulk of this acidic weathering. Second, the area-elevation relationship, or hypsometry, of LDA in the midlatitudes of Mars is characterized. These glaciers are believed to have formed ˜500 Ma during a climate excursion. Hypsometric measurements of these debris-covered glaciers enable insight into past flow regimes and drive predictions about past climate scenarios. The LDA in this study fall into three major groups, strongly dependent on basal elevation, implying regional and climatic controls on ice formation and flow. I show that biologically-mediated mineral reactions drive high subglacial dissolution rates, such that variations within the valley can be detected with remote sensing techniques. In future work, these insights can be applied to examining Mars' glacial regions for signs of chemical alteration and biosignatures.

  8. NOAA's Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research A world leader in observing, understanding, and predicting the Earth system

    E-print Network

    economy. The NOAA P-3 research aircraft is much like a "flying chemical laboratory," containing of supercomputing resources. · Impacts of Climate on Fish Stocks (+$5.50M) to award competitive grants for research that improves understanding of the impacts of climate variability and change on fish stocks, prey availability

  9. Understanding a basic biological process: Expert and novice models of meiosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindfield, Ann C. H.

    Central to secondary and college-level biology instruction is the development of student understanding of a number of subcellular processes. Yet some of the most crucial are consistently cited as the most difficult components of biology to learn. Among these is meiosis. In this article I report on the meiosis models utilized by five individuals at each of three levels of expertise in genetics as each reasoned about this process in an individual interview setting. Detailed characterization of individual meiosis models and comparison among models revealed a set of biologically correct features common to all individuals' models as well as a variety of model flaws (i.e., meiosis misunderstandings) which are categorized according to type and level of expertise. These results are suggestive of both sources of various misunderstandings and factors that might contribute to the construction of a sound understanding of meiosis. Each of these is addressed in relation to their respective implications for instruction.

  10. Intermittency of the turbulent processes in the Earth's magnetosphere detected from the ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, Marina; Foppiano, Alberto; Ovalle, Elias; Antonova, Elizavieta; Troshichev, Oleg

    2008-11-01

    Turbulent processes in the Earth's magnetosphere are reflected in the dynamical behavior of the geomagnetic indices and other parameters determined from ground based observations. Intermittent properties of one minute Polar Cap (PC) index and auroral radio wave absorption are studied using 1995-2000 data sets. It was found that the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of both PC-index and absorption fluctuations display a strong non-Gaussian shape. This indicates that they are not characterized by a global time self-similarity but rather exhibit intermittency, as previously reported for solar wind velocity and auroral electrojet index values. In the case of the auroral absorption it was also found that intermittency strongly depends on the magnetic local time, being largest in the nighttime sector. This shows that the acceleration of precipitating particles is intermittent, especially near the substorm eye, where the level of turbulence increases. Application of the Local Intermittency Measure (LIM) technique confirms the aforementioned results to a better precision.

  11. Mathematic modeling of the Earth's surface and the process of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balter, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that real data from remote sensing of the Earth from outer space are not best suited to the search for optimal procedures with which to process such data. To work out the procedures, it was proposed that data synthesized with the help of mathematical modeling be used. A criterion for simularity to reality was formulated. The basic principles for constructing methods for modeling the data from remote sensing are recommended. A concrete method is formulated for modeling a complete cycle of radiation transformations in remote sensing. A computer program is described which realizes the proposed method. Some results from calculations are presented which show that the method satisfies the requirements imposed on it.

  12. The Earth's Mantle Is Solid: Teachers' Misconceptions About the Earth and Plate Tectonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the misconceptions revealed by the teachers' answers and outlines more accurate answers and explanations based on established evidence and uses these to provide a more complete understanding of plate tectonic process and the structure of Earth. (Author/YDS)

  13. Understanding decimal proportions: discrete representations, parallel access, and privileged processing of zero.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R

    2013-05-01

    Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results demonstrate that proportions are represented as discrete structures and processed in parallel. There was a semantic interference effect: When understanding a proportion expression (e.g., "0.29"), both the correct proportion referent (e.g., 0.29) and the incorrect natural number referent (e.g., 29) corresponding to the visually similar natural number expression (e.g., "29") are accessed in parallel, and when these referents lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. There was also a syntactic interference effect, generalizing the unit-decade compatibility effect for natural numbers: When comparing two proportions, their tenths and hundredths components are processed in parallel, and when the different components lead to conflicting judgments, performance slows. The results also reveal that zero decimals--proportions ending in zero--serve multiple cognitive functions, including eliminating semantic interference and speeding processing. The current research also extends the distance, semantic congruence, and SNARC effects from natural numbers to decimal proportions. These findings inform how people understand the place-value symbol system, and the mental implementation of mathematical symbol systems more generally. PMID:23416180

  14. The Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory: A web-based system for modeling multi-scale earthquake processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Fox, G.; Rundle, J.; McLeod, D.; Tullis, T.; Grant, L.; Parker, J.; Pierce, M.; Lyzenga, G.; Chen, A.; Lou, J.

    2002-12-01

    We are building a new Problem Solving Environment for use by the seismological, crustal deformation, and tectonics communities for developing an understanding of active tectonic and earthquake processes. The top-level operational architecture of our solid earth research virtual observatory (SERVO) shows science users interacting with interface programs as well as modeling, simulation, and analysis tools. The general architecture follows the "Web Services" model being developed by business interests, but is applied to scientific applications and supporting software resources (such as databases). The system is divided into three tiers: a user interface layer (implemented as a browser interface), a system resource layer, and a middle control layer that maintains proxies (or brokers) to the system resources. The middle tier provides a uniform interface to the resource layer. Following the Web Services approach, we define XML interface abstractions (in WSDL) for basic services (such as File Management) and implement the interface with appropriate technologies (such as with a relational database). Communication between the services is done with an XML messaging architecture (SOAP). Our initial focus is to integrate time-dependent crustal deformation models into the system including both layered analytical and heterogeneous finite element models.

  15. Understanding the decisive thermal processes in laser sintering of polyamide 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Andreas; Witt, Gerd

    2015-05-01

    Due to the advancements during the last decade, the laser sintering process has achieved a high technical level, which allows parts being used for Rapid Manufacturing applications. However, the processes still show a poor reproducibility of part quality. Furthermore, process interruptions or defective parts still occur regularly. The know-how and expertise needed to avoid these kind of problems is still insufficient. The temperature increase in the powder bed during laser exposure is the driving force in laser sintering of plastics. The resulting part properties strongly depend on the interaction of melt temperature and melt viscosity caused by the laser power input in the powder bed. Additionally, cooling conditions and temperature gradients in the powder bed significantly influence the accuracy and especially the warpage of parts. However, literature provides only little information on these decisive thermal processes. Therefore, additional information is necessary to improve process understanding as well as part properties in laser sintering. In a first approach, a high-speed thermal imaging system is implemented into a LS-machine in order to measure the melt temperatures during and after laser exposure as a function of different process parameters. The measured data show significant correlations between temperatures and part properties. It turns out that especially the melt temperature after laser exposure has a strong influence on the resulting part properties. In a second approach, detailed measurements of temperature distributions within the powder bed are performed while using wireless temperature sensors. In addition, the influence of different heater parameter settings on the cooling conditions is investigated by using a new Advanced Temperature Guiding system with 15 single heater cycles. The results of the study lead to an enhanced understanding of the thermal processes in laser sintering and enable a significant improvement of processing conditions.

  16. John Lubbock's early contribution to the understanding of river terraces and their importance to Geography, Archaeology and Earth Science

    PubMed Central

    Bridgland, David R.

    2014-01-01

    In his writings John Lubbock expounded views on the understanding of past climates, prehistoric faunas, early humans, and the evolution of landscape and river systems. His contributions on some of these related topics are scarcely remembered, despite comparison with modern thinking showing them frequently to have been prescient. He visited the Somme valley, observing river terrace gravels and Palaeolithic artefacts in the company of the leading geologists and archaeologists of his day, visits that furnished knowledge of the early archaeological record and were also formative in terms of his understanding of river-valley and landscape evolution. He noted that terraces represented former valley-floor levels and that rivers had deepened their valleys in response to uplift of the land, something that is often not fully grasped at the present time. He was also an early believer in interglacial–glacial climatic fluctuation, an idea not widely accepted in Britain until after his death.

  17. NOAA's Science On a Sphere Education Program: Application of a Scientific Visualization System to Teach Earth System Science and Improve our Understanding About Creating Effective Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDougall, C.; McLaughlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    NOAA has developed several programs aimed at facilitating the use of earth system science data and data visualizations by formal and informal educators. One of them, Science On a Sphere, a visualization display tool and system that uses networked LCD projectors to display animated global datasets onto the outside of a suspended, 1.7-meter diameter opaque sphere, enables science centers, museums, and universities to display real-time and current earth system science data. NOAA's Office of Education has provided grants to such education institutions to develop exhibits featuring Science On a Sphere (SOS) and create content for and evaluate audience impact. Currently, 20 public education institutions have permanent Science On a Sphere exhibits and 6 more will be installed soon. These institutions and others that are working to create and evaluate content for this system work collaboratively as a network to improve our collective knowledge about how to create educationally effective visualizations. Network members include other federal agencies, such as, NASA and the Dept. of Energy, and major museums such as Smithsonian and American Museum of Natural History, as well as a variety of mid-sized and small museums and universities. Although the audiences in these institutions vary widely in their scientific awareness and understanding, we find there are misconceptions and lack of familiarity with viewing visualizations that are common among the audiences. Through evaluations performed in these institutions we continue to evolve our understanding of how to create content that is understandable by those with minimal scientific literacy. The findings from our network will be presented including the importance of providing context, real-world connections and imagery to accompany the visualizations and the need for audience orientation before the visualizations are viewed. Additionally, we will review the publicly accessible virtual library housing over 200 datasets for SOS and any other real or virtual globe. These datasets represent contributions from NOAA, NASA, Dept. of Energy, and the public institutions that are displaying the spheres.

  18. Toward understanding the thermodynamics of TALSPEAK process. Medium effects on actinide complexation

    SciTech Connect

    Peter R Zalupski; Leigh R Martin; Ken Nash; Yoshinobu Nakamura; Masahiko Yamamoto

    2009-07-01

    The ingenious combination of lactate and diethylenetriamine-N,N,N’,N”,N”-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) as an aqueous actinide-complexing medium forms the basis of the successful separation of americium and curium from lanthanides known as the TALSPEAK process. While numerous reports in the prior literature have focused on the optimization of this solvent extraction system, considerably less attention has been devoted to the understanding of the basic thermodynamic features of the complex fluids responsible for the separation. The available thermochemical information of both lactate and DTPA protonation and metal complexation reactions are representative of the behavior of these ions under idealized conditions. Our previous studies of medium effects on lactate protonation suggest that significant departures from the speciation predicted based on reported thermodynamic values should be expected in the TALSPEAK aqueous environment. Thermodynamic parameters describing the separation chemistry of this process thus require further examination at conditions significantly removed from conventional ideal systems commonly employed in fundamental solution chemistry. Such thermodynamic characterization is the key to predictive modelling of TALSPEAK. Improved understanding will, in principle, allow process technologists to more efficiently respond to off-normal conditions during large scale process operation. In this report, the results of calorimetric and potentiometric investigations of the effects of aqueous electrolytes on the thermodynamic parameters for lactate protonation and lactate complexation of americium and neodymium will be presented. Studies on the lactate protonation equilibrium will clearly illustrate distinct thermodynamic variations between strong electrolyte aqueous systems and buffered lactate environment.

  19. Separation of technetium and rare earth metals for co-decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Riddle, Catherine; Martin, Leigh

    2015-05-01

    Poster. In the US there are several technologies under consideration for the separation of the useful components in used nuclear fuel. One such process is the co-decontamination process to separate U, Np and Pu in a single step and produce a Np/ Pu and a U product stream. Although the behavior of the actinide elements is reasonably well defined in this system, the same is not true for the fission products, mainly Zr, Mo, Ru and Tc. As these elements are cationic and anionic they may interact with each other to extract in a manner not predicted by empirical models such as AMUSE. This poster presentation will discuss the initial results of batch contact testing under flowsheet conditions and as a function of varying acidity and flowsheet conditions to optimize recovery of Tc and minimize extraction of Mo, Zr and Ru with the goal of developing a better understanding of the behavior of these elements in the co-decontamination process.

  20. New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars

    E-print Network

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

    2009-01-01

    We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56<= Z <= 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  1. NEW RARE EARTH ELEMENT ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR THE SUN AND FIVE r-PROCESS-RICH VERY METAL-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.; Ivans, Inese I. E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu E-mail: cowan@nhn.ou.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have derived new abundances of the rare earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low-metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally consistent Ba, rare earth, and Hf (56 {<=} Z {<=} 72) element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

  2. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  3. Microstructure in the extreme environment: understanding and predicting dynamic damage processes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis-koller, Darcie L; Cerreta, Ellen K; Bronkhorst, Curt A; Escobedo-diaz, Juan P

    2010-12-21

    The future of materials science: strategic application for functionally controlled materials properties is emphasized by the need to control material performance in extreme environments. To this end, this study examines the separate effects of kinetics (in the form of dynamic loading rate and shock wave shape) from that of length-scale effects (in the form of microstructural defect distributions). Recently available mesoscale modeling techniques are being used to capture a physical link between kinetic and length-scale influences on dynamic loading. This work contributes innovative new tools in the form of shock-wave shaping techniques in dynamic experimentation, materials characterization, lending insight into 3D damage field analysis at micron resolution, and the physics necessary to provide predictive capabilities for dynamic damage evolution. Experimental results tailored for the discreet understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects during dynamic loading are obtained to provide the basis for the development of process-aware material performance models. The understanding of length-scale and kinetic effects in extreme environments of dynamic loading advances the understanding of current emerging issues relevant to phenomena such as inclusion related failure in metals, grain size dependence on ejecta, and benefits of interfaces in mitigating defect development specifically driven by the need to tailor material response. Finally, the coupling of experimental techniques with theory and simulation is aimed at advancing process-aware damage modeling as well as transitioning materials science from observation to property control.

  4. The roles of rare earth dispersoids and process route on the low cycle fatigue behavior of a rapidly solidified powder metallurgy titanium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gigliotti, M.F.X. ); Woodfield, A.P. )

    1993-08-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at 482C (900F) on forgings and extrusions of a rapidly solidified powder metallurgy titanium base alloy with and without rare earth additions. The variables studied were process temperature and heat treatment. Rare earth dispersions reduced fatigue life, and fracture surfaces indicated internal fatigue crack initiation at rare earth particles.

  5. Thermodynamic properties for rare earths and americium in pyropartitioning process solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Fusselman, S.P.; Roy, J.J.; Grimmett, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    The design of a molten metal-molten salt based chemical and electrochemical process for separation of actinides from plutonium-uranium extraction waste requires a consistent set of thermodynamic properties for the actinides and rare earths present in nuclear waste. Standard potential data for Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Gd in molten LiCl-KCl were obtained. Americium data obtained were standard potentials in molten LiCl-KCl and activity coefficients for Cd and Bi. Data were obtained between 400 and 500 C. Results for the rare earth chlorides using an improved experimental technique were consistent with theory, with standard free energy of formation values somewhat more negative than those found in the literature. Special attention was given to Am in the LiCl-KCl/Cd system because it can exist as the +2 and/or +3 ion in this system. Americium ions existed only as the +3 ion in LiCl-KCl/Bi. Standard electrochemical potentials for Am/Am{sup +2} in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 400, 450, and 500 C were {minus}2.893, {minus}2.853, and {minus}2.838 V, respectively, relative to Cl{sup 2}/Cl{sup {minus}}. Standard electrochemical potentials vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup {minus}} for Am/Am{sup +3} in LiCl-KCl eutectic were {minus}2.83 V at 450 C and {minus}2.78 V at 500 C. Activity coefficients for Am in molten Cd were 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} at 450 and 500 C.

  6. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes: Year 2 - instrument validation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1997-01-01

    Our overall purpose for this multi-year project was to develop an alternative assessment format measuring rural middle school students understanding of science concepts and processes and the interrelationships among them. This kind of understanding is called structural knowledge. We had 3 major interrelated goals: (1) Synthesize the existing literature and critically evaluate the actual and potential use of measures of structural knowledge in science education. (2) Develop a structural knowledge alternative assessment format. (3) Examine the validity of our structural knowledge format. We accomplished the first two goals during year 1. The structural knowledge assessment we identified and developed further was a select-and-fill-in concept map format. The goal for our year 2 work was to begin to validate this assessment approach. This final report summarizes our year 2 work.

  7. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment. PMID:26251328

  8. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Williama

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

  9. Orbit determination of highly elliptical Earth orbiters using improved Doppler data-processing modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    A navigation error covariance analysis of four highly elliptical Earth orbits is described, with apogee heights ranging from 20,000 to 76,800 km and perigee heights ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 km. This analysis differs from earlier studies in that improved navigation data-processing modes were used to reduce the radio metric data. For this study, X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler data were assumed to be acquired from two Deep Space Network radio antennas and reconstructed orbit errors propagated over a single day. Doppler measurements were formulated as total-count phase measurements and compared to the traditional formulation of differenced-count frequency measurements. In addition, an enhanced data-filtering strategy was used, which treated the principal ground system calibration errors affecting the data as filter parameters. Results suggest that a 40- to 60-percent accuracy improvement may be achievable over traditional data-processing modes in reconstructed orbit errors, with a substantial reduction in reconstructed velocity errors at perigee. Historically, this has been a regime in which stringent navigation requirements have been difficult to meet by conventional methods.

  10. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents

    PubMed Central

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models’ isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  11. Remediation of Rare Earth Element Pollutants by Sorption Process Using Organic Natural Sorbents.

    PubMed

    Butnariu, Monica; Negrea, Petru; Lupa, Lavinia; Ciopec, Mihaela; Negrea, Adina; Pentea, Marius; Sarac, Ionut; Samfira, Ionel

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the sorption of environmental applications by various source materials of natural organic matter, i.e., bone powder, was examined. Sorption capacities and subsequent rare earth element retention characteristics of all metals tested were markedly increased by ionic task-specific. In this study, the abilities of three models' isotherms widely were used for the equilibrium sorption data: Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson. For all studied metal ions the maximum adsorption capacity is close to those experimentally determined. The characteristic parameters for each isotherm and related coefficients of determination have been determined. The experimental data achieved excellent fits within the following isotherms in the order: Langmuir > Redlich-Peterson > Freundlich, based on their coefficient of determination values. The bone powder has developed higher adsorption performance in the removal process of Nd(III), Eu(III), La(III) from aqueous solutions than in the case of the removal process of Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tl(I) from aqueous solutions. The described relationships provide direct experimental evidence that the sorption-desorption properties of bone powder are closely related to their degree of the type of the metal. The results suggest a potential for obtaining efficient and cost-effective engineered natural organic sorbents for environmental applications. PMID:26378553

  12. Water-quality monitoring and process understanding in support of environmental policy and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    The quantity and quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflect the combined effects of many processes operating along hydrological pathways within a drainage basin/watershed/catchment. Primary drivers for the availability of water are landscape changes and patterns, and the processes affecting the timing, magnitude, and intensity of precipitation, including global climate change. The degradation of air, land, and water in one part of a drainage basin can have negative effects on users downstream; the time and space scales of the effects are determined by the residence time along the various hydrological pathways. Hydrology affects transport, deposition, and recycling of inorganic materials and sediment. These components affect biota and associated ecosystem processes, which rely on sustainable flows throughout a drainage basin. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quantity and quality, and some human activities can have a disproportionate effect on an entire drainage basin. Aquatic systems have been continuously modified by agriculture, through land-use change, irrigation and navigation, disposal of urban, mining, and industrial wastes, and engineering modifications to the environment. Interdisciplinary integrated basin studies within the last several decades have provided a more comprehensive understanding of the linkages among air, land, and water resources. This understanding, coupled with environmental monitoring, has evolved a more multidisciplinary integrated approach to resource management, particularly within drainage basins.

  13. Winter Sampling of Shallow Firn Air at the South Pole to Understand Processes Affecting Firn Atmospheric Histories and Ice

    E-print Network

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    Winter Sampling of Shallow Firn Air at the South Pole to Understand Processes Affecting Firn was carried out at the South Pole CMDL Clean Air Laboratory to sample air from the top 15 m of the snow (firn). The goal was to better understand gas fractionation processes that may affect the atmospheric gas histories

  14. Seismic - Climatic - Hazardous Events Estimation Processes via the Coupling Structures in Conserving Energy Topologies of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengor, T.

    2014-12-01

    This research concerns itself with modeling the geo-data related to seismic, atmospheric, climatic, and natural hazards processes as the self-optimization process of the Earth in the total energy state of itself. The self-optimization approach in the total energy state produces a structure embedded in a topological space with an equivalent energy mechanism (EEM). We call the energetically equivalent topological device model (EETDM) the model used in getting this EEM. The EETDM is applied as considering the whole Earth like a complete system with atmosphere and oceans getting inputs from the outside of Earth. The activities, inside and/or over Earth, are taken as boundary and initial conditions. All the structures relatable to seismicity, climatic processes, and natural hazards are considered as a complex topological network of distributed circuits involving irradiation, transfer, dissipation, conversion, and conserving of the total energy in such energetically equivalent topological devices (EETD). The suitable equivalence principles provide the reliability of the approach to get the results for our purposes in value. The critical operation sectors involve some irregular and singular characteristics suitable to the physics of the above said individual events. The model brings the interpretations of these irregularities and singularities with specific boundary conditions and settlements the complex topological boundary value problems sets. There are some couplings among such EETDs; therefore some transitions are observable among the several different kinds of events. We call the energetically equivalent complex topological device model of the complete system of Earth (EECTDMCSE) totally the estimation processes. The temporal variations at the mappings of EECTDMCSE at specific locations extract the mechanisms explaining the relationships among the characteristics of the distributed complex topological network and all above said physical phenomena of Earth in future.

  15. SALT MARSH TIDAL CHANNELS 295 Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 29, 295309 (2004)

    E-print Network

    Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    SALT MARSH TIDAL CHANNELS 295 Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process March 2002; Revised 6 March 2003; Accepted 25 March 2003 ABSTRACT Salt marsh tidal channels are highly investigated. Bank failure in vegetated salt marsh channels is characterized by slump blocks that persist

  16. Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 31, 507525 (2006)

    E-print Network

    Pederson, Joel L.

    2006-01-01

    Gullying and erosion control 507 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process Gullying and erosion control at archaeological sites in Grand Canyon, Arizona Joel L. Pederson1 *, Paul A, USA Abstract Gully erosion of cultural sites in Grand Canyon National Park is an urgent management

  17. Chemical weathering and soil production 1 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms (in press)

    E-print Network

    Heimsath, Arjun M.

    Chemical weathering and soil production 1 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf and chemical processes (e.g. Riebe et al., 2001, 2003a; Anderson et al., 2002; Stallard and Edmond, 1983 downslope. Chemical weathering ­ the dissolution and precipitation of minerals via subsurface flow ­ occurs

  18. Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as

    E-print Network

    Li, X. Rong

    Sedimentary Rocks, Processes, and Environments Sediments are loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, which include things such as rock fragments, mineral grains, part of plants or animals from source affect sedimentary rock textures, i.e. grain sizes, shapes and arrangement. Deposition

  19. Flinders Ranges bedrock erosion 929 Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 929944 (2007)

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Flinders Ranges bedrock erosion 929 Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/esp.1459 Bedrock erosion and relief production in the northern Flinders Ranges, Australia and alluvial sediment in the northern Flinders Ranges reveal surprisingly high erosion rates for a supposedly

  20. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  1. The Utility of Animal Models in Understanding Links between Psychosocial Processes and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Grippo, Angela J.

    2011-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease has been described; however, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this link have not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this review is first to describe some of the important behavioral neurobiological processes that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders. Second, this review focuses on the value of conducting research with animal models (primarily rodents) to investigate potential behavioral, physiological, and neural processes involved in the association of mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. In combination with findings from human research, the study of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of novel interventions for individuals with these comorbid conditions. PMID:21949540

  2. Analysis of glow discharges for understanding the process of film formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venugopalan, M.; Avni, R.

    1984-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes which occur during the formation of different types of films in a variety of glow discharge plasmas are discussed. Emphasis is placed on plasma diagnostic experiments using spectroscopic methods, probe analysis, mass spectrometric sampling and magnetic resonance techniques which are well suited to investigate the neutral and ionized gas phase species as well as some aspects of plasma surface interactions. The results on metallic, semi-conducting and insulating films are reviewed in conjunction with proposed models and the problem encountered under film deposition conditions. It is concluded that the understanding of film deposition process requires additional experimental information on plasma surface interactions of free radicals and the synergetic effects where photon, electron and ion bombardment change the reactivity of the incident radical with the surface.

  3. Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students' anticipated response as a motivator to deepen their understanding of the environment. SEAS depends on the contributions of many scientists within the Ridge 2000 community, and serves as an outreach channel for the whole community. Scientists can help field student questions during the Ask-a- Scientist email forum, serve as Report Reviewers, be featured in Scientist Spotlights, and help develop new Classroom to Sea labs and curricular materials. In the next four years, SEAS will integrate with the international GLOBE education program (www.globe.gov), and help our community reach even more students and teachers, worldwide.

  4. Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

    2014-01-16

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are (1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, (2) subcritical crack processes, (3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and (4) modeling.

  5. Improving risk understanding across ability levels: Encouraging active processing with dynamic icon arrays.

    PubMed

    Okan, Yasmina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T; Maldonado, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Icon arrays have been found to improve risk understanding and reduce judgment biases across a wide range of studies. Unfortunately, individuals with low graph literacy experience only limited benefits from such displays. To enhance the efficacy and reach of these decision aids, the authors developed and tested 3 types of dynamic design features--that is, computerized display features that unfold over time. Specifically, the authors manipulated the sequential presentation of the different elements of icon arrays, the presence of explanatory labels indicating what was depicted in the different regions of the arrays, and the use of a reflective question followed by accuracy feedback. The first 2 features were designed to promote specific cognitive processes involved in graph comprehension, whereas the 3rd feature was designed to promote a more active, elaborative processing of risk information. Explanatory labels were effective in improving risk understanding among less graph-literate participants, whereas reflective questions resulted in large and robust performance benefits among participants with both low and high graph literacy. Theoretical and prescriptive implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938975

  6. Redefining fine roots improves understanding of below-ground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes.

    PubMed

    McCormack, M Luke; Dickie, Ian A; Eissenstat, David M; Fahey, Timothy J; Fernandez, Christopher W; Guo, Dali; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Hobbie, Erik A; Iversen, Colleen M; Jackson, Robert B; Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana; Norby, Richard J; Phillips, Richard P; Pregitzer, Kurt S; Pritchard, Seth G; Rewald, Boris; Zadworny, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    Fine roots acquire essential soil resources and mediate biogeochemical cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Estimates of carbon and nutrient allocation to build and maintain these structures remain uncertain because of the challenges of consistently measuring and interpreting fine-root systems. Traditionally, fine roots have been defined as all roots ? 2 mm in diameter, yet it is now recognized that this approach fails to capture the diversity of form and function observed among fine-root orders. Here, we demonstrate how order-based and functional classification frameworks improve our understanding of dynamic root processes in ecosystems dominated by perennial plants. In these frameworks, fine roots are either separated into individual root orders or functionally defined into a shorter-lived absorptive pool and a longer-lived transport fine-root pool. Using these frameworks, we estimate that fine-root production and turnover represent 22% of terrestrial net primary production globally - a c. 30% reduction from previous estimates assuming a single fine-root pool. Future work developing tools to rapidly differentiate functional fine-root classes, explicit incorporation of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root studies, and wider adoption of a two-pool approach to model fine roots provide opportunities to better understand below-ground processes in the terrestrial biosphere. PMID:25756288

  7. Comparison of Numerical and Physical Models for Understanding Shear Fracture Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, John; Backers, Tobias

    2006-06-01

    An understanding of the formation of shear fractures is important in many rock engineering design problems. Laboratory experiments have been performed to determine the Mode II fracture toughness of Mizunami granite rock samples using a cylindrical `punch-through' testing device. In this paper we attempt to understand and interpret the experimental results by numerical simulation of the fundamental shear fracture initiation and coalescence processes, using a random array of displacement discontinuity crack elements. It is found that qualitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results can be established, provided that shear-like micro-scale failure processes can be accommodated by the failure initiation rules that are used in the numerical simulations. In particular, it is found that the use of an exclusively tension-driven failure initiation rule does not allow the formation of macro-shear structures. It is apparent, also, that further investigation is required to determine how consistent rules can be established to link micro-failure criteria to equivalent macro-strength and toughness properties for a macro-shear slip surface.

  8. Crew Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runco, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Crew Earth Observations (CEO) takes advantage of the crew in space to observe and photograph natural and human-made changes on Earth. The photographs record the Earth's surface changes over time, along with dynamic events such as storms, floods, fires and volcanic eruptions. These images provide researchers on Earth with key data to better understand the planet.

  9. Hydrologic Connectivity for Understanding Watershed Processes: Brand-new Puzzle or Emerging Panacea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, G. A.; Roy, A. G.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    As a way to develop a more holistic approach to watershed assessment and management, the concept of hydrologic connectivity (HC) is often put at the forefront. HC can be seen as the strength of the water-mediated linkages between discrete units of the landscape and as such, it facilitates our intuitive understanding of the mechanisms driving runoff initiation and cessation. Much of the excitement surrounding HC is attributable to its potential to enhance our ability to gain insights into multiple areas including process dynamics, numerical model building, the effects of human elements in our landscape conceptualization, and the development of simplified watershed management tools. However, before such potential can be fully demonstrated, many issues must be resolved with regards to the measure of HC. Here we provide examples highlighting how connectivity can be useful towards understanding water routing in river basins, ecohydrological systems coupling, and intermittent rainfall-runoff dynamics. First, the use of connectivity metrics to examine the relative influence of surface/subsurface topography and soil characteristics on runoff generation will be discussed. Second, the effectiveness of using geochemical tracers will be examined with respect to identifying non-point runoff sources and linking hillslope-to-channel connectivity with surface water-groundwater exchanges in the biologically sensitive hyporheic zone. Third, the identification of different hydrologic thresholds will be presented as a way to discriminate the establishment of connectivity across a range of contrasted catchments located in Canada, Scotland, the USA, and Sweden. These examples will show that current challenges with regards to HC revolve around the choice of an accurate methodological framework for an appropriate translation of experimental findings into effective watershed management approaches. Addressing these questions simultaneously will lead to the emergence of HC as a powerful tool for watershed process understanding.

  10. ATOMIC PHYSICS PROCESSES IMPORTANT TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE SCRAPE-OFF LAYER OF TOKAMAKS

    SciTech Connect

    WEST, W.P.; GOLDSMITH,; B. EVANS,T.E.; OLSON, R.J.

    2002-05-01

    The region between the well-confined plasma and the vessel walls of a magnetic confinement fusion research device, the scrape-off layer (SOL), is typically rich in atomic and molecular physics processes. The most advanced magnetic confinement device, the magnetically diverted tokamak, uses a magnetic separatrix to isolate the confinement zone (closed flux surfaces) from the edge plasma (open field lines). Over most of their length the open field lines run parallel to the separatrix, forming a thin magnetic barrier with the nearby vessel walls. In a poloidally-localized region, the open field lines are directed away from the separatrix and into the divertor, a region spatially separated from the separatrix where intense plasma wall interaction can occur relatively safely. Recent data from several tokamaks indicate that particle transport across the field lines of the SOL can be somewhat faster than previously thought. In these cases, the rate at which particles reach the vessel wall is comparable to the rate to the divertor from parallel transport. The SOL can be thin enough that the recycling neutrals and sputtered impurities from the wall may refuel or contaminate the confinement zone more efficiently than divertor plasma wall interaction. Just inside the SOL is a confinement barrier that produces a sharp pedestal in plasma density and temperature. Understanding neutral transport through the SOL and into the pedestal is key to understanding particle balance and particle and impurity exhaust. The SOL plasma is sufficiently hot and dense to excite and ionize neutrals. Ion and neutral temperatures are high enough that charge exchange between the neutrals and fuel and impurity ions is fast. Excitation of neutrals can be fast enough to lead to nonlinear behavior in charge exchange and ionization processes. In this paper the detailed atomic physics important to the understanding of the neutral transport through the SOL will be discussed.

  11. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  12. New Fission Fragment Distributions and r-Process Origin of the Rare-Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goriely, S.; Sida, J.-L.; Lemaître, J.-F.; Panebianco, S.; Dubray, N.; Hilaire, S.; Bauswein, A.; Janka, H.-T.

    2013-12-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A?140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110?A?170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A?278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A?165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A?140.

  13. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements.

    PubMed

    Goriely, S; Sida, J-L; Lemaître, J-F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H-T

    2013-12-13

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A?140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular, the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110?A?170 nuclei. Here, we apply a new scission-point model, called SPY, to derive the fission fragment distribution (FFD) of all relevant neutron-rich, fissioning nuclei. The model predicts a doubly asymmetric FFD in the abundant A?278 mass region that is responsible for the final recycling of the fissioning material. Using ejecta conditions based on relativistic NS merger calculations, we show that this specific FFD leads to a production of the A?165 rare-earth peak that is nicely compatible with the abundance patterns in the Sun and metal-poor stars. This new finding further strengthens the case of NS mergers as possible dominant origin of r nuclei with A?140. PMID:24483647

  14. Novel solution processing of high-efficiency Earth-abundant Cu2 ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenbing; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Bob, Brion; Zhou, Huanping; Lei, Bao; Chung, Choong-Heui; Li, Sheng-Han; Hou, William W; Yang, Yang

    2012-12-11

    A novel solution-based approach is presented to process earth-abundant Cu(2)ZnSn(S,Se)(4) absorbers using fully dissolved CZTS precursors in which each of the elemental constituents intermix on a molecular scale. This method enables the low-temperature processing of chemically clean kesterite films with excellent homogeneity. The high performance of resulting optoelectronic devices represents a chance to extend the impact of CZTS into the next chapter of thin-film solar cells. PMID:22969055

  15. Hydrogeological processes in seasonally frozen northern latitudes: understanding, gaps and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; van der Kamp, G.; Ferguson, G.; Nachshon, U.; Wheater, H. S.

    2013-02-01

    The groundwater regime in seasonally frozen regions of the world exhibits distinct behavior. This paper presents an overview of flow and associated heat and solute transport processes in the subsurface, from the soil/vadose zone, through groundwater recharge to groundwater discharge processes in these areas. Theoretical developments, field studies and model development are considered. An illustrative conceptual model of the system is presented. From a groundwater perspective, the dominant effect is the extent of hydraulic isolation between the water above and that below the near-surface frozen zone. The spatial and temporal occurrences of this isolation are seasonally variable and may also be modified under a future changing climate. A good qualitative conceptual understanding of the system has been developed over numerous decades of study. A major gap is the inability to effectively monitor processes in the field, particularly unfrozen water content during freezing conditions. Modeling of field-scale behavior represents a major challenge, even while physically based models continue to improve. It is suggested that progress can be made by combining well-designed field experiments with modeling studies. A major motivation for improving quantification of these processes derives from the need to better predict the impacts of a future changing climate.

  16. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

  17. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces between the three disciplines used in the design process: weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis. The tools used to perform such analysis are INtegrated Rocket Sizing (INTROS), Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and Launch Vehicle Analysis (LVA) respectively. The methods each discipline uses to streamline their particular part of the design process will also be discussed.

  18. Manifestation of earth deformation processes by high-frequency seismic noise characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diakonov, B. P.; Karryev, B. S.; Khavroshkin, O. B.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Rykunov, L. N.; Seroglasov, R. R.; Trojanov, A. K.; Tsyplakov, V. V.

    1990-10-01

    During recent years special investigations of high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) have been conducted in order to study the nature of temporal regularities of this process. Some correlation between HFSN level and slow changes of stress field have been observed under different geological conditions. These phenomena were interpreted as being due to the presence of a seismic emission component in HFSN which is characterized by a very strong "tensosensitivity", i.e. sensitivity to the stress changes. Later observations of HFSN carried out at different places using highly sensitive resonant seismometers show that a "modulation" phenomenon, i.e. correlation between HFSN changes and Earth's tides, has been seen with a different degree of confidence both in time and space. This result is explained by the spatial variations in emission activity. It is thought that HFSN is influenced by different kinds of geodynamic processes which change the tensosensitivity and the emission activity with time and with the presence of external seismic noises. Detailed inspection of HFSN behaviour shows that its response to external action is more complex than was previously thought. According to observations held on a Russian platform, the seismic emission level is found to be modulated by changes in the intensity of 4-6 s microseisms connected with the Baltic Sea storms. In the Ashkhabad region where no strong effects of external sources are known HFSN amplitude correlates with changes of tilt caused by moon-solar tides. Temporal change of correlation between these processes is observed. Well observations detected noticeable variations of the HFSN intensity with depth and the dependence of intensity and spectral composition on structure and composition of rocks. This is direct proof of the endogenic nature of observed HFSN. Periodic changes of HFSN level observed after the strong Gasli earthquake of March 19, 1984 ( M = 7.2) near the city of Ashkhabad are discussed as a new "self-excitation" type of HFSN. Two opposite points of view on the nature of HFSN, either as telluric processes highly sensitive to stress conditions or as a noise which is not sensitive to the stress conditions, are discussed and explained by both the large variance of HFSN behaviour and by the methods and conditions of observation.

  19. Carbon Offsets in California: What Role for Earth Scientists in the Policy Process? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullenward, D.; Strong, A. L.

    2013-12-01

    This talk addresses the policy structure in California for developing and approving carbon offset protocols, which rely on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities. In addition to providing an overview of the legal requirements of carbon offsets, we describe a series of case studies of how scientists can engage with policymakers. Based on those experiences, we suggest ways for the earth sciences community to become more involved in climate policy development. California's climate law, known as AB 32, requires that major sectors of the state's economy reduce their emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. As part of AB 32, the California Air Resources Board created a cap-and-trade market to ensure compliance with the statutory target. Under this system, regulated companies have to acquire tradable emissions permits (called 'compliance instruments') for the greenhouse gas emissions they release. The State allocates a certain number of allowances to regulated entities through a mixture of auctions and free transfers, with the total number equal to the overall emissions target; these allowances, along with approved offsets credits, are the compliance instruments that regulated entities are required to obtain by law. One of the key policy design issues in California's cap-and-trade market concerns the use of carbon offsets. Under AB 32, the Air Resources Board can issue offset credits to project developers who reduce emissions outside of the capped sectors (electricity, industry, and transportation)--or even outside of California--pursuant to approved offset protocols. Project developers then sell the credits to regulated companies in California. Essentially, offsets allow regulated entities in California to earn credit for emissions reductions that take place outside the scope of AB 32. Many regulated entities and economists are in favor of offsets because they view them as a source of low-cost compliance instruments. On the other hand, critics argue that some offset protocols award credits for activities that would have occurred anyway; by replacing a company's need to acquire an allowance in the carbon market, critics believe that poorly designed offset protocols increase greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, the effectiveness of the policy approach depends on the scientific integrity of the offset protocols. To date, California has approved offset protocols for emissions reductions in four applications: (1) forestry, (2) urban forestry, (3) livestock, and (4) destruction of ozone-depleting substances. In addition, the State is currently considering protocols that would address (5) methane emissions from mining and (6) greenhouse gas reductions from improved rice cultivation practices. These protocols rely heavily on findings from the environmental and earth sciences communities, especially when the protocol subject involves land use or land use change. Yet, due to budget constraints, the Air Resources Board is relying primarily on third-party protocol developers to design and propose the detailed structures under which offset credits will be issued. Despite the fact that any member of the public may participate in the governance regime that leads to protocol approvals, few scientists or scientific organizations provide input into the policy process. We use case studies from several of the California protocols to illustrate ways scientists can apply their skills to a crucial stage of climate policy development.

  20. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estellés, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Rosenberg, P.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Woolley, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Fennec climate program aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include: (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sized up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in-situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as CCN and IN at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold-pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9) discrepancies between airborne coarse mode size distributions and AERONET sunphotometer retrievals under light dust loadings. These results provide insights into boundary layer and dust processes in the SHL region - a region of substantial global climatic importance.

  1. Understanding the global excitation of whistler-mode chorus and its effects on Earth's radiation belt dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Whistler mode chorus emissions are excited in the inner magnetosphere following the convective injection of energetic electrons from a source region in the plasma sheet. On the night-side pronounced increase in the flux of anisotropic electrons leads to large linear wave growth and the onset of non-linear processes, which are responsible for the formation of discrete chorus elements in two distinct band above and below one half the electron gyrofrequency. Rapid pitch-angle scattering and energy diffusion causes a severe depletion in electron flux (leading to diffuse auroral precipitation) and the development of highly anisotropic pitch-angle distributions during convective transport to the dayside. The modified electron distributions approach a state of marginal stability, but whistler-mode instability can be triggered by macroscopic changes in plasma density and magnetic field. The global distribution of excited chorus emissions is responsible for microburst of energetic electron precipitation and the stochastic acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies in the recovery phase of magnetic storms. Chorus is also the responsible for the origin of hiss within the plasmasphere, which provides the major scattering loss responsible for the two-zone structure of the energetic electron radiation belts.

  2. UNDERSTANDING OLIVINE CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS AT THE ATOMIC LEVEL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. McKelvy; H. Bearat; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; R. Nunez; R.W. Carpenter

    2003-08-01

    Carbonation of Mg-rich minerals offers an intriguing candidate carbon sequestration process technology, which can provide large-scale CO{sub 2} disposal. Such disposal bypasses many long-term storage problems by (i) providing containment in the form of mineral carbonates that have proven stable over geological time, (ii) generating only environmentally benign materials, and (iii) essentially eliminating the need for continuous site monitoring. The primary challenge for viable process development is reducing process cost. This is the primary focus of the CO{sub 2} Mineral Sequestration Working Group managed by Fossil Energy at DOE, which includes members from the Albany Research Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, Penn State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the University of Utah, as well as from our research group at Arizona State University. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a leading process candidate, which converts CO{sub 2} into the mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). As olivine carbonation is exothermic, it offers intriguing low-cost potential. Recent studies at the Albany Research Center have found aqueous-solution carbonation is a promising approach. Cost effectively enhancing carbonation reactivity is central to reducing process cost. Many of the mechanisms that impact reactivity occur at the solid/solution interface. Understanding these mechanisms is central to the ability to engineer new and modified processes to enhance carbonation reactivity and lower cost. Herein, we report the results of our UCR I project, which focused on exploring the reaction mechanisms that govern aqueous-solution olivine carbonation using model olivine feedstock materials. Carbonation was found to be a complex process associated with passivating silica layer formation, which includes the trapping of magnesite nanocrystals within the passivating silica layers, cracking and exfoliation of the layers, silica surface migration, olivine etch pit formation, transfer of the Mg and Fe in the olivine into the product carbonate, and the nucleation and growth of magnesite crystals on/in the silica/olivine reaction matrix. These phenomena occur in concert with the large solid volume changes that accompany the carbonation process, which can substantially impact carbonation reactivity. Passivating silica layer formation appears to play a major role in inhibiting carbonation reactivity. New approaches that can mitigate the effectiveness of passivating layer formation may offer intriguing potential to enhance carbonation reactivity and lower process cost.

  3. Model reduction and physical understanding of slowly oscillating processes : the circadian cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Goussis, Dimitris A.; Najm, Habib N.

    2006-01-01

    A differential system that models the circadian rhythm in Drosophila is analyzed with the computational singular perturbation (CSP) algorithm. Reduced nonstiff models of prespecified accuracy are constructed, the form and size of which are time-dependent. When compared with conventional asymptotic analysis, CSP exhibits superior performance in constructing reduced models, since it can algorithmically identify and apply all the required order of magnitude estimates and algebraic manipulations. A similar performance is demonstrated by CSP in generating data that allow for the acquisition of physical understanding. It is shown that the processes driving the circadian cycle are (i) mRNA translation into monomer protein, and monomer protein destruction by phosphorylation and degradation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (ii) mRNA synthesis (along a short portion of the cycle). These are slow processes. Their action in driving the cycle is allowed by the equilibration of the fastest processes; (1) the monomer dimerization with the dimer dissociation (along the largest portion of the cycle); and (2) the net production of monomer+dimmer proteins with that of mRNA (along the short portion of the cycle). Additional results (regarding the time scales of the established equilibria, their origin, the rate limiting steps, the couplings among the variables, etc.) highlight the utility of CSP for automated identification of the important underlying dynamical features, otherwise accessible only for simple systems whose various suitable simplifications can easily be recognized.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks for Processing Graphs with Application to Image Understanding: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Monica; Scarselli, Franco

    In graphical pattern recognition, each data is represented as an arrangement of elements, that encodes both the properties of each element and the relations among them. Hence, patterns are modelled as labelled graphs where, in general, labels can be attached to both nodes and edges. Artificial neural networks able to process graphs are a powerful tool for addressing a great variety of real-world problems, where the information is naturally organized in entities and relationships among entities and, in fact, they have been widely used in computer vision, f.i. in logo recognition, in similarity retrieval, and for object detection. In this chapter, we propose a survey of neural network models able to process structured information, with a particular focus on those architectures tailored to address image understanding applications. Starting from the original recursive model (RNNs), we subsequently present different ways to represent images - by trees, forests of trees, multiresolution trees, directed acyclic graphs with labelled edges, general graphs - and, correspondingly, neural network architectures appropriate to process such structures.

  5. LAMONT-DOHERTY EARTH OBSERVATORY IS RENOWNED IN THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY FOR its success and innovation in advancing understanding of the Earth, for its unique geological and climatological archives and

    E-print Network

    Lance, Veronica P.

    of the past, monitor the present and seek to foresee Earth's future. From global climate change to earthquakes#12;LAMONT-DOHERTY EARTH OBSERVATORY IS RENOWNED IN THE INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY FOR its graduates. Observatory scientists observe Earth on a global scale, from its deepest interior to the outer

  6. Applications of Future NASA Decadal Missions for Observing Earth's Land and Water Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Hook, Simon; Brown, Molly E.; Tzortziou, Maria A.; Carroll, Mark; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Omar, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Misson Objective: To collect altimetry data of the Earth's surface optimized to measure ice sheet elevation change and sea ice thickness, while also generating an estimate of global vegetation biomass.

  7. The snowball Earth aftermath: Exploring the limits of continental weathering processes

    E-print Network

    xxxx Editor: P. DeMenocal Keywords: snowball Earth greenhouse cap dolostones weathering modelling to background Neoproterozoic levels. Regarding the origin of the cap dolostones, we show that continental

  8. Understanding space weather to shield society

    E-print Network

    Schrijver, Karel

    Understanding space weather to shield society Improving understanding and forecasts of space weather requires addressing scientific challenges within the network of physical processes that connect the Sun to society. The roadmap team identified the highest-priority areas within the Sun-Earth space-weather

  9. The Sun: Source of the Earth's Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sun is the primary source of the Earth's energy. However, due to the complexity in the way the energy affects Earth, the various solar sources of the energy, and the variation exhibited by the Sun it is difficult to understand and predict the Earth's response to solar drivers. In addition to visible light the radiant energy of the Sun can exhibit variation in nearly all wavelengths, which can vary over nearly all timescales. Depending on the wavelength of the incident radiation the light can deposit energy in a wide variety or locations and drive processes from below Earth's surface to interplanetary space. Other sources of energy impacting Earth include energetic particles, magnetic fields, and mass and flow variations in the solar wind. Many of these variable energetic processes cannot be coupled and recent results continue to demonstrate that the complex dynamics of the Sun can have a great range of measurable impacts on Earth.

  10. Extended principle component analysis - a useful tool to understand processes governing water quality at catchment scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selle, B.; Schwientek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality of ground and surface waters in catchments is typically driven by many complex and interacting processes. While small scale processes are often studied in great detail, their relevance and interplay at catchment scales remain often poorly understood. For many catchments, extensive monitoring data on water quality have been collected for different purposes. These heterogeneous data sets contain valuable information on catchment scale processes but are rarely analysed using integrated methods. Principle component analysis (PCA) has previously been applied to this kind of data sets. However, a detailed analysis of scores, which are an important result of a PCA, is often missing. Mathematically, PCA expresses measured variables on water quality, e.g. nitrate concentrations, as linear combination of independent, not directly observable key processes. These computed key processes are represented by principle components. Their scores are interpretable as process intensities which vary in space and time. Subsequently, scores can be correlated with other key variables and catchment characteristics, such as water travel times and land use that were not considered in PCA. This detailed analysis of scores represents an extension of the commonly applied PCA which could considerably improve the understanding of processes governing water quality at catchment scales. In this study, we investigated the 170 km2 Ammer catchment in SW Germany which is characterised by an above average proportion of agricultural (71%) and urban (17%) areas. The Ammer River is mainly fed by karstic springs. For PCA, we separately analysed concentrations from (a) surface waters of the Ammer River and its tributaries, (b) spring waters from the main aquifers and (c) deep groundwater from production wells. This analysis was extended by a detailed analysis of scores. We analysed measured concentrations on major ions and selected organic micropollutants. Additionally, redox-sensitive variables and environmental tracers indicating groundwater age were analysed for deep groundwater from production wells. For deep groundwater, we found that microbial turnover was stronger influenced by local availability of energy sources than by travel times of groundwater to the wells. Groundwater quality primarily reflected the input of pollutants determined by landuse, e.g. agrochemicals. We concluded that for water quality in the Ammer catchment, conservative mixing of waters with different origin is more important than reactive transport processes along the flow path.

  11. Exploring Spaceship Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Noel F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes various activities to understand the nature of the earth as a spaceship and its impact on human life. A figure depicting a holocoenotic environmental complex is given which can be used to illustrate various interacting forces on earth. (PS)

  12. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  13. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOEpatents

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  14. Developing Classroom Research Modules Through In Depth Understanding of the Research Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilbert, K.; Soong, J.; Cotrufo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Students of low income families often have fewer opportunities, especially in regards to science, than their peers of higher socioeconomic upbringing. This opportunity deficit can stifle their interest in science before it begins. As an elementary teacher at a Title 1 school, I strive to enrich the scientific opportunities for my students. I gained exposure to soil science by participating in a litter decomposition experiment and the Summer Soil Institute at Colorado State University through an NSF funded Research Experience for Teachers program (RET). My participation in the RET provided me with the tools necessary to implement in depth research in my 5th grade classroom. A teacher's greatest tool is having a deep understanding of a topic prior to relaying it to students. This depth of knowledge needs to be coupled with a general understanding of the research process and techniques that are being used by contemporary scientists. Applying these ideas, I created a long-term decomposition module for my students that can be used as a model for teachers to create meaningful research opportunities for students.

  15. Earth System science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has solidified a view of the Earth as a global-scale interactive system with complex chemical, physical, biological and dynamical processes that link the ocean, atmosphere, land (soils, ice, snow) and marine and terrestrial living organisms. These processes both within and between the major parts of the system help determine global and regional climate and control the biogeochemical and hydrologic cycles essential to life. The study of the Earth System requires measurements ranging from the scales of the smallest processes to the global scale. An ambitious satellite observational program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), carried out along with the complementary and ongoing World Climate Research Program (WCRP) and International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) represents a major international effort to understand this System and predict its future changes. The complex and intriguing nature of the Earth System is discussed along with a number of closely coupled processes occurring within it. These are: clouds, precipitation and vegetation; ocean circulation, sea-surface temperature and phytoplankton; coupled oceanic and atmospheric circulation (the Southern Oscillation); biological activity, atmospheric chemistry and climate; and biological emissions and the ozone layer.

  16. Understanding the effects of nurses on the process by which patients develop hospital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Gotlieb, Jerry B

    2002-10-01

    An understanding of the process by which hospital patients evaluate their nurses could be very useful. However, no theory-based model exists in the nursing literature to explain the relationship among patients' hospital rooms, locus of causality, patients' evaluation of nurses, and hospital satisfaction. This article proposes a model to help fill this void. It also presents empirical evidence supporting the model--a study finding that patients' evaluation of their hospital rooms and their perception of locus of causality affected their evaluations of nurses. The results suggest patients' evaluation of their nurses and rooms are two key variables that affect their overall hospital satisfaction. However, patients' evaluation of nurses appears to have a much greater influence on hospital satisfaction than does patients' evaluation of their rooms. PMID:12465218

  17. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  18. SOCRATE: an optical bench dedicated to the understanding and improvement of a laser conditioning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertussi, Bertrand; Piombini, Hervé; Damiani, David; Pommies, Matthieu; Le Borgne, Xavier; Plessis, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    We present an automatic excimer laser bench (SOCRATE) allowing for the treatment of optical components by laser conditioning. This apparatus, developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Le Ripault, has been designed to add to this conditioning process an in situ, accurate laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement and different nondestructive optical techniques for the characterization of the component during treatment. Through different examples, we demonstrate the importance of these characterizations to improve the understanding of the laser conditioning. The role of an in situ adapted metrology associated in real time with a laser conditioning bench offers new opportunities to analyze laser-induced damage mechanisms and subsequently to increase the LIDT of optical components.

  19. SOCRATE: an optical bench dedicated to the understanding and improvement of a laser conditioning process

    SciTech Connect

    Bertussi, Bertrand; Piombini, Herve; Damiani, David; Pommies, Matthieu; Le Borgne, Xavier; Plessis, Daniel

    2006-11-20

    We present an automatic excimer laser bench (SOCRATE) allowing for the treatment of optical components by laser conditioning. This apparatus, developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Le Ripault, has been designed to add to this conditioning process an in situ, accurate laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement and different nondestructive optical techniques for the characterization of the component during treatment. Through different examples, we demonstrate the importance of these characterizations to improve the understanding of the laser conditioning.The role of an in situ adapted metrology associated in real time with a laser conditioning bench offers new opportunities to analyze laser-induced damage mechanisms and subsequently to increase the LIDT of optical components.

  20. SOCRATE: an optical bench dedicated to the understanding and improvement of a laser conditioning process.

    PubMed

    Bertussi, Bertrand; Piombini, Hervé; Damiani, David; Pommies, Matthieu; Le Borgne, Xavier; Plessis, Daniel

    2006-11-20

    We present an automatic excimer laser bench (SOCRATE) allowing for the treatment of optical components by laser conditioning. This apparatus, developed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique-Le Ripault, has been designed to add to this conditioning process an in situ, accurate laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurement and different nondestructive optical techniques for the characterization of the component during treatment. Through different examples, we demonstrate the importance of these characterizations to improve the understanding of the laser conditioning. The role of an in situ adapted metrology associated in real time with a laser conditioning bench offers new opportunities to analyze laser-induced damage mechanisms and subsequently to increase the LIDT of optical components. PMID:17086262

  1. Piloting a logic-based framework for understanding organisational change process for a health IT implementation.

    PubMed

    Diment, Kieren; Garrety, Karin; Yu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how a method for evaluating organisational change based on the theory of logical types can be used for classifying organisational change processes to understand change after the implementation of an electronic documentation system in a residential aged care facility. In this instance we assess the organisational change reflected by care staff's perceptions of the benefits of the new documentation system at one site, at pre-implementation, and at 12 months post-implementation. The results show how a coherent view from the staff as a whole of the personal benefits, the benefits for others and the benefits for the organization create a situation of positive feedback leading to embeddedness of the documentation system into the site, and a broader appreciation of the potential capabilities of the electronic documentation system. PMID:21893910

  2. Assessing middle school students` understanding of science relationships and processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schau, C.; Mattern, N.; Weber, R.; Minnick, K.

    1994-09-01

    Our overall goal for this multi-year project is to develop and validate an alternative assessment format that effectively measures middle school students understanding of the relationships among selected science concepts and processes. In this project, we collaborate with the staff of the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s TOPS Program and the Programs participating teachers and their students. We also work with selected middle school science teachers from the TOPS program at Sandia National Laboratories. Our goal for this past year was to develop and field test informally a variety of potential measurement formats. This work has allowed us to identify formats to test during the validation phase of the project which will occur during the second year.

  3. MATLAB® and Design Recipes for Earth Sciences: How to Collect, Process and Present Geoscientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, M.; Sillmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The overall aim of the class was to introduce undergraduate students to the typical course of a project. The project starts with searching of the relevant literature, reviewing and ranking of the published books and journal articles, extracting the relevant information as text, data or graphs from the literature, searching, processing and visualizing data, and compiling and presenting the results as posters, abstracts and oral presentations. In the first lecture, an unexpectedly-large number (ca. 65) of students subscribed to the course urging us to teach the course in a lecture hall with a projector, microphone and speaker system, a table for the teacher's laptop and equipment, private laptops of the students and wireless Internet. We used a MOODLE eLearning environment to handle the large number of participants in a highly interactive, tutorial-style course environment. Moreover, the students were organized in five GOOGLE groups not accessed by the course instructor, but led by elected student group leaders and their deputies. During the course, the instructor defined three principle topics for each of the groups within the overall theme Past Climate Changes. After having defined sub-themes within the groups for each student, the course culminated in the presentation of the project work as conference-style posters, 200-word abstracts and one-hour sessions with 10-15 two-minute presentations, chaired by the project leaders and their deputies. The course inspired a new textbook that will appear later this year, using a similar concept as its sister book MATLAB Recipes for Earth Sciences-3rd Edition (Trauth, Springer 2010).

  4. Teachers as Learners: A Case Study of Teachers' Understanding of Astronomy Concepts and Processes in An ACE Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stears, M.; James, A.; Good, M-A.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here investigates the efficacy of a module in an Advanced Certificate in Education course in promoting conceptual understanding in Astronomy. The research attempted to find out how teachers' understanding of astronomy concepts and processes change after completing this module as well as the reasons for such changes, if any.…

  5. Breaking up the Writing Process: How Wikis Can Support Understanding the Composition and Revision Strategies of Young Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifarre, Manoli; Fisher, Ros

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how best to support immature writers in the development of their understanding of the writing process is an important concern for researchers and teachers. Social technologies have become key features of leisure and work place writing, yet knowledge about how to design educational settings that take full advantage of the affordances…

  6. Understanding the Journey: A Phenomenological Study of College Students' Lived Experiences during the Weight-Loss Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Although numerous studies have focused on understanding various aspects of the science of weight loss and weight gain in college students, understanding how the weight-loss process affects college students psychologically and behaviorally may help administrators and student affairs professionals to better work with students on their campuses. The…

  7. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development environment with encapsulated low-level drivers, HW support and testing environment). Furthermore Space PDP presents an advanced processing system to be fully adopted both as on-board module for EO spacecrafts and extra-planetary exploration rovers. The main innovative aspects are: • HW and SW modularity - scalability for the Payload Data Processing and AOC S/S • Complex processing capabilities fully available onboard (on spacecrafts or rovers) • Reduced effort in mission SW design, implementation, verification and validation tasks • HW abstraction level comparable to present multitasking Unix-like systems allowing SW and algorithms re-use (also from available GS applications). The development approach addressed by SpacePDP is based both on the re-use and resources sharing with flexible elements adjustable to different missions and to different tasks within the same mission (e.g. shared between AOCS and data management S/S) and on a strong specialization in the system elements that are designed to satisfy specific mission needs and specific technological innovations. The innovative processing system is proven in many possible scenarios of use from standard compression task up to the most complex one as the image classification directly on-board. The first one is just useful for standard benchmark trade-off analysis of HW and SW capabilities respect to the other common processing modules. The classification is the ambitious objective of that system to process directly on board the data from sensor (by down-sampling or in no-full resolution acquisition modality if necessary) to detect at flight time any features on ground or observed phenomenas. For Earth application it could be the cloud coverage (to avoid the acquisition and discard the data), burning areas or vessels detection and similar. On Planetary o Universe exploration mission it could be the path recognition for a rover, or high power energy events in outbound galaxies. Sometimes it could be need to review the GS algorithms to approach the problem in the Space scenario, i.e. for Synthetic Aperture Rad

  8. Processing and Protection of Rare Earth Permanent Magnet Particulate for Bonded Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kelly Sokolowski

    2007-12-01

    Rapid solidification of novel mixed rare earth-iron-boron, MRE{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B (MRE = Nd, Y, Dy; currently), magnet alloys via high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) have produced similar properties and structures as closely related alloys produced by melt spinning (MS) at low wheel speeds. Recent additions of titanium carbide and zirconium to the permanent magnet (PM) alloy design in HPGA powder (using He atomization gas) have made it possible to achieve highly refined microstructures with magnetic properties approaching melt spun particulate at cooling rates of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6}K/s. By producing HPGA powders with the desirable qualities of melt spun ribbon, the need for crushing ribbon was eliminated in bonded magnet fabrication. The spherical geometry of HPGA powders is more ideal for processing of bonded permanent magnets since higher loading fractions can be obtained during compression and injection molding. This increased volume loading of spherical PM powder can be predicted to yield a higher maximum energy product (BH){sub max} for bonded magnets in high performance applications. Passivation of RE-containing powder is warranted for the large-scale manufacturing of bonded magnets in applications with increased temperature and exposure to humidity. Irreversible magnetic losses due to oxidation and corrosion of particulates is a known drawback of RE-Fe-B based alloys during further processing, e.g. injection molding, as well as during use as a bonded magnet. To counteract these effects, a modified gas atomization chamber allowed for a novel approach to in situ passivation of solidified particle surfaces through injection of a reactive gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}). The ability to control surface chemistry during atomization processing of fine spherical RE-Fe-B powders produced advantages over current processing methodologies. In particular, the capability to coat particles while 'in flight' may eliminate the need for post atomization treatment, otherwise a necessary step for oxidation and corrosion resistance. Stability of these thin films was attributed to the reduction of each RE's respective oxide during processing; recognizing that fluoride compounds exhibit a slightly higher (negative) free energy driving force for formation. Formation of RE-type fluorides on the surface was evidenced through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Concurrent research with auger electron spectroscopy has been attempted to accurately quantify the depth of fluoride formation in order to grasp the extent of fluorination reactions with spherical and flake particulate. Gas fusion analysis on coated powders (dia. <45 {micro}m) from an optimized experiment indicated an as-atomized oxygen concentration of 343ppm, where typical, nonpassivated RE atomized alloys exhibit an average of 1800ppm oxygen. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) on the same powder revealed a decreased rate of oxidation at elevated temperatures up to 300 C, compared to similar uncoated powder.

  9. Understanding the application niche of microbial fuel cells in a cheese wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick T; He, Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Identifying proper application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology and understanding how MFCs can be effectively integrated into the existing wastewater treatment process is critical to further development of this technology. In this study, four identical MFCs were used to treat the wastes sampled from different stages of a cheese wastewater treatment process, and both treatment performance and energy balance were examined. The two MFCs treating liquid wastes achieved more than 80% removal of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), while the other two MFCs fed with sludge or cheese whey removed about 60% of TCOD. The MFC-2 treating the dissolved air flotation effluent generated the highest Coulombic efficiency of 27.2±3.6% and the highest power density of 3.2±0.3Wm(-3), and consumed the least amount of energy of 0.11kWhm(-3), indicating that MFCs may be more suitable for treating low-strength wastewater in terms of both treatment and energy performance. PMID:24549237

  10. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level. PMID:24522894

  11. Contributions of TRMM to Our Understanding of Precipitation Processes and Climate Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S./Japan effort, has completed seven and a half years in orbit. This successful research mission studying precipitation processes and climatology has also become a key element in the routine monitoring of global precipitation. The package of rain measuring instrumentation, including the first rain radar and microwave radiometer combination in space, continues to function perfectly, and the satellite has the capability to operate for a number of additional years, providing a unique, long-term record of global tropical precipitation characteristics. A summary of research highlights will be presented covering topics ranging over climate analysis, improving forecasts, and storm and precipitation processes. A focus of the talk will be the important role of TRMM data in multi-satellite precipitation analyses at fine time scales and in improving our understanding of the validity of climate-scale variations through comparison with, and eventual improvement of, the GEWEX Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) 25-year data set.

  12. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  13. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  14. Evolution: Understanding Life on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dybas, Cheryl Lyn

    2002-01-01

    Reports on presentations representing evolution at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) which was held March 22-24, 2002. Explains evolutionary patterns, phylogenetic pageantry, molecular clocks, speciation and biogeography, speciation and macroevolution, and human-induced evolution of drugs-resistant…

  15. Advances in understanding mineral dust and boundary layer processes over the Sahara from Fennec aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, C. L.; McQuaid, J. B.; Flamant, C.; Rosenberg, P. D.; Washington, R.; Brindley, H. E.; Highwood, E. J.; Marsham, J. H.; Parker, D. J.; Todd, M. C.; Banks, J. R.; Brooke, J. K.; Engelstaedter, S.; Estelles, V.; Formenti, P.; Garcia-Carreras, L.; Kocha, C.; Marenco, F.; Sodemann, H.; Allen, C. J. T.; Bourdon, A.; Bart, M.; Cavazos-Guerra, C.; Chevaillier, S.; Crosier, J.; Darbyshire, E.; Dean, A. R.; Dorsey, J. R.; Kent, J.; O'Sullivan, D.; Schepanski, K.; Szpek, K.; Trembath, J.; Woolley, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Fennec climate programme aims to improve understanding of the Saharan climate system through a synergy of observations and modelling. We present a description of the Fennec airborne observations during 2011 and 2012 over the remote Sahara (Mauritania and Mali) and the advances in the understanding of mineral dust and boundary layer processes they have provided. Aircraft instrumentation aboard the UK FAAM BAe146 and French SAFIRE (Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement) Falcon 20 is described, with specific focus on instrumentation specially developed for and relevant to Saharan meteorology and dust. Flight locations, aims and associated meteorology are described. Examples and applications of aircraft measurements from the Fennec flights are presented, highlighting new scientific results delivered using a synergy of different instruments and aircraft. These include (1) the first airborne measurement of dust particles sizes of up to 300 microns and associated dust fluxes in the Saharan atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), (2) dust uplift from the breakdown of the nocturnal low-level jet before becoming visible in SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible Infra-Red Imager) satellite imagery, (3) vertical profiles of the unique vertical structure of turbulent fluxes in the SABL, (4) in situ observations of processes in SABL clouds showing dust acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) at -15 °C, (5) dual-aircraft observations of the SABL dynamics, thermodynamics and composition in the Saharan heat low region (SHL), (6) airborne observations of a dust storm associated with a cold pool (haboob) issued from deep convection over the Atlas Mountains, (7) the first airborne chemical composition measurements of dust in the SHL region with differing composition, sources (determined using Lagrangian backward trajectory calculations) and absorption properties between 2011 and 2012, (8) coincident ozone and dust surface area measurements suggest coarser particles provide a route for ozone depletion, (9) discrepancies between airborne coarse-mode size distributions and AERONET (AERosol Robotic NETwork) sunphotometer retrievals under light dust loadings. These results provide insights into boundary layer and dust processes in the SHL region - a region of substantial global climatic importance.

  16. MECA Workshop on Atmospheric H2O Observations of Earth and Mars. Physical Processes, Measurements and Interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M. (editor); Haberle, Robert M. (editor)

    1988-01-01

    The workshop was held to discuss a variety of questions related to the detection and cycling of atmospheric water. Among the questions addressed were: what factors govern the storage and exchange of water between planetary surfaces and atmospheres; what instruments are best suited for the measurement and mapping of atmospheric water; do regolith sources and sinks of water have uniquely identifiable column abundance signatures; what degree of time and spatial resolution in column abundance data is necessary to determine dynamic behavior. Of special importance is the question, does the understanding of how atmospheric water is cycled on Earth provide any insights for the interpretation of Mars atmospheric data.

  17. Understanding aquatic microbial processes using EEM's and in-situ fluorescence sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Bethany; Attridge, John; Rushworth, Cathy; Cox, Tim; Anesio, Alexandre; Reynolds, Darren

    2015-04-01

    The diverse origin of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic systems is well documented within the literature. Previous literature indicates that coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is, in part, transformed by aquatic microbial processes, and that dissolved organic material derived from a microbial origin exhibits tryptophan-like fluorescence. However, this phenomenon is not fully understood and very little data is available within the current literature. The overall aim of our work is to reveal the microbial-CDOM interactions that give rise to the observed tryptophan-like fluorescence. The work reported here investigates the microbial processes that occur within freshwater aquatic samples, as defined by the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test, as a function of the T1 peak (?ex/em 280/330-370 nm). A series of standard water samples were prepared using glucose, glutamic acid, BOD dilution water and a bacterial seed (Cole-Parmer BOD microbe capsules). Samples were spiked with CDOM (derived from an environmental water body) and subjected to time resolved BOD analysis and as excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy. All EEM spectral data was interrogated using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) in an attempt to determine the presence and dominance (relative intensities) of the CDOM-related and T1-related fluorophores within the samples. In-situ fluorescence sensors (Chelsea Technologies Group Ltd.) were also used to monitor the T1 fluorescence peak (UviLux Tryptophan) and the CDOM fluorescence peak (UviLux CDOM) during experiments. Tryptophan-like fluorescence was observed (albeit transient) in both spiked and un-spiked standard water samples. By furthering our understanding of aquatic organic matter fluorescence, its origin, transformation, fate and interaction with aquatic microbiological processes, we aim to inform the design of a new generation in-situ fluorescence sensor for the monitoring of aquatic ecosystem health.

  18. A Multi-Technique Approach to Understanding Camp-Wide Mineralization Processes in Archean VMS Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, E. R.; Wing, B.; Taylor, B.; Jonasson, I.; Farquhar, J.; Dubé, B.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanogenic Massive Sulphide (VMS) deposits form on or below the seafloor, in association with submarine extrusive volcanism, and reflect the hydrothermal concentration of ore-forming components originating from various reservoirs within the submarine environment. A defining question about VMS deposits is the relative contributions of different sulfur sources to mineralization. Standard models for VMS formation include contributions from reduction of seawater sulfate, remobilization of sedimentary sulfur, and volcanic sources (e.g., direct magmatic degassing, hydrothermal dissolution of sulfides in volcanic wall rocks). We are using an array of geochemical techniques to assess a suite of sulphide mineral separates collected from numerous VMS deposits within the Archean Noranda camp of the Abitibi Belt, Superior Province, Canada. These techniques include ICP-MS analyses of dissolved sulphide separates, microprobe analysis, and multiple sulphur isotope analyses. Multiple sulphur isotope analysis provides a new and powerful tool for interpreting Archean ore deposits. In pre-2.45 Ga rocks, multiple sulphur isotope analyses (?33S, ?34S, and ?36S) document mass-independent sulphur isotope fractionation (?33S?0.515×?34S, ?36S?1.9×?34S), likely expressed because of the lack of an oxygenated atmosphere. Ore-forming processes in VMS deposits cannot create mass-independent fractionation; they can only dilute it away. Trace element geochemistry of sulphides has been used to identify where in a VMS system these minerals form, with contributions from sources such as sea-water, or from a plume having different geochemical 'footprints'. Coupled with multiple sulphur isotope measurements, trace element geochemistry can be used to help identify sulphur sources within Archean VMS deposits and can be used to interpret camp-wide ore-forming processes and controls on mineralization. This will in turn allow for a more comprehensive understanding of VMS mineralization processes.

  19. Interannual Variations in Tropical Upper-Tropospheric Humidity: Understanding Tropical Convective and Dynamical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Fitzjarrald, Dan E.; Miller, Timothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Uncertainty remains as to what extent variability in mid to upper tropospheric moisture, especially over the tropics, behaves as constant relative humidity during interannual climate variations associated with ENSO. Systematic variations in HIRS 6.7 micron and MLS 205 GHz suggest that dry subtropical regions evolving during warm SST events depress relative humidity, but the interpretation of these events is still uncertain. Additional specific concerns have to do with regional signatures of convective processes: How does the origin of dry air in the eastern subtropical N. Pacific differ in ENSO warm versus cold years? The dynamics of Rossby wave forcing by convective heating, subtropical jet stream dynamics, and dynamics driven subsidence all come into play here. How variations in precipitating ice hydrometeors from tropical anvils relate to variations in UTH is also a subject of debate? Do variations in precipitating ice, cloud cover and water vapor behavior show any support for the Iris-hypothesis mechanism? Here we examine historical records of SSM/T-2 data to gain a better physical understanding of the effects of deep convective moisture sources and dynamically-induced vertical circulations on UTH. These high frequency microwave measurements (183.3 GHz) take advantage of far less sensitivity to cloud hydrometeors than the 6.7 micron data to yield a record of upper tropospheric relative humidity. Furthermore, signatures of precipitating ice from these channels facilitate comparisons to TRMM hydrometeors detected by radar. In analyzing these observations, we isolate water vapor and temperature change components that affect brightness temperatures and the inferred relative humidity. Trajectory modeling is also used to understand interannual humidity anomalies in terms of outflow fbm convective regions and history of diabatically-driven sinking which modifies relative humidity.

  20. A multifaceted approach to understanding dynamic urban processes: satellites, surveys, and censuses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Balk, D.; Montgomery, M.; Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization will arguably be the most significant demographic trend of the 21st century, particularly in fast-growing regions of the developing world. Characterizing urbanization in a spatial context, however, is a difficult task given only the moderate resolution data provided by traditional sources of demographic data (i.e., censuses and surveys). Using a sample of five world "mega-cities" we demonstrate how new satellite data products and new analysis of existing satellite data, when combined with new applications of census and survey microdata, can reveal more about cities and urbanization in combination than either data type can by itself. In addition to the partially modelled Global Urban-Rural Mapping Project (GRUMP) urban extents we consider four sources of remotely sensed data that can be used to estimate urban extents; the NOAA Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) intercallibrated nighttime lights time series data, the newer NOAA Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) nighttime lights data, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) radar satellite data, and Dense Sampling Method (DSM) analysis of the NASA scatterometer data. Demographic data come from national censuses and/or georeferenced survey data from the Demographic & Health Survey (DHS) program. We overlay demographic and remotely sensed data (e.g., Figs 1, 2) to address two questions; (1) how well do satellite derived measures of urban intensity correlate with demographic measures, and (2) how well are temporal changes in the data correlated. Using spatial regression techniques, we then estimate statistical relationships (controlling for influences such as elevation, coastal proximity, and economic development) between the remotely sensed and demographic data and test the ability of each to predict the other. Satellite derived imagery help us to better understand the evolution of the built environment and urban form, while the underlying demographic data provide information regarding composition of urban population change. Combining these types of data yields important, high resolution spatial information that provides a more accurate understanding of urban processes.

  1. Can spectroscopic analysis improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes in agricultural streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Heathwaite, Ann Louise

    2015-04-01

    In agricultural catchments diffuse fluxes of nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from arable land and livestock are responsible for pollution of receiving waters and their eutrophication. Organic matter (OM) can play an important role in mediating a range of biogeochemical processes controlling diffuse pollution in streams and at their interface with surrounding land in the riparian and hyporheic zones. Thus, a holistic and simultaneous monitoring of N, P and OM fractions can help to improve our understanding of biogeochemical functioning of agricultural streams. In this study we build on intensive in situ monitoring of diffuse pollution in a small agricultural groundwater-fed stream in NW England carried out since 2009. The in situ monitoring unit captures high-frequency (15 minutes to hourly) responses of water quality parameters including total phosphorus, total reactive phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen to changing flow conditions. For two consecutive hydrological years we have carried out additional spectroscopic water analyses to characterise organic matter components and their interactions with nutrient fractions. Automated and grab water samples have been analysed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance and excitation-emission (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, a tryptophan sensor was trialled to capture in situ fluorescence dynamics. Our paper evaluates patterns in nutrient and OM responses to baseflow and storm flow conditions and provides an assessment of storage-related changes of automated samples and temperature and turbidity effects on in situ tryptophan measurements. The paper shows the value of spectroscopic measurements to understand biogeochemical and hydrological nutrient dynamics and quantifies analytical uncertainty associated with both laboratory-based and in situ spectroscopic measurements.

  2. Quantitative analysis of precipitation over Fukushima to understand the wet deposition process in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A.; Onda, Y.; Watanabe, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused a severe accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP), leading to the emission of large amounts of radioactive pollutants into the environment. The transport and diffusion of these radioactive pollutants in the atmosphere caused a disaster for residents in and around Fukushima. Studies have sought to understand the transport, diffusion, and deposition process, and to understand the movement of radioactive pollutants through the soil, vegetation, rivers, and groundwater. However, a detailed simulation and understanding of the distribution of radioactive compounds depend on a simulation of precipitation and on the information on the timing of the emission of these radioactive pollutants from the NPP. Past nuclear expansion studies have demonstrated the importance of wet deposition in distributing pollutants. Hence, this study examined the quantitative precipitation pattern in March 2011 using rain-gauge observations and X-band radar data from Fukushima University. We used the AMeDAS rain-gauge network data of 1) the Japan Meteorological Agency (1273 stations in Japan) and 2) the Water Information System (47 stations in Fukushima prefecture) and 3) the rain-gauge data of the Environmental Information Network of NTT Docomo (30 stations in Fukushima) to construct 0.05-degree mesh data using the same method used to create the APHRODITE daily grid precipitation data (Yatagai et al., 2009). Since some AMeDAS data for the coastal region were lost due to the earthquake, the complementary network of 2) and 3) yielded better precipitation estimates. The data clarified that snowfall was observed on the night of Mar 15 into the morning of Mar 16 throughout Fukushima prefecture. This had an important effect on the radioactive contamination pattern in Fukushima prefecture. The precipitation pattern itself does not show one-on-one correspondence with the contamination pattern. While the pollutants transported northeast of the NPP and through north Kanto (about 200 km southwest of Fukushima and, 100 km north of Tokyo) went to the northwest, the timing of the precipitation causing the fallout, i.e., wet-deposition, is important. Although the hourly Radar-AMeDAS 1-km-mesh precipitation data of JMA are available publically, it does not represent the precipitation pattern in Nakadori, in central Fukushima prefecture. Hence, we used 10-minute interval X-band radar, located in north Nakadori to determine the start and detailed horizontal pattern (120-m mesh) of the precipitation. Since 1) and 3) are 10-minute intervals and 2) is hourly data, we are developing hourly gridded data and using 1-3) to verify and quantify the rain rate observed by the Fukushima University X-band data.

  3. Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasil'nikov, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

  4. A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth at 20°W; and 3) a latitude vs. longitude at 4,000 m depth in the entire ocean. Students do this work at home, and come to class prepared with hypotheses that explain variations of their variable observed in their figures. Nutrients, for example, are typically depleted in the surface ocean, increase at intermediate depths, and then typically decrease in deep water. How do oceanic processes drive these variations? In the context of the other variables, and with the help of other group members, they typically develop an understanding of surface productivity, respiration of organic matter in deeper waters, upwelling of deeper water, ocean circulation, insolation, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature dependence of gas solubility. Students then prepare a written explanation to accompany the plots. Cartoon-like depictions of nutrient profiles typically presented in introductory texts have their place, but they lack the complexity inherent in real data. The objective is to mimic the excitement of discovery and the challenge of developing a hypothesis to explain existing data. The ability to develop viable hypotheses to explain real data with real variability are what motivate and inspire many scientists. How can we expect to motivate and inspire students with lackluster descriptions of ocean processes?

  5. carleton.ca Earth Sciences

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    carleton.ca Earth Sciences #12;Earth is our home. It is a dynamic planet, integrating and recording spectrometers or electron microprobes--earth scientists investigate Earth's evolution to help understand future today and for the future is enhanced by the expertise of economic geologists. Knowledge of the Earth

  6. he Earth and Planetary Sciences section of the Platinum Jubilee volume contains a

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    Foreword T he Earth and Planetary Sciences section of the Platinum Jubilee volume contains a set to important physical and chemical processes that occur within the earth, on its surface, and in its atmosphere a better understanding to the evolution of two impor- tant earth phenomena that impact human culture

  7. Earth: Earth Science and Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    A major new NASA initiative on environmental change and health has been established to promote the application of Earth science remote sensing data, information, observations, and technologies to issues of human health. NASA's Earth Sciences suite of Earth observing instruments are now providing improved observations science, data, and advanced technologies about the Earth's land, atmosphere, and oceans. These new space-based resources are being combined with other agency and university resources, data integration and fusion technologies, geographic information systems (GIS), and the spectrum of tools available from the public health community, making it possible to better understand how the environment and climate are linked to specific diseases, to improve outbreak prediction, and to minimize disease risk. This presentation is an overview of NASA's tools, capabilities, and research advances in this initiative.

  8. Rare-earth-doped materials with application to optical signal processing, quantum information science, and medical imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, R. L.; Thiel, C. W.; Sun, Y.; Böttger, Thomas; Macfarlane, R. M.

    2012-02-01

    Unique spectroscopic properties of isolated rare earth ions in solids offer optical linewidths rivaling those of trapped single atoms and enable a variety of recent applications. We design rare-earth-doped crystals, ceramics, and fibers with persistent or transient "spectral hole" recording properties for applications including high-bandwidth optical signal processing where light and our solids replace the high-bandwidth portion of the electronics; quantum cryptography and information science including the goal of storage and recall of single photons; and medical imaging technology for the 700-900 nm therapeutic window. Ease of optically manipulating rare-earth ions in solids enables capturing complex spectral information in 105 to 108 frequency bins. Combining spatial holography and spectral hole burning provides a capability for processing high-bandwidth RF and optical signals with sub-MHz spectral resolution and bandwidths of tens to hundreds of GHz for applications including range-Doppler radar and high bandwidth RF spectral analysis. Simply stated, one can think of these crystals as holographic recording media capable of distinguishing up to 108 different colors. Ultra-narrow spectral holes also serve as a vibration-insensitive sub-kHz frequency reference for laser frequency stabilization to a part in 1013 over tens of milliseconds. The unusual properties and applications of spectral hole burning of rare earth ions in optical materials are reviewed. Experimental results on the promising Tm3+:LiNbO3 material system are presented and discussed for medical imaging applications. Finally, a new application of these materials as dynamic optical filters for laser noise suppression is discussed along with experimental demonstrations and theoretical modeling of the process.

  9. The Role of the Impulse Magnetic Fields in the Process of Earth-like Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, K.; Tunyi, I.; Csataryova, M.; Bocik, A.; Drga, J.

    2015-07-01

    The origin of the internal structure of planets is still an open question, with many details remaining to be understood. Heterogeneous accretion theory could explain the differentiation of the internal structure for Earth-like planets in a straightforward way. The possibility that the mantle may be formed by large planetesimals impacts onto the iron core is also actively debated.

  10. RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: A REVIEW OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, RECYCLING, AND ASSOCIATED ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are a group of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the lanthanides. Two other elements, scandium and yttrium, have a similar physiochemistry to the lanthanides, are commonly found in the same mineral assemblages, and are often refe...

  11. An Exploration of High School (12-17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes towards Biotechnology Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-01-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal…

  12. Integrating Empirical-Modeling Approaches to Improve Understanding of Terrestrial Ecology Processes

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Heather; Luo, Yiqi; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-01-01

    Recent decades have seen tremendous increases in the quantity of empirical ecological data collected by individual investigators, as well as through research networks such as FLUXNET (Baldocchi et al., 2001). At the same time, advances in computer technology have facilitated the development and implementation of large and complex land surface and ecological process models. Separately, each of these information streams provides useful, but imperfect information about ecosystems. To develop the best scientific understanding of ecological processes, and most accurately predict how ecosystems may cope with global change, integration of empirical and modeling approaches is necessary. However, true integration - in which models inform empirical research, which in turn informs models (Fig. 1) - is not yet common in ecological research (Luo et al., 2011). The goal of this workshop, sponsored by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, was to bring together members of the empirical and modeling communities to exchange ideas and discuss scientific practices for increasing empirical - model integration, and to explore infrastructure and/or virtual network needs for institutionalizing empirical - model integration (Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA). The workshop included presentations and small group discussions that covered topics ranging from model-assisted experimental design to data driven modeling (e.g. benchmarking and data assimilation) to infrastructure needs for empirical - model integration. Ultimately, three central questions emerged. How can models be used to inform experiments and observations? How can experimental and observational results be used to inform models? What are effective strategies to promote empirical - model integration?

  13. The emergence of hydrogeophysics for improved understanding of subsurface processes over multiple scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binley, Andrew; Hubbard, Susan S.; Huisman, Johan A.; Revil, André; Robinson, David A.; Singha, Kamini; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-06-01

    Geophysics provides a multidimensional suite of investigative methods that are transforming our ability to see into the very fabric of the subsurface environment, and monitor the dynamics of its fluids and the biogeochemical reactions that occur within it. Here we document how geophysical methods have emerged as valuable tools for investigating shallow subsurface processes over the past two decades and offer a vision for future developments relevant to hydrology and also ecosystem science. The field of "hydrogeophysics" arose in the late 1990s, prompted, in part, by the wealth of studies on stochastic subsurface hydrology that argued for better field-based investigative techniques. These new hydrogeophysical approaches benefited from the emergence of practical and robust data inversion techniques, in many cases with a view to quantify shallow subsurface heterogeneity and the associated dynamics of subsurface fluids. Furthermore, the need for quantitative characterization stimulated a wealth of new investigations into petrophysical relationships that link hydrologically relevant properties to measurable geophysical parameters. Development of time-lapse approaches provided a new suite of tools for hydrological investigation, enhanced further with the realization that some geophysical properties may be sensitive to biogeochemical transformations in the subsurface environment, thus opening up the new field of "biogeophysics." Early hydrogeophysical studies often concentrated on relatively small "plot-scale" experiments. More recently, however, the translation to larger-scale characterization has been the focus of a number of studies. Geophysical technologies continue to develop, driven, in part, by the increasing need to understand and quantify key processes controlling sustainable water resources and ecosystem services.

  14. Understanding Aroma Release from Model Cheeses by a Statistical Multiblock Approach on Oral Processing

    PubMed Central

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant. PMID:24691625

  15. Students' Understanding of Large Numbers as a Key Factor in Their Understanding of Geologic Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of geologic time is comprised of 2 facets. Events in Earth's history can be placed in relative and absolute temporal succession on a vast timescale. Rates of geologic processes vary widely, and some occur over time periods well outside human experience. Several factors likely contribute to an understanding of geologic time, one of…

  16. Enrichment of Rare Earth Elements during magmatic and post-magmatic processes: a case study from the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, A. S.; Goodenough, K. M.; Hughes, H. S. R.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Gunn, A. G.; Rushton, J.; Lacinska, A.

    2013-10-01

    Concern about security of supply of critical elements used in new technologies, such as the Rare Earth Elements (REE), means that it is increasingly important to understand the processes by which they are enriched in crustal settings. High REE contents are found in syenite-dominated alkaline complexes intruded along the Moine Thrust Zone, a major collisional zone in north-west Scotland. The most northerly of these is the Loch Loyal Syenite Complex, which comprises three separate intrusions. One of these, the Cnoc nan Cuilean intrusion, contains two mappable zones: a Mixed Syenite Zone in which mafic melasyenite is mixed and mingled with leucosyenite and a Massive Leucosyenite Zone. Within the Mixed Syenite Zone, hydrothermal activity is evident in the form of narrow altered veins dominated by biotite and magnetite; these are poorly exposed and their lateral extent is uncertain. The REE mineral allanite is relatively abundant in the melasyenite and is extremely enriched in the biotite-magnetite veins, which have up to 2 % total rare earth oxides in bulk rock analyses. An overall model for development of this intrusion can be divided into three episodes: (1) generation of a Light Rare Earth Element (LREE)-enriched parental magma due to enrichment of the mantle source by subduction of pelagic carbonates; (2) early crystallisation of allanite in melasyenite, due to the saturation of the magma in the LREE; and (3) hydrothermal alteration, in three different episodes identified by petrography and mineral chemistry, generating the intense enrichment of REE in the biotite-magnetite veins. Dating of allanite and titanite in the biotite-magnetite veins gives ages of c. 426 Ma, overlapping with previously published crystallisation ages for zircon in the syenite.

  17. Dynamic chromatographic systems for the determination of rare earths and thorium in samples from uranium ore refining processes

    SciTech Connect

    Barkley, D.J.; Blanchette, M.; Cassidy, R.M.; Elchuk, S.

    1986-09-01

    Dynamic ion exchange has been used for the rapid separation (16 min) and determination of rare earths and Y in samples from hydrometallurgical processes used to recover, U, Th, Y, and the rare earths from uranium ore. Optimization of the effective capacity of the dynamic ion exchanger and the selectivity of postcolumn reaction detection permitted analysis down to 0.1 ..mu..g-mL/sup -1/ of the rare earths and yttrium in the presence of U, Th, and a number of other metal ions. A comparison with X-ray fluorescence results showed good agreement, and the chromatographic procedure offered considerable savings in analysis time. Studies with Th(IV) and U(VI) showed that both metal ions exhibited selective sorption of their ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyric complexes, formed in situ in the eluent, onto reversed phases. The analytical results obtained showed that this dynamic separation process could be used for the determination of Th, and its potential for the determination of U was demonstrated.

  18. How Irreversible Heat Transport Processes Drive Earth's Interdependent Thermal, Structural, and Chemical Evolution Providing a Strongly Heterogeneous, Layered Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Because magmatism conveys radioactive isotopes plus latent heat rapidly upwards while advecting heat, this process links and controls the thermal and chemical evolution of Earth. We present evidence that the lower mantle-upper mantle boundary is a profound chemical discontinuity, leading to observed heterogeneities in the outermost layers that can be directly sampled, and construct an alternative view of Earth's internal workings. Earth's beginning involved cooling via explosive outgassing of substantial ice (mainly CO) buried with dust during accretion. High carbon content is expected from Solar abundances and ice in comets. Reaction of CO with metal provided a carbide-rich core while converting MgSiO3 to olivine via oxidizing reactions. Because thermodynamic law (and buoyancy of hot particles) indicates that primordial heat from gravitational segregation is neither large nor carried downwards, whereas differentiation forced radioactive elements upwards, formation of the core and lower mantle greatly cooled the Earth. Reference conductive geotherms, calculated using accurate and new thermal diffusivity data, require that heat-producing elements are sequestered above 670 km which limits convection to the upper mantle. These irreversible beginnings limit secular cooling to radioactive wind-down, permiting deduction of Earth's inventory of heat-producing elements from today's heat flux. Coupling our estimate for heat producing elements with meteoritic data indicates that Earth's oxide content has been underestimated. Density sorting segregated a Si-rich, peridotitic upper mantle from a refractory, oxide lower mantle with high Ca, Al and Ti contents, consistent with diamond inclusion mineralogy. Early and rapid differentiation means that internal temperatures have long been buffered by freezing of the inner core, allowing survival of crust as old as ca.4 Ga. Magmatism remains important. Melt escaping though stress-induced fractures in the rigid lithosphere imparts a lateral component and preferred direction to upper mantle circulation. Mid-ocean magma production over ca. 4 Ga has deposited a slab volume at 670 km that is equivalent to the transition zone, thereby continuing differentiation by creating a late-stage chemical discontinuity near 400 km. This ongoing process has generated the observed lateral and vertical heterogeneity above 670 km.

  19. A deeper understanding of processes controlling hydrogeochemical fluxes through shallow karstic critical zones (the epikarst). (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, B.; Gerard, B.; Schreiber, M. E.; Schwinning, S.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting the magnitude and timing of hydrologic and geochemical fluxes through epikarst systems in response to environmental drivers (precipitation, evapotranspiration) is difficult. In the past, much work has focused on using hydrograph and chemograph data to estimate hydrologic properties and physical structure of the epikarst and less has been done to develop predictive models for the occurrence and magnitude of these responses. Predictive models are useful for a variety of reasons including water balance/recharge calculations and as a foundation for better characterizing the physical, chemical, and biological processes that influence infiltration into and recharge through the epikarst, and the evolution of waters along flowpaths. Over the past six years, we have collected continuous high-frequency discharge, geochemical, and environmental data at several sites in caves in Texas and Virginia, and detailed ecohydrologic data at the TX site. A simple predictive model of recharge response and magnitude has been developed for drip-site and springshed scale in TX, and a similar model is under development for the VA site. In both cases, data and modeling results allow hypothesis testing and questions to be answered regarding how the epikarst and related soil and biological systems function to store and transfer water vertically (up and down) and horizontally (via perched aquifers). Surprisingly, even though the two sites have few similarities with regard to structure, lithology, or climate, there are similarities in terms of how hydrologic responses in the caves are controlled by short-term (seasonal or shorter) environmental parameters. While these specific models are not applicable to all epikarst systems, they do suggest that similar approaches can be used to understand the most important environmental controls on infiltration and recharge in other settings. Our results highlight the importance of long-term monitoring at a range of in-cave sites with different hydrologic properties in order to develop a reasonable conceptual model of flow and storage in the epikarst. Our understanding of how these systems function has been greatly facilitated by three approaches: 1) long-term continuous data spanning multiple seasons or climatic cycles, 2) an interdisciplinary approach, and 3) conceptualization of the epikarst a critical zone rather than as a system dominated by bedrock for and geologic structure.

  20. Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-08-01

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help students to understand such connections as they communicate what they know and how they know it. Although tools such as vee-maps can scaffold students' efforts to design investigations, we know less about how these tools support students in connecting scientific ideas with the evidence they are generating, how these connections develop over time, or how writing can be used to encourage such connections. In this study, we explored students' developing ability to reason scientifically by examining the relationship between students' understanding of scientific phenomena and their understanding of how to generate and evaluate evidence for their ideas in writing. Three high school classes completed three investigations. One class used vee-mapping each time, one used vee-mapping once, and one did not use vee-mapping. Students' maps and written reports were rated for understanding of relevant science procedural and conceptual ideas. Comparisons between groups and over time indicate a positive relationship between improved procedural and conceptual understanding. Findings also indicate that improved procedural understanding preceded improved conceptual understanding, and thus, multiple experiences were needed for students to connect evidence and explanation for science phenomena.

  1. The etching process of boron nitride by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides under high pressure and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, W.; Ma, H.A.; Jia, X.

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Appropriate etch processes of hBN and cBN under HPHT are proposed. • The degree of the crystallization of hBN was decreased. • A special cBN growth mechanism with a triangular unit is proposed. • Plate-shape cBN crystals with large ratio of length to thickness were obtained. • A strategy provides useful guidance for controlling the cBN morphology. - Abstract: Some new etching processes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and cubic boron nitride (cBN) under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth fluorides have been discussed. It is found that hBN is etched distinctly by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the morphology of hBN is significantly changed from plate-shape to spherical-shape. Based on the “graphitization index” values of hBN, the degree of the crystallization of hBN under high pressure and high temperature decreases in the sequence of LiF > CaF{sub 2} > MgF{sub 2}. This facilitates the formation of high-quality cBN single crystals. Different etch steps, pits, and islands are observed on cBN surface, showing the strong etching by alkali and alkaline earth fluorides and the tendency of layer-by-layer growth. A special layer growth mechanism of cBN with a triangular unit has been found. Furthermore, the morphologies of cBN crystals are apparently affected by a preferential surface etching of LiF, CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2}. Respectively, the plate-shape and tetrahedral cBN crystals can be obtained in the presence of different alkali and alkaline earth fluorides.

  2. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the terrestrial planets: importance for understanding of processes of their formation and subsequent development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.; Bogatikov, O.

    2009-04-01

    Our knowledge about formation and evolution of the terrestrial planets (the Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury and, possibly, the Moon) based on different physical and geochemical speculations and models. The main disadvantage of such hypotheses is their abstract character and ignoring any data on tectonomagmatic evolution of those planets. At the same time, just this type of data provide an important information, which is necessary for elaborating of a present-day theory of their formation and evolution. The Earth has been much better studied compared to the other planets, therefore we will discuss the main questions of planetary tectonomagmatic evolution using the Earth as example plus involve other data on the Moon and the terrestrial planets. Two dominating hypotheses about composition of the primordial Earth's crust exist now: (1) traditional implies that the primordial crust had basic composition, whereas the sialic crust resulted from a geosyncline process or, in modern terms, from processes at convergent plate margins, and (2) primordial crust was sialic; the plate tectonic mechanisms started in the Middle Paleoproterozoic and resulted in oceanic spreading and formation of the secondary oceanic crust. Both models require a global melting of a primary chondritic material to form the primordial crust. The final result depends on the degree of melt differentiation during solidification of a magmatic ocean. Such a solidification, due to differences between adiabatic and melting-points gradients had to proceed in bottom-top direction (Jeffries, 1929) and resulted in accumulation of low-temperature derivates in the primordial crust. Geological data, namely granite-dominated Archean crust, and results of studying of detrital zircon from Australia supports the primordial-sialic crust hypothesis. The Moon which is four times smaller than Earth has a basic primordial crust. Such a difference can be explained by different depths of their magmatic oceans. The Early Precambrian (Archean, Early Paleoproterozoic) tectonomagmatic activity on the Earth was rather different from the Phanerozoic: the major features then were huge granite-greenstone terranes (GGTs) and their separating granulite belts; mantle melts were derived from a depleted source. The GGTs consisting of greenstone belts with komatiite-basaltic magmatism in Archean, "submerged" in granite gneiss matrix, probably, strong reworked primordial sialic crust, and by siliceous high-Mg series (SHMS) in early Paleoproterozoic. GGTs were areas of extension, uplifting and denudation, whereas the granulite belts were dominated by compression, sinking and sedimentation. Generally, the Early Precambrian geological pattern was rather different from the modern plate tectonics and can be described in plumetectonics terms. A drastic change of the tectonomagamtic and ecology processes on it's surface occurred at ca. 2.3-2.0 Ga: instead of high-Mg magmas appeared geochemical enriched Fe-Ti pucrites and basalts, and the plume tectonic was changed by plate tectonics, which is still active now, as well as ecologic situation on the surface. Since that time the primordial sialic continental crust has been gradually replaced by the secondary basaltic oceanic crust. Systematic consumption of the ancient crust in subduction zones obviously started at ~2 Ga and led to gradually replacing it by the secondary mafic (oceanic) crust. The crustal materials has stored in the "slab cemeteries", revealed in the mantle by seismic tomography. Tectonomagmatic evolution of the Moon began4.4-4.0 Ga in lunar highlands with low-Ti magnesium suite, analogous to the terrestrial Paleoproterozoic SHMS. Cardinal change of tectonomagmatic processes, close to that on the Earth, happed on the Moon ~3.9 Ga to form large depressions of lunar maria with thinned crust and vast basaltic volcanism with signatures of plume magmatism (high-Ti basalts). The lunar maria were, probably, specific analogues of Earth's oceans. On Venus and Mars also two main types of morphostructures, which are vast fields of basal

  3. A strategy for Earth science from space in the 1980s. Part 1: Solid earth and oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The report develops a ten-year science strategy for investigating the solid earth and dynamics of world oceans from Earth orbit. The strategy begins from the premise that earth studies have proceeded to the point where further advances in understanding Earth processes must be based on a global perspective and that the U.S. is technically ready to begin a global study approach from Earth orbit. The major areas of study and their fundamental problems are identified. The strategy defines the primary science objectives to be addressed and the essential measurements and precision to achieve them.

  4. Integration of multi-discipline data processing for earth observing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Chase, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The first steps taken to ensure the controlled evolution of existing facilities toward greater interoperability and sharing of resources among NASA-supported earth science and applications data systems (ESADS) are described. Recommendations made by the various panels during the 1987 ESADS Workshop are presented. The panels were concerned with directories and catalogs, data archives, data manipulation software, computational facilities, data storage media, database management, and networking. Consideration was also given to the tracking and tuning of overall development and management coordination issues.

  5. Efficient qubit detection using alkaline-earth-metal ions and a double stimulated Raman adiabatic process

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Ditte; Soerensen, Jens L.; Thomsen, Jakob B.; Drewsen, Michael

    2007-12-15

    We present a scheme for robust and efficient projection measurement of a qubit consisting of the two magnetic sublevels in the electronic ground state of alkaline-earth-metal ions. The scheme is based on two stimulated Raman adiabatic passages involving four partially coherent laser fields. We show how the efficiency depends on experimentally relevant parameters: Rabi frequencies, pulse widths, laser linewidths, one- and two-photon detunings, residual laser power, laser polarization, and ion motion.

  6. Using Advanced Remote Sensing Data Fusion Techniques for Studying Earth Surface Processes and Hazards: A Landslide Detection Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulslander, D.

    2014-12-01

    A major problem in earth surface process and hazards research is we have little to no knowledge of precisely where and when the next significant event may occur. This makes it nearly impossible to set up adequate instrumentation and observation ahead of time. Furthermore, it is not practical to overcome this challenge by instrumenting and observing everywhere all the time. We can't be everywhere and see everything. Remote sensing helps us to fill that gap with missions such as Landsat and WorldView2 offering regular global coverage. However, remote sensing systems for global monitoring have several inherent compromises. Tradeoffs must be made between data storage, processing capacity, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and temporal resolution. Additionally, instruments and systems must be designed in advance and from a generalized standpoint to serve as many purposes as possible, often at the expense of high performance in specific tasks. Because of these practical constraints, when using remote sensing data to study earth surface processes it is critical to maximize signal content or information obtained from all available data. Several approaches, including multi-temporal data fusion, multi-sensor data fusion, and fusion with derivative products such as band ratios or vegetation indices can help expand how much information can be extracted from remote sensing acquisitions. Fused dataset results contain more coherent information than the sum of their individual constituents. Examples using Landsat and WorldView2 data in this study show this added information makes it possible to map earth surface processes and events, such as the 2011 Cinque Terre landslides, in a more automated and repeatable fashion over larger areas than is possible with manual imagery analysis techniques and with greater chance of successful detection.

  7. Basic technologies of web services framework for research, discovery, and processing the disparate massive Earth observation data from heterogeneous sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savorskiy, V.; Lupyan, E.; Balashov, I.; Burtsev, M.; Proshin, A.; Tolpin, V.; Ermakov, D.; Chernushich, A.; Panova, O.; Kuznetsov, O.; Vasilyev, V.

    2014-04-01

    Both development and application of remote sensing involves a considerable expenditure of material and intellectual resources. Therefore, it is important to use high-tech means of distribution of remote sensing data and processing results in order to facilitate access for as much as possible number of researchers. It should be accompanied with creation of capabilities for potentially more thorough and comprehensive, i.e. ultimately deeper, acquisition and complex analysis of information about the state of Earth's natural resources. As well objective need in a higher degree of Earth observation (EO) data assimilation is set by conditions of satellite observations, in which the observed objects are uncontrolled state. Progress in addressing this problem is determined to a large extent by order of the distributed EO information system (IS) functioning. Namely, it is largely dependent on reducing the cost of communication processes (data transfer) between spatially distributed IS nodes and data users. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of data exchange processes is the creation of integrated EO IS optimized for running procedures of distributed data processing. The effective EO IS implementation should be based on specific software architecture.

  8. Refining the Understanding of Inhibitory Processes: How Response Prepotency Is Created and Overcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Andrew; Riggs, Kevin J.; Beck, Sarah R.; Gorniak, Sarah L.; Wu, Yvette; Abbott, David; Diamond, Adele

    2012-01-01

    Understanding (a) how responses become prepotent provides insights into when inhibition is needed in everyday life. Understanding (b) how response prepotency is overcome provides insights for helping children develop strategies for overcoming such tendencies. Concerning (a), on tasks such as the day-night Stroop-like task, is the difficulty with…

  9. The Grieving Process in Children: Strategies for Understanding, Educating, and Reconciling Children's Perceptions of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Clarissa A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of how young children understand death, and offers concrete strategies for talking to children about death and suggestions for teachers about how to help children of various ages through grief and mourning. Highlights developmental differences in four components of children's understanding of death: irreversibility, finality,…

  10. Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help…

  11. The worldwide collapse caldera database (CCDB): A tool for studying and understanding caldera processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Adelina; Marti, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Collapse calderas are one of the most important volcanic structures not only because of their hazard implications, but also because of their high geothermal energy potential and their association with mineral deposits of economic interest. In 2008 we presented a new general worldwide Collapse Caldera DataBase (CCDB), in order to provide a useful and accessible tool for studying and understanding caldera collapse processes. The principal aim of the CCDB is to update the current field based knowledge on calderas, merging together the existing databases and complementing them with new examples found in the bibliography, and leaving it open for the incorporation of new data from future studies. Currently, the database includes over 450 documented calderas around the world, trying to be representative enough to promote further studies and analyses. We have performed a comprehensive compilation of published field studies of collapse calderas including more than 500 references, and their information has been summarized in a database linked to a Geographical Information System (GIS) application. Thus, it is possible to visualize the selected calderas on a world map and to filter them according to different features recorded in the database (e.g. age, structure). The information recorded in the CCDB can be grouped in seven main information classes: caldera features, properties of the caldera-forming deposits, magmatic system, geodynamic setting, pre-caldera volcanism,caldera-forming eruption sequence and post-caldera activity. Additionally, we have added two extra classes. The first records the references consulted for each caldera. The second allows users to introduce comments on the caldera sample such as possible controversies concerning the caldera origin. During the last seven years, the database has been available on-line at http://www.gvb-csic.es/CCDB.htm previous registration. This year, the CCDB webpage will be updated and improved so the database content can be queried on-line. This research was partially funded by the research fellowship RYC-2012-11024.

  12. Constraining land carbon cycle process understanding with observations of atmospheric CO2 variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Liu, Y.; Zeng, F.; Ivanoff, A.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluate our understanding of the land biospheric carbon cycle by benchmarking a model and its variants to atmospheric CO2 observations and to an atmospheric CO2 inversion. Though the seasonal cycle in CO2 observations is well simulated by the model (RMSE/standard deviation of observations <0.5 at most sites north of 15N and <1 for Southern Hemisphere sites) different model setups suggest that the CO2 seasonal cycle provides some constraint on gross photosynthesis, respiration, and fire fluxes revealed in the amplitude and phase at northern latitude sites. CarbonTracker inversions (CT) and model show similar phasing of the seasonal fluxes but agreement in the amplitude varies by region. We also evaluate interannual variability (IAV) in the measured atmospheric CO2 which, in contrast to the seasonal cycle, is not well represented by the model. We estimate the contributions of biospheric and fire fluxes, and atmospheric transport variability to explaining observed variability in measured CO2. Comparisons with CT show that modeled IAV has some correspondence to the inversion results >40N though fluxes match poorly at regional to continental scales. Regional and global fire emissions are strongly correlated with variability observed at northern flask sample sites and in the global atmospheric CO2 growth rate though in the latter case fire emissions anomalies are not large enough to account fully for the observed variability. We discuss remaining unexplained variability in CO2 observations in terms of the representation of fluxes by the model. This work also demonstrates the limitations of the current network of CO2 observations and the potential of new denser surface measurements and space based column measurements for constraining carbon cycle processes in models.

  13. UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE'SINFLUENCE

    E-print Network

    UNDERSTANDING CLIMATE'SINFLUENCE ON HUMAN EVOLUTION #12;Committee on the Earth System Context for Hominin Evolution Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies #12;THE: Australopithecus africanus, 2.5 million years old; Homo rudolfensis, 1.9 million years old; Homo erectus, ~1

  14. Bacteria and Archaea have an essential role in earth system processes. They are

    E-print Network

    . With the increasing reliance on specific microbial processes (in, for example, wastewater treatment, industrial increase the efficiency of wastewater treatment processes, through the predic- tion of optimal operating

  15. Earth System Science Research Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    The Earth System Science Research Course is a unique class implemented by Frederick County Public Schools. The course (ESSR) was designed in conjunction with NASA Education Specialists and is supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Students in this course have the opportunity to use data from cutting edge earth science experiments while researching their own topics and answering research questions. The course culminates with a group of the students presenting their findings to NASA scientists and touring the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Earth System Science Research course provides eleventh and twelfth grade students an opportunity to study Earth System Science using the most up-to-date data developed through current technologies. The systems approach to this course helps students understand the complexity and interrelatedness of the Earth system. This course is an elective offering designed to engage students in the study of the Atmosphere, Biosphere, Cryosphere, Geosphere, and Hydrosphere. This course allows students to utilize research skills and processes gained from previous science courses to study the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the Earth system. The main goal of this course is to teach the students how to do original, independent research about the Earth system. At the conclusions of the course the students will have gathered and interpreted scientific data to answer a question that they have constructed, and design a presentation to reflect their results. Course Objectives: Describe the Earth as a dynamic and complex system. Describe the components of the Earth system. Describe how the system responds to natural and human induced changes. Access and process information from readings, investigations, and communications. Create and/or interpret graphics to analyze data and evaluate hypotheses. Analyze appropriate data to classify, identify trends and identify similarities and differences to form conclusions and apply what has been learned to evaluate the hypothesis. Use computational tools and technologies in data collection and analysis. Interpret and communicate findings.

  16. Earth Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  17. Understanding runoff processes in a semi-arid environment through isotope and hydrochemical hydrograph separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho Suarez, V. V.; Saraiva Okello, A. M. L.; Wenninger, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2015-10-01

    The understanding of runoff generation mechanisms is crucial for the sustainable management of river basins such as the allocation of water resources or the prediction of floods and droughts. However, identifying the mechanisms of runoff generation has been a challenging task, even more so in arid and semi-arid areas where high rainfall and streamflow variability, high evaporation rates, and deep groundwater reservoirs may increase the complexity of hydrological process dynamics. Isotope and hydrochemical tracers have proven to be useful in identifying runoff components and their characteristics. Moreover, although widely used in humid temperate regions, isotope hydrograph separations have not been studied in detail in arid and semi-arid areas. Thus the purpose of this study is to determine whether isotope hydrograph separations are suitable for the quantification and characterization of runoff components in a semi-arid catchment considering the hydrological complexities of these regions. Through a hydrochemical characterization of the surface water and groundwater sources of the catchment and two- and three-component hydrograph separations, runoff components of the Kaap catchment in South Africa were quantified using both isotope and hydrochemical tracers. No major disadvantages while using isotope tracers over hydrochemical tracers were found. Hydrograph separation results showed that runoff in the Kaap catchment is mainly generated by groundwater sources. Two-component hydrograph separations revealed groundwater contributions of between 64 and 98 % of total runoff. By means of three-component hydrograph separations, runoff components were further separated into direct runoff, shallow and deep groundwater components. Direct runoff, defined as the direct precipitation on the stream channel and overland flow, contributed up to 41 % of total runoff during wet catchment conditions. Shallow groundwater defined as the soil water and near-surface water component (and potentially surface runoff) contributed up to 45 % of total runoff, and deep groundwater contributed up to 84 % of total runoff. A strong correlation for the four studied events was found between the antecedent precipitation conditions and direct runoff. These findings suggest that direct runoff is enhanced by wetter conditions in the catchment that trigger saturation excess overland flow as observed in the hydrograph separations.

  18. Excited states structure and processes: Understanding organic light-emitting diodes at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Zhigang; Peng, Qian

    2014-04-01

    Photo- or electro-excited states in polyatomic molecules, aggregates, and conjugated polymers are at the center of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These can decay radiatively or non-radiatively, determining the luminescence quantum efficiency of molecular materials. According to Kasha’s rule, light-emission is dictated by the lowest-lying excited state. For conjugated polymers, the electron correlation effect can lead the lowest-lying excited state to the even-parity 2Ag state which is non-emissive. To understand the nature of the low-lying excited state structure, we developed the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) theory and its symmetrization scheme for quantum chemistry applied to calculate the excited states structure. We found there are three types of 1Bu/2Ag crossover behaviors: with electron correlation strength U, with bond length alternation, and with conjugation length. These directly influence the light-emitting property. For the electro-excitation, carriers (electron and hole) are injected independently, forming both singlet and triplet excited bound states with statistically 25% and 75% portions, respectively. We found that the exciton formation rate can depend on spin manifold, and for conjugated polymers, the singlet exciton can have larger formation rate leading to the internal electroluminescence quantum efficiency larger than the 25% spin statistical limit. It is originated from the interchain electron correlation as well as intrachain lattice relaxation. For the dipole allowed emissive state, the radiative decay process via either spontaneous emission or stimulated emission can be computed from electronic structure plus vibronic couplings. The challenging issue lies in the non-radiative decay via non-adiabatic coupling and/or spin-orbit coupling. We developed a unified correlation function formalism for the excited state radiative and non-radiative decay rates. We emphasized the low-frequency mode mixing (Duschinsky rotation) effect on the non-radiative decay. We further combined the non-adiabatic coupling and spin-orbit coupling for the triplet state decay (phosphorescence) quantum efficiency. All the formalisms have been developed analytically, which have been applied to optical spectroscopy, aggregation-induced emission phenomena, and polymer photovoltaic property.

  19. The initiation of biological processes on earth: Summary of empirical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schidlowski, Manfred

    With the currently available geological record at hand, the existence of life on this planet as from at least 3.8 Gyr ago seems so firmly established as to be virtually unassailable. Specifically, various disparate lines of evidence have merged to indicate (1) that the surface of the Archaean Earth had hosted prolific microbial ecosystems as is testified by a quasi-continuous record of microbialites (``stromatolites'') and associated microfossils of prokaryotic affinity over 3.5, if not 3.8 Gyr of geological history, and (2) that the sedimentary carbon record has preserved the isotopic signature of autotrophic (notably photosynthetic) carbon fixation over the same time span. With the observed enrichment of isotopically light carbon in sedimentary organic matter largely consonant with the bias in favor of 12C during photosynthesis, the mainstream of the carbon isotope record can be best explained as geochemical manifestation of the isotope discriminating properties of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase reaction of the Calvin cycle suggesting an extreme degree of evolutionary conservatism in the biochemistry of autotrophic carbon fixation. As a consequence, partial biological control of the geochemical carbon cycle was established already during Early Archaean times and fully operative by the time of formation of the Earth's earliest sediments.

  20. Rare earth fluoride solubilities, complex formation and thermodynamic functions for the solution process

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Jackson, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The solubilities, solubility products and thermodynamic functions for four rare earth fluoride-water systems, LaF/sub 3/(s)-H/sub 2/O(1), NdF/sub 3/(s)-H/sub 2/O(1), SmF/sub 3/(s)-H/sub 2/O(1) and GdF/sub 3/(s)-H/sub 2/O(1), have been measured using conductometric and potentiometric techniques. Radiometric procedure was also employed for the measurement of solubilities of LaF/sub 3/ and NdF/sub 3/. Among the rare earth fluorides studied so far, gadolinium trifluoride was found to have the highest solubility, differing from the solubilities of other fluorides by a factor of ten. There is also considerable difference in the values for thermodynamic functions for the dissolution of GdF/sub 3/ from those of other fluorides. There is evidence for the existence of the monofluoride and difluoride complexes of the lanthanons studied in this work. The stability constants for the monfluoride complexes range from 427 for LaF/sup +2/ to 1215 for GdF/sup +2/ while those for the difluoride complexes are of the order of 10/sup 4/. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Chlorine Partitioning Between Mantle and Core: Implications for Early Earth Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Z.; Draper, D.; Agee, C.

    2008-12-01

    The ratio of chlorine in the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) to primitive carbonaceous chondrites (or solar abundance) is an order of magnitude below that expected for a moderately volatile element. Given that crustal and mantle concentrations of Cl are fairly well constrained, the enormous Cl depletion can be attributed to any of three possible explanations: 1) a missing sink on Earth, 2) a ~500K overestimate of the 50% condensation temperature of Cl from the solar nebula or 3) an early volatile loss of Cl during Earth formation. Accepting the Cl concentrations of mantle and crust, McDonough (Treatise Geochem. 2003) proposed a core sink, with a Cl concentration of 200 ppm. We tested this hypothesis by conducting high pressure Cl partitioning experiments. Two experiments, one (A503) with equal proportions of primitive basalt (10.4 wt% MgO, Mg# 67) and pure Fe with 0.4 wt% FeCl2, and the second (A505) with equal proportions of basalt and Fe95.5S4.5 with 1.56 wt% FeCl2, were run in graphite capsules at 5 GPa and 1800° C in a Walker-style multianvil press. Both experiments produced homogeneous quenched silicate and metallic liquid. Average Cl contents in the quenched silicate melts were 5300±700 ppm for A503 and 10500±1000 ppm for A505 (2?, n=6). Cl contents in metal were below detection (60 ppm) in A503 and in three of the six analyses of metal in A505; the average value for the above-detection points in that run was 140±50 ppm. The maximum metal-silicate DCl values are 0.011 and 0.018 for A503 and A505, respectively, three orders of magnitude lower than required for significant sequestration of Cl in the core. Unless there are strong effects of pressure and/or silicate liquid composition on DCl, our experimental results imply that Cl does not reside in the core. Explaining the low Cl concentrations on Earth via a lower 50% condensation temperature requires a decrease of >500K from previous estimates. This is inconsistent with all thermodynamic data for sodalite formation or the crystallization of NaCl(s) from vapor. The third possibility is that Cl was lost during expulsion of a primary atmosphere. Cl is classified as lithophile, but it is uniquely partitioned into water, making it 'hydrophile'. If Cl was strongly concentrated in an early ocean or atmosphere as HCl(g) or dissolved chloride, a large impact could volatilize the early ocean, causing Cl loss to space (e.g., Genda and Abe, Nature 2005), explaining the low Cl content on Earth.

  2. How Students Choose a College: Understanding the Role of Internet Based Resources in the College Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Kimberli R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how current internet-based resources are affecting the college choice process. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and the study involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase to explain the quantitative data in greater depth. An additional study was…

  3. Understanding the Implementation Process of a Multi-Component Health Promotion Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundblom, Elinor; Bergström, Helena; Ellinder, Liselotte Schäfer

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a need to better understand implementation processes of health interventions. This study describes the implementation of a multicomponent intervention to improve diet and physical activity among adults with intellectual disabilities, viewed from the perspectives of staff and managers. Materials and Methods: All health…

  4. Welcome to College? Developing a Richer Understanding of the Transition Process for Adult First Year Students Using Reflective Written Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; Moore, Sarah; Morley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the process of adjustment among adult learners by focusing on their own perceptions as they make the transition to higher education in an Irish setting, in order to gain a richer understanding about early university experience. The analysis of the journal-based reflections confirms existing insights about the complexity of…

  5. Enduring Understandings, Artistic Processes, and the New Visual Arts Standards: A Close-up Consideration for Curriculum Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Marilyn G.

    2014-01-01

    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Writing Team member Marilyn G. Stewart discusses what to expect from the new "next generation" Visual Arts Standards, detailing the 4 Artistic Processes and 15 Enduring Understandings. This invited essay addresses the instructional aspects of the standards, and looks at how they can help…

  6. The Adoption Process of Ricefield-Based Fish Seed Production in Northwest Bangladesh: An Understanding through Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Mohammad Mahfujul; Little, David C.; Barman, Benoy K.; Wahab, Md. Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand the adoption process of ricefield based fish seed production (RBFSP) that has been developed, promoted and established in Northwest Bangladesh. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative investigation based on regression analysis and qualitative investigation using semi-structured interview were…

  7. Weathering processes and landforms The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth,

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    ForReview Only Weathering processes and landforms Journal: The International Encyclopedia, and Technology #12;ForReview Only Weathering processes and landforms Tyler J. Thompson Arizona State University to the processes of rock decay. [We use the term `rock decay' rather than `weathering' throughout this entry

  8. Observational evidence of competing source, loss, and transport processes for relativistic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Drew; Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Rodriguez, Juan; Henderson, Mike; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Morley, Steven; Claudepierre, Seth; Li, Wen; Kellerman, Adam; Boyd, Alexander; Kim, Kyung-Chan

    Earth’s outer electron radiation belt is a region of extreme variability, with relativistic electron intensities changing by orders of magnitude over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Extreme variations of outer belt electrons ultimately result from the relative impacts of various competing source (and acceleration), loss, and transport processes. Most of these processes involve wave-particle interactions between outer belt electrons and different types of plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere, and in turn, the activity of these waves depends on different solar wind and magnetospheric driving conditions and thus can vary drastically from event to event. Using multipoint analysis with data from NASA’s Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions, NOAA’s GOES and POES constellations, and ground-based observatories, we present results from case studies revealing how different source/acceleration and loss mechanisms compete during active periods to result in drastically different distributions of outer belt electrons. By using a combination of low-Earth orbiting and high-altitude-equatorial orbiting satellites, we briefly review how it is possible to get a much more complete picture of certain wave activity and electron losses over the full range of MLTs and L-shells throughout the radiation belt. We then show example cases highlighting the importance of particular mechanisms, including: substorm injections and whistler-mode chorus waves for the source and acceleration of relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves for sudden losses; and ULF wave activity for driving radial transport, a process which is important for redistributing relativistic electrons, contributing both to acceleration and loss processes. We show how relativistic electron enhancement events involve local acceleration that is consistent with wave-particle interactions between a seed population of 10s to 100s of keV electrons, with a source in the plasma sheet, and chorus waves. We show how sudden losses during outer belt dropout events are dominated at higher L-shells (L>~4) by magnetopause shadowing and outward radial transport, which is effective over the full ranges of energy and equatorial pitch angle of outer belt electrons, but at lower L-shells near the plasmapause, energy and pitch angle dependent losses can also occur and are consistent with rapid scattering by interactions between relativistic electrons and EMIC waves. We show cases demonstrating how these different processes occur simultaneously during active periods, with relative effects that vary as a function of L-shell and electron energy and pitch angle. Ultimately, our results highlight the complexity of competing source/acceleration, loss, and transport processes in Earth’s outer radiation belt and the necessity of using multipoint observations to disambiguate between them for future studies.

  9. Advances in understanding and parameterization of small-scale physical processes in the marine Arctic climate system: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihma, T.; Pirazzini, R.; Fer, I.; Renfrew, I. A.; Sedlar, J.; Tjernström, M.; Lüpkes, C.; Nygård, T.; Notz, D.; Weiss, J.; Marsan, D.; Cheng, B.; Birnbaum, G.; Gerland, S.; Chechin, D.; Gascard, J. C.

    2014-09-01

    The Arctic climate system includes numerous highly interactive small-scale physical processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean. During and since the International Polar Year 2007-2009, significant advances have been made in understanding these processes. Here, these recent advances are reviewed, synthesized, and discussed. In atmospheric physics, the primary advances have been in cloud physics, radiative transfer, mesoscale cyclones, coastal, and fjordic processes as well as in boundary layer processes and surface fluxes. In sea ice and its snow cover, advances have been made in understanding of the surface albedo and its relationships with snow properties, the internal structure of sea ice, the heat and salt transfer in ice, the formation of superimposed ice and snow ice, and the small-scale dynamics of sea ice. For the ocean, significant advances have been related to exchange processes at the ice-ocean interface, diapycnal mixing, double-diffusive convection, tidal currents and diurnal resonance. Despite this recent progress, some of these small-scale physical processes are still not sufficiently understood: these include wave-turbulence interactions in the atmosphere and ocean, the exchange of heat and salt at the ice-ocean interface, and the mechanical weakening of sea ice. Many other processes are reasonably well understood as stand-alone processes but the challenge is to understand their interactions with and impacts and feedbacks on other processes. Uncertainty in the parameterization of small-scale processes continues to be among the greatest challenges facing climate modelling, particularly in high latitudes. Further improvements in parameterization require new year-round field campaigns on the Arctic sea ice, closely combined with satellite remote sensing studies and numerical model experiments.

  10. Understanding the Zongo : processes of socio-spatial marginalization in Ghana

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Emily Anne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial processes of marginalization and ghettoization have been described, labeled, and theorized extensively in the United States and Europe, yet there has been little research dedicated to these processes in the ...

  11. Relation between the Electromagnetic Processes in the Near-Earth Space and Dynamics of the Biological Resources in Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, L. N.; Shirochkov, A. V.

    It is a well-established fact that the electromagnetic processes of different kind occurring in the near- Earth space produce significant effects in the Earth's atmosphere at all altitudes including the ground surface. There are some indications that these processes could influence at least indirectly the human health conditions. In this study we explore relation between perturbations in the solar wind (dynamics of its density, velocity, intensity of the interplanetary magnetic field) and long- term changes in population of some species of Arctic fauna (lemmings, polar foxes, deers, wolves, elks etc.) It was found out that the best statistical coupling between various Space Weather parameters and the changes in populations of the Arctic fauna species appears when the solar wind dynamic pressure magnitude is taken as one of these parameters. It was shown that the secular variations of the solar UV radiation expressed as the Total Solar Irradiance appears to be a space parameter, showing the best correlation with the changes in population of the Arctic fauna species. Such high correlation coefficients as 0.8 are obtained. It is premature now to discuss exact physical mechanisms, which could explain the obtained relations. A possible mutual dependence of some climatic factors and fauna population in Arctic on the Space Weather parameters is discussed in this connection. Conclusion is made that the electromagnetic fields of space origin is an important factor determining dynamics of population of the Arctic fauna species.

  12. Modification of phonon processes in nano-structured rare-earth-ion-doped crystals

    E-print Network

    Thomas Lutz; Lucile Veissier; Charles W. Thiel; Rufus L. Cone; Paul E. Barclay; Wolfgang Tittel

    2015-09-11

    Nano-structuring impurity-doped crystals affects the phonon density of states and thereby modifies the atomic dynamics induced by interaction with phonons. We propose the use of nanostructured materials in the form of powders or phononic bandgap crystals to enable or improve persistent spectral hole-burning and coherence for inhomogeneously broadened absorption lines in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals. This is crucial for applications such as ultra-precise radio-frequency spectrum analyzers and optical quantum memories. As an example, we discuss how phonon engineering can enable spectral hole burning in erbium-doped materials operating in the convenient telecommunication band, and present simulations for density of states of nano-sized powders and phononic crystals for the case of Y2SiO5, a widely-used material in current quantum memory research.

  13. Improving the representation of terrestrial ecosystem processes in Earth system models to increase the quality of climate model projections and inform DOE's energy decisions

    E-print Network

    roles in Earth's climate and its response to change, potentially enhancing or lessening the e ects their biological properties in response to disturbances such as climate change. Key questions include: What climate modify the rate of climate change itself? Understanding and predicting terrestrial ecosystem

  14. Field experiments with painted sediments - a tool for understanding coastal processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõnisson, Hannes; Kont, Are; Suursaar, Ülo; Orviku, Kaarel

    2014-05-01

    Surf and the swash zones comprise regions of the coastal zone where waves dissipate or reflect their remaining energy after propagation from the open sea towards the coast. Within this region most of the sediment transport occurs giving rise to the generation of rapid coastal changes. Current understanding of the morphodynamics in this region is limited. Therefore, swash/surf zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport have been active topics of research over the past decades. Several laboratory experiments have been conducted to quantify coastal processes over the past decades. However, few experiments have been carried out in the natural environment. Analysis of painted sediments was carried out for the current study. Sorted particles with the following diameters were used: 1-2.5 cm (yellow), 2.5-5 cm (red) and 5-10 cm (blue). The sediments were painted with non-fluorescent, water and wear resistant colors, stacked in piles and placed at depths of 0.5-10 m at several study sites all along the Estonian coast. The locations were positioned and were photographed. The sediment piles placed in the sea were monitored at least once after an intense storm or once before and after the storm season. Additional tests were carried out on the swash zone, where the sediments were accumulated in a continuous line from -0.5...+1.3 m. Distances from the initial source of the sediments as well as the elevation of the painted sediment particles was calculated and analyzed. Recorded changes were compared with the measured and modeled wave parameters (by using RDCP and simple point model). We may conclude that most storm waves break at depths of 2-4 m. However, this zone might extend seaward during strong storm events and wave braking may occur even at 6 m depth. There is very active sediment transport in this zone and particles with a 1-10 cm diameter are usually transported towards the shore. We were able to record that the painted sediments moved up to 20 meters towards the shore during one singe extreme event (wind speed up to 33 m/s, waves up to 5.2 m). The sediments accumulated as a continuous line from -0.5 m to 1.3 m started to move along the shore towards the nearby spit. In the first 15.5 hours, yellow, red and blue sediments moved up to 2.4 m/h, 2.4 m/h and 1.5 m/h, respectively. Wind speed attained 7.1 m/s, waves (Hs up to 1.1 m) approached the shore at a sharp angle, which is favorable for long-shore transport during this 15.5 hours period. We were able to find a few painted sediments as far as 350 m (red) towards the tip of the spit three months later. The furthest yellow and blue particles were found 330 and 285 m from their initial location. Therefore, the average travelling speed was 0.13-0.16 m/h. The fact that we were able to find many sediment particles in such a dynamic environment (even three months later!) indicates that the mobile layer of sediments on the gravel shores on the Baltic Sea seems to be smaller that initially expected. This study was able to confirm only that typically a 20-40 cm thick layer is mixed even during strong storms and in the most mobile and energetic environments for gravel shores.

  15. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further decrease bed-material supply by an unknown amount because they limit bank erosion and entrainment of stored sediment. The rivers, geomorphic floodplain, and vegetation within the study area have changed noticeably in response to the alterations in floods and coarse sediment and wood transport. Widespread decreases have occurred in the rates of meander migration and avulsions and the number and diversity of landforms such as gravel bars, islands, and side channels. Dynamic and, in some cases, multi-thread river segments have become stable, single-thread channels. Preliminary observations suggest that forest area has increased within the active channel, further reducing the area of unvegetated gravel bars. Alterations to floods and sediment transport and ongoing channel, floodplain, and vegetation responses result in a modern Willamette River Basin. Here, the floodplain influenced by the modern flow and sediment regimes, or the functional floodplain, is narrower and inset with the broader and older geomorphic floodplain. The functional floodplain is flanked by higher elevation relict floodplain features that are no longer inundated by modern floods. The corridor of present- day active channel surfaces is narrower, enabling riparian vegetation to establish on formerly active gravel bar surfaces. The modern Willamette River Basin with its fundamental changes in the flood, sediment transport, and large wood regimes has implications for future habitat conditions. System-wide future trends probably include narrower floodplains and a lower diversity of landforms and habitats along the Willamette River and its major tributaries compared to historical patterns and today. Furthermore, specific conditions and future trends will probably vary between geologically stable, anthropogenically stable, and dynamic reaches. The middle and lower segments of the Willamette River are geologically stable, whereas the South Santiam and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers were historically dynamic, but are now largely stable in response to flow regulation and revetment construction. The upper Willa

  16. Invited Commentary: Understanding Brain Mechanisms of Pain Processing in Adolescents' Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Elizabeth; Bosk, Abigail; Pao, Maryland

    2010-01-01

    Whereas non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) is reported in 13-23% of adolescents and is an increasingly studied topic, there has been little investigation into the pathophysiology behind self-injury. This commentary examines recent research into pain and emotional distress to discuss implications for the manner we should understand, research, and…

  17. Using Process Drama to Enhance Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Science and Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongsophon, Pongprapan

    2010-01-01

    I report an action research study that aimed at improving Thai pre-service teachers' understanding of the relationship between science and religion and at assisting them to respond to this issue in a science classroom. The participants were twelve post-grad students pursuing Master of Art in Teaching Science at Kasetsart University. They took a…

  18. Monitoring and Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment and its influence on sacchrification kinetics, total sugar yield, and inhibitor formation is essential to develop efficient next-generation biofuels strategies, capable of displacing fossil fuels at a commercial level. In this study we investigate t...

  19. Using Statistical Natural Language Processing for Understanding Complex Responses to Free-Response Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMark, Sarah F.; Behrens, John T.

    2004-01-01

    Whereas great advances have been made in the statistical sophistication of assessments in terms of evidence accumulation and task selection, relatively little statistical work has explored the possibility of applying statistical techniques to data for the purposes of determining appropriate domain understanding and to generate task-level scoring…

  20. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Nathoo, Nabeela; Yong, V. Wee; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2014-01-01

    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS. PMID:24936425

  1. USING SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS TO IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES

    E-print Network

    McGovern, Amy

    USING SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS TO IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF SEVERE WEATHER, AND JOHN K. WILLIAMS5 Abstract. Major severe weather events can cause a significant loss of life the mining of severe weather data. Because weather is inherently a spatiotemporal phenomenon, mining

  2. Understanding Decimal Proportions: Discrete Representations, Parallel Access, and Privileged Processing of Zero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; Karl, Stacy R.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the research on mathematical cognition has focused on the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, with considerably less attention paid to more abstract number classes. The current research investigated how people understand decimal proportions--rational numbers between 0 and 1 expressed in the place-value symbol system. The results…

  3. Robotics and Science Literacy: Thinking Skills, Science Process Skills and Systems Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the relationship of robotics activity to the use of science literacy skills and the development of systems understanding in middle school students. Twenty-six 11-12-year-olds (22 males and 4 females) attending an intensive robotics course offered at a summer camp for academically advanced students…

  4. This major includes a spectrum of disciplines focused on understanding the processes that influence the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this

    E-print Network

    Leahy, Richard M.

    in the stratigraphic record. GEOL 440: Geophysics and Geoengineering -- Plate tectonics, magnetic and gravity fields and Astrobiology GEOL 316: Petrologic Systems GEOL 321: Structural Geology and Tectonics GEOL 412: Oceans the tectonics and environment of the planet, on using this understanding to read the record of earth history

  5. The Landscape Evolution Observatory: a large-scale controllable infrastructure to study coupled Earth-surface processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Luke A.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Abramson, Nate; Adams, John; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Breshears, David D.; Brooks, Paul D.; Chorover, Jon; Dietrich, William E.; Dontsova, Katerina; Durcik, Matej; Espeleta, Javier; Ferre, T. P. A.; Ferriere, Regis; Henderson, Whitney; Hunt, Edward A.; Huxman, Travis E.; Millar, David; Murphy, Brendan; Niu, Guo-Yue; Pavao-Zuckerman, Mitch; Pelletier, Jon D.; Rasmussen, Craig; Ruiz, Joaquin; Saleska, Scott; Schaap, Marcel; Sibayan, Michael; Troch, Peter A.; Tuller, Markus; van Haren, Joost; Zeng, Xubin

    2015-01-01

    Zero-order drainage basins, and their constituent hillslopes, are the fundamental geomorphic unit comprising much of Earth's uplands. The convergent topography of these landscapes generates spatially variable substrate and moisture content, facilitating biological diversity and influencing how the landscape filters precipitation and sequesters atmospheric carbon dioxide. In light of these significant ecosystem services, refining our understanding of how these functions are affected by landscape evolution, weather variability, and long-term climate change is imperative. In this paper we introduce the Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO): a large-scale controllable infrastructure consisting of three replicated artificial landscapes (each 330 m2 surface area) within the climate-controlled Biosphere 2 facility in Arizona, USA. At LEO, experimental manipulation of rainfall, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed are possible at unprecedented scale. The Landscape Evolution Observatory was designed as a community resource to advance understanding of how topography, physical and chemical properties of soil, and biological communities coevolve, and how this coevolution affects water, carbon, and energy cycles at multiple spatial scales. With well-defined boundary conditions and an extensive network of sensors and samplers, LEO enables an iterative scientific approach that includes numerical model development and virtual experimentation, physical experimentation, data analysis, and model refinement. We plan to engage the broader scientific community through public dissemination of data from LEO, collaborative experimental design, and community-based model development.

  6. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    PubMed Central

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n?=?36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for highlighting important lessons for the future of public health policy. PMID:24670519

  7. Managing in the trenches of consumer care: the challenges of understanding and initiating the advance care planning process.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Kristin R; Aultman, Julie; Hazelett, Susan; Palmisano, Barbara; O'Neill, Anne; Ludwick, Ruth; Sanders, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    To better understand how community-based long-term care providers define advance care planning and their role in the process, we conducted 8 focus groups with 62 care managers (social workers and registered nurses) providing care for Ohio's Medicaid waiver program. Care managers shared that most consumers had little understanding of advance care planning. The care managers defined it broadly, including legal documentation, social aspects, medical considerations, ongoing communication, and consumer education. Care managers saw their roles as information providers, healthcare team members, and educators/coaches. Better education, resources, and coordination are needed to ensure that consumer preferences are realized. PMID:23078607

  8. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    94 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint placement. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society

  9. Earth Sciences Environmental Earth Sciences,

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    86 Earth Sciences­ Environmental Earth Sciences, Geology Degree options MGeol (Single Honours Degrees) Earth Sciences BSc (Single Honours Degrees) Environmental Earth Sciences Geology BSc (Joint. * The Geology and Environmental Earth Sciences degrees are accredited by the Geological Society of London

  10. Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739

  11. GOCE observations and geophysical constraints to better understand the lithosphere and geodynamical processes under the Paraná-Etendeka region: preliminary results of PERLA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the considerable progress made by the modern geodetic satellite mission GOCE, one of the challenges of the European Space Agency (ESA) is to improve knowledge of physical properties and geodynamic processes of the lithosphere and the Earth deep interior, and their relationship to Earth-surface changes. In this context we propose a study that aims to understand the two pieces of lithosphere underlying the Paraná-Etendeka conjugate margins (Brazil, and Angola-Namibia). It is essential to collect the geological and geophysical information about the thickness and the density of sedimentary layers, crustal thickness and mantle inhomogeneities. Our methodology integrates the geophysical database with the GOCE data, product of the innovative gravity satellite mission, that was concluded November 2013. Crustal thickness was obtained from all available seismological datasets. The density-depth relation of the shallow layers is modeled by geophysical data collected from literature and from the on-shore and off-shore drilling programs. Several compaction laws are used to estimate the density of each layer. This information is necessary to reduce the observations considering the gravity effect of all intracrustal known layers, to resolve the deep crustal structures (e.g. Moho and intracrustal bodies). A positive gravity anomaly is expected due to the magmatic activity of the Paraná-Etendeka province. The smaller-scale and shallow gravity anomaly should be due to the occurrence of the volcanic activity close to the alkaline-carbonatite complexes, while the large-scale anomaly is expected from the underplating of a wide denser body at the depth of the crustal mantle boundary. In the present work some preliminary results of the inversion of the residual gravity anomaly in terms of densities in the middle and shallow lithosphere under the Paraná-Etendeka region will be presented and interpreted.

  12. Quantifying variable erosion rates to understand the coupling of surface processes in the Teton Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranel, Lisa M.; Spotila, James A.; Binnie, Steven A.; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Short-term geomorphic processes (fluvial, glacial, and hillslope erosion) and long-term exhumation control transient alpine landscapes. Long-term measurements of exhumation are not sufficient to capture the processes driving transient responses associated with short-term climatic oscillations, because of high variability of individual processes across space and time. This study compares the efficacy of different erosional agents to assess the importance of variability in tectonically active landscapes responding to fluctuations in Quaternary climate. We focus on the Teton Range, where erosional mechanisms include hillslope, glacial, and fluvial processes. Erosion rates were quantified using sediment accumulation and cosmogenic dating (bedrock and stream sediments). Results show that rates of erosion are highly variable, with average short-term rockfall rates (0.8 mm/y) occurring faster than either apparent basin-averaged (0.2 mm/y) and long-term ridge erosion rates (0.02 mm/y). Examining erosion rates separately also demonstrates the coupling between glacial, fluvial, and hillslope processes. Apparent basin-averaged erosion rates amalgamate valley wall and ridge erosion with stream and glacial rates. Climate oscillations drive the short-term response of a single erosional process (e.g., rockfalls or other mass wasting) that may enhance or limit the erosional efficiency of other processes (glacial or fluvial). While the Teton landscape may approach long-term equilibrium, stochastic processes and rapid response to short-term climate change actively perpetuate the transient ruggedness of the topography.

  13. Counselors' Understanding of Process Addiction: A Blind Spot in the Counseling Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Angie D.; Johnson, Pennie

    2013-01-01

    The addictions field continues to grow and is expanding beyond the area of substance abuse and substance dependence. Process addictions are now an integral aspect of addictions treatment, diagnosis, and assessment. There is a gap in the literature related to process addictions which impacts counselors and clients due to lack of literature and…

  14. Classroom Terraria: Enhancing Student Understanding of Plant-Related Gas Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Despite our best teaching efforts, many students hold misconceptions related to the roles plants play in gas-related processes (Amir and Tamir 1994; Hershey 1992; 2004). In an effort to remedy this problem, the author presents a series of activities that address common plant-related gas-process misconceptions held by middle school students. The…

  15. A Scheme for Understanding Group Processes in Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, describe and interpret group processes occurring in tutorials in problem-based learning. Another aim was to investigate if a combination of Steiner's (Steiner, I. D. (1972). "Group process and productivity". New York: Academic Press.) theory of group work and Bion's (Bion, W. R. (1961). "Experiences in…

  16. Information Technology Project Processes: Understanding the Barriers to Improvement and Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, organizations lose millions of dollars due to IT (Information Technology) project failures. Over time, organizations have developed processes and procedures to help reduce the incidence of challenged IT projects. Research has shown that IT project processes can work to help reduce the number of challenged projects. The research in this…

  17. An Exploration of High School (12 17 Year Old) Students' Understandings of, and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2007-03-01

    The products of modern biotechnology processes such as genetic engineering, DNA testing and cloning will increasingly impact on society. It is essential that young people have a well-developed scientific understanding of biotechnology and associated processes so that they are able to contribute to public debate and make informed personal decisions. The aim of this study was to examine the development of understandings and attitudes about biotechnology processes as students progress through high school. In a cross-sectional case study, data was obtained from student interviews and written surveys of students aged 12 to 17 years. The results indicate that students' ability to provide a generally accepted definition and examples of biotechnology, cloning and genetically modified foods was relatively poor amongst 12 13 year old students but improved in older students. Most students approved of the use of biotechnology processes involving micro-organisms, plants and humans and disapproved of the use of animals. Overall, 12 13 year old students' attitudes were less favourable than older students regardless of the context. An awareness of the development and range of students' understandings and attitudes may lead to a more appropriate use of biotechnology curriculum materials and thus improved biotechnology education in schools.

  18. Processes on the Young Earth and the Habitats of Early Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Nisbet, Euan G.

    2012-05-01

    Conditions at the surface of the young (Hadean and early Archean) Earth were suitable for the emergence and evolution of life. After an initial hot period, surface temperatures in the late Hadean may have been clement beneath an atmosphere containing greenhouse gases over an ocean-dominated planetary surface. The first crust was mafic and it internally melted repeatedly to produce the felsic rocks that crystallized the Jack Hills zircons. This crust was destabilized during late heavy bombardment. Plate tectonics probably started soon after and had produced voluminous continental crust by the mid Archean, but ocean volumes were sufficient to submerge much of this crust. In the Hadean and early Archean, hydrothermal systems around abundant komatiitic volcanism may have provided suitable sites to host the earliest living communities and for the evolution of key enzymes. Evidence from the Isua Belt, Greenland, suggests life was present by 3.8 Gya, and by the mid-Archean, the geological record both in the Pilbara in Western Australia and the Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa shows that microbial life was abundant, probably using anoxygenic photosynthesis. By the late Archean, oxygenic photosynthesis had evolved, transforming the atmosphere and permitting the evolution of eukaryotes.

  19. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to answer a key question in earth Sciences: how do deep and surface processes interact to shape and control the topographic evolution of our planet.

  20. The School of Earth and Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    DEGREE PROGRAMS Undergraduate Studies · B.S. in Earth & Space Exploration · B.S. in Geological Sciences.S. in Geological Sciences · Ph.D. in Geological Sciences · M.S. in Astrophysics · Ph.D. in Astrophysics *In of analysis from science and engineering to craft a more holistic understanding of the process interactions

  1. The Far Infrared Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  2. Mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A review of the characteristics, processes, and spatial distributions of analogs for Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Bruno, B.C.; Lanagan, P.D.; Glaze, L.S.; Jaeger, W.L.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Skinner, J.A., Jr.; Baloga, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A review of the characteristics, processes, and spatial distributions of analogs for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori S.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Wan Bun Tseung, Jean-Michel; Skinner, James A.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2009-05-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  4. Mesoscale Raised Rim Depressions (MRRDs) on Earth: A Review of the Characteristics, Processes, and Spatial Distributions of Analogs for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burr, Devon M.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Lanagan, Peter D.; Glaze, Lori; Jaeger, Windy L.; Soare, Richard J.; Tseung, Jean-Michel Wan Bun; Skinner, James A. Jr.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Fields of mesoscale raised rim depressions (MRRDs) of various origins are found on Earth and Mars. Examples include rootless cones, mud volcanoes, collapsed pingos, rimmed kettle holes, and basaltic ring structures. Correct identification of MRRDs on Mars is valuable because different MRRD types have different geologic and/or climatic implications and are often associated with volcanism and/or water, which may provide locales for biotic or prebiotic activity. In order to facilitate correct identification of fields of MRRDs on Mars and their implications, this work provides a review of common terrestrial MRRD types that occur in fields. In this review, MRRDs by formation mechanism, including hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic cones, basaltic ring structures), sedimentological (mud volcanoes), and ice-related (pingos, volatile ice-block forms) mechanisms. For each broad mechanism, we present a comparative synopsis of (i) morphology and observations, (ii) physical formation processes, and (iii) published hypothesized locations on Mars. Because the morphology for MRRDs may be ambiguous, an additional tool is provided for distinguishing fields of MRRDs by origin on Mars, namely, spatial distribution analyses for MRRDs within fields on Earth. We find that MRRDs have both distinguishing and similar characteristics, and observation that applies both to their mesoscale morphology and to their spatial distribution statistics. Thus, this review provides tools for distinguishing between various MRRDs, while highlighting the utility of the multiple working hypotheses approach.

  5. Calcium-borosilicate glass-ceramics wasteforms to immobilize rare-earth oxide wastes from pyro-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Miae; Heo, Jong

    2015-12-01

    Glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) oxide silicate [Ca2Nd8-xCex(SiO4)6O2] crystals were fabricated for the immobilization of radioactive wastes that contain large portions of rare-earth ions. Controlled crystallization of alkali borosilicate glasses by heating at T ? 750 °C for 3 h formed hexagonal Ca-silicate crystals. Maximum lanthanide oxide waste loading was >26.8 wt.%. Ce and Nd ions were highly partitioned inside Ca-silicate crystals compared to the glass matrix; the rare-earth wastes are efficiently immobilized inside the crystalline phases. The concentrations of Ce and Nd ions released in a material characterization center-type 1 test were below the detection limit (0.1 ppb) of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Normalized release values performed by a product consistency test were 2.64·10-6 g m-2 for Ce ion and 2.19·10-6 g m-2 for Nd ion. Results suggest that glass-ceramics containing calcium neodymium(cerium) silicate crystals are good candidate wasteforms for immobilization of lanthanide wastes generated by pyro-processing.

  6. Exploring Earth Observation Time Series Data on the Web - Implementation of a Processing Service for Web-based Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Nativi, S.; Schmullius, C.; Mazetti, P.

    2008-12-01

    Over the past decade there has been a general trend in information technology from monolithic desktop applications towards loosely coupled Web Services. Following this trend Web-based visualization of map like data (e.g. OGC Web Mapping Service) has found widespread use, especially as part of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI). In combination with metadata catalogues the primary aim of these map services is data publication and distribution, hence the capabilities are limited to viewing or browsing (e.g. zoom, pan, identify). Only a few examples exist enabling users to analyse data (e.g. calculating statistics or merging different data layers) through a web interface or Web Service. In this paper intermediate results are presented from research conducted on the implementation of an OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) for online analysis of Earth observation time series data. Earth observation data at regional to global scale has been collected with various sensors and satellite systems for more than three decades. The amounts of data acquired seem to have outpaced our ability to exploit and analysis it. With aid of consistent data products (e.g. MODIS suite of land surface products) and the advancements in information technology and in particular MDA, SOA and Grid computing the basis to overcome this shortfall is available. In this context the objective of this study was to develop a generic Processing Service for spatio- temporal exploration of coverage data. The advantage of implementing it as a WPS is that it can be accessed by any client (either a browser or a service) through the Internet and it delivers reproducible results facilitating interoperability and flexibility. Besides, WPS has been experimented as a standard processing interface for heterogeneous Grid infrastructures in the framework of the OGC-OGF interoperability initiative, facilitating scalability. Combining the WPS with a Catalogue Service (i.e. the OGC CS-W) allows users to select and access distributed data sources provided through Web Coverage Service (WCS) servers. They may be gridified, as well. This study is part of the development of the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster, a Spatial Data Infrastructure for remote sensing product generation, dissemination and analysis.

  7. Towards the Prediction of Decadal to Centennial Climate Processes in the Coupled Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhengyu; Kutzbach, J.; Jacob, R.; Prentice, C.

    2011-12-05

    In this proposal, we have made major advances in the understanding of decadal and long term climate variability. (a) We performed a systematic study of multidecadal climate variability in FOAM-LPJ and CCSM-T31, and are starting exploring decadal variability in the IPCC AR4 models. (b) We develop several novel methods for the assessment of climate feedbacks in the observation. (c) We also developed a new initialization scheme DAI (Dynamical Analogue Initialization) for ensemble decadal prediction. (d) We also studied climate-vegetation feedback in the observation and models. (e) Finally, we started a pilot program using Ensemble Kalman Filter in CGCM for decadal climate prediction.

  8. SCIENCE & ENGINEERING84 Understanding Paper Codes 85

    E-print Network

    Waikato, University of

    SCIENCE & ENGINEERING84 PAPERS Understanding Paper Codes 85 100 Level Science Papers 86 Biological Sciences 87 Chemistry 94 Earth Sciences 99 Electronics 106 Engineering 111 Environmental Sciences 115 Material and Processing 116 Physics 124 Psychology 127 Work Placements 133 ­ Science 133 ­ Engineering 134

  9. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  10. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  11. Teaching for Understanding in Earth Science: Comparing Impacts on Planning and Instruction in Three Professional Development Designs for Middle School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penuel, William R.; McWilliams, Harold; McAuliffe, Carla; Benbow, Ann E.; Mably, Colin; Hayden, Margaret M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the impacts of three professional development designs aimed at middle school Earth science teachers on how teachers plan and enact instruction. The designs were similar in their alignment to research-based practices in science professional development: each design was of an extended duration and time span,…

  12. Kawase/Ocean 420/Winter 2006 Rotation 1 An important concept in understanding ocean circulation is the effect of the earth's

    E-print Network

    Thompson, LuAnne

    How can we explain this sideways motion (we live in the rotating frame) in terms of Newton's law, F circulation is the effect of the earth's rotation on the motion of water parcels. Rotation is simple when viewed from a stationary (non-moving or Newtonian) frame of reference. For example, imagine the motion

  13. Multiple magnetic relaxation processes, magnetocaloric effect and fluorescence properties of rhombus-shaped tetranuclear rare earth complexes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Ling; Jiang, Li; Liu, Shuang; Shen, Hai-Yun; Wang, Wen-Min; Cui, Jian-Zhong

    2015-12-14

    Seven new tetranuclear rare earth (RE) complexes [RE4(acac)4L6(?3-OH)2] (HL = 5-(4-fluorobenzylidene)-8-hydroxylquinoline; acac = acetylacetonate; RE = Y (), Eu (), Gd (), Tb (), Dy (), Tm () and Lu ()) have been synthesized and completely characterized. Complex exhibits multiple zero-field slow magnetic relaxation processes typical of Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs). Two distinct slow magnetic relaxation processes, with effective energy barriers of Ueff = 48 K for the slow relaxation (SR) process and Ueff = 121 K for the fast relaxation (FR) process, are mainly attributed to the presence of two crystallographically independent Dy(iii) sites. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) was detected as -?Sm(T) = 20.8 J kg(-1) K(-1) for complex . The fluorescence properties of complexes , , , and were also investigated. Complexes , and show the characteristic peaks for their corresponding RE(iii) center, while complexes and show similar emission peaks to the Schiff base ligand when they are excited at the appropriate wavelength. PMID:26600114

  14. Lunar Landing Sites that will Enhance our Understanding of Regolith Modification Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S.; Quintana, S.; Przepiórka, A.; Santiago, C.; Trabucchi, T.; Kring, D. A.

    2012-03-01

    As part of the LPI-JSC 2011 Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program we conducted a global survey of the Moon to identify possible mission landing sites where regolith processes and weathering on anhydrous airless bodies could be studied.

  15. Towards understanding creativity : a hypothesis about the creative process and the education in architecture

    E-print Network

    Giménez Abente, Manuel María

    1983-01-01

    This thesis presents a hypothetical vision of creativity as an integrative process allowed by the organic human nature; by the way the human being is organized in aspects and systems from whose interaction six creative ...

  16. Perception of Misbehavior: Understanding the Process of Labeling and the Role of Cultural Capital in the Disciplinary Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Cynthia S.

    2014-01-01

    Educators face multiple forms of misbehavior in the classroom on a regular basis. This ethnographic research project addresses the difficulties encountered by teachers in a high school setting, giving consideration to the decision-making process in determining whether to admonish students for misbehavior and whether to issue a referral to an…

  17. Cooperation among tectonic and surface processes in the St. Elias Range, Earth's highest coastal mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkelmann, Eva; Koons, Peter O.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Hallet, Bernard; Barker, Adam; Elliott, Julie; Garver, John I.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Headley, Rachel M.; Pavlis, Gary L.; Ridgway, Kenneth D.; Ruppert, Natalia; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Investigations of tectonic and surface processes have shown a clear relationship between climate-influenced erosion and long-term exhumation of rocks. Numerical models suggest that most orogens are in a transient state, but observational evidence of a spatial shift in mountain building processes due to tectonic-climate interaction is missing. New thermochronology data synthesized with geophysical and surface process data elucidate the evolving interplay of erosion and tectonics of the colliding Yakutat microplate with North America. Focused deformation and rock exhumation occurred in the apex of the colliding plate corner from > 4 to 2 Ma and shifted southward after the 2.6 Ma climate change. The present exhumation maximum coincides with the largest modern shortening rates, highest concentration of seismicity, and the greatest erosive potential. We infer that the high sedimentation caused rheological modification and the emergence of the southern St. Elias, intercepting orographic precipitation and shifting focused erosion and exhumation to the south.

  18. The PROCESS experiment: an astrochemistry laboratory for solid and gaseous organic samples in low-earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Hervé; Guan, Yuan Yong; Noblet, Audrey; Poch, Olivier; Saiagh, Kafila; Cloix, Mégane; Macari, Frédérique; Jérome, Murielle; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François; Stalport, Fabien; Szopa, Cyril; Bertrand, Marylène; Chabin, Annie; Westall, Frances; Chaput, Didier; Demets, René; Brack, André

    2012-05-01

    The PROCESS (PRebiotic Organic ChEmistry on the Space Station) experiment was part of the EXPOSE-E payload outside the European Columbus module of the International Space Station from February 2008 to August 2009. During this interval, organic samples were exposed to space conditions to simulate their evolution in various astrophysical environments. The samples used represent organic species related to the evolution of organic matter on the small bodies of the Solar System (carbonaceous asteroids and comets), the photolysis of methane in the atmosphere of Titan, and the search for organic matter at the surface of Mars. This paper describes the hardware developed for this experiment as well as the results for the glycine solid-phase samples and the gas-phase samples that were used with regard to the atmosphere of Titan. Lessons learned from this experiment are also presented for future low-Earth orbit astrochemistry investigations. PMID:22680688

  19. Retrieval of optical characteristics of the aerosol atmosphere and Earth's surface by the joint processing of different satellite information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. P.; Katsev, I. L.; Prikhach, A. S.; Zege, E. P.

    2014-03-01

    Methods and algorithms for the retrieval of optical characteristics of the aerosol atmosphere and underlying surface by data from a multispectral satellite sensor (MSSS) are described. A procedure for the joint processing of MSSS and multizonal imaging system (MZIS) data is proposed and described with the aim of retrieving the albedo of the Earth's surface with a high spatial resolution. In this case the spectral optical characteristics of the aerosol atmosphere are retrieved by MSSS data in the visible range of 400-700 nm. According to these results, transmission functions of the atmosphere in MZIS spectral channels are calculated and an atmospheric correction of MZIS data is performed. The accuracy of determining the albedo of the underlying surface in spectral channels of MZIS with high-spatial-resolution is estimated.

  20. An analysis of metropolitan land-use by machine processing of earth resources technology satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mausel, P. W.; Todd, W. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1976-01-01

    A successful application of state-of-the-art remote sensing technology in classifying an urban area into its broad land use classes is reported. This research proves that numerous urban features are amenable to classification using ERTS multispectral data automatically processed by computer. Furthermore, such automatic data processing (ADP) techniques permit areal analysis on an unprecedented scale with a minimum expenditure of time. Also, classification results obtained using ADP procedures are consistent, comparable, and replicable. The results of classification are compared with the proposed U. S. G. S. land use classification system in order to determine the level of classification that is feasible to obtain through ERTS analysis of metropolitan areas.