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Sample records for understanding human developmental

  1. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  2. The new dysmorphology: application of insights from basic developmental biology to the understanding of human birth defects.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, C J

    1995-01-01

    Information obtained from studies of developmental and cellular processes in lower organisms is beginning to make significant contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human birth defects, and it is now becoming possible to treat birth defects as inborn errors of development. Mutations in genes for transcription factors, receptors, cell adhesion molecules, intercellular junctions, molecules involved in signal transduction, growth factors, structural proteins, enzymes, and transporters have been identified in genetically caused human malformations and dysplasias. The identification of these mutations and the analysis of their developmental effects have been greatly facilitated by the existence of natural or engineered models in the mouse and even of related mutations in Drosophila, and in some instances a remarkable conservation of function in development has been observed, even between widely separated species. PMID:7567976

  3. Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

  4. NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

  5. Many human accelerated regions are developmental enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Capra, John A.; Erwin, Genevieve D.; McKinsey, Gabriel; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The genetic changes underlying the dramatic differences in form and function between humans and other primates are largely unknown, although it is clear that gene regulatory changes play an important role. To identify regulatory sequences with potentially human-specific functions, we and others used comparative genomics to find non-coding regions conserved across mammals that have acquired many sequence changes in humans since divergence from chimpanzees. These regions are good candidates for performing human-specific regulatory functions. Here, we analysed the DNA sequence, evolutionary history, histone modifications, chromatin state and transcription factor (TF) binding sites of a combined set of 2649 non-coding human accelerated regions (ncHARs) and predicted that at least 30% of them function as developmental enhancers. We prioritized the predicted ncHAR enhancers using analysis of TF binding site gain and loss, along with the functional annotations and expression patterns of nearby genes. We then tested both the human and chimpanzee sequence for 29 ncHARs in transgenic mice, and found 24 novel developmental enhancers active in both species, 17 of which had very consistent patterns of activity in specific embryonic tissues. Of these ncHAR enhancers, five drove expression patterns suggestive of different activity for the human and chimpanzee sequence at embryonic day 11.5. The changes to human non-coding DNA in these ncHAR enhancers may modify the complex patterns of gene expression necessary for proper development in a human-specific manner and are thus promising candidates for understanding the genetic basis of human-specific biology. PMID:24218637

  6. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the…

  7. Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the…

  8. The Growing Camper: Understanding the Typical Developmental Traits of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    Describes typical developmental traits for different age groups of campers to help camp counselors understand them. Lists characteristics such as curiosity for ages 5-7, group awareness for ages 10-12, conformity and self-awareness for ages 12-15, and expansive and changing ambitions for ages 15-17. (CDS)

  9. How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Bruce F.

    2009-01-01

    This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

  10. Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz

    E-print Network

    Kautz, Henry

    Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL IMMUNOTOXICITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To compile literature information for web-based dissemination. The report will be on our current understanding of the science of development of the immune system, to provide examples of perturbations that can be brought about by environmental agents and that could produce effects...

  12. Building artificial humans to understand humans.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science. PMID:17846711

  13. BRAF gene: From human cancers to developmental syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Muhammad Ramzan Manwar; Baig, Mukhtiar; Mohamoud, Hussein Sheik Ali; Ulhaq, Zaheer; Hoessli, Daniel C.; Khogeer, Ghaidaa Siraj; Al-Sayed, Ranem Radwan; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousuf

    2014-01-01

    The BRAF gene encodes for a serine/threonine protein kinase that participates in the MAPK/ERK signalling pathway and plays a vital role in cancers and developmental syndromes (RASopathies). The current review discusses the clinical significance of the BRAF gene and other members of RAS/RAF cascade in human cancers and RAS/MAPK syndromes, and focuses the molecular basis and clinical genetics of BRAF to better understand its parallel involvement in both tumourigenesis and RAS/MAPK syndromes—Noonan syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome. PMID:26150740

  14. Cognitive and developmental components of understanding the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotger, Sharon

    The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which years of education, college major, or reflective judgment stage influences individual's understandings of the nature of science. Using a cross-sectional design influenced by the literature describing the development of reflective judgment and nature of science understandings, this study encompasses the viewpoints of 323 individuals from ninth grade through graduate study. This research involves the careful selection of instruments for assessing these two complex constructs, and the processes used to select and rate participants responses is described in detail. Multinomial ordinal regression was used to determine the significance of educational level, major, and reflective judgment on nature of science views. Results indicate that high school students as a whole are least likely to respond appropriately to questions about the nature of science. However, the performance of college students is inconsistent with predictions, college freshmen more often select the desired response than college seniors or graduate students. Additionally, college major has no significant impact on nature of science understandings. Reflective judgment, a term that describes cognitive developmental model of advanced thinking skills, is found to have the most significant correlations with nature of science views. Reflective thinkers are more likely to select the desired nature of science response than quasi-reflective and pre-reflective thinkers for six of the ten questions. Discussion of results is followed by implications for science teaching and learning in K-12 classrooms.

  15. Genomic approaches to studying human-specific developmental traits.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Lucía F; Pollard, Katherine S

    2015-09-15

    Changes in developmental regulatory programs drive both disease and phenotypic differences among species. Linking human-specific traits to alterations in development is challenging, because we have lacked the tools to assay and manipulate regulatory networks in human and primate embryonic cells. This field was transformed by the sequencing of hundreds of genomes - human and non-human - that can be compared to discover the regulatory machinery of genes involved in human development. This approach has identified thousands of human-specific genome alterations in developmental genes and their regulatory regions. With recent advances in stem cell techniques, genome engineering, and genomics, we can now test these sequences for effects on developmental gene regulation and downstream phenotypes in human cells and tissues. PMID:26395139

  16. Understanding Human Mobility from Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Jurdak, Raja; Zhao, Kun; Liu, Jiajun; AbouJaoude, Maurice; Cameron, Mark; Newth, David

    2015-01-01

    Understanding human mobility is crucial for a broad range of applications from disease prediction to communication networks. Most efforts on studying human mobility have so far used private and low resolution data, such as call data records. Here, we propose Twitter as a proxy for human mobility, as it relies on publicly available data and provides high resolution positioning when users opt to geotag their tweets with their current location. We analyse a Twitter dataset with more than six million geotagged tweets posted in Australia, and we demonstrate that Twitter can be a reliable source for studying human mobility patterns. Our analysis shows that geotagged tweets can capture rich features of human mobility, such as the diversity of movement orbits among individuals and of movements within and between cities. We also find that short- and long-distance movers both spend most of their time in large metropolitan areas, in contrast with intermediate-distance movers’ movements, reflecting the impact of different modes of travel. Our study provides solid evidence that Twitter can indeed be a useful proxy for tracking and predicting human movement. PMID:26154597

  17. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    E-print Network

    González, M C; Barabasi, A -L

    2008-01-01

    Despite their importance for urban planning, traffic forecasting, and the spread of biological and mobile viruses, our understanding of the basic laws governing human motion remains limited thanks to the lack of tools to monitor the time resolved location of individuals. Here we study the trajectory of 100,000 anonymized mobile phone users whose position is tracked for a six month period. We find that in contrast with the random trajectories predicted by the prevailing Levy flight and random walk models, human trajectories show a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity, each individual being characterized by a time independent characteristic length scale and a significant probability to return to a few highly frequented locations. After correcting for differences in travel distances and the inherent anisotropy of each trajectory, the individual travel patterns collapse into a single spatial probability distribution, indicating that despite the diversity of their travel history, humans follow simple rep...

  18. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Barabási, Albert-Lászlo

    2008-03-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns is of major importance for a number of areas, ranging from urban planning to traffic forecasting, transportation geography, and preventing the spread of biological and mobile viruses. Yet, in the absence of tools to monitor the time resolved location of a large number of individuals, our understanding of the basic laws governing human trajectories remains limited. Here we study the individual mobility pattern of mobile phone users whose position is tracked in a time resolved manner. We find that the displacement distribution of the whole population can be approximated with a truncated L'evy statistics, in agreement with earlier measurements. We show, however, that the main contribution to the observed distribution comes from the differences in the travel pattern of individuals. Furthermore, we find that the individual trajectories are bounded in space and are highly anisotropic, an effect that increases with the trajectory's radius of gyration. After we correct for differences in the radius of gyration and anisotropy all individuals are described by the same universal mobility pattern. These results open new avenues for modeling human motion, with important impact on agent based modeling, epidemic prevention, emergency response and urban planing.

  19. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, César A.; Barabási, Albert-László

    2008-06-01

    Despite their importance for urban planning, traffic forecasting and the spread of biological and mobile viruses, our understanding of the basic laws governing human motion remains limited owing to the lack of tools to monitor the time-resolved location of individuals. Here we study the trajectory of 100,000 anonymized mobile phone users whose position is tracked for a six-month period. We find that, in contrast with the random trajectories predicted by the prevailing Lévy flight and random walk models, human trajectories show a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity, each individual being characterized by a time-independent characteristic travel distance and a significant probability to return to a few highly frequented locations. After correcting for differences in travel distances and the inherent anisotropy of each trajectory, the individual travel patterns collapse into a single spatial probability distribution, indicating that, despite the diversity of their travel history, humans follow simple reproducible patterns. This inherent similarity in travel patterns could impact all phenomena driven by human mobility, from epidemic prevention to emergency response, urban planning and agent-based modelling.

  20. Understanding individual human mobility patterns.

    PubMed

    González, Marta C; Hidalgo, César A; Barabási, Albert-László

    2008-06-01

    Despite their importance for urban planning, traffic forecasting and the spread of biological and mobile viruses, our understanding of the basic laws governing human motion remains limited owing to the lack of tools to monitor the time-resolved location of individuals. Here we study the trajectory of 100,000 anonymized mobile phone users whose position is tracked for a six-month period. We find that, in contrast with the random trajectories predicted by the prevailing Lévy flight and random walk models, human trajectories show a high degree of temporal and spatial regularity, each individual being characterized by a time-independent characteristic travel distance and a significant probability to return to a few highly frequented locations. After correcting for differences in travel distances and the inherent anisotropy of each trajectory, the individual travel patterns collapse into a single spatial probability distribution, indicating that, despite the diversity of their travel history, humans follow simple reproducible patterns. This inherent similarity in travel patterns could impact all phenomena driven by human mobility, from epidemic prevention to emergency response, urban planning and agent-based modelling. PMID:18528393

  1. Workshop Reports Understanding Paleoclimate and Human Evolution

    E-print Network

    Reiners, Peter W.

    Workshop Reports Understanding Paleoclimate and Human Evolution Through the Hominin Sites.10.2009 60 Scientific Drilling, No. 8, September 2009 Workshop Reports Understanding the evolution of humans, involving research in anthropology, archaeology, human genetics and genomics, and the earth sciences

  2. Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

  3. Understanding complexity in the human brain

    E-print Network

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    Understanding complexity in the human brain Danielle S. Bassett1 and Michael S. Gazzaniga2 1 in order to study mind­brain mechanisms. The state of the mind­brain dilemma The human mind is a complex the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its work- ings

  4. Understanding Human Need: A Conceptual Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, J. Nevin

    If human service personnel are to serve clients effectively, they must understand the condition of human need and the objects of need which satisfy the condition. While definitions of need vary according to academic discipline, a review of literature in ten academic areas revealed that need as a human condition is based upon the existence of…

  5. Developmental Counseling and Therapy: An Effective Approach to Understanding and Counseling Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Briggs, Michele Kielty

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the cognitive development of children, with a focus on Piagetian theory as a framework for understanding Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT). Describes both the assessment process and intervention planning, and provides specific applications to counseling children in school settings. (Contains 35 references.) (GCP)

  6. The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity: A Tool for Understanding Principals' Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frank; Kose, Brad W.

    2012-01-01

    Principals' understanding and skills pertaining to diversity are important in leading diverse schools and preparing all students for a democratic and multicultural society. Although educational leadership scholars have theorized about exemplary leadership of and for diversity, a developmental perspective on principals' diversity or cultural…

  7. Theory of Mind "Beliefs", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

  8. Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

  9. Understanding Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Reply to Ghetti (2008) and Howe (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Ceci, S. J.; Holliday, R. E.

    2008-01-01

    S. Ghetti (2008) and M. L. Howe (2008) presented probative ideas for future research that will deepen scientific understanding of developmental reversals on false memory and establish boundary conditions for these counterintuitive patterns. Ghetti extended the purview of current theoretical principles by formulating hypotheses about how…

  10. Characterizing Key Developmental Understandings and Pedagogically Powerful Ideas within a Statistical Knowledge for Teaching Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groth, Randall E.

    2013-01-01

    A hypothetical framework to characterize statistical knowledge for teaching (SKT) is described. Empirical grounding for the framework is provided by artifacts from an undergraduate course for prospective teachers that concentrated on the development of SKT. The theoretical notion of "key developmental understanding" (KDU) is used to identify…

  11. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

  12. The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging Students’ Understanding of Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Kathryn E.; Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K.; Trujillo, Caleb; French, Donald P.; Terry, Mark; Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011 report Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education encourages the teaching of developmental biology as an important part of teaching evolution. Recently, however, we found that biology majors often lack the developmental knowledge needed to understand evolutionary developmental biology, or “evo-devo.” To assist in efforts to improve evo-devo instruction among undergraduate biology majors, we designed a concept inventory (CI) for evolutionary developmental biology, the EvoDevoCI. The CI measures student understanding of six core evo-devo concepts using four scenarios and 11 multiple-choice items, all inspired by authentic scientific examples. Distracters were designed to represent the common conceptual difficulties students have with each evo-devo concept. The tool was validated by experts and administered at four institutions to 1191 students during preliminary (n = 652) and final (n = 539) field trials. We used student responses to evaluate the readability, difficulty, discriminability, validity, and reliability of the EvoDevoCI, which included items ranging in difficulty from 0.22–0.55 and in discriminability from 0.19–0.38. Such measures suggest the EvoDevoCI is an effective tool for assessing student understanding of evo-devo concepts and the prevalence of associated common conceptual difficulties among both novice and advanced undergraduate biology majors. PMID:24297293

  13. Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey Maja Pantic1,3 , Alex and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should be about anticipatory user interfaces that should

  14. Evolutionary developmental pathology and anthropology: A new field linking development, comparative anatomy, human evolution, morphological variations and defects, and medicine.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Smith, Christopher M; Ziermann, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new subfield of the recently created field of Evolutionary-Developmental-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-Anth): Evolutionary-Developmental-Pathology-and-Anthropology (Evo-Devo-P'Anth). This subfield combines experimental and developmental studies of nonhuman model organisms, biological anthropology, chordate comparative anatomy and evolution, and the study of normal and pathological human development. Instead of focusing on other organisms to try to better understand human development, evolution, anatomy, and pathology, it places humans as the central case study, i.e., as truly model organism themselves. We summarize the results of our recent Evo-Devo-P'Anth studies and discuss long-standing questions in each of the broader biological fields combined in this subfield, paying special attention to the links between: (1) Human anomalies and variations, nonpentadactyly, homeotic transformations, and "nearest neighbor" vs. "find and seek" muscle-skeleton associations in limb+facial muscles vs. other head muscles; (2) Developmental constraints, the notion of "phylotypic stage," internalism vs. externalism, and the "logic of monsters" vs. "lack of homeostasis" views about human birth defects; (3) Human evolution, reversions, atavisms, paedomorphosis, and peromorphosis; (4) Scala naturae, Haeckelian recapitulation, von Baer's laws, and parallelism between phylogeny and development, here formally defined as "Phylo-Devo parallelism"; and (5) Patau, Edwards, and Down syndrome (trisomies 13, 18, 21), atavisms, apoptosis, heart malformations, and medical implications. Developmental Dynamics 244:1357-1374, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26293597

  15. Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin

    PubMed Central

    Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor – the space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566

  16. Characterization of ticlopidine-induced developmental and teratogenic defects in Xenopus embryos and human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Jong-Woo; Park, Inji; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Chowon; Jo, Changrae; Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Min, Byung-Hwa; Ryoo, Jaewoong; Lee, Dong-Seok; Bae, Jong-Sup; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Ye, Sang Kyu; Park, Mae-Ja; Lee, Hyun-Shik

    2015-10-01

    Ticlopidine is an anti-platelet drug that inhibits platelet aggregation via the functional alteration of platelet membranes. However, the mechanism underlying the adverse developmental effects of ticlopidine has not been clearly demonstrated. In this study, we evaluated the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of ticlopidine on Xenopus laevis embryos and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX) and blood and lymph vessel formation assays. Ticlopidine induced teratogenicity and inhibited growth, as evidenced by mortality rates and embryo lengths, respectively. Moreover, ticlopidine induced severe hemorrhages and inhibited both blood and lymph vessel formation by modulating the expression of xMsr and Prox1 in Xenopus embryos. Additionally, Nkx2.5 and Cyl104 levels were perturbed by ticlopidine exposure, and more extensive aberrations were observed in the liver and heart using whole-mount in situ hybridization. In addition, ticlopidine reduced branching in HUVECs by blocking the effect of the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Results from this study suggest that ticlopidine is a developmental toxicant and teratogen and therefore this is a step forward in our understanding of the effects of ticlopidine during developmental processes. PMID:26327247

  17. Understanding human management of automation errors

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2013-01-01

    Automation has the potential to aid humans with a diverse set of tasks and support overall system performance. Automated systems are not always reliable, and when automation errs, humans must engage in error management, which is the process of detecting, understanding, and correcting errors. However, this process of error management in the context of human-automation interaction is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the variables that contribute to error management. We examined relevant research in human-automation interaction and human error to identify critical automation, person, task, and emergent variables. We propose a framework for management of automation errors to incorporate and build upon previous models. Further, our analysis highlights variables that may be addressed through design and training to positively influence error management. Additional efforts to understand the error management process will contribute to automation designed and implemented to support safe and effective system performance. PMID:25383042

  18. The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging Students' Understanding of Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Kathryn E.; Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K.; Trujillo, Caleb; French, Donald P.; Terry, Mark; Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011 report "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" encourages the teaching of developmental biology as an important part of teaching evolution. Recently, however, we found that biology majors often lack the developmental knowledge needed to understand evolutionary…

  19. The Social Buffering of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis in Humans: Developmental and Experiential Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Gunnar, Megan R.; Hostinar, Camelia E.

    2015-01-01

    Social buffering, a subset of social support, is the process through which the availability of a conspecific reduces the activity of stress-mediating neurobiological systems. While its role in coping and resilience is significant, we know little about its developmental history in humans. This brief review presents an integrative developmental account of the social buffering of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress reactivity in humans, from infancy to adulthood. During infancy, parents are powerful stress-regulators for children, but child temperament also plays a role and interacts with parenting quality to predict the magnitude of stress responses to fear or pain stimuli. Recent work indicates that parental support remains a potent stress buffer into late childhood, but that it loses its effectiveness as a buffer of the HPA axis by adolescence. Puberty may be the switch that alters the potency of parental buffering. In Beginning in middle childhood, friends may serve as stress buffers, particularly when other peers are the source of stress. By adulthood romantic partners assume this protective role, though studies often reveal sex differences that are currently not well understood. Translational research across species will be critical for developing a mechanistic understanding of social buffering and the processes involved in developmental changes noted in this review. PMID:26230646

  20. The social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans: Developmental and experiential determinants.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Hostinar, Camelia E

    2015-10-01

    Social buffering, a subset of social support, is the process through which the availability of a conspecific reduces the activity of stress-mediating neurobiological systems. While its role in coping and resilience is significant, we know little about its developmental history in humans. This brief review presents an integrative developmental account of the social buffering of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) stress reactivity in humans, from infancy to adulthood. During infancy, parents are powerful stress-regulators for children, but child temperament also plays a role and interacts with parenting quality to predict the magnitude of stress responses to fear or pain stimuli. Recent work indicates that parental support remains a potent stress buffer into late childhood, but that it loses its effectiveness as a buffer of the HPA axis by adolescence. Puberty may be the switch that alters the potency of parental buffering. Beginning in middle childhood, friends may serve as stress buffers, particularly when other peers are the source of stress. By adulthood, romantic partners assume this protective role, though studies often reveal sex differences that are currently not well understood. Translational research across species will be critical for developing a mechanistic understanding of social buffering and the processes involved in developmental changes noted in this review. PMID:26230646

  1. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

  2. A unique chromatin signature uncovers early developmental enhancers in humans.

    PubMed

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Bajpai, Ruchi; Swigut, Tomek; Brugmann, Samantha A; Flynn, Ryan A; Wysocka, Joanna

    2011-02-10

    Cell-fate transitions involve the integration of genomic information encoded by regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with the cellular environment. However, identification of genomic sequences that control human embryonic development represents a formidable challenge. Here we show that in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), unique chromatin signatures identify two distinct classes of genomic elements, both of which are marked by the presence of chromatin regulators p300 and BRG1, monomethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me1), and low nucleosomal density. In addition, elements of the first class are distinguished by the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac), overlap with previously characterized hESC enhancers, and are located proximally to genes expressed in hESCs and the epiblast. In contrast, elements of the second class, which we term 'poised enhancers', are distinguished by the absence of H3K27ac, enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), and are linked to genes inactive in hESCs and instead are involved in orchestrating early steps in embryogenesis, such as gastrulation, mesoderm formation and neurulation. Consistent with the poised identity, during differentiation of hESCs to neuroepithelium, a neuroectoderm-specific subset of poised enhancers acquires a chromatin signature associated with active enhancers. When assayed in zebrafish embryos, poised enhancers are able to direct cell-type and stage-specific expression characteristic of their proximal developmental gene, even in the absence of sequence conservation in the fish genome. Our data demonstrate that early developmental enhancers are epigenetically pre-marked in hESCs and indicate an unappreciated role of H3K27me3 at distal regulatory elements. Moreover, the wealth of new regulatory sequences identified here provides an invaluable resource for studies and isolation of transient, rare cell populations representing early stages of human embryogenesis. PMID:21160473

  3. Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    West, Paul R.; Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R.; Cezar, Gabriela G.

    2010-08-15

    Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

  4. Elementary school-age children's developmental understanding of the causes of cancer.

    PubMed

    Chin, D G; Schonfeld, D J; O'Hare, L L; Mayne, S T; Salovey, P; Showalter, D R; Cicchetti, D V

    1998-12-01

    This study examines children's conceptual understanding and factual knowledge of the causes of cancer. Using a standardized, developmentally based, semistructured interview (ASK [AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Survey for Kids]), 784 children (43% black, 38% white, and 18% Hispanic; 48% female) in kindergarten through sixth grade attending six public elementary/middle schools in New Haven, Connecticut, were asked open-ended questions about the causes of cancer and, for comparison, the causes of colds and AIDS. Responses were scored for level of conceptual understanding and coded for factual content and factual accuracy. The level of conceptual understanding for causality of cancer increased consistently as grade level increased. When comparisons were made among the illnesses, children's level of conceptual understanding was significantly lower for the causes of cancer than for the causes of colds (p < .0001), but not significantly different from that of AIDS. Although the single most frequent cause of cancer mentioned was cigarettes/smoking (24%), more than one in five students stated that casual contact or contagion was a cause of cancer. More children cited causal contact/contagion than cited the following factually accurate or logically contributory causes combined: poor diet, air/water pollution or overexposure to sun, alcohol, and old age. Slightly more than one half of students in kindergarten through sixth grade worried about getting cancer, and the vast majority (80%) knew that cancer could be fatal. Children have a less sophisticated conceptual understanding of cancer than of colds and a very limited factual knowledge base for cancer, and thus they have the capacity to increase both their understanding and knowledge. These results have implications for the creation of developmentally appropriate cancer prevention curricula for elementary school-age children. PMID:9866086

  5. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  6. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Kleinstreuer, N C; Smith, A M; West, P R; Conard, K R; Fontaine, B R; Weir-Hauptman, A M; Palmer, J A; Knudsen, T B; Dix, D J; Donley, E L R; Cezar, G G

    2011-11-15

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast™ chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox® model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. PMID:21925528

  7. Bisphenol A and congenital developmental defects in humans.

    PubMed

    Guida, Maurizio; Troisi, Jacopo; Ciccone, Carla; Granozio, Giovanni; Cosimato, Cosimo; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Ferrara, Cinzia; Guida, Marco; Nappi, Carmine; Zullo, Fulvio; Di Carlo, Costantino

    2015-04-01

    Over 50% of the causes of fetal malformations in humans are still unknown. Recent evidence suggests the relationship between environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors and fetal malformations. Our study aims to establish the role of Bisphenol A (BPA), if any, in altering human reproduction. We enrolled 151 pregnant women who were divided into two groups: case group (CS, n=101), women with established diagnosis of developmental defect, and control group (CL, n=50), pregnant women with normally developed fetus. Total, free and conjugated BPA were measured in their blood using GC-MS with isotopic dilution. The results show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and the genesis of fetal malformations. Conjugated BPA, which was higher in the CL, casts light on the hypothesis that a reduced ability to metabolize the chemical in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformation. In a more detailed manner, in case of chromosomal malformations, the average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater than that of the controls. Similarly, in case of central and peripheral nervous system non-chromosomal malformations, the value of free BPA is nearly two times greater than that of the controls. PMID:25796969

  8. Developmental regulation of human truncated nerve growth factor receptor

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, P.S.; Clagett-Dame, M.; Chelsea, D.M.; Loy, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (designated XIF1 and IIIG5) recognizing distinct epitopes of the human truncated nerve growth factor receptor (NGF-Rt) were used in a two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay to monitor levels of NGF-Rt in human urine as a function of age. Urine samples were collected from 70 neurologically normal subjects ranging in age from 1 month to 68 years. By using this sensitive two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay, NGF-Rt levels were found to be highest in urine from 1-month old subjects. By 2.5 months, NGF-Rt values were half of those seen at 1 month and decreased more gradually between 0.5 and 15 years. Between 15 and 68 years, urine NGF-Rt levels were relatively constant at 5% of 1-month values. No evidence for diurnal variation of adult NGF-Rt was apparent. Pregnant women in their third trimester showed significantly elevated urine NGF-Rt values compared with age-matched normals. Affinity labeling of NGF-Rt with 125I-NGF followed by immunoprecipitation with ME20.4-IgG and gel autoradiography indicated that neonatal urine contained high amounts of truncated receptor (Mr = 50 kd); decreasingly lower amounts of NGF-Rt were observed on gel autoradiograms with development, indicating that the two-site radiometric immunosorbent assay correlated well with the affinity labeling technique for measuring NGF-Rt. NGF-Rt in urines from 1-month-old and 36-year-old subjects showed no differences in affinities for NGF or for the monoclonal antibody IIIG5. These data show that NGF-Rt is developmentally regulated in human urine, and are discussed in relation to the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system.

  9. Understanding Goals: Teaching the Humanities for Understanding in Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetland, Lois

    This paper focuses on the "Understanding Goals" element from the "Teaching for Understanding" framework. The study featured a one-year study program covering colonial America and integrating history, English, anthropology, geography, and the arts. The paper presents: (1) a definition of "Understanding Goals"; (2) a story of how one teacher came to…

  10. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  11. Middle Pleistocene human facial morphology in an evolutionary and developmental context.

    PubMed

    Freidline, Sarah E; Gunz, Philipp; Harvati, Katerina; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Neanderthals and modern humans exhibit distinct facial architectures. The patterning of facial morphology of their predecessors, the Middle Pleistocene humans, is more mosaic showing a mix of archaic and modern morphologies. Significant changes in facial size and robusticity occurred throughout Pleistocene human evolution, resulting in temporal trends in both facial reduction and enlargement. However, the allometric patterning in facial morphology in archaic humans is not well understood. This study explores temporal trends in facial morphology in order to gain a clearer understanding of the polarity of features, and describes the allometric patterning of facial shape. The modern human sample comprises cross-sectional growth series of four morphologically distinct human populations. The fossil sample covers specimens from the Middle Pleistocene to the Upper Paleolithic. We digitized landmarks and semilandmarks on surface and computed tomography scans and analyzed the Procrustes shape coordinates. Principal component analyses were performed, and Procrustes distances were used to identify phenetic similarities between fossil hominins. In order to explore the influence of size on facial features, allometric trajectories were calculated for fossil and modern human groups, and developmental simulations were performed. We show that facial features can be used to separate Pleistocene humans into temporal clusters. The distinctly modern human pattern of facial morphology is already present around 170 ka. Species- and population-specific facial features develop before two years of age, and several of the large-scale facial differences between Neanderthals and Middle Pleistocene humans are due to scaling along a shared allometric trajectory. These features include aspects of the frontal bone, browridge morphology, nasal aperture size and facial prognathism. Infraorbital surface topography and orientation of the midface in the European Middle Pleistocene hominins is intermediate between the African Middle Pleistocene and Neanderthal condition. This could suggest that the European Middle Pleistocene hominins display incipient Neanderthal features. PMID:22981042

  12. Challenges of Human Behavior Understanding Albert Ali Salah1

    E-print Network

    Sebe, Nicu

    Challenges of Human Behavior Understanding Albert Ali Salah1 , Theo Gevers1 , Nicu Sebe2 to jointly address automatic analysis of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Un Introduction Domains where human behavior understanding is a crucial need (e.g., human- computer interaction

  13. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  14. What do children know and understand about universal gravitation? Structural and developmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Frappart, Sören; Raijmakers, Maartje; Frède, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Children's understanding of universal gravitation starts at an early age but changes until adulthood, which makes it an interesting topic for studying the development and structure of knowledge. Children's understanding of gravitation was tested for a variety of contexts and across a wide age range (5-18 years, N=144). We analyzed children's predictions and justifications for the trajectory of a stone dropped on the earth, on the moon, in a spaceship orbiting the earth, on a planet with air, on a planet with no air, and in a lift (i.e., an elevator) in free fall. Results showed that performances were related to the context and to the children's age. U-shaped developmental curves were identified for predictions for three contexts. These curves could be explained by analyzing the structure of the children's knowledge using latent class analysis. We identified three coherent patterns of predictions that were related to specific justifications. With age, children produced more scientific predictions. Children's cognitive structures, as reflected in their predictions of dropped stone trajectories, seem to be coherently built given that there were only a limited number of prediction patterns. Even by Grade 12, students had not achieved a scientific understanding of universal gravitation. PMID:24361806

  15. Understanding human perception by human-made illusions

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2014-01-01

    It may be fun to perceive illusions, but the understanding of how they work is even more stimulating and sustainable: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found—they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception. PMID:25132816

  16. Control of Developmental Regulators by Polycomb in Human Embryonic

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 3 Developmental Genetics Group, RIKEN Center for Allergy and Immunology, 1-7-22, Suehiro, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan

  17. Understanding Immigrant College Students: Applying a Developmental Ecology Framework to the Practice of Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant college student populations continue to grow, but the complexity of their unique needs and issues remain relatively unknown. To gain a better understanding of the multiple contextual factors impacting immigrant students from a systems-based approach, I applied Bronfenbrenner's (1977) human ecology framework to the study. Students…

  18. Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental

  19. Evolutionary and developmental contributions for understanding the organization of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Medina, Loreta; Abellán, Antonio; Vicario, Alba; Desfilis, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Herein we take advantage of the evolutionary developmental biology approach in order to improve our understanding of both the functional organization and the evolution of the basal ganglia, with a particular focus on the globus pallidus. Therefore, we review data on the expression of developmental regulatory genes (that play key roles in patterning, regional specification and/or morphogenesis), gene function and fate mapping available in different vertebrate species, which are useful to (a) understand the embryonic origin and basic features of each neuron subtype of the basal ganglia (including neurotransmitter/neuropeptide expression and connectivity patterns); (b) identify the same (homologous) subpopulations in different species and the degree of variation or conservation throughout phylogeny, and (c) identify possible mechanisms that may explain the evolution of the basal ganglia. These data show that the globus pallidus of rodents contains two major subpopulations of GABAergic projection neurons: (1) neurons containing parvalbumin and neurotensin-related hexapetide (LANT6), with descending projections to the subthalamus and substantia nigra, which originate from progenitors expressing Nkx2.1, primarily located in the pallidal embryonic domain (medial ganglionic eminence), and (2) neurons containing preproenkephalin (and possibly calbindin), with ascending projections to the striatum, which appear to originate from progenitors expressing Islet1 in the striatal embryonic domain (lateral ganglionic eminence). Based on data on Nkx2.1, Islet1, LANT6 and proenkephalin, it appears that both cell types are also present in the globus pallidus/dorsal pallidum of chicken, frog and lungfish. In chicken, the globus pallidus also contains neurons expressing substance P (SP), perhaps originating in the striatal embryonic domain. In ray-finned and cartilaginous fishes, the pallidum contains at least the Nkx2.1 lineage cell population (likely representing the neurons containing LANT6). Based on the presence of neurons containing enkephalin or SP, it is possible that the pallidum of these animals also includes the Islet1 lineage cell subpopulation, and both neuron subtypes were likely present in the pallidum of the first jawed vertebrates. In contrast, lampreys (jawless fishes) appear to lack the pallidal embryonic domain and the Nkx2.1 lineage cell population that mainly characterize the pallidum in jawed vertebrates. In the absence of data in other jawless fishes, the ancestral condition in vertebrates remains to be elucidated. Perhaps, a major event in telencephalic evolution was the novel expression of Nkx2.1 in the subpallium, which has been related to Hedgehog expression and changes in the regulatory region of Nkx2.1. PMID:24776992

  20. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinstreuer, N.C.; Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R.; Weir-Hauptman, A.M.; Palmer, J.A.; Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J.; Donley, E.L.R.; Cezar, G.G.; University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706

    2011-11-15

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast Trade-Mark-Sign chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox Registered-Sign model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal development and pregnancy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arginine, proline, nicotinate, nicotinamide and glutathione pathways were affected.

  1. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Rafael A; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2015-06-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L. Aiton) trees over a year. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature and rain on needle development were studied. Our results show that seasonal changes in the metabolite profiles were mainly affected by the needles' age and acclimation for winter, but changes in transcript profiles were mainly dependent on climatic factors. The relative abundance of most transcripts correlated well with temperature, particularly for genes involved in photosynthesis or winter acclimation. Gene network analysis revealed relationships between 14 co-expressed gene modules and development and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Novel Myb transcription factors were identified as candidate regulators during needle development. Our systems-based analysis provides integrated data of the seasonal regulation of maritime pine growth, opening new perspectives for understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms underlying conifers' adaptive responses. Taken together, our results suggest that the environment regulates the transcriptome for fine tuning of the metabolome during development. PMID:25873654

  2. Understanding developmental and adaptive cues in pine through metabolite profiling and co-expression network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cañas, Rafael A.; Canales, Javier; Muñoz-Hernández, Carmen; Granados, Jose M.; Ávila, Concepción; García-Martín, María L.; Cánovas, Francisco M.

    2015-01-01

    Conifers include long-lived evergreen trees of great economic and ecological importance, including pines and spruces. During their long lives conifers must respond to seasonal environmental changes, adapt to unpredictable environmental stresses, and co-ordinate their adaptive adjustments with internal developmental programmes. To gain insights into these responses, we examined metabolite and transcriptomic profiles of needles from naturally growing 25-year-old maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L. Aiton) trees over a year. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature and rain on needle development were studied. Our results show that seasonal changes in the metabolite profiles were mainly affected by the needles’ age and acclimation for winter, but changes in transcript profiles were mainly dependent on climatic factors. The relative abundance of most transcripts correlated well with temperature, particularly for genes involved in photosynthesis or winter acclimation. Gene network analysis revealed relationships between 14 co-expressed gene modules and development and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Novel Myb transcription factors were identified as candidate regulators during needle development. Our systems-based analysis provides integrated data of the seasonal regulation of maritime pine growth, opening new perspectives for understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms underlying conifers’ adaptive responses. Taken together, our results suggest that the environment regulates the transcriptome for fine tuning of the metabolome during development. PMID:25873654

  3. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

  4. The role of mathematical models in understanding pattern formation in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Umulis, David M; Othmer, Hans G

    2015-05-01

    In a Wall Street Journal article published on April 5, 2013, E. O. Wilson attempted to make the case that biologists do not really need to learn any mathematics-whenever they run into difficulty with numerical issues, they can find a technician (aka mathematician) to help them out of their difficulty. He formalizes this in Wilsons Principle No. 1: "It is far easier for scientists to acquire needed collaboration from mathematicians and statisticians than it is for mathematicians and statisticians to find scientists able to make use of their equations." This reflects a complete misunderstanding of the role of mathematics in all sciences throughout history. To Wilson, mathematics is mere number crunching, but as Galileo said long ago, "The laws of Nature are written in the language of mathematics[Formula: see text] the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word." Mathematics has moved beyond the geometry-based model of Galileo's time, and in a rebuttal to Wilson, E. Frenkel has pointed out the role of mathematics in synthesizing the general principles in science (Both point and counter-point are available in Wilson and Frenkel in Notices Am Math Soc 60(7):837-838, 2013). We will take this a step further and show how mathematics has been used to make new and experimentally verified discoveries in developmental biology and how mathematics is essential for understanding a problem that has puzzled experimentalists for decades-that of how organisms can scale in size. Mathematical analysis alone cannot "solve" these problems since the validation lies at the molecular level, but conversely, a growing number of questions in biology cannot be solved without mathematical analysis and modeling. Herein, we discuss a few examples of the productive intercourse between mathematics and biology. PMID:25280665

  5. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2013-01-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

  6. Human-Machine CRFs for Identifying Bottlenecks in Scene Understanding.

    PubMed

    Mottaghi, Roozbeh; Fidler, Sanja; Yuille, Alan; Urtasun, Raquel; Parikh, Devi

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends in image understanding have pushed for scene understanding models that jointly reason about various tasks such as object detection, scene recognition, shape analysis, contextual reasoning, and local appearance based classifiers. In this work, we are interested in understanding the roles of these different tasks in improved scene understanding, in particular semantic segmentation, object detection and scene recognition. Towards this goal, we "plug-in" human subjects for each of the various components in a conditional random field model. Comparisons among various hybrid human-machine CRFs give us indications of how much "head room" there is to improve scene understanding by focusing research efforts on various individual tasks. PMID:26656579

  7. Characterization of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Models for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating two different human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) models for their utility in screens for...

  8. Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

  9. Triclosan Decreases Rat Thyroxine: Mode-of-Action, Developmental Susceptibility and Human Relevance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triclosan (TCS) decreases serum thyroxine (T4) in the rat. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used to address three uncertainties: by what mode-of-action (MOA) does TCS decrease T4; does TCS decrease T4 developmentally; and, are effects observed in rats relevant to humans? To t...

  10. Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

  11. The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

  12. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

  13. A MODE-OF-ACTION-BASED QSAR APPROACH TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    QSAR models of developmental toxicity (devtox) have met with limited regulatory acceptance due to the use of ill-defined endpoints, lack of biological interpretability, and poor model performance. More generally, the lack of biological inference of many QSAR models is often due t...

  14. Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

  15. Developmental Relational Counseling: A Model for Self-Understanding in Relation to Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Thelma; Haberstroh, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Developmental relational counseling (DRC) is an integrative framework designed to help clients develop personal awareness and relational functioning and conceptualize personal growth. DRC emerged from both authors' clinical work and was significantly influenced by relational-cultural theory and guided by the Enneagram personality typology and…

  16. An enhanced role and expanded developmental origins for gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons in the human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Clowry, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    Human beings have considerably expanded cognitive abilities compared with all other species and they also have a relatively larger cerebral cortex compared with their body size. But is a bigger brain the only reason for higher cognition or have other features evolved in parallel? Humans have more and different types of GABAergic interneurons, found in different places, than our model species. Studies are beginning to show differences in function. Is this expanded repertoire of functional types matched by an evolution of their developmental origins? Recent studies support the idea that generation of interneurons in the ventral telencephalon may be more complicated in primates, which have evolved a large and complex outer subventricular zone in the ganglionic eminences. In addition, proportionally more interneurons appear to be produced in the caudal ganglionic eminence, the majority of which populate the superficial layers of the cortex. Whether or not the cortical proliferative zones are a source of interneurogenesis, and to what extent and of what significance, is a contentious issue. As there is growing evidence that conditions such as autism, schizophrenia and congenital epilepsy may have developmental origins in the failure of interneuron production and migration, it is important we understand fully the similarities and differences between human development and our animal models. PMID:24839870

  17. Intrafollicular influences on human oocyte developmental competence: perifollicular vascularity, oocyte metabolism and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, J

    2000-07-01

    While genetic and epigenetic factors have been associated with the developmental competence of human oocytes and embryos produced by IVF, how such factors develop or influence the oocyte remain to be explained. This paper reviews evidence which suggests that the degree of perifollicular vascular expansion associated with increased rates of blood flow are developmentally important for the generation of a normal follicle and competent oocyte. The degree of vascular development is follicle specific and differences between follicles might reflect their unique abilities to regulate angiogenic growth factor(s) production by the follicle cells in response to hypoxia. The notion that mitochondrial function in oocytes and early embryos could be influenced by intrafollicular conditions, and that differential patterns of mitochondrial segregation occur in blastomeres during early cleavage, is discussed with respect to the role of these organelles as critical determinants of developmental competence. PMID:11041523

  18. Understanding human-induced climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    There are many difficulties in communicating the urgency of human-induced climate change. In this paper we focus on two. The assumption of no climate change is pervasive in scientific circles and elsewhere, unless proven otherwise, in spite of global studies to the contrary. This exceedingly conservative approach produces Type II errors: a false negative. It wrongly concludes there is no human influence, when there is. This kind of error is very common! And it is perpetrated by climate scientists. It is exacerbated by shortcomings in datasets (length, inhomogeneities) and models (inability to replicate the phenomenon of interest (hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, monsoons, blocking) owing to grid sizes and numerical constraints, and model errors.) The result is a gross understatement of the human influence on climate. The second issue is distinguishing weather versus climate. We ask "even if there is a well determined climate change, say 2°C increase in global mean temperature 50 years from now, how would the weather be different?" In fact much of the time the weather would be familiar - except perhaps occurring at different times of the year. The 2012 "June temperatures in March" in the United States is a case in point. Hence the main impacts occur when records are broken in summer, when conditions go well outside of any previously experienced, as has happened in the United States in 2011 and 2012, and Russia in 2010. The resulting widespread droughts, heat waves and wildfires have been devastating. Breaking records at other times of the year can leave a mark (warmer winters, more bugs etc) but seem more benign although not to ecosystems.

  19. Understanding the complexity of human gait dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola; Marchi, Damiano; West, Bruce J.

    2009-06-01

    Time series of human gait stride intervals exhibit fractal and multifractal properties under several conditions. Records from subjects walking at normal, slow, and fast pace speed are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the stress condition of the system. Records from subjects with different age from children to elderly and patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the physical maturation or degeneration of the system. A supercentral pattern generator model is presented to simulate the above two properties that are typically found in dynamical network performance: that is, how a dynamical network responds to stress and to evolution.

  20. Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25818181

  1. Review: Contribution of transgenic models to understanding human prion disease

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, J D F; Asante, E A; Collinge, J

    2010-01-01

    J. D. F. Wadsworth, E. A. Asante and J. Collinge (2010) Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology36, 576–597Contribution of transgenic models to understanding human prion disease Transgenic mice expressing human prion protein in the absence of endogenous mouse prion protein faithfully replicate human prions. These models reproduce all of the key features of human disease, including long clinically silent incubation periods prior to fatal neurodegeneration with neuropathological phenotypes that mirror human prion strain diversity. Critical contributions to our understanding of human prion disease pathogenesis and aetiology have only been possible through the use of transgenic mice. These models have provided the basis for the conformational selection model of prion transmission barriers and have causally linked bovine spongiform encephalopathy with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In the future these models will be essential for evaluating newly identified potentially zoonotic prion strains, for validating effective methods of prion decontamination and for developing effective therapeutic treatments for human prion disease. PMID:20880036

  2. Human Learning: A Developmental Analysis. Students Library of Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, H.S.N.

    There is a great variety of evidence about human learning which should be considered when forming a policy about any learning situation. The learner himself, the subject he studies, the institution, teaching methods, and studying techniques are all variables of learning; also, each variable can be viewed from several perspectives: behaviorist,…

  3. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

  4. Developmental regulation of human cortex transcription and its clinical relevance at base resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Andrew E.; Shin, Jooheon; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Leek, Jeffrey T.; Tao, Ran; Li, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Jia, Yankai; Maher, Brady J.; Hyde, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis of human brain provides fundamental insight about development and disease, but largely relies on existing annotation. We sequenced transcriptomes of 72 prefrontal cortex samples across six life stages, and identified 50,650 differentially expression regions (DERs) associated with developmental and aging, agnostic of annotation. While many DERs annotated to non-exonic sequence (41.1%), most were similarly regulated in cytosolic mRNA extracted from independent samples. The DERs were developmentally conserved across 16 brain regions and within the developing mouse cortex, and were expressed in diverse cell and tissue types. The DERs were further enriched for active chromatin marks and clinical risk for neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia. Lastly, we demonstrate quantitatively that these DERs associate with a changing neuronal phenotype related to differentiation and maturation. These data highlight conserved molecular signatures of transcriptional dynamics across brain development, some potential clinical relevance and the incomplete annotation of the human brain transcriptome. PMID:25501035

  5. Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Xiaofang

    2009-04-24

    The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

  6. The significance of the subplate for evolution and developmental plasticity of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Kostovi?, Ivica

    2013-01-01

    The human life-history is characterized by long development and introduction of new developmental stages, such as childhood and adolescence. The developing brain had important role in these life-history changes because it is expensive tissue which uses up to 80% of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the newborn and continues to use almost 50% of it during the first 5 postnatal years. Our hominid ancestors managed to lift-up metabolic constraints to increase in brain size by several interrelated ecological, behavioral and social adaptations, such as dietary change, invention of cooking, creation of family-bonded reproductive units, and life-history changes. This opened new vistas for the developing brain, because it became possible to metabolically support transient patterns of brain organization as well as developmental brain plasticity for much longer period and with much greater number of neurons and connectivity combinations in comparison to apes. This included the shaping of cortical connections through the interaction with infant's social environment, which probably enhanced typically human evolution of language, cognition and self-awareness. In this review, we propose that the transient subplate zone and its postnatal remnant (interstitial neurons of the gyral white matter) probably served as the main playground for evolution of these developmental shifts, and describe various features that makes human subplate uniquely positioned to have such a role in comparison with other primates. PMID:23935575

  7. Music, empathy and cultural understanding: The need for developmental research. Comment on "Music, empathy and cultural understanding" by E. Clarke et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitch, Tal-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Clarke, DeNora and Vuoskoski have carried out a formidable task of preparing a profound and encompassing review [3] that brings together two highly complex and multifaceted concepts, empathy and music, as well as a specific aspect of empathy that is highly relevant to society, cultural understanding. They have done an extraordinary service in synthesizing the growing, but still highly fragmented body of work in this area. At the heart of this review lies an intricate model that the authors develop, which accounts for a variety of mechanisms and cognitive processes underlying musical empathic engagement. In what follows I would like to first point out what I think is unique about this model. Then, I will briefly describe the need for including in any such model a developmental angle.

  8. Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health

    SciTech Connect

    S.T. Rao

    2006-09-15

    Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

  9. A Developmental Analysis of Children's and Adolescents' Understanding of Luck and Ability in the Physical Domain

    E-print Network

    Fry, Mary D.

    2000-01-01

    Copyright of Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology is the property of Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder... Copyright of Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology is the property of Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder...

  10. British and Pakistani children's understanding of death: cultural and developmental influences.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Ashraf, Aisha; Aubby, Herjit

    2015-03-01

    This study explored British and Pakistani 4- to 7-year-olds' (N = 188) understanding of death. The aim was to examine possible influences on the acquisition of the subcomponents of the death concept by investigating how they are understood by children of different ages and cultural and religious backgrounds. Three groups of children were compared: White British and British Muslim living in London, and Pakistani Muslim living in rural Pakistan. In line with previous research (Slaughter, 2005, Aust. Psychol., 40(3), 179), irreversibility of death was one of the first subcomponents to be acquired, while causality was the last. The two groups of British children shared many similarities in their understanding of inevitability, applicability, irreversibility, and cessation. Pakistani Muslim children understood irreversibility earlier than did children in both British groups. In all three cultural groups, children's responses demonstrated very limited understanding of causality. Our findings support the view that aspects of a mature understanding of death develop between the ages of 4 and 7 years and that the process of understanding death as a biological event is, to a great extent, universal. They also suggest that aspects of children's reasoning are influenced by culturally specific experiences, particularly those arising from living in rural versus urban settings. PMID:25262770

  11. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  12. Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on Human Migration

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    are mostly complex three-dimensional and dynamic mathematical models, based on physical and chemical lawsUnderstanding the Effect of Climate Change on Human Migration The Contribution of Mathematical change. They pictured millions of people fleeing from rising sea levels and drought, leading to serious

  13. Understanding Activities and Intentions for Human-Robot Interaction

    E-print Network

    Nicolescu, Monica

    of America 1. Introduction As robots move from the factory and into the daily lives of men, women1 Understanding Activities and Intentions for Human-Robot Interaction Richard Kelley, Alireza with machine parts or other robots. To this end, modern-day roboticists are actively studying the problem

  14. Friendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships

    E-print Network

    Kanda, Takayuki

    Friendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships Takayuki Kanda 1 , Rumi Sato 1&2 , Naoki Saiwaki 1&2 , and Hiroshi Ishiguro 1&3 1 ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Labs@atr.jp Abstract-- This paper reports our novel approach to developing a social robot. The developed robot is able

  15. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. I: behavioral effects.

    PubMed Central

    Cory-Slechta, D A; Crofton, K M; Foran, J A; Ross, J F; Sheets, L P; Weiss, B; Mileson, B

    2001-01-01

    Alterations in nervous system function after exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant may be identified and characterized using neurobehavioral methods. A number of methods can evaluate alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in laboratory animals exposed to toxicants during nervous system development. Fundamental issues underlying proper use and interpretation of these methods include a) consideration of the scientific goal in experimental design, b) selection of an appropriate animal model, c) expertise of the investigator, d) adequate statistical analysis, and e) proper data interpretation. Strengths and weaknesses of the assessment methods include sensitivity, selectivity, practicality, and variability. Research could improve current behavioral methods by providing a better understanding of the relationship between alterations in motor function and changes in the underlying structure of these systems. Research is also needed to develop simple and sensitive assays for use in screening assessments of sensory and cognitive function. Assessment methods are being developed to examine other nervous system functions, including social behavior, autonomic processes, and biologic rhythms. Social behaviors are modified by many classes of developmental neurotoxicants and hormonally active compounds that may act either through neuroendocrine mechanisms or by directly influencing brain morphology or neurochemistry. Autonomic and thermoregulatory functions have been the province of physiologists and neurobiologists rather than toxicologists, but this may change as developmental neurotoxicology progresses and toxicologists apply techniques developed by other disciplines to examine changes in function after toxicant exposure. PMID:11250808

  16. The Developmental Progression of Understanding of Mind during a Hiding Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, P. Brooke; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, 52 typically developing preschoolers engaged in a hiding game with their mothers when children were 42-, 54-, and 66-months old. Children's understanding of mind, positive affect, and engagement with the task were rated, and mothers' utterances were coded for role and content. Analyses confirmed that some facets of…

  17. Developmental Sequences in Children's Understanding of Death with Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matter, Darryl E.; Matter, Roxana Marie

    1982-01-01

    Proposes children develop an understanding about death in an orderly sequence progressing from total unawareness in early childhood to the point of logical consideration in terms of cause and effect. Discusses implications for parents, teachers, and counselors for helping children deal with death. (RC)

  18. Evaluation of a human neurite growth assay as specific screen for developmental neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Krug, Anne K; Balmer, Nina V; Matt, Florian; Schönenberger, Felix; Merhof, Dorit; Leist, Marcel

    2013-12-01

    Organ-specific in vitro toxicity assays are often highly sensitive, but they lack specificity. We evaluated here examples of assay features that can affect test specificity, and some general procedures are suggested on how positive hits in complex biological assays may be defined. Differentiating human LUHMES cells were used as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Forty candidate toxicants were screened, and several hits were obtained and confirmed. Although the cells had a definitive neuronal phenotype, the use of a general cell death endpoint in these cultures did not allow specific identification of neurotoxicants. As alternative approach, neurite growth was measured as an organ-specific functional endpoint. We found that neurite extension of developing LUHMES was specifically inhibited by diverse compounds such as colchicine, vincristine, narciclasine, rotenone, cycloheximide, or diquat. These compounds reduced neurite growth at concentrations that did not compromise cell viability, and neurite growth was affected more potently than the integrity of developed neurites of mature neurons. A ratio of the EC50 values of neurite growth inhibition and cell death of >4 provided a robust classifier for compounds associated with a developmental neurotoxic hazard. Screening of unspecific toxicants in the test system always yielded ratios <4. The assay identified also compounds that accelerated neurite growth, such as the rho kinase pathway modifiers blebbistatin or thiazovivin. The negative effects of colchicine or rotenone were completely inhibited by a rho kinase inhibitor. In summary, we suggest that assays using functional endpoints (neurite growth) can specifically identify and characterize (developmental) neurotoxicants. PMID:23670202

  19. Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restifo, Linda L.

    2005-01-01

    "Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

  20. Human Inspired Self-developmental Model of Neural Network (HIM): Introducing Content/Form Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krají?ek, Ji?í

    This paper presents cross-disciplinary research between medical/psychological evidence on human abilities and informatics needs to update current models in computer science to support alternative methods for computation and communication. In [10] we have already proposed hypothesis introducing concept of human information model (HIM) as cooperative system. Here we continue on HIM design in detail. In our design, first we introduce Content/Form computing system which is new principle of present methods in evolutionary computing (genetic algorithms, genetic programming). Then we apply this system on HIM (type of artificial neural network) model as basic network self-developmental paradigm. Main inspiration of our natural/human design comes from well known concept of artificial neural networks, medical/psychological evidence and Sheldrake theory of "Nature as Alive" [22].

  1. "Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

  2. Developmental Immunotoxicity, Perinatal Programming, and Noncommunicable Diseases: Focus on Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Dietert, Rodney R.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) is a term given to encompass the environmentally induced disruption of normal immune development resulting in adverse outcomes. A myriad of chemical, physical, and psychological factors can all contribute to DIT. As a core component of the developmental origins of adult disease, DIT is interlinked with three important concepts surrounding health risks across a lifetime: (1) the Barker Hypothesis, which connects prenatal development to later-life diseases, (2) the hygiene hypothesis, which connects newborns and infants to risk of later-life diseases and, (3) fetal programming and epigenetic alterations, which may exert effects both in later life and across future generations. This review of DIT considers: (1) the history and context of DIT research, (2) the fundamental features of DIT, (3) the emerging role of DIT in risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and (4) the range of risk factors that have been investigated through human research. The emphasis on the human DIT-related literature is significant since most prior reviews of DIT have largely focused on animal research and considerations of specific categories of risk factors (e.g., heavy metals). Risk factors considered in this review include air pollution, aluminum, antibiotics, arsenic, bisphenol A, ethanol, lead (Pb), maternal smoking and environmental tobacco smoke, paracetamol (acetaminophen), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyfluorinated compounds. PMID:26556429

  3. Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans--an overview focusing on developmental toxicology.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Despite being relatively well studied from a botanical, chemical, and (acute) pharmacological perspective, little is known about the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca (an hallucinogenic brew used for magico-ritual purposes) in pregnant women and in their children, and the potential toxicity of long-term ayahuasca consumption. It is the main objective of the present text to do an overview of the risks and possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in humans, reviewing studies on the acute ayahuasca administration to humans, on the possible risks associated with long-term consumption by adults and adolescents, and on the possible toxic effects on pregnant animals and in their offspring. Acute ayahuasca administration, as well as long-term consumption of this beverage, does not seem to be seriously toxic to humans. Although some nonhuman developmental studies suggested possible toxic effects of ayahuasca or of some of its alkaloids, the limited human literature on adolescents exposed to ayahuasca as early as in the uterus reports no serious toxic effects of the ritual consumption of the brew. Researchers must take caution when extrapolating nonhuman data to humans and more data are needed in basic and human research before a definite opinion can be made regarding the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in pregnant women and in their children. PMID:23662333

  4. Somatic mutation in single human neurons tracks developmental and transcriptional history.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Michael A; Woodworth, Mollie B; Lee, Semin; Evrony, Gilad D; Mehta, Bhaven K; Karger, Amir; Lee, Soohyun; Chittenden, Thomas W; D'Gama, Alissa M; Cai, Xuyu; Luquette, Lovelace J; Lee, Eunjung; Park, Peter J; Walsh, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Neurons live for decades in a postmitotic state, their genomes susceptible to DNA damage. Here we survey the landscape of somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the human brain. We identified thousands of somatic SNVs by single-cell sequencing of 36 neurons from the cerebral cortex of three normal individuals. Unlike germline and cancer SNVs, which are often caused by errors in DNA replication, neuronal mutations appear to reflect damage during active transcription. Somatic mutations create nested lineage trees, allowing them to be dated relative to developmental landmarks and revealing a polyclonal architecture of the human cerebral cortex. Thus, somatic mutations in the brain represent a durable and ongoing record of neuronal life history, from development through postmitotic function. PMID:26430121

  5. Instead of Erklären and Verstehen: William James on Human Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, David E.

    Perhaps more than any other American psychologist and philosopher, William James (1842-1910) was intimately familiar with contemporary European thought and debate, including the discussion of Erklären and Verstehen advanced by Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and others around the turn of the twentieth century. Even before this discussion was initiated, James had been dealing with related issues, pondering alternative solutions, and formulating his own original views on human understanding. These views coalesced in a distinctive approach to cognition. Fundamental to this approach was a belief in possibility and probability as innate features of the physical as well as mental manifestations of the universe. Also fundamental was a conviction that understanding is understanding, regardless of its viewpoint, object, or label as either "descriptive" or "explanatory."

  6. Current understanding of mdig/MINA in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Chitra; Chen, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Mineral dust-induced gene, mdig has recently been identified and is known to be overexpressed in a majority of human cancers and holds predictive power in the poor prognosis of the disease. Mdig is an environmentally expressed gene that is involved in cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation and immune regulation. With the advancement in deciphering the prognostic role of mdig in human cancers, our understanding on how mdig renders a normal cell to undergo malignant transformation is still very limited. This article reviews the current knowledge of the mdig gene in context to human neoplasias and its relation to the clinico-pathologic factors predicting the outcome of the disease in patients. It also emphasizes on the promising role of mdig that can serve as a potential candidate for biomarker discovery and as a therapeutic target in inflammation and cancers. Considering the recent advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tumor formation, more preclinical and clinical research is required to validate the potential of using mdig as a novel biological target of therapeutic and diagnostic value. Summary Expression level of mdig influences the prognosis of several human cancers especially cancers of the breast and lung. Evaluation of mdig in cancers can offer novel biomarker with potential therapeutic interventions for the early assessment of cancer development in patients. PMID:26413213

  7. Can we understand modern humans without considering pathogens?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Frédéric; Daoust, Simon P; Raymond, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Throughout our evolutionary history, humankind has always lived in contact with large numbers of pathogens. Some cultural traits, such as sedentarization and animal domestication, have considerably increased new parasitic contacts and epidemic transitions. Here, we review the various phenotypic traits that have been proposed to be affected by the highly parasitic human environment, including fertility, birth weight, fluctuating asymmetry, body odours, food recipes, sexual behaviour, pregnancy sickness, language, religion and intellectual quotient. We also discuss how such knowledge is important to understanding several aspects of the current problems faced by humanity in our changing world and to predicting the long-term consequences of parasite eradication policies on our health and well-being. The study of the evolutionary interactions between humans and parasites is a burgeoning and most promising field, as demonstrated by the recent increasing popularity of Darwinian medicine. PMID:25568057

  8. Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Guoping

    2012-01-01

    The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

  9. Human-vehicle interaction by hand sign understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guo; Ming, Xie; Yin, Xiaoming

    1999-07-01

    The interactive ability of intelligent electric vehicle with human has the capital importance of convincing public to accept the existence and usage of intelligent electric vehicle, it can greatly enhance the safety of intelligent electric vehicle in public service. In this paper, an interactive model based on hand gesture understanding is represented, it offers more compact and intuitive meanings than other interactive models in an outdoor environment. The Typical hand gestures are defined to guide the motion of vehicle by considering gesture differentiation and human tendency in the model, they are classified as motion-oriented and direction-oriented gestures for different interactive intentions. The color distribution of human skin is analyzed in different color spaces, it reveals that human skin colors cluster in a specific region with the irregular appearance, they have more differences in intensity than colors among the people. A color model of human skin is built for hand gesture segmentation by using the training procedure of RCE neural network, it has the ability of delineating the pattern class with arbitrary appearance in feature space. The quality of hand gesture segmentation is further improved by the procedure of hand-forearm separation. A hand tracking mechanism is proposed to locate the hand by camera pan-tilt and zooming. The gesture recognition is implemented by template matching of multiple features.

  10. Pleiotropic roles of Notch signaling in normal, malignant, and developmental hematopoiesis in the human

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Rahul; Guezguez, Borhane; Lee, Jung Bok; Hopkins, Claudia I; Bhatia, Mickie

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved across species and plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. It has been implicated in several different hematopoietic processes including early hematopoietic development as well as adult hematological malignancies in humans. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the role of Notch signaling in the human hematopoietic system with an emphasis on hematopoietic initiation from human pluripotent stem cells and regulation within the bone marrow. Based on recent insights, we summarize potential strategies for treatment of human hematological malignancies toward the concept of targeting Notch signaling for fate regulation. PMID:25252682

  11. Chromatin remodeling by the CHD7 protein is impaired by mutations that cause human developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bouazoune, Karim; Kingston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the CHD7 gene cause human developmental disorders including CHARGE syndrome. Genetic studies in model organisms have further established CHD7 as a central regulator of vertebrate development. Functional analysis of the CHD7 protein has been hampered by its large size. We used a dual-tag system to purify intact recombinant CHD7 protein and found that it is an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Biochemical analyses indicate that CHD7 has characteristics distinct from SWI/SNF- and ISWI-type remodelers. Further investigations show that CHD7 patient mutations have consequences that range from subtle to complete inactivation of remodeling activity, and that mutations leading to protein truncations upstream of amino acid 1899 of CHD7 are likely to cause a hypomorphic phenotype for remodeling. We propose that nucleosome remodeling is a key function for CHD7 during developmental processes and provide a molecular basis for predicting the impact of disease mutations on that function. PMID:23134727

  12. Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology

    E-print Network

    Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is concerned with both physical and psychological changes throughout life-- from conception until death. www.uwindsor.ca/psychology A Rigorous, Enriching Program Developmental Psychology is a specialized major within Psychology that focuses on child

  13. Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxitants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s program for the screening and prioritization of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) necessitates the generation of a list of chemicals that are known mammalian developmental neurotoxicants. This chemical list will be used to evaluate the sensitivity, reliability...

  14. Early human communication helps in understanding language evolution.

    PubMed

    Lenti Boero, Daniela

    2014-12-01

    Building a theory on extant species, as Ackermann et al. do, is a useful contribution to the field of language evolution. Here, I add another living model that might be of interest: human language ontogeny in the first year of life. A better knowledge of this phase might help in understanding two more topics among the "several building blocks of a comprehensive theory of the evolution of spoken language" indicated in their conclusion by Ackermann et al., that is, the foundation of the co-evolution of linguistic motor skills with the auditory skills underlying speech perception, and the possible phylogenetic interactions of protospeech production with referential capabilities. PMID:25514950

  15. Use of NOD Mice to Understand Human Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Terri C.; Wilson, Brian S.; Mathews, Clayton E.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis In 1922, Leonard Thompson received the first injections of insulin prepared from the pancreas of canine test subjects. From pancreatectomized dogs to the more recent development of animal models that spontaneously develop autoimmune syndromes, animal models have played a meaningful role in furthering diabetes research. Of these animals the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is the most widely used for research in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) as the NOD shares a number of genetic and immunologic traits with the human form of the disease. In this chapter, we review both similarities and differences in NOD and human T1D and discuss the potential role of NOD mice in future pre-clinical studies aiming to provide a better understanding of the genetic and immune defects that lead to T1D. PMID:20723819

  16. Evaluation of 1066 ToxCast Chemicals in a human stem cell assay for developmental toxicity (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To increase the diversity of assays used to assess potential developmental toxicity, the ToxCast chemical library was screened in the Stemina devTOX quickPREDICT assay using human embryonic stem (hES) cells. A model for predicting teratogenicity was based on a training set of 23 ...

  17. EVALUATION OF HUMAN NEURAL PROGENITOR CELLS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY SCREENING: TIME COURSE OF EFFECTS ON CELL PROLIFERATION AND VIABILITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a screen for DNT. ReNcell CX (ReN CX) cells are a...

  18. Impairments in Monkey and Human Face Recognition in 2-Year-Old Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in…

  19. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

  20. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

  1. Understanding the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition

    PubMed Central

    Steg, Linda; Perlaviciute, Goda; van der Werff, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change threatens the health, economic prospects, and basic food and water sources of people. A wide range of changes in household energy behavior is needed to realize a sustainable energy transition. We propose a general framework to understand and encourage sustainable energy behaviors, comprising four key issues. First, we need to identify which behaviors need to be changed. A sustainable energy transition involves changes in a wide range of energy behaviors, including the adoption of sustainable energy sources and energy-efficient technology, investments in energy efficiency measures in buildings, and changes in direct and indirect energy use behavior. Second, we need to understand which factors underlie these different types of sustainable energy behaviors. We discuss three main factors that influence sustainable energy behaviors: knowledge, motivations, and contextual factors. Third, we need to test the effects of interventions aimed to promote sustainable energy behaviors. Interventions can be aimed at changing the actual costs and benefits of behavior, or at changing people’s perceptions and evaluations of different costs and benefits of behavioral options. Fourth, it is important to understand which factors affect the acceptability of energy policies and energy systems changes. We discuss important findings from psychological studies on these four topics, and propose a research agenda to further explore these topics. We emphasize the need of an integrated approach in studying the human dimensions of a sustainable energy transition that increases our understanding of which general factors affect a wide range of energy behaviors as well as the acceptability of different energy policies and energy system changes. PMID:26136705

  2. Optimized protocol for cryopreservation of human eggs improves developmental competence and implantation of resulting embryos

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful egg cryopreservation has many potential benefits to a variety of patients. However, a superior standard protocol describing all aspects of oocyte cryopreservation has not yet been identified. Oocyte cryopreservation is still a technical challenge for many infertility clinics. To maintain satisfactory clinical outcomes, there is a need to develop an easy to use, yet efficient laboratory protocol. The present study was designed to examine if human embryos resulting from eggs frozen with an optimized vitrification protocol have similar developmental competence as those from fresh eggs. Methods Twenty recipients received donated eggs vitrified with a protocol in which short exposure time to the vitrification solution was used and 23 recipients received donated eggs and 6 patients had their own eggs vitrified with a modified protocol in which long exposure time to the vitrification solution was used. After warming, egg survival, fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were compared. The developmental competence of eggs vitrified with the optimized protocol was further compared with fresh eggs donated from the same donors. Results There was no difference in the oocyte survival, fertilization, cleavage, clinical pregnancy or implantation rates between the short and long protocol groups. However, blastocyst formation rate was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the long protocol group (50.8%) than that in short protocol group (26.5%), resulting in more blastocysts being transferred and frozen. When frozen eggs vitrified with long protocol and fresh eggs from the same donors (12) were compared in 39 recipients, no differences were observed in terms of fertilization (86.4 vs 80.1%), blastocyst formation (50.0 vs 59.2%), clinical pregnancy (63.2 vs 60.0%) and implantation (41.7 vs 44.7%) rates. Four out of 6 patients had ongoing pregnancy after transfer of embryos from their own frozen eggs with a 46.2% implantation rate. Conclusions These results indicate that blastocyst development is an appropriate measure for egg survival after cryopreservation and frozen eggs have similar developmental potential as fresh eggs if they are frozen with an optimized method. PMID:23406718

  3. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - International efforts to understand the human brain

    MedlinePLUS

    ... update Transcript International efforts to understand the human brain : 12/07/2015 To use the sharing features ... to revolutionize the scientific understanding of the human brain, explains a perspective recently published in Science. The ...

  4. NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Shelby, Michael D

    2008-09-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/). See bisphenol A under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs. nih.gov/chemicals/bisphenol/bisphenol.html). The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to bisphenol A on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. The NTP has some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure to bisphenol A will cause reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed adults and minimal concern for workers exposed to higher levels in occupational settings. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Bisphenol A to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD from CERHR. PMID:19407859

  5. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A.; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  6. Morphological and Molecular Descriptors of the Developmental Cycle of Babesia divergens Parasites in Human Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, Ingrid; Maritz-Olivier, Christine; Niemand, Jandeli; van Biljon, Riette; Smit, Annel; Olivier, Nicholas A; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie

    2015-05-01

    Human babesiosis, especially caused by the cattle derived Babesia divergens parasite, is on the increase, resulting in renewed attentiveness to this potentially life threatening emerging zoonotic disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology and intra-erythrocytic development of these parasites are poorly understood. This impedes concerted efforts aimed at the discovery of novel anti-babesiacidal agents. By applying sensitive cell biological and molecular functional genomics tools, we describe the intra-erythrocytic development cycle of B. divergens parasites from immature, mono-nucleated ring forms to bi-nucleated paired piriforms and ultimately multi-nucleated tetrads that characterizes zoonotic Babesia spp. This is further correlated for the first time to nuclear content increases during intra-erythrocytic development progression, providing insight into the part of the life cycle that occurs during human infection. High-content temporal evaluation elucidated the contribution of the different stages to life cycle progression. Moreover, molecular descriptors indicate that B. divergens parasites employ physiological adaptation to in vitro cultivation. Additionally, differential expression is observed as the parasite equilibrates its developmental stages during its life cycle. Together, this information provides the first temporal evaluation of the functional transcriptome of B. divergens parasites, information that could be useful in identifying biological processes essential to parasite survival for future anti-babesiacidal discoveries. PMID:25955414

  7. Human understanding in dialogue: Gadamer's recovery of the genuine.

    PubMed

    Binding, Linda L; Tapp, Dianne M

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, the notion of the genuine as it relates to conversation is explored based on the work of H. G. Gadamer in his major work, Truth and Method (1989). The application of the genuine to human interaction and understanding in the context of qualitative research is examined. In addition, possible outcomes of the researcher's philosophical hermeneutic position, as exemplified through the use of the genuine conversation in her work, are discussed. Both the problem as well as the productivity of self-application and prejudice are addressed through the lens of the genuine conversation. We then illustrate the character of interviewing and interpretation of text as research practices that can be informed by Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics while resisting methodology as a necessary feature of research inquiry. PMID:18336709

  8. USING ACTION UNDERSTANDING TO UNDERSTAND THE LEFT INFERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX IN THE HUMAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Passingham, RE; Chung, A; Goparaju, B; Cowey, A; Vaina, LM

    2015-01-01

    In an fMRI study we tried to establish whether the areas in the human brain that are involved in the understanding of actions are homologous with the inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in macaque monkeys. Cells have been described in area PFG that discharge differentially depending upon whether the observer sees food being brought to the mouth or a small object being put in a container. In our study the observers saw videos in which the use of different objects was demonstrated in pantomime; and after viewing the videos, the subject had to pick the object that was appropriate to the pantomime. We found a cluster of activated voxels in parietal areas PFop and PFt and this cluster was greater in the left hemisphere than in the right. We suggest a mechanism that could account for this asymmetry, relate our results to handedness and suggest that they shed light on the human syndrome of apraxia. Finally, we suggest that during the evolution of the hominids, this same pantomime mechanism could have been used to ‘name’ or request objects. PMID:25086203

  9. Cellular reprogramming for understanding and treating human disease

    PubMed Central

    Kanherkar, Riya R.; Bhatia-Dey, Naina; Makarev, Evgeny; Csoka, Antonei B.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades we have witnessed a paradigm shift in our understanding of cells so radical that it has rewritten the rules of biology. The study of cellular reprogramming has gone from little more than a hypothesis, to applied bioengineering, with the creation of a variety of important cell types. By way of metaphor, we can compare the discovery of reprogramming with the archeological discovery of the Rosetta stone. This stone slab made possible the initial decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics because it allowed us to see this language in a way that was previously impossible. We propose that cellular reprogramming will have an equally profound impact on understanding and curing human disease, because it allows us to perceive and study molecular biological processes such as differentiation, epigenetics, and chromatin in ways that were likewise previously impossible. Stem cells could be called “cellular Rosetta stones” because they allow also us to perceive the connections between development, disease, cancer, aging, and regeneration in novel ways. Here we present a comprehensive historical review of stem cells and cellular reprogramming, and illustrate the developing synergy between many previously unconnected fields. We show how stem cells can be used to create in vitro models of human disease and provide examples of how reprogramming is being used to study and treat such diverse diseases as cancer, aging, and accelerated aging syndromes, infectious diseases such as AIDS, and epigenetic diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. While the technology of reprogramming is being developed and refined there have also been significant ongoing developments in other complementary technologies such as gene editing, progenitor cell production, and tissue engineering. These technologies are the foundations of what is becoming a fully-functional field of regenerative medicine and are converging to a point that will allow us to treat almost any disease. PMID:25429365

  10. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  11. A Structural Biology Approach to Understand Human Lymphatic Filarial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nagampalli, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Peters, Angela; Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan

    2014-01-01

    The presence of aspartic protease inhibitor in filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-Aspin) makes it interesting to study because of the fact that the filarial parasite never encounters the host digestive system. Here, the aspartic protease inhibition kinetics of Bm-Aspin and its NMR structural characteristics have been investigated. The overall aim of this study is to explain the inhibition and binding properties of Bm-Aspin from its structural point of view. UV-spectroscopy and multi-dimensional NMR are the experiments that have been performed to understand the kinetic and structural properties of Bm-Aspin respectively. The human aspartic proteases that are considered for this study are pepsin, renin, cathepsin-E and cathepsin-D. The results of this analysis performed with the specific substrate [Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe (4-NO2)-Phe-Val-Leu (4-pyridylmethyl) ester] against aspartic proteases suggest that Bm-Aspin inhibits the activities of all four human aspartic proteases. The kinetics studies indicate that Bm-Aspin follows a competitive mode of inhibition for pepsin and cathepsin-E, non-competitive for renin and mixed mode for cathepsin-D. The triple resonance NMR experiments on Bm-Aspin suggested the feasibility of carrying out NMR studies to obtain its solution structure. The NMR titration studies on the interactions of Bm-Aspin with the proteases indicate that it undergoes fast-exchange phenomena among themselves. In addition to this, the chemical shift perturbations for some of the residues of Bm-Aspin observed from 15N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of saturated amounts of aspartic proteases suggest the binding between Bm-Aspin and human aspartic proteases. They also provide information on the variations in the intensities and mode of binding between the proteases duly corroborating with the results from the protease inhibition assay method. PMID:24516678

  12. Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

    The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

  13. Relationship of Bender Gestalt Developmental Scores and Human Drawing Developmental Scores in a Sample of Turkish Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Serap

    2009-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt test and Human Drawings are frequently utilized tests in assessing school readiness in children. This study was a pilot attempt to evaluate these two tests in a Turkish sample as they relate to first grade behaviour as measured by teacher ratings. One hundred and five children were evaluated at the end of kindergarten using the…

  14. Improving Social Understanding of Individuals of Intellectual and Developmental disabilities through a 3D-Facial Expression Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Chen, Shuhui

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have specific difficulties in cognitive social-emotional capability, which affect numerous aspects of social competence. This study evaluated the learning effects of using 3D-emotion system intervention program for individuals with IDD in learning socially based-emotions capability…

  15. The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

  16. Understanding the Diversity: A Taxonomy for Postsecondary Education Programs and Services for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEathron, Mary A.; Beuhring, Trisha; Maynard, Amelia; Mavis, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The number of postsecondary education (PSE) programs for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been steadily growing over the last few decades. There has been little public information regarding these programs and schools. Consequently, students, families, and researchers alike lack details about the various…

  17. Advancing our understanding of the human microbiome using QIIME

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Molina, José A.; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M.; González, Antonio; McMurdie, Paul J.; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Xu, Zhenjiang; Ursell, Luke K.; Lauber, Christian; Zhou, Hongwei; Song, Se Jin; Huntley, James; Ackermann, Gail L.; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Holmes, Susan; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have enabled rapid advances in microbial ecology and our understanding of the human microbiome. QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is an open-source bioinformatics software package designed for microbial community analysis based on DNA sequence data, which provides a single analysis framework for analysis of raw sequence data through publication quality statistical analyses and interactive visualizations. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of the QIIME pipeline to analyze microbial communities obtained from several sites on the bodies of transgenic and wild-type mice, as assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequences generated on the Illumina MiSeq platform. We present our recommended pipeline for performing microbial community analysis, and provide guidelines for making critical choices in the process. We present examples of some of the types of analyses that are enabled by QIIME, and discuss how other tools, such as phyloseq and R, can be applied to expand upon these analyses. PMID:24060131

  18. Optical techniques to understand biofunctional adaptation in human dentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishen, Anil; Asundi, Anand K.

    2004-08-01

    Human tooth structure in the oral environment is subjected to mechanical forces and thermal fluctuations. Dentine, the major component of the tooth structure, is a bio-composite, mainly composed of a highly mineralized phase and a collagenous phase. When subjected to changes in load and/or temperature, dentine will experience stresses and strains distribution within their structure. Though such effects are found to cause deleterious effects on artificial dental restorations, biological structures such as dentine seem to posses an inherent ability to adapt to functional thermo-mechanical loads. Optical techniques enable visualization and quantification of deformation, strain and stress on dental structures and provide a better understanding on their thermo-mechanical response. In this study 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional digital photoelasticity, digital moiré interferometry and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are all shown to be quite promising in this application. This paper will highlight these techniques and the corresponding applications. These experiments will aid in designing and development of better dental restorations and implants in clinical practice.

  19. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Misook

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled about evolution, but offered limited response categories that mask complexity in public opinion (Bishop 2006; Moore 2008). The main problems concerning the leading survey questions about evolution are: first, questions measure only a single dimension, thus they ignore the potential for multidimensionality in people's attitudes. Second, depending on question wording and response options, the results of public opinion surveys vary by polling groups. This is an example of measurement error which misleads the interpretation and impression of American public opinion on the origin of humankind. A number of studies have analyzed Americans' beliefs about evolution and hypothesized about the influential effects of several factors (Deckman 2002; Mazur 2005; Mooney 2005; Miller et al. 2006; Newport 2006; Forrest 2007;Nisbet and Goidel 2007;Scott 2009). However, there remains a lack of complete understanding of what Americans know and believe about human evolution. Given the salience of this issue and the significant influence of public opinion on policy-making in America (Page and Shapiro 1992; Stimson 2004; Newport 2004), the measurement error and explanation of polling results on controversial issues related to this topic are in need of clarification. In this study, I address these deficiencies with analyses of data from a 2008 national survey by Harris Interactive (n= 4,626) that included numerous measures of factual knowledge and beliefs about evolution. The items offer more nuanced response options than the standard three-category question asked for decades by the Gallup poll. The Harris survey also had multiple measures of religiosity and the Right-Wing-Authoritarianism personality scale. Using this uniquely rich data set I develop a model of the nature and organization of these various attitude structures. Data analyses on explanation of public acceptance or rejection of evolution indicate that the Right-wing-authoritarianism and religious factors including beliefs in God's existence, views of the Bible, frequency of church attendance, and Evangelical Protestant affiliation are significant predictors across all measures. Scientific literacy, genetic science knowledge and familiarity, in general, are another contributor to prediction of public attitudes toward evolution. On measurement validity, consistency of measurement and responses are examined. The results from data analyses reveal the effect of question wording form and context is at play. In addition, public beliefs and knowledge about evolution are not consistent, rather contradictory, and are susceptible to framing effects. As scholars of public opinion warn, we should avoid the referendum view of polls on controversial issues (Schuman 2008; Moore 2008; Bishop 2005). Findings from this research lead to two key conclusions. First, great caution should be taken interpreting poll results on human evolution. Second, for better understanding of public opinion on this issue, a modified standard question should replace the current question.

  20. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. III: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, D C; Allen, S L; Byczkowski, J Z; Claudio, L; Fisher, J E; Fisher, J W; Harry, G J; Li, A A; Makris, S L; Padilla, S; Sultatos, L G; Mileson, B E

    2001-01-01

    We review pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors that should be considered in the design and interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity studies. Toxicologic effects on the developing nervous system depend on the delivered dose, exposure duration, and developmental stage at which exposure occurred. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition within the dam and the nervous system of the offspring. In addition, unique physical features such as the presence or absence of a placental barrier and the gradual development of the blood--brain barrier influence chemical disposition and thus modulate developmental neurotoxicity. Neonatal exposure may depend on maternal pharmacokinetic processes and transfer of the xenobiotic through the milk, although direct exposure may occur through other routes (e.g., inhalation). Measurement of the xenobiotic in milk and evaluation of biomarkers of exposure or effect following exposure can confirm or characterize neonatal exposure. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models that incorporate these and other determinants can estimate tissue dose and biologic response following in utero or neonatal exposure. These models can characterize dose--response relationships and improve extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans. In addition, pharmacologic data allow an experimenter to determine whether exposure to the test chemical is adequate, whether exposure occurs during critical periods of nervous system development, whether route and duration of exposure are appropriate, and whether developmental neurotoxicity can be differentiated from direct actions of the xenobiotic. PMID:11250810

  1. Borna Disease Virus Phosphoprotein Impairs the Developmental Program Controlling Neurogenesis and Reduces Human GABAergic Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Scordel, Chloé; Szelechowski, Marion; Poulet, Aurélie; Richardson, Jennifer; Benchoua, Alexandra; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Eloit, Marc; Coulpier, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that persistent viral infection may impair cellular function of specialized cells without overt damage. This concept, when applied to neurotropic viruses, may help to understand certain neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Borna disease virus (BDV) is an excellent example of a persistent virus that targets the brain, impairs neural functions without cell lysis, and ultimately results in neurobehavioral disturbances. Recently, we have shown that BDV infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and impairs neurogenesis, revealing a new mechanism by which BDV may interfere with brain function. Here, we sought to identify the viral proteins and molecular pathways that are involved. Using lentiviral vectors for expression of the bdv-p and bdv-x viral genes, we demonstrate that the phosphoprotein P, but not the X protein, diminishes human neurogenesis and, more particularly, GABAergic neurogenesis. We further reveal a decrease in pro-neuronal factors known to be involved in neuronal differentiation (ApoE, Noggin, TH and Scg10/Stathmin2), demonstrating that cellular dysfunction is associated with impairment of specific components of the molecular program that controls neurogenesis. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that a viral protein impairs GABAergic human neurogenesis, a process that is dysregulated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. They improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which a persistent virus may interfere with brain development and function in the adult. PMID:25923687

  2. Understanding Human Movement Semantics: A Point of Interest Based Approach

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    aspects of human movement [3], for example by relating to the move- ments of banknotes [1] or subatomic particles. But the mat- ter of fact is that, contrary to banknotes and subatomic particles, human mobility

  3. Neuronal developmental gene and miRNA signatures induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors in human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Meganathan, K; Jagtap, S; Srinivasan, S P; Wagh, V; Hescheler, J; Hengstler, J; Leist, M; Sachinidis, A

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may be applied to develop human-relevant sensitive in vitro test systems for monitoring developmental toxicants. The aim of this study was to identify potential developmental toxicity mechanisms of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC) valproic acid (VPA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA) relevant to the in vivo condition using a hESC model in combination with specific differentiation protocols and genome-wide gene expression and microRNA profiling. Analysis of the gene expression data showed that VPA repressed neural tube and dorsal forebrain (OTX2, ISL1, EMX2 and SOX10)-related transcripts. In addition, VPA upregulates axonogenesis and ventral forebrain-associated genes, such as SLIT1, SEMA3A, DLX2/4 and GAD2. HDACi-induced expression of miR-378 and knockdown of miR-378 increases the expression of OTX2 and EMX2, which supports our hypothesis that HDACi targets forebrain markers through miR-378. In conclusion, multilineage differentiation in vitro test system is very sensitive for monitoring molecular activities relevant to in vivo neuronal developmental toxicity. Moreover, miR-378 seems to repress the expression of the OTX2 and EMX2 and therefore could be a regulator of the development of neural tube and dorsal forebrain neurons. PMID:25950486

  4. The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda B.; Breazeal, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    What are the essential properties of human intelligence, currently unparalleled in its power relative to other biological forms and relative to artificial forms of intelligence? We suggest that answering this question depends critically on understanding developmental process. This paper considers three principles potentially essential to building…

  5. Embryology and Developmental

    E-print Network

    Neri, Peter

    BSc (Hons) Human Embryology and Developmental Biology Degree Programme Guide 2014-15 Schoolof biology, ranging from traditional morphology and experimental embryology to the latest molecular of knowledge regarding human embryology and developmental biology at the molecular, cellular and systems levels

  6. Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

  7. An Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots

    E-print Network

    Kanda, Takayuki

    -robot interaction, social robot, observation of interaction, human social relationships #12;1. Introduction 1An Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through that this ability to estimate human relationships is essential for robots to behave socially. Keywords: human

  8. UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN AIR QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue of EM presents a series of articles that focus on air quality and human health--what we know so far and the challenges that remain. The first article provides an overview of the problem at hand and approaches to properly address air quality and human health issues. Fo...

  9. Understanding individual human mobility patterns Marta C. Gonzalez1

    E-print Network

    in a single step12,13 , which seems to be consistent with human travel pat- terns: most of the time we travel regularity, each individual being characterized by a time- independent characteristic travel distance of their travel history, humans follow simple reproducible patterns. This inherent similarity in travel patterns

  10. Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

  11. High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

  12. Increasing our Understanding of Human Cognition Through the Study of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Denise, Cook; Erin, Nuro; Keith, K. Murai

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by reductions in the expression level or function of a single protein, the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a translational regulator which binds to approximately 4% of brain messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence suggests that FXS is a complex disorder of cognition, involving interactions between genetic and environmental influences, leading to difficulties in acquiring key life skills including motor skills, language, and proper social behaviors. Since many FXS patients also present with one or more features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), insights gained from studying the monogenic basis of FXS could pave the way to a greater understanding of underlying features of multigenic ASDs. Here we present an overview of the FXS and FMRP field with the goal of demonstrating how loss of a single protein involved in translational control affects multiple stages of brain development and leads to debilitating consequences on human cognition. We also focus on studies which have rescued or improved FXS symptoms in mice using genetic or therapeutic approaches to reduce protein expression. We end with a brief description of how deficits in translational control are implicated in FXS and certain cases of ASDs, with many recent studies demonstrating that ASDs are likely caused by increases or decreases in the levels of certain key synaptic proteins. The study of FXS and its underlying single genetic cause offers an invaluable opportunity to study how a single gene influences brain development and behavior. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 74: 147–177, 2014 PMID:23723176

  13. Genome-Wide Reprogramming of Transcript Architecture by Temperature Specifies the Developmental States of the Human Pathogen Histoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Sarah A.; Voorhies, Mark; Gebhart, Dana; Sil, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells integrate layers of gene regulation to coordinate complex cellular processes; however, mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation remain poorly studied. The human fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) responds to environmental or host temperature by initiating unique transcriptional programs to specify multicellular (hyphae) or unicellular (yeast) developmental states that function in infectivity or pathogenesis, respectively. Here we used recent advances in next-generation sequencing to uncover a novel re-programming of transcript length between Hc developmental cell types. We found that ~2% percent of Hc transcripts exhibit 5’ leader sequences that differ markedly in length between morphogenetic states. Ribosome density and mRNA abundance measurements of differential leader transcripts revealed nuanced transcriptional and translational regulation. One such class of regulated longer leader transcripts exhibited tight transcriptional and translational repression. Further examination of these dually repressed genes revealed that some control Hc morphology and that their strict regulation is necessary for the pathogen to make appropriate developmental decisions in response to temperature. PMID:26177267

  14. Improving social understanding of individuals of intellectual and developmental disabilities through a 3D-facail expression intervention program.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufang; Chen, Shuhui

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have specific difficulties in cognitive social-emotional capability, which affect numerous aspects of social competence. This study evaluated the learning effects of using 3D-emotion system intervention program for individuals with IDD in learning socially based-emotions capability in social contexts. The 3D-emotion system involves three stages with 24 questions with designed different social events. The experimental study was to evaluate using a single subject design on three participants with IDD for identifying the effects of 3D-emotion system intervention program; and the collected data of using this system and informal interview with the participants' were involved. The results showed that three participants had significant positive effects on using of the 3D-emotion system intervention program, and in terms of follow-up learning have been discussed in this paper. PMID:20674267

  15. Understanding 3D human torso shape via manifold clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng; Li, Peng; Fu, Yun

    2013-05-01

    Discovering the variations in human torso shape plays a key role in many design-oriented applications, such as suit designing. With recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies, people can obtain 3D human torso data that provide more information than traditional measurements. However, how to find different human shapes from 3D torso data is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose to use spectral clustering approach on torso manifold to address this problem. We first represent high-dimensional torso data in a low-dimensional space using manifold learning algorithm. Then the spectral clustering method is performed to get several disjoint clusters. Experimental results show that the clusters discovered by our approach can describe the discrepancies in both genders and human shapes, and our approach achieves better performance than the compared clustering method.

  16. GENETIC ANOMALIES IN MAMMALIAN GERM CELLS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The induction of heritable mutations in germ cells represents a potential health concern. his paper will highlight several themes in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis and their implications in reproductive and developmental risk. dditionally, factors that influence the yield of g...

  17. SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

  18. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  19. A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

  20. The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-01-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

  1. Non-Mendelian developmental defects: animal models and implications for research into human disease*

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The major groups of malformations in man are polygenic in origin but this review deals only with defects due to non-Mendelian factors. Animal models that help in identifying the causes and in understanding the numerous and often subtle mechanisms of human malformations are of particular value. Many chemicals, physical agents, and nutritional deficiencies affect experimental species but few are teratogenic for domestic animals and even fewer for man. The known fetopathic viruses of animals and man cross the placenta to cause chronic, nonlethal fetal damage without harm to the mother. Ionizing radiations are teratogenic for all species and hyperthermia for many, but the role of the latter in human development is uncertain. The identification of more animal species with spontaneous or induced defects comparable to those found in man and of additional causative teratogens will increase the resources available for research into the causes and mechanisms of abnormal development in man. No animal species is ideal in teratological research but each has its virtues. This report comments on the present status of research in teratology and the trends that might profitably be followed in the future. PMID:413638

  2. Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-06-01

    How do people develop their understanding of what is inside them? This study looks at students' understandings of their internal structure. A cross-sectional approach was used involving a total of 158 students in England from six different age groups (ranging from four year old students to first year undergraduates). Students were given a blank piece of A4-sized paper and asked to draw what they thought was inside themselves. Repeated inspections of the completed drawings allowed us to construct a seven point scale of these representations. Our analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. While gender differences in the drawings were generally not large there were some intriguing differences in the ways males and females drew reproductive organs.

  3. Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

  4. Pyrosequencing as a tool for better understanding of human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

    2012-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the analysis of microbial communities in diverse environments, including the human body. This article reviews several aspects of one of these technologies, the pyrosequencing technique, including its principles, applications, and significant contribution to the study of the human microbiome, with especial emphasis on the oral microbiome. The results brought about by pyrosequencing studies have significantly contributed to refining and augmenting the knowledge of the community membership and structure in and on the human body in healthy and diseased conditions. Because most oral infectious diseases are currently regarded as biofilm-related polymicrobial infections, high-throughput sequencing technologies have the potential to disclose specific patterns related to health or disease. Further advances in technology hold the perspective to have important implications in terms of accurate diagnosis and more effective preventive and therapeutic measures for common oral diseases. PMID:22279602

  5. Understanding the Human Volcano: What Teens Can Do about Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Earl

    Anger and violence among children has moved from the streets to the schools, with tragic, and well-documented, results. This book addresses anger and violence among children and is, in essence, an anger-management course for teens, written at about an eighth-grade level. Part 1, "The Problems of Violence in Our World," explores human violence. It…

  6. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gordon J; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions. PMID:26172756

  7. Humanities in Dental Education: A Focus on Understanding the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)

  8. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwon, Misook

    2012-01-01

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled…

  9. Understanding the heavy-tailed dynamics in human behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Gordon J.; Jones, Tim

    2015-06-01

    The recent availability of electronic data sets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the interevent times between consecutive communication events obey heavy-tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are statistical artifacts which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy-tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based on this, we develop a quantitative model of human behavior which improves on existing approaches and gives insight into the mechanisms underlying human interactions.

  10. Lifeasweknowit To understand the human genome, researchers must spread their wings to all branches of life.

    E-print Network

    Pratt, Vaughan

    and a worm to its ENCODE project, which aims to catalogue all the functional parts of the human genome is moving more forcefully into purely human genomics. The biggest new projects recently announcedLifeasweknowit To understand the human genome, researchers must spread their wings to all branches

  11. Health Healing Well-Being The Medical Humanities Initiative is focused on understanding the

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Health · Healing · Well-Being The Medical Humanities Initiative is focused on understanding the human dimensions of health, healing, and well-being through an unprecendented collaboration among the schools of Arts, Humanities, and Medicine at the University of California, Irvine (UCI). The UCI Medical

  12. Understanding RUTH: Creating Believable Behaviors for a Virtual Human under Uncertainty

    E-print Network

    DeCarlo, Doug

    Understanding RUTH: Creating Believable Behaviors for a Virtual Human under Uncertainty Insuk Oh conversation with a virtual human, two key challenges are selecting nonverbal behaviors to implement-grained conversational behaviors from knowledge and observations of spontaneous human conversation. Keywords: Uncertainty

  13. NE OF THE GREAT MYSTERIES of the human brain is how it understands and produces language.

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    O NE OF THE GREAT MYSTERIES of the human brain is how it understands and produces language. Until HOW DOES THE HUMAN BRAIN PROCESS LANGUAGE? NEW STUDIES OF DEAF SIGNERS HINT AT AN ANSWER COPYRIGHT have illuminated the workings of the human brain and may help neurologists treat the ills of their deaf

  14. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding

    PubMed Central

    Aminoff, Elissa M.; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective—the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)—have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN—the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS—were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method—NEIL (“Never-Ending-Image-Learner”), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes—showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network. PMID:25698964

  15. Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding.

    PubMed

    Aminoff, Elissa M; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective-the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)-have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN-the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS-were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method-NEIL ("Never-Ending-Image-Learner"), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes-showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network. PMID:25698964

  16. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G.; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR<0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD. PMID:26636579

  17. Continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies in developmental toxicology: Report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity, 14-16 May 2014.

    PubMed

    Solecki, Roland; Rauch, Martina; Gall, Andrea; Buschmann, Jochen; Clark, Ruth; Fuchs, Antje; Kan, Haidong; Heinrich, Verena; Kellner, Rupert; Knudsen, Thomas B; Li, Weihua; Makris, Susan L; Ooshima, Yojiro; Paumgartten, Francisco; Piersma, Aldert H; Schönfelder, Gilbert; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schaefer, Christof; Shiota, Kohei; Ulbrich, Beate; Ding, Xuncheng; Chahoud, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article is a report of the 8th Berlin Workshop on Developmental Toxicity held in May 2014. The main aim of the workshop was the continuing harmonization of terminology and innovations for methodologies used in the assessment of embryo- and fetotoxic findings. The following main topics were discussed: harmonized categorization of external, skeletal, visceral and materno-fetal findings into malformations, variations and grey zone anomalies, aspects of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals, and innovations for new methodologies in developmental toxicology. The application of Version 2 terminology in the DevTox database was considered as a useful improvement in the categorization of developmental anomalies. Participants concluded that initiation of a project for comparative assessments of developmental anomalies in humans and laboratory animals could support regulatory risk assessment and university-based training. Improvement of new methodological approaches for alternatives to animal testing should be triggered for a better understanding of developmental outcomes. PMID:26073002

  18. Understanding the Heavy Tailed Dynamics in Human Behavior

    E-print Network

    Ross, Gordon J

    2015-01-01

    The recent availability of electronic datasets containing large volumes of communication data has made it possible to study human behavior on a larger scale than ever before. From this, it has been discovered that across a diverse range of data sets, the inter-event times between consecutive communication events obey heavy tailed power law dynamics. Explaining this has proved controversial, and two distinct hypotheses have emerged. The first holds that these power laws are fundamental, and arise from the mechanisms such as priority queuing that humans use to schedule tasks. The second holds that they are a statistical artifact which only occur in aggregated data when features such as circadian rhythms and burstiness are ignored. We use a large social media data set to test these hypotheses, and find that although models that incorporate circadian rhythms and burstiness do explain part of the observed heavy tails, there is residual unexplained heavy tail behavior which suggests a more fundamental cause. Based ...

  19. Understanding face perception by means of human electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Rossion, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Electrophysiological recordings on the human scalp provide a wealth of information about the temporal dynamics and nature of face perception at a global level of brain organization. The time window between 100 and 200 ms witnesses the transition between low-level and high-level vision, an N170 component correlating with conscious interpretation of a visual stimulus as a face. This face representation is rapidly refined as information accumulates during this time window, allowing the individualization of faces. To improve the sensitivity and objectivity of face perception measures, it is increasingly important to go beyond transient visual stimulation by recording electrophysiological responses at periodic frequency rates. This approach has recently provided face perception thresholds and the first objective signature of integration of facial parts in the human brain. PMID:24703600

  20. Development and evolution of the insect mushroom bodies: towards the understanding of conserved developmental mechanisms in a

    E-print Network

    Farris, Sarah M.

    Development and evolution of the insect mushroom bodies: towards the understanding of conserved Received 6 January 2003; accepted 10 March 2003 Abstract The insect mushroom bodies are prominent higher as centers for intelligence and other higher functions; at present, the mushroom bodies are regarded

  1. Out of Sight Is Not out of Mind: Developmental Changes in Infants' Understanding of Visual Perception during the Second Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Sodian, Beate; Metz, Ulrike; Tilden, Joanne; Schoeppner, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments investigated 14-, 18-, and 24- month-old infants' understanding of visual perception. Infants viewed films in which a protagonist was either able to view the location of a hidden object (Visual Access condition) or was blindfolded when the object location was revealed (No Visual Access condition). When requested to find the…

  2. Using animal models to understand cancer pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Currie, Gillian L; Sena, Emily S; Fallon, Marie T; Macleod, Malcolm R; Colvin, Lesley A

    2014-06-01

    Cancer pain is not a single entity but a complex pain state involving different pain syndromes, with inflammatory, neuropathic, compressive, and ischaemic mechanisms. Current therapeutic regimens are based largely on opioids, although opioid treatment can lead to many side effects. Studies using animal models of cancer pain are aimed at understanding cancer pain and developing novel therapies. The most frequently reported models are of bone cancer pain, predominantly modelling pain associated with tumour growth within bone marrow. Here we summarise recent findings from studies using animal models of cancer pain and discuss the methodological quality of these studies. PMID:24760492

  3. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  4. Developmental toxicity guideline critique

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.M.

    1987-07-01

    The toxicity guidelines include the following major sections: definitions and terminology; qualitative assessment which provides a brief description of the most commonly used developmental toxicity experimental protocol; endpoint assays; functional effects; short term testing; pharmacokinetics; studies of humans; structure-activity relationships; decision-making regarding developmental toxicity; and risk assessment.

  5. A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle†

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, James N.; Leach, Allison M.; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts—including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

  6. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Keith M; Haugen, Guttorm; Kiserud, Torvid; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C W; Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Sian M; Davies, Lucy; Hanson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r?=?0.43, P<0.001) and at age 4 years (r?=?0.16, P?=?0.02). In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r?=?0.17, p?=?0.02). This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P?=?0.04). We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat. PMID:22927915

  7. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

  8. Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, David O; Arcaro, Kathleen; Spink, David C

    2002-01-01

    Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many even more complex interactions may occur if two chemicals act at different but related targets. In the extreme case there may be synergistic effects, in which case the effects of two substances together are greater than the sum of either effect alone. In reality, most persons are exposed to many chemicals, not just one or two, and therefore the effects of a chemical mixture are extremely complex and may differ for each mixture depending on the chemical composition. This complexity is a major reason why mixtures have not been well studied. In this review we attempt to illustrate some of the principles and approaches that can be used to study effects of mixtures. By the nature of the state of the science, this discussion is more a presentation of what we do not know than of what we do know about mixtures. We approach the study of mixtures at three levels, using specific examples. First, we discuss several human diseases in relation to a variety of environmental agents believed to influence the development and progression of the disease. We present results of selected cellular and animal studies in which simple mixtures have been investigated. Finally, we discuss some of the effects of mixtures at a molecular level. PMID:11834461

  9. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  10. Video-based human behavior understanding: Paulo Vinicius Koerich Borges, Nicola Conci, Andrea Cavallaro

    E-print Network

    Cavallaro, Andrea

    processing, feature extraction, machine learning and 3D geometry. Application scenarios range from that has recently seen important advances. Human behavior understanding combines image and signal of understanding to recognize gestures and motion patterns at intra-body level [8]. Depending on the quality

  11. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  12. The ability to understand analogies underscores the power and flexibility of human cognition. Analogical

    E-print Network

    Cook, Robert

    The ability to understand analogies underscores the power and flexibility of human cognition. Premack (1983) hypothesized that only symbol-using animals (humans and "language"-trained chimps) can common relations between domains. Increasing attention is being paid to how hu- mans process higher

  13. Deletion of Porcn in Mice Leads to Multiple Developmental Defects and Models Human Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (Goltz Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shaver, Timothy M.; Balasa, Alfred; Ljungberg, M. Cecilia; Wang, Xiaoling; Wen, Shu; Nguyen, Hoang; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated. Results We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox) have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion. Conclusions These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures. PMID:22412863

  14. Can we understand how developmental stress enhances performance under future threat with the Yerkes-Dodson law?

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E; Sheriff, Michael J; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    Recently we have shown that adult rats exposed to chronic stress during adolescence increase foraging performance in high-threat conditions by 43% compared to rats reared without stress. Our findings suggest that stress during adolescence can prepare rats to better function under future threat, which supports hypotheses describing an adaptive role for the long-term consequences of early stress (e.g. the thrifty phenotype and maternal mismatch hypotheses). These hypotheses often predict that early stress will impair performance in low-threat conditions later in life. However, we did not find any difference in performance under low-threat conditions between adolescent-stressed and unstressed adult animals. To understand why stress during adolescence may affect performance in high-threat but not in low-threat conditions, we discuss our findings in the framework of the Yerkes-Dodson law, a key precept of psychology that has been used for over a century to describe how stress affects performance. PMID:26479861

  15. Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite

    E-print Network

    Dao, Ming

    developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite John P. Mills1 , Lan Qie3 , Ming Dao1 , Kevin S that the malaria parasite Plasmodium (P.) falciparum could result in significant stiffening of infected human red in the advanced stages of parasite development in the erythrocyte, and suggest a significantly greater stiffening

  16. Gene expression profiling in human fetal liver and identification of tissue- and developmental-stage-specific genes through compiled expression profiles and efficient cloning of full-length cDNAs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Zhang, C; Zhou, G; Wu, S; Qu, X; Wei, H; Xing, G; Dong, C; Zhai, Y; Wan, J; Ouyang, S; Li, L; Zhang, S; Zhou, K; Zhang, Y; Wu, C; He, F

    2001-08-01

    Fetal liver intriguingly consists of hepatic parenchymal cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Human fetal liver aged 22 wk of gestation (HFL22w) corresponds to the turning point between immigration and emigration of the hematopoietic system. To gain further molecular insight into its developmental and functional characteristics, HFL22w was studied by generating expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and by analyzing the compiled expression profiles of liver at different developmental stages. A total of 13,077 ESTs were sequenced from a 3'-directed cDNA library of HFL22w, and classified as follows: 5819 (44.5%) matched to known genes; 5460 (41.8%) exhibited no significant homology to known genes; and the remaining 1798 (13.7%) were genomic sequences of unknown function, mitochondrial genomic sequences, or repetitive sequences. Integration of ESTs of known human genes generated a profile including 1660 genes that could be divided into 15 gene categories according to their functions. Genes related to general housekeeping, ESTs associated with hematopoiesis, and liver-specific genes were highly expressed. Genes for signal transduction and those associated with diseases, abnormalities, or transcription regulation were also noticeably active. By comparing the expression profiles, we identified six gene groups that were associated with different developmental stages of human fetal liver, tumorigenesis, different physiological functions of Itoh cells against the other types of hepatic cells, and fetal hematopoiesis. The gene expression profile therefore reflected the unique functional characteristics of HFL22w remarkably. Meanwhile, 110 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. These novel genes might contribute to our understanding of the unique functional characteristics of the human fetal liver at 22 wk. PMID:11483580

  17. Uniquely human developmental timing may drive cerebral lateralization and interhemispheric collaboration

    E-print Network

    Cottrell, Garrison W.

    that this dichotomy can be explained by the uniquely steep trajectory of human post-natal brain growth. This drastic that the de- velopmental trajectory of human brains enables functional lateralization­specifically, that the vast and accelerated post- natal expansion of brain size and delayed maturation of the corpus callosum

  18. Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

    2003-01-01

    We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or ? (adult) and 17 or ? (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5? end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3? exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5? flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

  19. Critical review of the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Recent advances toward understanding the mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, L.A.; Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    A specific teratogenic response is elicited in the mouse as a result of exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin). The characteristic spectrum of structural malformations induced in mice following exposure to TCDD and structurally-related congeners is highly reproducible and includes both hydronephrosis and cleft palate. In addition, prenatal exposure to TCDD has been shown to induce thymic hypoplasia. The three abnormalities occur at doses well below those producing maternal or embryo/fetal toxicity, and are among the most sensitive indicators of dioxin toxicity. In all other laboratory species tested, TCDD causes maternal and embryo/fetal toxicity, but does not induce a significant increase in the incidence of structural abnormalities even at toxic dose levels. Developmental toxicity occurs in a similar dose range across species, however, mice are particularly susceptible to development of TCDD-induced terata. Recent experiments using an organ culture were an attempt to address the issue of species and organ differences in sensitivity to TCDD. Human palatal shelves were examined in this in vitro system, and were found to approximate the rat in terms of sensitivity for induction of cleft palate.

  20. Toward a Universal Understanding of the Scaling Laws in Human and Animal Mobility

    E-print Network

    Hu, Yanqing; Huan, Di; Di, Zengru

    2010-01-01

    Recent research highlighted the scaling property of human and animal mobility. An interesting issue is that the exponents of scaling law for animals and human are quite different. This paper proposed a universal optimization model based on information entropy to understand the mobility patterns of human and animals, and especially attributed the discrepancy of power law exponents to the home-return patterns. The simulation results showed that the optimal exponents which can maximize the information entropy change from $1$ to $2$ as the strength of home-return constraints decrease. Therefore, human being is more likely to return home than animals in the process of seeking information.

  1. Assessment of human hippocampal developmental neuroanatomy by means of ex-vivo 7 T magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Milesi, Gloria; Garbelli, Rita; Zucca, Ileana; Aronica, Eleonora; Spreafico, Roberto; Frassoni, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    During development, the hippocampus undergoes numerous changes in its cell morphology and cyto- and myelo-architecture that begin during the fetal period and continue after birth. We investigated the developmental changes occurring in healthy fetal (20-32 gestational weeks) and post-natal human hippocampi (from 1 day to adulthood) by combining high-resolution 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological and immunohistochemical analyses in order to compare variations in signal intensity with cyto- and myeloarchitectural organization. During fetal period the intensity of the T2-weighted images was related to the cell density and the subregions of Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, characterized by densely packed neurons, were recognizable as hypointense areas. The inverse correlation between MRI signal intensity and cell density was visualized by line profile results. At the age of two post-natal weeks, the low MRI signal was still related to cell density, although thin myelinated fibers were observed in hypointense regions such as the alveus and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. The myelin content subsequently increases until the complete hippocampal myeloarchitecture is reached in adulthood. Comparison of the MRI findings and corresponding histological sections indicated that the differences in the T2-weighted images between the age of seven years and adulthood reflect the increasing density of myelinated fibers. These results provide useful information concerning the interpretation of MRI signals and the developmental changes visualized by in vivo MRI at lower field strengths, and may be used as a reference for the future use of high spatial resolution MRI in clinical practice. PMID:24456808

  2. Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as cell therapeutics for neurological disease. Compared with other types of stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, such as limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potential into functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. In spite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolation from the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion, have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs. However, several groups have recently developed novel techniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normal adult brains, and showed successful applications of aNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologies for aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdles in stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could be overcome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerative stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25621112

  3. The early origins of human charity: developmental changes in preschoolers’ sharing with poor and wealthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence that young children already engage in sharing behavior. The underlying social-cognitive mechanisms, however, are still under debate. In particular, it is unclear whether or not young children’s sharing is motivated by an appreciation of others’ wealth. Manipulating the material needs of recipients in a sharing task (Experiment 1) and a resource allocation task (Experiment 2), we show that 5- but not 3-year-old children share more with poor than wealthy individuals. The 3-year-old children even showed a tendency to behave less selfishly towards the rich, yet not the poor recipient. This suggests that very early instances of sharing behavior are not motivated by a consideration of others’ material needs. Moreover, the results show that 5-year-old children were rather inclined to give more to the poor individual than distributing the resources equally, demonstrating that their wish to support the poor overruled the otherwise very prominent inclination to share resources equally. This indicates that charity has strong developmental roots in preschool children. PMID:25018735

  4. Computational approaches towards understanding human long non-coding RNA biology.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Saakshi; Kapoor, Shruti; Sivadas, Ambily; Bhartiya, Deeksha; Scaria, Vinod

    2015-07-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) form the largest class of non-protein coding genes in the human genome. While a small subset of well-characterized lncRNAs has demonstrated their significant role in diverse biological functions like chromatin modifications, post-transcriptional regulation, imprinting etc., the functional significance of a vast majority of them still remains an enigma. Increasing evidence of the implications of lncRNAs in various diseases including cancer and major developmental processes has further enhanced the need to gain mechanistic insights into the lncRNA functions. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the various computational approaches and tools available for the identification and annotation of long non-coding RNAs. We also discuss a conceptual roadmap to systematically explore the functional properties of the lncRNAs using computational approaches. PMID:25777523

  5. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  6. Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. ); Saltman, D.L. )

    1991-12-01

    The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

  7. Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress

    PubMed Central

    Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

  8. Developmental Changes in the Discrimination of Dynamic Human Actions in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to assess…

  9. Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives on Humans' Sense of the Times of Past and Future Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mental time travel in human adults includes a sense of when past events occurred and future events are expected to occur. Studies with adults and children reveal that a number of distinct psychological processes contribute to a temporally differentiated sense of the past and future. Adults possess representations of multiple time patterns, and…

  10. Developmental Testing of Habitability and Human Factors Tools and Methods During Neemo 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaxton, S. S.; Litaker, H. L., Jr.; Holden, K. L.; Adolf, J. A.; Pace, J.; Morency, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, no established methods exist to collect real-time human factors and habitability data while crewmembers are living aboard the International Space Station (ISS), traveling aboard other space vehicles, or living in remote habitats. Currently, human factors and habitability data regarding space vehicles and habitats are acquired at the end of missions during postflight crew debriefs. These debriefs occur weeks or often longer after events have occurred, which forces a significant reliance on incomplete human memory, which is imperfect. Without a means to collect real-time data, small issues may have a cumulative effect and continue to cause crew frustration and inefficiencies. Without timely and appropriate reporting methodologies, issues may be repeated or lost. TOOL DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: As part of a directed research project (DRP) aiming to develop and validate tools and methods for collecting near real-time human factors and habitability data, a preliminary set of tools and methods was developed. These tools and methods were evaluated during the NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission in October 2011. Two versions of a software tool were used to collect observational data from NEEMO crewmembers that also used targeted strategies for using video cameras to collect observations. Space habitability observation reporting tool (SHORT) was created based on a tool previously developed by NASA to capture human factors and habitability issues during spaceflight. SHORT uses a web-based interface that allows users to enter a text description of any observations they wish to report and assign a priority level if changes are needed. In addition to the web-based format, a mobile Apple (iOS) format was implemented, referred to as iSHORT. iSHORT allows users to provide text, audio, photograph, and video data to report observations. iSHORT can be deployed on an iPod Touch, iPhone, or iPad; for NEEMO 15, the app was provided on an iPad2.

  11. Species differences in developmental toxicity of epoxiconazole and its relevance to humans.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Steffen; Hofmann, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Stefan; Moreno, Maria Cecilia Rey; Fegert, Ivana; Strauss, Volker; Gröters, Sibylle; Fabian, Eric; Thiaener, Jutta; Fussell, Karma C; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2013-06-01

    Epoxiconazole, a triazole-based fungicide, was tested in toxicokinetic, prenatal and pre-postnatal toxicity studies in guinea pigs, following oral (gavage) administration at several dose levels (high dose: 90 mg/kg body weight per day). Maternal toxicity was evidenced by slightly increased abortion rates and by histopathological changes in adrenal glands, suggesting maternal stress. No compound-related increase in the incidence of malformations or variations was observed in the prenatal study. In the pre-postnatal study, epoxiconazole did not adversely affect gestation length, parturition, or postnatal growth and development. Administration of epoxiconazole did not alter circulating estradiol levels. Histopathological examination of the placentas did not reveal compound-related effects. The results in guinea pigs are strikingly different to those observed in pregnant rats, in which maternal estrogen depletion, pathological alteration of placentas, increased gestation length, late fetal death, and dystocia were observed after administration of epoxiconazole. In the studies reported here, analysis of maternal plasma concentrations and metabolism after administration of radiolabeled epoxiconazole demonstrated that the different results in rats and guinea pigs were not due to different exposures of the animals. A comprehensive comparison of hormonal regulation of pregnancy and birth in murid rodents and primates indicates that the effects on pregnancy and parturition observed in rats are not applicable to humans. In contrast, the pregnant guinea pig shares many similarities to pregnant humans regarding hormonal regulation and is therefore considered to be a suitable species for extrapolation of related effects to humans. PMID:23630118

  12. The Importance of Human Reliability Analysis in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    HRA is a method used to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the occurrence of human failures in the operation of complex systems that affect availability and reliability. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure in a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) provides a more complete picture of the risk and risk contributions. A high quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedural, equipment design and need for automation.

  13. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  14. (Mis)Understanding Human Beings: Theory, Value, and Progress in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    2010-01-01

    There is renewed interest in what can be called an "experimentist" approach to education research. The claim is that if researchers would focus on experiments and "evidence-based" policies and practices, irreversible progress in education can be achieved. This experimentist approach cannot provide the understanding of knowledge and human beings…

  15. X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walzer, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

  16. Showing is Sharing: Building Shared Understanding in Human-Centered Design Teams with Dazzle

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Björn

    Showing is Sharing: Building Shared Understanding in Human-Centered Design Teams with Dazzle Lora guidelines and implemented them in Dazzle, a collaborative shared display system for co-located design team meetings. Dazzle associates the action of showing information on the shared display with granting the rest

  17. The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

  18. UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

  19. Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

  20. Understanding Challenges in the Front Lines of Home Health Care: A Human-Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Jenay M.; McBride, Sara E.; Mitzner, Tracy L.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    A human-systems perspective is a fruitful approach to understanding home health care because it emphasizes major individual components of the system – persons, equipment/technology, tasks, and environments –as well as the interaction between these components. The goal of this research was to apply a human-system perspective to consider the capabilities and limitations of the persons, in relation to the demands of the tasks and equipment/technology in home health care. Identification of challenges and mismatches between the person(s) capabilities and the demands of providing care provide guidance for human factors interventions. A qualitative study was conducted with 8 home health Certified Nursing Assistants and 8 home health Registered Nurses interviewed about challenges they encounter in their jobs. A systematic categorization of the challenges the care providers reported was conducted and human factors recommendations were proposed in response, to improve home health. The challenges inform a human-systems model of home health care. PMID:24958610

  1. Understanding challenges in the front lines of home health care: a human-systems approach.

    PubMed

    Beer, Jenay M; McBride, Sara E; Mitzner, Tracy L; Rogers, Wendy A

    2014-11-01

    A human-systems perspective is a fruitful approach to understanding home health care because it emphasizes major individual components of the system - persons, equipment/technology, tasks, and environments - as well as the interaction between these components. The goal of this research was to apply a human-system perspective to consider the capabilities and limitations of the persons, in relation to the demands of the tasks and equipment/technology in home health care. Identification of challenges and mismatches between the person(s) capabilities and the demands of providing care provide guidance for human factors interventions. A qualitative study was conducted with 8 home health Certified Nursing Assistants and 8 home health Registered Nurses interviewed about challenges they encounter in their jobs. A systematic categorization of the challenges the care providers reported was conducted and human factors recommendations were proposed in response, to improve home health. The challenges inform a human-systems model of home health care. PMID:24958610

  2. The interferon-related developmental regulator 1 is used by human papillomavirus to suppress NF?B activation

    PubMed Central

    Tummers, Bart; Goedemans, Renske; Pelascini, Laetitia P. L.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; van Esch, Edith M. G.; Meyers, Craig; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Boer, Judith M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) infect keratinocytes and successfully evade host immunity despite the fact that keratinocytes are well equipped to respond to innate and adaptive immune signals. Using non-infected and freshly established or persistent hrHPV-infected keratinocytes we show that hrHPV impairs the acetylation of NF?B/RelA K310 in keratinocytes. As a consequence, keratinocytes display a decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and immune cell attraction in response to stimuli of the innate or adaptive immune pathways. HPV accomplishes this by augmenting the expression of interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (IFRD1) in an EGFR-dependent manner. Restoration of NF?B/RelA acetylation by IFRD1 shRNA, cetuximab treatment or the HDAC1/3 inhibitor entinostat increases basal and induced cytokine expression. Similar observations are made in IFRD1-overexpressing HPV-induced cancer cells. Thus, our study reveals an EGFR–IFRD1-mediated viral immune evasion mechanism, which can also be exploited by cancer cells. PMID:26055519

  3. Developmental Exposure to Estrogen Alters Differentiation and Epigenetic Programming in a Human Fetal Prostate Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Saffarini, Camelia M.; McDonnell-Clark, Elizabeth V.; Amin, Ali; Huse, Susan M.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-cutaneous malignancy in men. There is strong evidence in rodents that neonatal estrogen exposure plays a role in the development of this disease. However, there is little information regarding the effects of estrogen in human fetal prostate tissue. This study explored early life estrogen exposure, with and without a secondary estrogen and testosterone treatment in a human fetal prostate xenograft model. Histopathological lesions, proliferation, and serum hormone levels were evaluated at 7, 30, 90, and 200-day time-points after xenografting. The expression of 40 key genes involved in prostatic glandular and stromal growth, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, hormone receptors and tumor suppressors was evaluated using a custom PCR array. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was performed on whole tissue, and laser capture-microdissection (LCM) isolated epithelial and stromal compartments of 200-day prostate xenografts. Combined initial plus secondary estrogenic exposures had the most severe tissue changes as revealed by the presence of hyperplastic glands at day 200. Gene expression changes corresponded with the cellular events in the KEGG prostate cancer pathway, indicating that initial plus secondary exposure to estrogen altered the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ultimately resulting in apoptosis inhibition and an increase in cell cycle progression. DNA methylation revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites significantly predominate in the stromal compartment as a result of estrogen-treatment, thereby providing new targets for future investigation. By using human fetal prostate tissue and eliminating the need for species extrapolation, this study provides novel insights into the gene expression and epigenetic effects related to prostate carcinogenesis following early life estrogen exposure. PMID:25799167

  4. METROPOLITAN ATLANTA DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM (MADDSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the problem of developmental disabilities among children, CDC, the former Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, which was funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the Georgia Department of Human Resources, initiate...

  5. Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T. ); vom Saal, F.S. ); Soto, A.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Large numbers and large quantities of endoncrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, trangenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistent of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans.

  6. Evidence for developmental dopaminergic alterations in the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transgenic rat

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Katy M.; Aksenov, Michael Y.; Mactutus, Charles F.; Booze, Rosemarie M.

    2013-01-01

    Neurologic impairments associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pediatric patients may affect quality of life, and can develop despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Behavioral changes observed in clinical studies of HIV-infected children suggest alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Findings from our model of choice, the HIV-1 transgenic rat, reveal a significant increase in phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase protein expression and a decrease in dopamine transporter mRNA, without changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine transporter (DAT) protein or in more general markers of protein and gene expression levels in the HIV-1 transgenic rat midbrain. Thus these findings suggest selective vulnerability of the dopamine system in developing brains to HIV-1 infection. PMID:20337512

  7. Developmentally stable chromatin structure in the human. beta. -globin gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, W.C.; Thompson, C.; Elder, J.T.; Groudine, M.

    1986-03-01

    The DNase I-hypersensitive sites in the human embryonic ..beta..-globin gene region have been mapped in erythroid-enriched fractions of disaggregated fetal livers, in adult nucleated red blood cells, and in fetal brain tissue. The analysis of a region extending 11 kilobases (kb) 5' of the epsilion-globin gene reveals many minor nuclease-hypersensitive sites and one major site located 6.1 kb upstream of the epsilon-globin gene. All of these hypersensitive sites are erythroid-specific, and the major site is stable throughout erythroid development. As assayed by nuclear runoff transcription, little or no epsilon-globin gene expression is detectable in fetal or adult erythroid cells. Thus, the presence of the major hypersensitive site 5' of the epsilon-globin gene in both fetal and adult erythroid cells demonstrates that this site is not specifically correlated with transcription of the gene or with a particular stage of development. Rather, this site may reflect an early event in erythroid differentiation. In addition, DNase I has been used to probe the overall sensitivity of epsilon-globin chromatin in fetal erythroid cells. The findings indicate that the epsilon-globin gene as well as the other genes in the ..beta..-globin cluster reside within the chomatin domain that is more DNase I-sensitive than bulk chromatin.

  8. Using Big Data to Understand the Human Condition: The Kavli HUMAN Project

    PubMed Central

    Azmak, Okan; Bayer, Hannah; Caplin, Andrew; Chun, Miyoung; Glimcher, Paul; Koonin, Steven; Patrinos, Aristides

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Until now, most large-scale studies of humans have either focused on very specific domains of inquiry or have relied on between-subjects approaches. While these previous studies have been invaluable for revealing important biological factors in cardiac health or social factors in retirement choices, no single repository contains anything like a complete record of the health, education, genetics, environmental, and lifestyle profiles of a large group of individuals at the within-subject level. This seems critical today because emerging evidence about the dynamic interplay between biology, behavior, and the environment point to a pressing need for just the kind of large-scale, long-term synoptic dataset that does not yet exist at the within-subject level. At the same time that the need for such a dataset is becoming clear, there is also growing evidence that just such a synoptic dataset may now be obtainable—at least at moderate scale—using contemporary big data approaches. To this end, we introduce the Kavli HUMAN Project (KHP), an effort to aggregate data from 2,500 New York City households in all five boroughs (roughly 10,000 individuals) whose biology and behavior will be measured using an unprecedented array of modalities over 20 years. It will also richly measure environmental conditions and events that KHP members experience using a geographic information system database of unparalleled scale, currently under construction in New York. In this manner, KHP will offer both synoptic and granular views of how human health and behavior coevolve over the life cycle and why they evolve differently for different people. In turn, we argue that this will allow for new discovery-based scientific approaches, rooted in big data analytics, to improving the health and quality of human life, particularly in urban contexts. PMID:26487987

  9. Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Berg von Linde, Maria; Arevström, Lilith; Fröbert, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease. PMID:26083277

  10. ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

  11. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ruimin; He, Yuyong; Pan, Bo; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Xufei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyan; Hong, Yuan; Xing, Yuyun; Ren, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25). We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn) as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models. PMID:26035869

  12. Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

    This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental

  13. Chromosomal meiotic segregation, embryonic developmental kinetics and DNA (hydroxy)methylation analysis consolidate the safety of human oocyte vitrification.

    PubMed

    De Munck, N; Petrussa, L; Verheyen, G; Staessen, C; Vandeskelde, Y; Sterckx, J; Bocken, G; Jacobs, K; Stoop, D; De Rycke, M; Van de Velde, H

    2015-06-01

    Oocyte vitrification has been introduced into clinical settings without extensive pre-clinical safety testing. In this study, we analysed major safety aspects of human oocyte vitrification in a high security closed system: (i) chromosomal meiotic segregation, (ii) embryonic developmental kinetics and (iii) DNA (hydroxy)methylation status. Fresh and vitrified sibling oocytes from young donors after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were compared in three different assays. Firstly, the chromosomal constitution of the fertilized zygotes was deduced from array comparative genomic hybridization results obtained from both polar bodies biopsied at Day 1. Secondly, embryo development up to Day 3 was analysed by time-lapse imaging. Ten specific time points, six morphokinetic time intervals and the average cell number on Day 3 were recorded. Thirdly, global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns were analysed by immunostaining on Day 3 embryos. The nuclear fluorescence intensity was measured by Volocity imaging software. Comprehensive chromosomal screening of the polar bodies demonstrated that at least half of the zygotes obtained after ICSI of fresh and vitrified oocytes were euploid. Time-lapse analysis showed that there was no significant difference in cleavage timings, the predictive morphokinetic time intervals nor the average cell number between embryos developed from fresh and vitrified oocytes. Finally, global DNA (hydroxy)methylation patterns were not significantly different between Day 3 embryos obtained from fresh and from vitrified oocytes. Our data further consolidate the safety of the oocyte vitrification technique. Nevertheless, additional testing in young and older sub-fertile/infertile patients and sound follow-up studies of children born after oocyte cryopreservation remain mandatory. PMID:25833840

  14. Gene Coexpression Networks in Human Brain Developmental Transcriptomes Implicate the Association of Long Noncoding RNAs with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Gudenas, Brian L.; Wang, Liangjiang

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing for genetic diagnoses of complex developmental disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID), has facilitated the identification of hundreds of predisposing genetic variants. However, there still exists a vast gap in our knowledge of causal genetic factors for ID as evidenced by low diagnostic yield of genetic screening, in which identifiable genetic causes are not found for the majority of ID cases. Most methods of genetic screening focus on protein-coding genes; however, noncoding RNAs may outnumber protein-coding genes and play important roles in brain development. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) specifically have been shown to be enriched in the brain and have diverse roles in gene regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. LncRNAs are a vastly uncharacterized group of noncoding genes, which could function in brain development and harbor ID-predisposing genetic variants. We analyzed lncRNAs for coexpression with known ID genes and affected biological pathways within a weighted gene coexpression network derived from RNA-sequencing data spanning human brain development. Several ID-associated gene modules were found to be enriched for lncRNAs, known ID genes, and affected biological pathways. Utilizing a list of de novo and pathogenic copy number variants detected in ID probands, we identified lncRNAs overlapping these genetic structural variants. By integrating our results, we have made a prioritized list of potential ID-associated lncRNAs based on the developing brain gene coexpression network and genetic structural variants found in ID probands. PMID:26523118

  15. Cord Blood Cells for Developmental Toxicology and Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Il’yasova, Dora; Kloc, Noreen; Kinev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The Tox21 program initiated a shift in toxicology toward in vitro testing with a focus on the biological mechanisms responsible for toxicological response. We discuss the applications of these initiatives to developmental toxicology. Specifically, we briefly review current approaches that are widely used in developmental toxicology to demonstrate the gap in relevance to human populations. An important aspect of human relevance is the wide variability of cellular responses to toxicants. We discuss how this gap can be addressed by using cells isolated from umbilical cord blood, an entirely non-invasive source of fetal/newborn cells. Extension of toxicological testing to collections of human fetal/newborn cells would be useful for better understanding the effect of toxicants on fetal development in human populations. By presenting this perspective, we aim to initiate a discussion about the use of cord blood donor-specific cells to capture the variability of cellular toxicological responses during this vulnerable stage of human development. PMID:26697419

  16. Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways-Structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Welin, Martin; Nordlund, Paer; Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm

    2010-05-21

    Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

  17. Our Globe Vs. Our Brain: Modeling and Understanding the Climate Vs. Human Cognition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.

    2014-12-01

    Climate models have made a notable contribution to increasing our understanding of the climate system, and in particular its response to forcings from greenhouse gases. In parallel, models of the human cognitive system have also made a notable contribution to our understanding of how people think and reason, and in particular the limitations of human cognition. In light of the challenges that climate change poses to politics and society at large, the intersection of human cognition and the climate system deserves to be examined more closely. For example, recent analyses (Lewandowsky et al., 2014, Climatic Change) have shown that the magnitude of uncertainty about future temperature increases is associated with the magnitude of future risk: That is, the greater the uncertainty, the greater the expected damage costs and risk of mitigation failure. Greater uncertainty should therefore lead to greater, not lesser, concern about climate change. However, there is evidence that uncertainty sometimes has the opposite effect on people, for example by inviting "wishful thinking." I review some of the mismatches between the actual behavior of the climate system and people's responses to climate change. I also identify some ways in which people and the climate behave similarly: For example, the climate system is known to include "amplifying loops" and "tipping points", and I argue that human societies may similarly amplify small disturbances from climate change into larger ones.

  18. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  19. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  20. Understanding the complexity of ?? T-cell subsets in mouse and human

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Dick J; Neves, Joana F; Sumaria, Nital; Pennington, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    ?? T cells are increasingly recognized as having important functional roles in a range of disease scenarios such as infection, allergy, autoimmunity and cancer. With this has come realization that ?? cells are not a homogeneous population of cells with a single physiological role. Instead, ever increasing complexity in both phenotype and function is being ascribed to ?? cell subsets from various tissues and locations, and in both mouse and human. Here, we review this complexity by describing how diverse ?? cell subsets are generated in the murine thymus, and how these events relate to subsequent ?? subset function in the periphery. We then review the two major ?? cell populations in human, highlighting the several similarities of V?1+ cells to certain murine ?? subsets, and describing the remarkable functional plasticity of human V?2+ cells. A better understanding of this spectrum of ?? cell phenotypes should facilitate more targeted approaches to utilise their tremendous functional potential in the clinic. PMID:22385416

  1. Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection.

    PubMed

    Popov, Lauren; Kovalski, Joanna; Grandi, Guido; Bagnoli, Fabio; Amieva, Manuel R

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue. PMID:24567733

  2. Interpreting sex differences in enamel hypoplasia in human and non-human primates: Developmental, environmental, and cultural considerations.

    PubMed

    Guatelli-Steinberg, D; Lukacs, J R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a synoptic, critical evaluation of the evidence of, and potential etiological factors contributing to, sex differences in the expression of enamel hypoplasia (EH). Specifically, this review considers theoretical expectations and empirical evidence bearing on two central issues. The first of these is the impact of a theorized inherent male vulnerability to physiological stress on sex differences in EH. The second issue is the potential contribution to sex differences in EH of intrinsic differences in male and female enamel composition and development. To address this first issue, EH frequencies by sex are examined in samples subject to a high degree of physiological stress. Based on the concept of inherent male vulnerability (or female buffering), males in stressful environments would be expected to exhibit higher EH frequencies than females. This expectation is evaluated in light of cultural practices of sex-biased investment that mediate the relationship between environmental stress and EH expression. Defects forming prenatally afford an opportunity to study this relationship without the confounding effects of sex-biased postnatal investment. Data bearing on this issue derive from previously conducted studies of EH in permanent and deciduous teeth in both modern and archaeological samples as well as from new data on Indian schoolchildren. To address the second issue, fundamental male-female enamel differences are evaluated for their potential impact on EH expression. A large sex difference in the duration of canine crown formation in non-human primates suggests that male canines may have greater opportunity to record stress events than those of females. This expectation is examined in great apes, whose canines often record multiple episodes of stress and are sexually dimorphic in crown formation times. With respect to the first issue, in most studies, sex differences in EH prevalence are statistically nonsignificant. However, when sex differences are significant, there is a slight trend for them to be greater in males than in females, suggesting a weak influence of greater male vulnerability. Cultural practices of sex-biased investment in children appear to have greater impact on EH expression than does male vulnerability/female buffering. With respect to the second issue, sex differences in the composition and development of enamel were reviewed and determined to have limited or unknown impact on EH expression. Of these factors, only the duration of crown formation was expected to affect EH expression by sex within the great apes. The data support an association between higher defect counts in the canines of great ape males relative to those of females that may be the result of longer crown formation times in the canines of great ape males. This review concludes with an assessment of the nature of the evidence currently available to examine these issues and suggests future avenues for research focused on elucidating them. PMID:10601984

  3. Developmental Career Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Michael T.

    This paper outlines a developmental self psychology for use by career counselors with career clients. It offers a definition of a psychological self, draws from the work of Mead, Vygotsky, and Kohut to develop an understanding of the processes involved in the development and internalization of a psychological self, and connects the work of career…

  4. Developmental psychopathology: recent advances and future challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Seth D

    2015-01-01

    The integrative field of developmental psychopathology is having a huge impact on our understanding of human health and behavior. In this paper, I use the example of children’s early stress exposure to illustrate how developmental psychopathologists now tend to deemphasize diagnostic categories and, instead, emphasize the social and biological contexts, events and circumstances that have created opportunities for maladaptive responses and health problems in youth. This example shows that developmental psychopathology is increasing understanding of how children develop the abilities that allow them to cope effectively with challenges and what leads to failures in development of these abilities. Integrating research about the neurobiology of learning may prove to be a powerful future direction to understand how the environment regulates behavior. Learning processes become increasingly intricate and fine-tuned as relevant neuroanatomical systems develop, and as the range, complexity and amount of environmental information increases for the developing child. A focus on these processes allows psychopathologists to formulate questions about which neural mechanisms children use to process information, how these mechanisms are themselves shaped by social context, why adverse social environments confer risk for children, and, perhaps, what sorts of neutrally informed interventions might remediate the deficits in self-regulation that underlie common psychopathologies. PMID:26407771

  5. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired in elderly humans, the molecular mechanisms which cause this dramatic functional decline are poorly understood. Our current understanding of the effects of aging on the physical and immunological properties of the intestinal epithelial barrier is also very limited. In this issue of Clinical Science, Man et al. provide further insight into the effects of aging on small intestinal barrier function in humans and the influence that gut luminal micro-organisms may have on it. Using human terminal ileal biopsy tissues they show that intestinal permeability to solutes, but not macromolecules, was significantly increased in the intestines of elderly humans. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 which appeared to modulate claudin-2 expression and solute permeability in the epithelium. Conversely, IL-8 synthesis in response to flagellin stimulation was reduced in intestines of the elderly subjects, but was not associated with effects on Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression. These data provide an important advance in our understanding on the effects of aging on intestinal permeability and innate mucosal immune responsiveness in elderly humans. PMID:26186738

  6. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Neil A

    2015-10-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired in elderly humans, the molecular mechanisms which cause this dramatic functional decline are poorly understood. Our current understanding of the effects of aging on the physical and immunological properties of the intestinal epithelial barrier is also very limited. In this issue of Clinical Science, Man et al. provide further insight into the effects of aging on small intestinal barrier function in humans and the influence that gut luminal micro-organisms may have on it. Using human terminal ileal biopsy tissues they show that intestinal permeability to solutes, but not macromolecules, was significantly increased in the intestines of elderly humans. This was accompanied by elevated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 which appeared to modulate claudin-2 expression and solute permeability in the epithelium. Conversely, IL-8 synthesis in response to flagellin stimulation was reduced in intestines of the elderly subjects, but was not associated with effects on Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression. These data provide an important advance in our understanding on the effects of aging on intestinal permeability and innate mucosal immune responsiveness in elderly humans. PMID:26186738

  7. Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.

    PubMed

    Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. PMID:24628109

  8. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  9. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  10. The Significance of Human-Animal Relationships as Modulators of Trauma Effects in Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid,…

  11. Predicting Developmental Toxicity of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxRefDB contains prenatal guideline study data from rats and rabbits for over 240 chemicals that overlap with the ToxCast in vitro high throughput screening project. A subset of these compounds were tested in Stemina Biomarker Discovery's developmental toxicity platform, a...

  12. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  13. An essay concerning human understanding: how the cerebri anatome of Thomas Willis influenced John Locke.

    PubMed

    Lega, Bradley C

    2006-03-01

    Neurosurgeons are familiar with the anatomic investigations of Thomas Willis, but his intellectual legacy actually extends into the arena of philosophy. John Locke was a student of Willis while at Oxford, and this essay explores how some of Willis's anatomic discoveries might have influenced the ideas Locke expressed in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. It also includes historical information about 17th century England and the group of men (including Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle) who worked with Willis and founded the Oxford Experimental Philosophy Club, which became the Royal Society. PMID:16528199

  14. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

    2013-08-01

    This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  15. Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

    2013-03-01

    This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

  16. Improving the Understanding of Pathogenesis of Human Papillomavirus 16 via Mapping Protein-Protein Interaction Network

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yongcheng; Kuang, Qifan; Dai, Xu; Li, Rong; Wu, Yiming; Leng, Weijia; Li, Yizhou; Li, Menglong

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) has high risk to lead various cancers and afflictions, especially, the cervical cancer. Therefore, investigating the pathogenesis of HPV16 is very important for public health. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network between HPV16 and human was used as a measure to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis. By adopting sequence and topological features, a support vector machine (SVM) model was built to predict new interactions between HPV16 and human proteins. All interactions were comprehensively investigated and analyzed. The analysis indicated that HPV16 enlarged its scope of influence by interacting with human proteins as much as possible. These interactions alter a broad array of cell cycle progression. Furthermore, not only was HPV16 highly prone to interact with hub proteins and bottleneck proteins, but also it could effectively affect a breadth of signaling pathways. In addition, we found that the HPV16 evolved into high carcinogenicity on the condition that its own reproduction had been ensured. Meanwhile, this work will contribute to providing potential new targets for antiviral therapeutics and help experimental research in the future. PMID:25961044

  17. Symmetry States of the physical space: an expanded reference frame for understanding human consciousness.

    PubMed

    Manek, Nisha J

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable phenomenon is taking place around the globe, one that I have been fortunate enough to witness and in which to participate. The relics of the historical Buddha, also known as Siddhartha or Shakyamuni Buddha, still survive today over 2500 years since his enlightenment, and, for the first time in history, are traveling throughout the world. In common Buddhist practice, relics are highly venerated and treasured remains of realized Masters. It is very rare for relics to travel from city to city and be available for viewing by the general public. The Buddha relic tour is demonstrating that a direct experience of the spiritual state is not mysterious, nor is it for a select few. The spiritual state, here defined as a universal theme of unconditional love, is a component of human evolutionary unfoldment, a process through which thousands of human beings have passed, and through which thousands more will pass. We are "waking up" as a species. Consequently, more information is required about this transformation of human consciousness. The Buddha relics offer us a priceless means by which we can obtain a richer perspective about the nature of human consciousness, spiritual realities such as love, and ultimately understanding ourselves. PMID:22106870

  18. Developmental Dyspraxia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... finding ways to prevent and treat them. NIH Patient Recruitment for Developmental Dyspraxia Clinical Trials At NIH ... on the treatment or care of an individual patient should be obtained through consultation with a physician ...

  19. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  20. F R O M C E L L S T O S E L V E S Developmental Biology

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Development Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development #12;F R O M C E L Development The NICHD Mission The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) seeks L S T O S E L V E S Developmental Biology: Understanding Normal and Abnormal Development Contents

  1. Solving Water Crisis through Understanding of Hydrology and Human Systems: a Possible Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, A.

    2014-12-01

    While the majority of the Earth surface is still in pristine conditions, the totality of the hydrological systems that are relevant to humans are human impacted, with the only exception of small headwater catchments. In fact, the limited transferability of water in space and time implies that water withdrawals from natural resources take place where and when water is needed. Therefore, hydrological systems are impacted where and when humans are, thereby causing a direct perturbation of all water bodies that are relevant to society. The current trend of population dynamics and the current status of water systems are such that the above impact will be not sustainable in the near future, therefore causing a water emergency that will be extended to all intensively populated regions of the world, with relevant implications on migration fluxes, political status and social security. Therefore mitigation actions are urgently needed, whose planning needs to be based on improved interpretations of the above impact. Up to recent times, hydrologists mainly concentrated their research on catchments where the human perturbation is limited, to improve our understanding of pristine hydrology. There were good motivations for this focus: given the relevant uncertainty affecting hydrological modeling, and the even greater uncertainty involved in societal modeling, hydrologists made an effort to separate hydrological and human dynamics. Nowadays, the urgency of the above need to mitigate the global water crisis through improved water resources management calls for a research attempt to bridge water and social sciences. The relevant research question is how to build operational models in order to fully account for the interactions and feedbacks between water resources systems and society. Given that uncertainty estimation is necessary for the operational application of model results, one of the crucial issues is how to quantify uncertainty by means of suitable assumptions. This talk will provide an introduction to the problem and a personal perspective to move forward to set up improved operational models to assist societal planning to mitigate the global water crisis.

  2. Do robots have goals? How agent cues influence action understanding in non-human primates.

    PubMed

    Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; Burkart, Judith M

    2013-06-01

    The capacity to understand goals and intentions emerges early and universally in humans and is a basic precondition for the interpretation and prediction of others' actions, be it other humans, animals, or even robots. It is unclear, however, how this goal attribution system is acquired, in particular with regard to the role of prior experience with the actor and visual characteristics that are necessary. In four preferential looking time experiments we examined how familiarity, appearance, and movement of different agents influence the capability of marmosets to perceive the behavior of these agents as goal directed. To this end we compared the monkeys' reactions to the same goal-directed actions performed by four different agents: a human actor, a conspecific, a monkey-like small robot, and a black box. The results showed that monkeys attributed goals to the human actor, the conspecific, and the robot, but not the box. Thus, the monkeys extended their capacity for goal attribution not only to familiar agents, but also to agents not previously encountered, provided that they had some conspecific-like features. Our results suggest that in non-human primates, the system for goal attribution does not require previous experience with a specific agent or agent-category, as long as it exhibits certain visual characteristics like face, body or legs. Furthermore, the results suggest that the capacity to attribute goals emerged very early during evolution and, at least in marmoset monkeys, does not necessarily require pre-learned associations in order to fulfill its function when dealing with unfamiliar agents. PMID:23454673

  3. Understanding and predicting binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides by network analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background As the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are one of the most polymorphic genes in humans. Patients carrying certain HLA alleles may develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs) after taking specific drugs. Peptides play an important role in HLA related ADRs as they are the necessary co-binders of HLAs with drugs. Many experimental data have been generated for understanding HLA-peptide binding. However, efficiently utilizing the data for understanding and accurately predicting HLA-peptide binding is challenging. Therefore, we developed a network analysis based method to understand and predict HLA-peptide binding. Methods Qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data were harvested and prepared from four major databases. An HLA-peptide binding network was constructed from this dataset and modules were identified by the fast greedy modularity optimization algorithm. To examine the significance of signals in the yielded models, the modularity was compared with the modularity values generated from 1,000 random networks. The peptides and HLAs in the modules were characterized by similarity analysis. The neighbor-edges based and unbiased leverage algorithm (Nebula) was developed for predicting HLA-peptide binding. Leave-one-out (LOO) validations and two-fold cross-validations were conducted to evaluate the performance of Nebula using the constructed HLA-peptide binding network. Results Nine modules were identified from analyzing the HLA-peptide binding network with a highest modularity compared to all the random networks. Peptide length and functional side chains of amino acids at certain positions of the peptides were different among the modules. HLA sequences were module dependent to some extent. Nebula archived an overall prediction accuracy of 0.816 in the LOO validations and average accuracy of 0.795 in the two-fold cross-validations and outperformed the method reported in the literature. Conclusions Network analysis is a useful approach for analyzing large and sparse datasets such as the HLA-peptide binding dataset. The modules identified from the network analysis clustered peptides and HLAs with similar sequences and properties of amino acids. Nebula performed well in the predictions of HLA-peptide binding. We demonstrated that network analysis coupled with Nebula is an efficient approach to understand and predict HLA-peptide binding interactions and thus, could further our understanding of ADRs. PMID:26424483

  4. Pattern of Functional TTX-Resistant Sodium Channels Reveals a Developmental Stage of Human iPSC- and ESC-Derived Nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Eberhardt, Esther; Havlicek, Steven; Schmidt, Diana; Link, Andrea S.; Neacsu, Cristian; Kohl, Zacharias; Hampl, Martin; Kist, Andreas M.; Klinger, Alexandra; Nau, Carla; Schüttler, Jürgen; Alzheimer, Christian; Winkler, Jürgen; Namer, Barbara; Winner, Beate; Lampert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) offer the opportunity to generate neuronal cells, including nociceptors. Using a chemical-based approach, we generated nociceptive sensory neurons from HUES6 embryonic stem cells and retrovirally reprogrammed induced hPSCs derived from fibroblasts. The nociceptive neurons expressed respective markers and showed tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTXs) and -resistant (TTXr) voltage-gated sodium currents in patch-clamp experiments. In contrast to their counterparts from rodent dorsal root ganglia, TTXr currents of hPSC-derived nociceptors unexpectedly displayed a significantly more hyperpolarized voltage dependence of activation and fast inactivation. This apparent discrepancy is most likely due to a substantial expression of the developmentally important sodium channel NAV1.5. In view of the obstacles to recapitulate neuropathic pain in animal models, our data advance hPSC-derived nociceptors as a better model to study developmental and pathogenetic processes in human nociceptive neurons and to develop more specific small molecules to attenuate pain. PMID:26321143

  5. Aspects of Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analysis in Different Populations for Understanding Human Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Nesheva, DV

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of modern humans is a long and difficult process which started from their first appearance and continues to the present day. The study of the genetic origin of populations can help to determine population kinship and to better understand the gradual changes of the gene pool in space and time. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a proper tool for the determination of the origin of populations due to its high evolutionary importance. Ancient mitochondrial DNA retrieved from museum specimens, archaeological finds and fossil remains can provide direct evidence for population origins and migration processes. Despite the problems with contaminations and authenticity of ancient mitochondrial DNA, there is a developed set of criteria and platforms for obtaining authentic ancient DNA. During the last two decades, the application of different methods and techniques for analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA gave promising results. Still, the literature is relatively poor with information for the origin of human populations. Using comprehensive phylogeographic and population analyses we can observe the development and formation of the contemporary populations. The aim of this study was to shed light on human migratory processes and the formation of populations based on available ancient mtDNA data. PMID:25741209

  6. Pitfalls in developmental diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Blasco, P A

    1991-12-01

    The more common and more glaring pitfalls in developmental diagnosis encountered during infancy and early childhood have been outlined. Much of the ability to avoid these traps depends on a comfortable understanding of the four spheres of early child development and a sound familiarity with the principles of developmental assessment, especially the separation of intellectual and motor entities. Motor milestones are excellent indicators of motor competence but correlate poorly with intellectual capacity. Language and problem-solving milestones in infancy provide the best insights into a child's intellectual potential, and their evolution is independent of motor competence. They may be obscured by motor disability and as a result may be more difficult to demonstrate, but that is a separate issue. In that instance there is nothing subtle about the fact that one is already dealing with a disabled infant. Psychosocial abilities (affective milestones) are critical in understanding the whole child and in making a meaningful statement about behavior, but they lend little additional information to the assessment of intellectual and motor competence. For physicians the "curb-side consult" is a highly efficient tool that has great practical application to developmental concerns and especially to the avoidance of the pitfalls described. Every practitioner should have a resource in developmental and behavioral pediatrics with whom he or she can communicate in an informal fashion. This is especially valuable in situations in which the urgency or even the need for referral (a time-consuming, expensive, and often anxiety-provoking process) is not clear. PMID:1719470

  7. What Is a Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrician?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... families, and schools. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians understand that children’s development and behavior happen first and foremost in the context of the family. They seek to understand the family’s view of the problem ... problem on the family. Developmental-behavioral pediatricians advocate ...

  8. The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students…

  9. Understanding and Evaluating Human Thermal Comfort at Tertiary Level Using a Computer-Based Laboratory Teaching Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Phase changes in water are experienced in everyday life but students often struggle to understand mechanisms that regulate them. Human thermal comfort is closely related to humidity, evaporative heat loss and heat transfer. The purpose of the present study is to assist students in the evaluation of human thermal comfort. Such a goal is achievable…

  10. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  11. TITLE OF ABSTRACT: MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SYNERGISTIC DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the molecular pathways of synergistic developmental toxicity of PAHs will lead to benefits for human as well as wildlife health. As additive models of toxicity are currently used to estimate the hazard of complex mixtures, implementation of synergistic models wh...

  12. Mechanistic understanding of human-wildlife conflict through a novel application of dynamic occupancy models.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Varun R; Medhi, Kamal; Nichols, James D; Oli, Madan K

    2015-08-01

    Crop and livestock depredation by wildlife is a primary driver of human-wildlife conflict, a problem that threatens the coexistence of people and wildlife globally. Understanding mechanisms that underlie depredation patterns holds the key to mitigating conflicts across time and space. However, most studies do not consider imperfect detection and reporting of conflicts, which may lead to incorrect inference regarding its spatiotemporal drivers. We applied dynamic occupancy models to elephant crop depredation data from India between 2005 and 2011 to estimate crop depredation occurrence and model its underlying dynamics as a function of spatiotemporal covariates while accounting for imperfect detection of conflicts. The probability of detecting conflicts was consistently <1.0 and was negatively influenced by distance to roads and elevation gradient, averaging 0.08-0.56 across primary periods (distinct agricultural seasons within each year). The probability of crop depredation occurrence ranged from 0.29 (SE 0.09) to 0.96 (SE 0.04). The probability that sites raided by elephants in primary period t would not be raided in primary period t + 1 varied with elevation gradient in different seasons and was influenced negatively by mean rainfall and village density and positively by distance to forests. Negative effects of rainfall variation and distance to forests best explained variation in the probability that sites not raided by elephants in primary period t would be raided in primary period t + 1. With our novel application of occupancy models, we teased apart the spatiotemporal drivers of conflicts from factors that influence how they are observed, thereby allowing more reliable inference on mechanisms underlying observed conflict patterns. We found that factors associated with increased crop accessibility and availability (e.g., distance to forests and rainfall patterns) were key drivers of elephant crop depredation dynamics. Such an understanding is essential for rigorous prediction of future conflicts, a critical requirement for effective conflict management in the context of increasing human-wildlife interactions. PMID:25757801

  13. Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental potential and the ZP birefringence score. Further studies using larger lists of candidate markers are required to identify suitable genes that are highly correlated with the morphological criteria, and therefore able to reinforce the accuracy of oocyte selection and the effectiveness of infertility treatment. PMID:25923296

  14. Developmental toxicology: status of the field and contribution of the National Toxicology Program.

    PubMed Central

    Schwetz, B A; Harris, M W

    1993-01-01

    The NTP has conducted developmental toxicity studies on more than 50 chemicals, often in multiple species. Several chemicals caused developmental toxicity in the absence of any toxicity to the mother. Although hazard to humans is determined by the level of exposure to the chemical and its inherent toxicity, those agents that selectively disturb the development of the conceptus are of particular concern because other manifestations of toxicity would not warn the mother of overexposure. Whether the LOAEL (lowest-observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity was high or low did not correlate with the potential of chemicals to cause developmental toxicity. The form of developmental toxicity that determined the LOAEL most frequently was decreased body weight in mice and rats, but not rabbits, where the LOAEL was determined more often by an increase in resorptions. Several in vitro and short-term tests appear promising as screens to predict the outcome of developmental toxicity studies in mammals. However, the only screens that have undergone formal validation studies are those evaluated by the NTP. Improvements in our ability to predict risk to humans have been limited by our knowledge of the mechanisms by which agents cause developmental toxicity. Thus, future growth is dependent on a better understanding of the biological processes that regulate normal development, therein providing the necessary framework for understanding mechanisms of abnormal development. PMID:8354175

  15. Aberrant expression of maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 results in the developmental failure of human in-vivo- and in-vitro-matured oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Liu, Jianqiao; Tan, Tao; Ding, Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Jie; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Fertilisation is the first step in embryonic development, and dynamic changes of key genes may potentially improve assisted reproduction techniques efficiency during this process. Here, we analysed genes that were differentially expressed between oocytes and zygotes and focused on cytokinesis-related genes. Plk1 and Dctn3 were identified as showing dramatic changes in expression during fertilisation and were suggested to play a key role in inducing aneuploidy in zygotes and 8-cell embryos. Moreover, we found that maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 were expressed at lower levels in in vitro matured oocytes, which may have contributed to the high ratio of resulting embryos with abnormal Plk1 and Dctn3 expression levels, thereby reducing the developmental competence of the resulting embryos. Furthermore, the overexpression of Dctn3 can silence Plk1 expression, which suggests a potential regulation mechanism. In conclusion, our present study showed that aberrant expression of Plk1 and Dctn3 increases embryo aneuploidy and developmental failure, particularly in in vitro matured oocytes. Our results facilitate a better understanding of the effects of oocyte maternal gene expression on embryonic development and can be used to improve the outcome of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:25645239

  16. The dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) understanding of human gazing and pointing: knowing what and where.

    PubMed

    Pack, Adam A; Herman, Louis M

    2007-02-01

    The authors tested whether the understanding by dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of human pointing and head-gazing cues extends to knowing the identity of an indicated object as well as its location. In Experiment 1, the dolphins Phoenix and Akeakamai processed the identity of a cued object (of 2 that were present), as shown by their success in selecting a matching object from among 2 alternatives remotely located. Phoenix was errorless on first trials in this task. In Experiment 2, Phoenix reliably responded to a cued object in alternate ways, either by matching it or by acting directly on it, with each type of response signaled by a distinct gestural command given after the indicative cue. She never confused matching and acting. In Experiment 3, Akeakamai was able to process the geometry of pointing cues (but not head-gazing cues), as revealed by her errorless responses to either a proximal or distal object simultaneously present, when each object was indicated only by the angle at which the informant pointed. The overall results establish that these dolphins could identify, through indicative cues alone, what a human is attending to as well as where. PMID:17324073

  17. Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Oral microbes represent one of the most well studied microbial communities owing to the fact that they are a fundamental part of human development influencing health and disease, an easily accessible human microbiome, a highly structured and remarkably resilient biofilm as well as a model of bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. In the last 80 years since oral plaque was first characterized for its functionally stable physiological properties such as the highly repeatable rapid pH decrease upon carbohydrate addition and subsequent recovery phase, the fundamental approaches to study the oral microbiome have cycled back and forth between community level investigations and characterizing individual model isolates. Since that time, many individual species have been well characterized and the development of the early plaque community, which involves many cell–cell binding interactions, has been carefully described. With high throughput sequencing enabling the enormous diversity of the oral cavity to be realized, a number of new challenges to progress were revealed. The large number of uncultivated oral species, the high interpersonal variability of taxonomic carriage and the possibility of multiple pathways to dysbiosis pose as major hurdles to obtain a systems level understanding from the community to the gene level. It is now possible however to start connecting the insights gained from single species with community wide approaches. This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them. PMID:25120956

  18. Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy.

    PubMed

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2008-07-01

    The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22-q24, 5q22-q31, 9q21-q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified novel target genes, termed forerunner (FR) genes, involved in early phases of cancer development. PMID:18458673

  19. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

  20. [Developmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains contributions by parents, practitioners, researchers, administrators, and providers of technical assistance, which explore aspects of the complex process of developmental assessment of infants and young children. They describe what is helpful and what can be harmful in current assessment practice. They offer…

  1. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Radial Glia Recapitulate Developmental Events and Provide Real-Time Access to Cortical Neurons and Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chian-Yu; Pan, Liuliu; Kessler, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of human cerebral cortex development are limited by difficulties in accessing and manipulating human neural tissue at specific development stages. We have derived human radial glia (hRG), which are responsible for most cerebral cortex neurogenesis, from human pluripotent stem cells. These hRG display the hallmark morphological, cellular, and molecular features of radial glia in vitro. They can be passaged and generate layer-specific subtypes of cortical neurons in a temporal and passage-dependent fashion. In later passages, they adopt a distinct progenitor phenotype that gives rise to cortical astrocytes and GABAergic interneurons. These hRG are also capable of following developmental cues to engraft, differentiate, migrate, and integrate into the embryonic mouse cortex when injected into E14 lateral ventricles. Moreover, hRG-derived cells can be cryopreserved at specific stages and retain their stage-specific phenotypes and competence when revived. Our study demonstrates that cultured hRG maintain a cell-intrinsic clock that regulates the progressive generation of stage-specific neuronal and glial subtypes. It also describes an easily accessible cell source for studying hRG lineage specification and progression and an on-demand supply of specific cortical neuron subtypes and astrocytes. PMID:25834120

  2. 'What's up, (R)DoC?'--can identifying core dimensions of early functioning help us understand, and then reduce, developmental risk for mental disorders?

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2014-08-01

    In the U.S. the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the main funder of mental health research in the world, has recently changed its funding model to promote a radically new perspective for mental health science. This bold, and for some controversial, initiative, termed the Research Diagnostic Criteria (or RDoC for short), intends to shift the focus of research, and eventually clinical practice, away from existing diagnostic categories, as recently updated in the DSM-5, towards 'new ways of classifying psychopathology based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures.' This reorientation from discrete categorical disorder manifestations to underlying cross-cutting dimensions of individual functioning has generated considerable debate across the community of mental health researchers and clinicians (with strong views voiced both pro and con). Given its pivotal role in defining the research agenda globally, there is little doubt that this US science funding initiative will also have ramifications for researchers and clinicians worldwide. In this Editorial we focus specifically on the translational potential of the dimensional RDoC approach, properly extended to developmental models of early risk, in terms of its value as a potential driver of early intervention/prevention models; in the current issue of the JCPP this is exemplified by a number of papers thata address the mapping of underlying dimensions of core functioning to disorder risk, providing evidence for their potential predictive power as early markers of later disorder processes. PMID:25039570

  3. Developmental perspectives on oxytocin and vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Hammock, Elizabeth A D

    2015-01-01

    The related neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in species-typical behavior, including social recognition behavior, maternal behavior, social bonding, communication, and aggression. A wealth of evidence from animal models demonstrates significant modulation of adult social behavior by both of these neuropeptides and their receptors. Over the last decade, there has been a flood of studies in humans also implicating a role for these neuropeptides in human social behavior. Despite popular assumptions that oxytocin is a molecule of social bonding in the infant brain, less mechanistic research emphasis has been placed on the potential role of these neuropeptides in the developmental emergence of the neural substrates of behavior. This review summarizes what is known and assumed about the developmental influence of these neuropeptides and outlines the important unanswered questions and testable hypotheses. There is tremendous translational need to understand the functions of these neuropeptides in mammalian experience-dependent development of the social brain. The activity of oxytocin and vasopressin during development should inform our understanding of individual, sex, and species differences in social behavior later in life. PMID:24863032

  4. New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors: a Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

    2008-01-01

    Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt to clarify causation, roles and responsibility as well as to elaborate various preventative and curative countermeasures blending state of the art biomedical, technological advances and psychophysiological training strategies. In-flight related statistics have not been shown significantly changed and a significant number of issues remain not yet resolved. Fine Postural System and its corollary, Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS), both defined in the 1980's, are respectively neurophysiological and medical diagnostic models that reflect central neural sensory-motor and cognitive controls regulatory status. They are successfully used in complex neurotraumatology and related rehabilitation for over two decades. Analysis of clinical data taken over a ten-year period from acute and chronic post-traumatic PDS patients shows a strong correlation between symptoms commonly exhibited before, along side, or even after error, and sensory-motor or PDS related symptoms. Examples are given on how PDS related central sensory-motor control dysfunction can be correctly identified and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system. The data presented provides strong evidence that a specific biomedical assessment methodology can lead to a better understanding of in-flight adaptive neurophysiological, cognitive and perceptual dysfunctional status that could induce in flight-errors. How relevant human factors can be identified and leveraged to maintain optimal performance will be addressed. PMID:19048097

  5. Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human – bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Results Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to ‘rescue’ bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat’s welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Conclusions Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted ‘rescue’ should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis. PMID:24984790

  6. Oversight on the Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Human Resources, U.S. Senate, 95th Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.

    Presented is testimony given before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Senate Committee on Human Resources regarding the Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. Statements are included from representatives of such agencies and organizations as the National Association for Retarded Citizens, American Occupational Therapy…

  7. Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

  8. Towards an understanding and application of environmental flow requirements for human welfare in East African Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In semi-arid regions of Africa, rivers are of vital importance to humans for the many direct ecosystem services they provide and, in some cases, for their potential to irrigate and power larger-scale development. More than in most regions of the world, Africans still rely individually on rivers for domestic water, nutrition, and other materials contributing to their daily welfare. This has led to a uniquely African adaptation of the environmental flow concept to incorporate the basic water needs of people as well as ecosystems. The combined flow is referred to as the 'Reserve'. East Africa has seen comparatively little development of its water resources to-date, but ambitious initiatives are underway to increase water use in new large-scale irrigation schemes and hydropower projects. Consequently, a number of comprehensive environmental flow assessments and ecohydrological research activities have recently been carried out in the region. This presentation briefly reviews the initiatives underway across the region but focuses mainly on combined research and flow-setting efforts in the transboundary Mara River Basin of Kenya and Tanzania, home to more than 800,000 people and the region's most popular conservation areas, Masai-Mara National Reserve and Serengeti National Park. Since 2006 a team of scientists, in cooperation with water authorities and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), has investigated the hydrology, hydraulics, biology, and human uses of the Mara River in order to make initial environmental flow (reserve) recommendations. The flow regime of the still largely unregulated Mara River, based on analyses or 20+ years of data from three gauging stations, is highly variable and perennial flow in the middle reaches is dependent on inflows from two tributaries draining the heavily deforested Mau Escarpment, one of Kenya's five water towers. Downstream flows are also seasonally influenced by inflows from ephemeral tributaries that drain degraded grazing lands. Environmental flow recommendations have been made at six locations along the river, including three sites destined for the construction of new dams and multipurpose reservoirs. Flow recommendations consist of variable mean monthly base flows during normal and drought years and medium to large floods timed to achieve specific ecological objectives. The objective of water authorities, and thus of environmental flow recommendations, is to conserve the current good ecological status of the river and the many services it provides to people living along its margins. Complimentary research on the interrelationships between flow variability, ecosystem function, and human welfare is turning the Mara into a model system for better understanding these dynamics in an African development context.

  9. From competencies to human interests: ways of knowing and understanding in medical education.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Arno K

    2014-07-01

    When considering the teaching and learning of topics of social relevance in medicine, such as professionalism, medical ethics, the doctor-patient relationship, and issues of diversity and social justice, one is tempted to ask, are the ways of knowing in these fields different from that in the biomedical and clinical sciences? Furthermore, given that the competency approach is dominant in medical education, one might also ask, is the competency model truly appropriate for all of the types of knowledge necessary to become a good physician? These questions are not merely academic, for they are at the core of how these subjects are taught, learned, and assessed.The goal of this article is threefold: first, to explore the nature of knowing and the educational goals in different areas of medicine and, in particular, those areas that have social relevance; second, to critically review the concept of competencies when applied to education in these areas; and third, to explore alternative strategies for teaching, learning, and assessment. This discussion reflects a view that the goal of education in areas of social relevance in medicine should be the enhancement of an understanding of-a deep and abiding connection with-the social responsibilities of the physician. Moving beyond competencies, this approach aspires toward the development of practical wisdom (phronesis) which, when embodied in the physician, links the knowledge and skills of the biomedical and clinical sciences with a moral orientation and call to action that addresses human interests in the practice of medicine. PMID:24662200

  10. Ad cerebrum per scientia: Ira Hirsh, psychoacoustics, and new approaches to understanding the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauter, Judith

    2002-05-01

    As Research Director of CID, Ira emphasized the importance of combining information from biology with rigorous studies of behavior, such as psychophysics, to better understand how the brain and body accomplish the goals of everyday life. In line with this philosophy, my doctoral dissertation sought to explain brain functional asymmetries (studied with dichotic listening) in terms of the physical dimensions of a library of test sounds designed to represent a speech-music continuum. Results highlighted individual differences plus similarities in terms of patterns of relative ear advantages, suggesting an organizational basis for brain asymmetries depending on physical dimensions of stimulus and gesture with analogs in auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor systems. My subsequent work has employed a number of noninvasive methods (OAEs, EPs, qEEG, PET, MRI) to explore the neurobiological bases of individual differences in general and functional asymmetries in particular. This research has led to (1) the AXS test battery for assessing the neurobiology of human sensory-motor function; (2) the handshaking model of brain function, describing dynamic relations along all three body/brain axes; (3) the four-domain EPIC model of functional asymmetries; and (4) the trimodal brain, a new model of individual differences based on psychoimmunoneuroendocrinology.

  11. Economic and Nutritional Analyses Offer Substantial Synergies for Understanding Human Nutrition1

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John

    2007-01-01

    There is growing recognition that interventions designed to improve human nutritional status have, in addition to their intrinsic value, instrumental value in terms of economic outcomes. In many cases, productivity gains alone provide sufficient economic returns to justify investments using benefit and cost criteria. The often-held belief that nutrition programs are welfare interventions that divert resources that could be better used in other ways to raise national incomes is incorrect. Many investments in nutrition are in fact very good economic investments. This recognition has developed out of work that integrates insights from nutrition and economics. Further exploration of this interface is the focus of this article, which seeks: 1) to outline recent contributions that integrate research results from both economics and nutrition, particularly in the context of poor countries; and 2) to describe some areas in which enhanced collaboration is likely to have substantial payoffs in terms of both improved knowledge and more informed policy choices. Collaborative cross-disciplinary research on the topics described here is likely to have substantial payoffs, not only in terms of our understanding of nutritional and economic issues, but also in the improved design of programs and policies that seek to benefit nutritional-related outcomes. PMID:17311936

  12. Economic and nutritional analyses offer substantial synergies for understanding human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Hoddinott, John

    2007-03-01

    There is growing recognition that interventions designed to improve human nutritional status have, in addition to their intrinsic value, instrumental value in terms of economic outcomes. In many cases, productivity gains alone provide sufficient economic returns to justify investments using benefit and cost criteria. The often-held belief that nutrition programs are welfare interventions that divert resources that could be better used in other ways to raise national incomes is incorrect. Many investments in nutrition are in fact very good economic investments. This recognition has developed out of work that integrates insights from nutrition and economics. Further exploration of this interface is the focus of this article, which seeks: 1) to outline recent contributions that integrate research results from both economics and nutrition, particularly in the context of poor countries; and 2) to describe some areas in which enhanced collaboration is likely to have substantial payoffs in terms of both improved knowledge and more informed policy choices. Collaborative cross-disciplinary research on the topics described here is likely to have substantial payoffs, not only in terms of our understanding of nutritional and economic issues, but also in the improved design of programs and policies that seek to benefit nutritional-related outcomes. PMID:17311936

  13. Alzheimer's Disease: Prototype of Cognitive Deterioration, Valuable Lessons to Understand Human Cognition.

    PubMed

    Noroozian, Maryam

    2016-02-01

    It is important for neurologists to become more familiar with neuropsychological evaluation for Alzheimer disease. The growth of this method in research, as an available, inexpensive, and noninvasive diagnostic approach, which can be administered even by non-specialist-trained examiners, makes this knowledge more necessary than ever. Such knowledge has a basic role in planning national programs in primary health care systems for prevention and early detection of Alzheimer disease. This is more crucial in developing countries, which have higher rates of dementia prevalence along with cardiovascular risk factors, lack of public knowledge about dementia, and limited social support. In addition compared to the neurological hard signs which are tangible and measurable, the concept of cognition seems to be more difficult for the neurologists to evaluate and for the students to understand. Dementia in general and Alzheimer's disease as the prototype of cognitive disorders specifically, play an important role to explore all domains of human cognition through its symptomatology and neuropsychological deficits. PMID:26613996

  14. Combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics to explore novel microbial interactions: towards a systems-level understanding of human microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Bikel, Shirley; Valdez-Lara, Alejandra; Cornejo-Granados, Fernanda; Rico, Karina; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Soberón, Xavier; Del Pozo-Yauner, Luis; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    The advances in experimental methods and the development of high performance bioinformatic tools have substantially improved our understanding of microbial communities associated with human niches. Many studies have documented that changes in microbial abundance and composition of the human microbiome is associated with human health and diseased state. The majority of research on human microbiome is typically focused in the analysis of one level of biological information, i.e., metagenomics or metatranscriptomics. In this review, we describe some of the different experimental and bioinformatic strategies applied to analyze the 16S rRNA gene profiling and shotgun sequencing data of the human microbiome. We also discuss how some of the recent insights in the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics can provide more detailed description on the interactions between microorganisms and viruses in oral and gut microbiomes. Recent studies on viromics have begun to gain importance due to the potential involvement of viruses in microbial dysbiosis. In addition, metatranscriptomic combined with metagenomic analysis have shown that a substantial fraction of microbial transcripts can be differentially regulated relative to their microbial genomic abundances. Thus, understanding the molecular interactions in the microbiome using the combination of metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and viromics is one of the main challenges towards a system level understanding of human microbiome. PMID:26137199

  15. Rethinking Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    The articles in this issue are all based on the invited addresses given by the authors at the 2013 biennial meeting of the Society for the Study of Human Development. All of the authors address the unfolding paradigm shift in developmental sciences, from reductionism to relational developmental system theories. This theoretical stance involves the recognition of Individual ? context transactions, with multiple co-acting partners existing in dynamic relationships across the lifespan and life course. The articles address not only theoretical issues, but also methodological advances and their applications. While acknowledging the importance of new data collection and analytical techniques that permit the testing of more complex theoretical models, the articles demonstrate that well-designed questions from this theoretical perspective can also yield novel findings which are highly relevant to current real-world problems and social policy issues. PMID:25598750

  16. In vitro analysis of the homing properties of human lymphocytes: developmental regulation of functional receptors for high endothelial venules.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, S T; Butcher, E C

    1985-09-01

    Circulating lymphocytes leave the blood by binding to specialized high endothelial cells lining postcapillary venules in lymphoid organs or sites of chronic inflammations, migrating through the vessel wall into the surrounding tissue. The capacity of lymphocytes to recognize and bind to high endothelial venules (HEVs) is thus central to the overall process of lymphocyte traffic and recirculation. We show that viable human lymphocytes bind selectively to HEVs in frozen sections of normal human lymph nodes, thus defining a simple in vitro model for the study of human lymphocyte homing properties. Optimal conditions for the quantitative analysis of lymphocyte-HEV interaction are described. Furthermore, by using this assay, we demonstrate that the ability of human lymphocyte populations to bind to HEVs parallels their presumed migratory status in vivo. Thus, thymocytes and bone marrow cells, which are sessile in vivo, bind poorly to HEVs in comparison with mature circulating lymphocytes in peripheral blood or in peripheral lymphoid tissues. These results indicate that HEV-binding ability is a regulated property of mature lymphocytes and, as demonstrated previously in animal models, probably plays a fundamental role in controlling lymphocyte traffic in humans. The in vitro model of lymphocyte-HEV interaction thus provides a unique means to assay the migratory properties of normal and neoplastic human lymphocyte subsets, to analyze the role of lymphocyte traffic mechanisms in normal and pathologic inflammatory reactions, and to define some of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the control of lymphocyte migration and positioning in humans. PMID:4027380

  17. BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

    2011-01-01

    The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to aquatic species. PMID:21951712

  18. Understanding the links between humans, climate change, water and carbon and in a Corn Belt Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secchi, S.; Perez Lapena, B.; Teshager, A. D.; Bhattarai, M. D.; Schoof, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Accounting for the value of ecosystem services is difficult for several reasons: we need to understand and model the behavior of humans, and how they respond to changes in policies, we need to quantify the changes in material fluxes or ecological responses resulting from their behavior, and finally we need to monetize the value of those material fluxes. Since coupled human-natural systems are highly idiosyncratic, integrated modeling can be challenging because it is not easy to transfer results from one system to another. Moreover, modeling changes in multiple ecosystem services often requires the simultaneous coordination of several biophysical models. In a non-static world, climate change models are also often necessary to identify future challenges and opportunities for better policy-making. We will discuss results from an integrated modeling perspective for the Raccoon River watershed in central Iowa. The watershed is in the heart of the Corn Belt, and it is under very intensive agricultural production which results in nitrate levels so high that a Total Maximum Daily Load has been put in place. The Des Moines Water Works that provides water to Iowa's capital either from the Raccoon or the Des Moines River has had to build several layers of treatment to ensure the water is safe to drink. We will present results from the integration of an agent-based model with a surface water quality model (the Soil and Water Assessment Tool) and an edge of field environmental model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate). The integration can simultaneously provide changes in water quality indicators - particularly nitrates, which can be monetized using the avoided cost method - and carbon sequestration - for which monetary values are readily available in the literature. This integrated system is linked to regional climate change models to help assess changes in agricultural productivity and farmers' behavior in the future. We will discuss the importance of quantifying and monetizing as many services as possible in the context of conservation and agricultural policies that compensate farmers for more environmentally friendly agricultural practices such as the use of no till or the planting of perennial grasses. Monetizing ecosystem services allows for the direct comparison of the costs and benefits of these policies.

  19. The many forms of a pleomorphic bacterial pathogen—the developmental network of Legionella pneumophila

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Peter; Abdelhady, Hany; Garduño, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a natural intracellular bacterial parasite of free-living freshwater protozoa and an accidental human pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila differentiates, and does it in style. Recent experimental data on L. pneumophila's differentiation point at the existence of a complex network that involves many developmental forms. We intend readers to: (i) understand the biological relevance of L. pneumophila's forms found in freshwater and their potential to transmit Legionnaires' disease, and (ii) learn that the common depiction of L. pneumophila's differentiation as a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a replicative and a transmissive form is but an oversimplification of the actual process. Our specific objectives are to provide updates on the molecular factors that regulate L. pneumophila's differentiation (Section The Differentiation Process and Its Regulation), and describe the developmental network of L. pneumophila (Section Dissecting Lp's Developmental Network), which for clarity's sake we have dissected into five separate developmental cycles. Finally, since each developmental form seems to contribute differently to the human pathogenic process and the transmission of Legionnaires' disease, readers are presented with a challenge to develop novel methods to detect the various L. pneumophila forms present in water (Section Practical Implications), as a means to improve our assessment of risk and more effectively prevent legionellosis outbreaks. PMID:25566200

  20. The study of the cells and matrix of the human fetal membranes is central to an understanding of their pre-

    E-print Network

    Bryant-Greenwood, Gillian D.

    785 The study of the cells and matrix of the human fetal membranes is central to an understanding-term functional impairment may occur.3 Infection is a major cause of preterm rupture of the fetal membranes,4 Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes has been studied in many laboratories with a focused

  1. Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen

    2013-01-15

    Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  2. Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Willerslev, Eske

    2012-03-21

    Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  3. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Anh; Steinmaus, Craig; McHale, Cliona M.; Vaughan, Charles P.; Zhang, Luoping

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde, the recently classified carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has long been suspected of causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects, but previous reviews were inconclusive, due in part, to limitations in the design of many of the human population studies. In the current review, we systematically evaluated evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in human populations and in vivo animal studies, in the peer-reviewed literature. The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (1.76, 95% CI 1.20–2.59, p=0.002) and of all adverse pregnancy outcomes combined (1.54, 95% CI 1.27–1.88, p<0.001), in formaldehyde-exposed women, although differential recall, selection bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. Evaluation of the animal studies including all routes of exposure, doses and dosing regimens studied, suggested positive associations between formaldehyde exposure and reproductive toxicity, mostly in males. Potential mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities, including chromosome and DNA damage (genotoxicity), oxidative stress, altered level and/or function of enzymes, hormones and proteins, apoptosis, toxicogenomic and epigenomic effects (such as DNA methylation), were identified. To clarify these associations, well-designed molecular epidemiologic studies, that include quantitative exposure assessment and diminish confounding factors, should examine both reproductive and developmental outcomes associated with exposure in males and females. Together with mechanistic and animal studies, this will allow us to better understand the systemic effect of formaldehyde exposure. PMID:21787879

  4. Conducting Policy-Relevant Developmental Psychopathology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Policy, defined broadly to include public policy as well as institutional or organizational policy, is useful for sustaining change in human development and its contexts and systems. The role for developmental psychopathology research in policy analysis and policy making is discussed. To assure that developmental psychopathology research is useful…

  5. Understanding our genetic inheritance: The US Human Genome Project, The first five years FY 1991--1995

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the 21st century and will by of immense benefit to the field of medicine. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than 4000 genetic diseases that affect mankind, as well as the many multifactorial diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role. A centrally coordinated project focused on specific objectives is believed to be the most efficient and least expensive way of obtaining this information. The basic data produced will be collected in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible on convenient form to all who need it. This report describes the plans for the U.S. human genome project and updates those originally prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National Research Council (NRC) in 1988. In the intervening two years, improvements in technology for almost every aspect of genomics research have taken place. As a result, more specific goals can now be set for the project.

  6. Reproductive and developmental hazards and employment policies.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, J D; Jamieson, G G; Wright, S

    1992-01-01

    The task of informing workers of hazards in the workplace is seldom more difficult than with the subject of reproductive and developmental hazards. Occupational health staff and physicians are faced with a paucity of relevant medical information. Workers, kept aware of the thalidomide spectre with every media report of the latest descriptive epidemiology study, are anxious to know more. Employers, knowing that few agents are regulated on the basis of reproductive hazards, are encouraged to lessen workplace exposure to all agents but need guidance from government and scientists in setting priorities. Understandable ethical and scientific limitations on human studies require researchers to study animals and cells. The difficulties of extrapolating the results of this research to humans are well known. The scientific, medical, and workplace difficulties in dealing with reproductive and developmental hazards are mirrored in the regulatory positions found in North America. Some regard fetal protection policies as sex discrimination whereas others consider such policies as reasonable. Guidelines are provided to allow employers and medical practitioners to consider this difficult problem. PMID:1536824

  7. Reproductive and developmental hazards and employment policies.

    PubMed

    Johnston, J D; Jamieson, G G; Wright, S

    1992-02-01

    The task of informing workers of hazards in the workplace is seldom more difficult than with the subject of reproductive and developmental hazards. Occupational health staff and physicians are faced with a paucity of relevant medical information. Workers, kept aware of the thalidomide spectre with every media report of the latest descriptive epidemiology study, are anxious to know more. Employers, knowing that few agents are regulated on the basis of reproductive hazards, are encouraged to lessen workplace exposure to all agents but need guidance from government and scientists in setting priorities. Understandable ethical and scientific limitations on human studies require researchers to study animals and cells. The difficulties of extrapolating the results of this research to humans are well known. The scientific, medical, and workplace difficulties in dealing with reproductive and developmental hazards are mirrored in the regulatory positions found in North America. Some regard fetal protection policies as sex discrimination whereas others consider such policies as reasonable. Guidelines are provided to allow employers and medical practitioners to consider this difficult problem. PMID:1536824

  8. Remarriage: A Family Developmental Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Mary F.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines a developmental perspective for understanding the dynamics of remarried families. Uses case examples to illustrate the importance of adding to the current family situation both a view of critical points in a family's history, and expectation for its future paths. (RC)

  9. Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Vygotsky is widely considered one of the most significant and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, true appreciation of his theories has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the background to his thought. "Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology" aims to demonstrate how we can come to a new and…

  10. Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast™ chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultur...

  11. The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad, angry,…

  12. Utilizing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to understand the actions of estrogens in human neurons

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Carole; Macedo, Sara C.; Warre-Cornish, Katherine; Cocks, Graham; Price, Jack; Srivastava, Deepak P.

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue “Estradiol and Cognition”. Over recent years tremendous progress has been made towards understanding the molecular and cellular mechanism by which estrogens exert enhancing effects on cognition, and how they act as a neuroprotective or neurotrophic agent in disease. Currently, much of this work has been carried out in animal models with only a limited number of studies using native human tissue or cells. Recent advances in stem cell technology now make it possible to reprogram somatic cells from humans into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which can subsequently be differentiated into neurons of specific lineages. Importantly, the reprogramming of cells allows for the generation of iPSCs that retain the genetic “makeup” of the donor. Therefore, it is possible to generate iPSC-derived neurons from patients diagnosed with specific diseases, that harbor the complex genetic background associated with the disorder. Here, we review the iPSC technology and how it's currently being used to model neural development and neurological diseases. Furthermore, we explore whether this cellular system could be used to understand the role of estrogens in human neurons, and present preliminary data in support of this. We further suggest that the use of iPSC technology offers a novel system to not only further understand estrogens' effects in human cells, but also to investigate the mechanism by which estrogens are beneficial in disease. Developing a greater understanding of these mechanisms in native human cells will also aid in the development of safer and more effective estrogen-based therapeutics. PMID:26143621

  13. Cardiac developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause cardiac defects, stages of heart development that are most sensitive to teratogen exposure, benefits and limitations of animal models of cardiac development, and future considerations for cardiac developmental toxicity research. PMID:22271678

  14. B.S. Mathematics Developmental

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    Verbal ACT must be > 21 or Computer Science 3 MATH 251 3 MATH 451 3 MATH 483 3 Verbal SAT must > 510 ENG 101 3 Related Science 3 MATH 453 3 MATH 488 3 or complete developmental Humanities** 3 Computer be > 28 or ENG 102 3 Related Science 3 MATH 457 3 Upper Div MATH 3 Quan SAT must be >630 Related Science 3

  15. Understanding the Human Genome Project: Using Stations to Provide a Comprehensive Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Julio G.

    2005-01-01

    A lesson was designed for lower division general education, non-major biology lecture-only course that included the historical and scientific context, some of the skills used to study the human genome, results, conclusions and ethical consideration. Students learn to examine and compare the published Human Genome maps, and employ the strategies…

  16. Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

  17. Understanding Human-Battery Interaction on Mobile Ahmad Rahmati, Angela Qian, and Lin Zhong

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    the problems in existing mobile phone designs. The studies include a large-scale international survey, a one findings provide insights into improving mobile phone design for users to effectively deal with the limited Design, Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords Mobile phones, human-battery interaction, batteries

  18. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

  19. The Importance of HRA in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri

    2010-01-01

    Human performance is critical to crew safety during space missions. Humans interact with hardware and software during ground processing, normal flight, and in response to events. Human interactions with hardware and software can cause Loss of Crew and/or Vehicle (LOCV) through improper actions, or may prevent LOCV through recovery and control actions. Humans have the ability to deal with complex situations and system interactions beyond the capability of machines. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a method used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the occurrence of human failures that affect availability and reliability of complex systems. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure probabilities in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides a more complete picture of system risks and risk contributions. A high-quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedures, human interfaces design, and the need for automation. Modeling human error has always been a challenge in part because performance data is not always readily available. For spaceflight, the challenge is amplified not only because of the small number of participants and limited amount of performance data available, but also due to the lack of definition of the unique factors influencing human performance in space. These factors, called performance shaping factors in HRA terminology, are used in HRA techniques to modify basic human error probabilities in order to capture the context of an analyzed task. Many of the human error modeling techniques were developed within the context of nuclear power plants and therefore the methodologies do not address spaceflight factors such as the effects of microgravity and longer duration missions. This presentation will describe the types of human error risks which have shown up as risk drivers in the Shuttle PRA which may be applicable to commercial space flight. As with other large PRAs of complex machines, human error in the Shuttle PRA proved to be an important contributor (12 percent) to LOCV. An existing HRA technique was adapted for use in the Shuttle PRA, but additional guidance and improvements are needed to make the HRA task in space-related PRAs easier and more accurate. Therefore, this presentation will also outline plans for expanding current HRA methodology to more explicitly cover spaceflight performance shaping factors.

  20. Future Directions in the Developmental Science of Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Burns, Alison R.; Solis, Jessica M.; Rothenberg, W. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses important future directions for the study of addictions, emphasizing the incorporation of developmental perspectives into how we think about substance use and disorder as unfolding processes over time and context for a heterogeneous group of individuals. These perspectives articulate complexities in the developmental processes that underlie change and continuity in human behavior over time. We consider two key developmental concepts, namely ‘time’ and ‘heterogeneity’. We argue that a lack of attention to time sampling creates ambiguity in the meaning of time-linked assessments, challenges in discerning which of multiple clocks may govern behavior, and the inability in some instances to distinguish which of multiple etiological processes may be driving behavior within our samples. Moreover, artificial divisions among disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use are a barrier to the further integration of the study and treatment of addictions with that of psychopathology. Similar to recent changes in the study of psychiatric disorders more broadly, we argue that identifying common deficits among commonly comorbid disorders, rather than patterns of comorbidity per se, is key to identifying early emerging risk factors for substance use and disorder, with important implications for identifying risk populations and developmental periods as well as potentially malleable intervention targets. Attention to time sampling in theory-driven research designs and attempts to identify more homogenous groups of individuals who use and eventually abuse substances over time are two examples of ways to better understand some of the complexity underlying the development of addictions. PMID:24156358

  1. Improving team's consistency of understanding in meetings : intelligent agent participation and human subject studies

    E-print Network

    Kim, Joseph, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Upon concluding a meeting, participants can occasionally leave with different understandings of what had been discussed. For meetings that result in immediate subsequent action, such as emergency response planning, all ...

  2. PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

  3. Epigenetic epidemiology of the developmental origins hypothesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive human epidemiologic and animal model data indicate that during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal mammalian development, nutrition and other environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways and thereby induce permanent changes in metabolism and chronic disease susceptibility....

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus Intrahost Evolution – A New Avenue for Understanding and Controlling Herpesvirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Renzette, Nicholas; Gibson, Laura; Jensen, Jeffrey D.; Kowalik, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is exquisitely adapted to the human host, and much research has focused on its evolution over long timescales spanning millennia. Here, we review recent data exploring the evolution of the virus on much shorter timescales, on the order of days or months. We describe the intrahost genetic diversity of the virus isolated from humans, and how this diversity contributes to HCMV spatiotemporal evolution. We propose mechanisms to explain the high levels of intrahost diversity and discuss how this new information may shed light on HCMV infection and pathogenesis. PMID:25154343

  5. In vitro fertilization (IVF) in mammals: epigenetic and developmental alterations. Scientific and bioethical implications for IVF in humans.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Juncá, Patricio; Irarrázaval, Isabel; Rolle, Augusto J; Gutiérrez, Juan I; Moreno, Ricardo D; Santos, Manuel J

    2015-01-01

    The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process. The objective of this review is to update the impact of the various conditions inherent in the use of IVF on the epigenetic profile and outcomes of mammalian embryos, including superovulation, IVF technique, embryo culture and manipulation and absence of embryo-maternal signaling. It also covers the possible transgenerational inheritance of the epigenetic alterations associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including its phenotypic consequences as is in the case of the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Finally, the important scientific and bioethical implications of the results found in animals are discussed in terms of the ART in humans. PMID:26683055

  6. Developmental Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Mall, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) during sensitive developmental windows can interfere with cognitive function and behavior, which are critical components of neurodevelopment. The association between developmental exposure to PBDEs and neurodevelopment has been extensively studied using animal models. In this review, we focus on the accumulating evidence in humans. Despite methodological, geographical, and temporal differences between studies, the majority of the epidemiologic evidence supports that early life exposure to PBDEs measured during pregnancy and/or during childhood is detrimental to child neurodevelopment in domains related to child behavior, cognition, and motor skills. While the precise mechanism of action of PBDEs on neurodevelopment is unknown, PBDE-induced neurotoxicity via thyroid hormone disruption and direct action of PBDEs on the developing brain have been proposed and tested. Additional studies are suggested to better understand how early life and/or childhood PBDE exposures, including exposure to specific PBDE congeners, impact neurodevelopmental indices. PMID:25530937

  7. Non-Immortalized Human Tenocyte Cultures as a Vehicle for Understanding Cellular Aspects to Tendinopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, L.; Bestwick, C.S.; Bestwick, L.A.; Aspden, R.M; Maffulli, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The biochemical mechanisms underlying tendinopathy are obscure. We briefly describe preliminary observations of human tenocyte behaviour in culture as a vehicle for determining the role of reactive oxygen in tendon pathology. PMID:23905032

  8. Understanding human-space suit interaction to prevent injury during extravehicular activity

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

    2014-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a critical component of human spaceflight. Working in gas-pressurized space suits, however, causes fatigue, unnecessary energy expenditure, and injury. The problem of injury is particularly ...

  9. The role of metagenomics in understanding the human microbiome in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Rebeca; Miquel, Sylvie; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

    2014-01-01

    The term microbiome refers to the genetic material of the catalog of microbial taxa associated with humans. As in all ecosystems, the microbiota reaches a dynamic equilibrium in the human body, which can be altered by environmental factors and external stimuli. Metagenomics is a relatively new field of study of microbial genomes within diverse environmental samples, which is of increasing importance in microbiology. The introduction of this ecological perception of microbiology is the key to achieving real knowledge about the influence of the microbiota in human health and disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the link between the human microbiota (focusing on the intestinal, vaginal, skin, and airway body sites) and health from this ecological point of view, highlighting the contribution of metagenomics in the advance of this field. PMID:24429972

  10. Understanding the Human Genome Project — A Fact Sheet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... The Human Genome Project spurred a revolution in biotechnology innovation around the world and played a key ... the U.S. the global leader in the new biotechnology sector. In April 2003, researchers successfully completed the ...

  11. Experimental human exposure to air pollutants is essential to understand adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Rom, William N; Boushey, Homer; Caplan, Arthur

    2013-11-01

    Air pollution has been found to cause significant global mortality, with 6.8 million excess deaths attributed to air pollution each year, and similarly large numbers of exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological research has identified associations, and experimental human exposure has provided critical information on dose-response relationships of adverse effects caused by controlled human exposure to individual pollutants. Human exposures further enable examination of the relationship of adverse effects such as symptoms and pulmonary function changes to presumed mechanisms of disease revealed through analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from the lower respiratory tract. In this Perspective, we analyze the ethics of human exposure, the importance of the information gained, and the risks of such exposure. We find that these studies appear to have been done with proper approval of institutional review boards, were done with informed consent from the participants, and have rarely been associated with serious adverse events. PMID:24024529

  12. Pathways of understanding: The interactions of humanity and global environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, H.K.; Katzenberger, J.; Lousma, J.; Mooney, H.A.; Moss, R.H.; Kuhn, W.; Luterbacher, U.; Wiegandt, E.

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  13. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  14. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  15. A developmental examination of the conceptual structure of animal, artifact, and human social categories across two cultural contexts

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research indicates that the ontological status that adults attribute to categories varies systematically by domain. For example, adults view distinctions between different animal species as natural and objective, but view distinctions between different kinds of furniture as more conventionalized and subjective. The present work (N = 435; ages 5-18) examined the effects of domain, age, and cultural context on beliefs about the naturalness vs. conventionality of categories. Results demonstrate that young children, like adults, view animal categories as natural kinds, but artifact categories as more conventionalized. For human social categories (gender and race), beliefs about naturalness and conventionality were predicted by interactions between cultural context and age. Implications for the origins of social categories and theories of conceptual development will be discussed. PMID:19524886

  16. Fetal Microchimerism in Cancer Protection and Promotion: Current Understanding in Dogs and the Implications for Human Health.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2015-05-01

    Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother's body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans. PMID:25693490

  17. Man Bites Mosquito: Understanding the Contribution of Human Movement to Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ben; Kapan, Durrell D.

    2009-01-01

    In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it. PMID:19707544

  18. Understanding Visual Metaphor: Developmental and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This monograph describes the development of the Metaphoric Triads Task (MTT), an instrument designed to assess metaphoric comprehension. Validity and reliability of the instrument are discussed and data for 12 samples of subjects are reported. Sex differences were negligible, but progressive improvement in MTT score with age was noted. Pictorial…

  19. Developmental parallels in understanding minds and bodies.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Alan M

    2005-10-01

    A recent article by Onishi and Baillargeon presents evidence that 15-month-old infants attribute false beliefs (FBs) to other people. If correct, it lends dramatic new support to the idea that mental state concepts ("theory of mind") emerge from a specialized neurocognitive mechanism that matures during the second year of life. But it also raises new puzzles concerning the FB task--puzzles that have intriguing parallels in results from infants' reasoning about solid bodies. PMID:16125434

  20. Luminal hydrolysis of recombinant human epidermal growth factor in the rat gastrointestinal tract: segmental and developmental differences

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.R.; George-Nascimento, C.; Koldovsky, O.

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), present in high concentrations in the milk of various species, is biologically active following oral administration to young animals. To characterize the luminal metabolism of dietary EGF in the developing gastrointestinal tract, the authors incubated human recombinant /sup 125/I-EGF in vitro at 37/sup 0/ with luminal fluid from the stomach and various segments of the small intestine of 12 day old suckling and 31 day old weanling rats and analyzed the resulting reaction products. The rate of EGF hydrolysis as determined by generation of acid soluble material was greater in weanling small intestine than in suckling, with maximal hydrolytic capacity observed in the mid-jejunum and ilium. Minimal hydrolysis was observed with stomach fluid from both age groups, and EGF retained its ability to elute as a single species on Sephadex G-25 columns and to bind to monospecific affinity columns and placental membrane receptors. Incubation with suckling small intestinal fluid produced little change in the chromatographic profile on Sephadex G-25, but a reduction in antibody and receptor binding was observed. In contrast, incubation with weanling small intestinal fluid yielded both a more pronounced loss of EGF-like material on G-25 columns and a greater reduction in receptor and antibody binding.

  1. 1 Acoustic modeling The general goal of automatic speech recognition (ASR) is to understand normal human

    E-print Network

    Kurimo, Mikko

    to use the recognition system as a test bench for the neural network algorithms developed new recognition algorithms, we have also investigated new acoustic features and context modeling1 Acoustic modeling The general goal of automatic speech recognition (ASR) is to understand normal

  2. Directly Comparing Computer and Human Performance in Language Understanding and Visual Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    Evaluation models are being developed for assessing artificial intelligence (AI) systems in terms of similar performance by groups of people. Natural language understanding and vision systems are the areas of concentration. In simplest terms, the goal is to norm a given natural language system's performance on a sample of people. The specific…

  3. Live dynamic imaging and analysis of developmental cardiac defects in mouse models with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Andrew L.; Wang, Shang; Garcia, Monica; Valladolid, Christian; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding mouse embryonic development is an invaluable resource for our interpretation of normal human embryology and congenital defects. Our research focuses on developing methods for live imaging and dynamic characterization of early embryonic development in mouse models of human diseases. Using multidisciplinary methods: optical coherence tomography (OCT), live mouse embryo manipulations and static embryo culture, molecular biology, advanced image processing and computational modeling we aim to understand developmental processes. We have developed an OCT based approach to image live early mouse embryos (E8.5 - E9.5) cultured on an imaging stage and visualize developmental events with a spatial resolution of a few micrometers (less than the size of an individual cell) and a frame rate of up to hundreds of frames per second and reconstruct cardiodynamics in 4D (3D+time). We are now using these methods to study how specific embryonic lethal mutations affect cardiac morphology and function during early development.

  4. Understanding and modulating mammalian-microbial communication for improved human health.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sridhar; Boelsterli, Urs A; Redinbo, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    The fact that the bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a symbiotic role was noted as early as 1885, well before we began to manage microbial infections using antibiotics. However, even with the first antimicrobial compounds used in humans, the sulfa drugs, microbes were recognized to be critically involved in the biotransformation of these therapeutics. Thus, the roles played by the microbiota in physiology and in the management of human health have long been appreciated. Detailed examinations of GI symbiotic bacteria that started in the early 2000s and the first phases of the Human Microbiome Project that were completed in 2012 have ushered in an exciting period of granularity with respect to the ecology, genetics, and chemistry of the mammalian-microbial axes of communication. Here we review aspects of the biochemical pathways at play between commensal GI bacteria and several mammalian systems, including both local-epithelia and nonlocal responses impacting inflammation, immunology, metabolism, and neurobiology. Finally, we discuss how the microbial biotransformation of therapeutic compounds, such as anticancer or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can be modulated to reduce toxicity and potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24160697

  5. Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith E.

    The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

  6. Leveraging Small Aquarium Fishes to Advance Understanding of Environmentally Influenced Human Disorders and Diseases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small aquarium fishes provide a model organism that recapitulates the development, physiology and specific disease processes present in humans without the many limitations of rodent-based models currently in use. Fish models offer advantages in cost, rapid life-cycles, and extern...

  7. Grasping the Affordances, Understanding the Reasoning: Toward a Dialectical Theory of Human Tool Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osiurak, Francois; Jarry, Christophe; Le Gall, Didier

    2010-01-01

    One of the most exciting issues in psychology is, What are the psychological mechanisms underlying human tool use? The computational approach assumes that the use of a tool (e.g., a hammer) requires the extraction of sensory information about object properties (heavy, rigid), which can then be translated into appropriate motor outputs (grasping,…

  8. Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Scott

    2008-01-01

    From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

  9. Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

  10. Students' Understanding of Connections between Human Engineered and Natural Environmental Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    This research draws on developments in educational research where "learning progressions" are emerging as a strategy for synthesizing research on science learning and applying that research to policy and practice, and advances in the natural sciences, where "interdisciplinary research on coupled human and natural systems" has become increasingly…

  11. Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

  12. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  13. Understanding and Modulating Mammalian-Microbial Communication for Improved Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Sridhar; Boelsterli, Urs A.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The fact that the bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a symbiotic role was noted as early as 1885, well before we began to manage microbial infections using antibiotics. However, even with the first antimicrobial compounds used in humans, the sulfa drugs, microbes were recognized to be critically involved in the biotransformation of these therapeutics. Thus, the roles played by the microbiota in physiology and in the management of human health have long been appreciated. Detailed examinations of GI symbiotic bacteria that started in the early 2000s and the first phases of the Human Microbiome Project that were completed in 2012 have ushered in an exciting period of granularity with respect to the ecology, genetics, and chemistry of the mammalian-microbial axes of communication. Here we review aspects of the biochemical pathways at play between commensal GI bacteria and several mammalian systems, including both local-epithelia and nonlocal responses including inflammation, immunology, metabolism, and neurobiology. Finally, we discuss how the microbial biotransformation of therapeutic compounds, such as anticancer or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can be modulated to reduce toxicity and potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24160697

  14. Reinforcement Learning with Human Teachers: Understanding How People Want to Teach Robots

    E-print Network

    Breazeal, Cynthia

    's contribution in guiding a robot's active exploration. Sophie's Kitchen is a video game framework for studying poses additional challenges (and benefits) for Machine Learning systems. Several examples of agents, Reinforcement Learning has been utilized for teaching robots and game characters, incorporating real-time human

  15. Mitigating Human-Black Bear Conflicts by Understanding Spatial Patterns and Associated Site

    E-print Network

    Name: Mary von der Porten Degree: Master of Resource Management Title of Thesis: Mitigating Human SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT In the School of Resource and Environmental Management Report No. 502 © Mary von der Porten 2010 SIMON FRASER

  16. Understanding Generational Diversity: Strategic Human Resource Management and Development across the Generational "Divide"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amayah, Angela Titi; Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There are more generations in today's workforce than ever before, which has the possibility to create challenges for Human Resource professionals. The purpose of this article is to interrogate existing stereotypes and generalities about the characteristics of different generations with respect to the workplace, and to offer suggestions for…

  17. Developmental Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

  18. Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1

    PubMed Central

    King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

    2011-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

  19. Culture for genetic manipulation of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    MANN, VICTORIA H.; MORALES, MARIA E.; RINALDI, GABRIEL; BRINDLEY, PAUL J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Genomes of the major human helminth parasites, and indeed many others of agricultural significance, are now the research focus of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. A draft genome sequence of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi was reported in 2007 and draft genomes of two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni reported in 2009. These genome data provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in schistosome nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion and invertebrate evolution. In addition, new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets will likely be predicted. However, testing these predictions is often not straightforward with schistosomes because of the difficulty and expense in maintenance of the developmental cycle. To facilitate this goal, several developmental stages can be maintained in vitro for shorter or longer intervals of time, and these are amenable to manipulation. Our research interests focus on experimental studies of schistosome gene functions, and more recently have focused on development of transgenesis and RNA interference with the longer term aim of heritable gene manipulation. Here we review methods to isolate and culture developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni, including eggs, sporocysts, schistosomules and adults, in particular as these procedures relate to approaches for gene manipulation. We also discuss recent advances in genetic manipulation of schistosomes including the deployment of square wave electroporation to introduce reporter genes into cultured schistosomes. PMID:19765348

  20. We're here to celebrate our colleagues and our work--of increasing understanding of the human experience. We do

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    as the record of human experience isbroadanddeep,bothbypreservationandworktobringinto view elements that might acknowledged here, increase our understanding of the human experience and encourage us to reflect critically `thank you' for the wonderful humanities education that I received at UCSC." "My experience

  1. Pursuing basic research to understand brain function in health and disease. Generating trained human resources with the capability to carry out inter-disciplinary research in neuro-

    E-print Network

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    the objectives of the Centre. 1 #12;From the Director's Desk The human brain is the most sensitive in the human body, it is the source and determiner of everything. In the words of Hippocrates, "from the brain scientists in the new millennium is to understand how the human brain works and what goes wrong when

  2. Understanding human--coyote encounters in urban ecosystems using citizen science data: what do socioeconomics tell us?

    PubMed

    Wine, Stuart; Gagné, Sara A; Meentemeyer, Ross K

    2015-01-01

    The coyote (Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans. We explored the relative importance of socioeconomic variables compared to those describing coyote habitat in predicting human-coyote encounters in highly-urbanized Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA using 707 public reports of coyote sightings, high-resolution land cover, US Census data, and an autologistic multi-model inference approach. Three of the four socioeconomic variables which we hypothesized would have an important influence on encounter probability, namely building density, household income, and occupation, had effects at least as large as or larger than coyote habitat variables. Our results indicate that the consideration of readily available socioeconomic variables in the analysis of citizen science data improves the prediction of species distributions by providing insight into the effects of important factors for which data are often lacking, such as resource availability for coyotes on private property and observer experience. Managers should take advantage of citizen scientists in human-dominated landscapes to monitor coyotes in order to understand their interactions with humans. PMID:25234049

  3. Understanding Human-Coyote Encounters in Urban Ecosystems Using Citizen Science Data: What Do Socioeconomics Tell Us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, Stuart; Gagné, Sara A.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-01-01

    The coyote ( Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans. We explored the relative importance of socioeconomic variables compared to those describing coyote habitat in predicting human-coyote encounters in highly-urbanized Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA using 707 public reports of coyote sightings, high-resolution land cover, US Census data, and an autologistic multi-model inference approach. Three of the four socioeconomic variables which we hypothesized would have an important influence on encounter probability, namely building density, household income, and occupation, had effects at least as large as or larger than coyote habitat variables. Our results indicate that the consideration of readily available socioeconomic variables in the analysis of citizen science data improves the prediction of species distributions by providing insight into the effects of important factors for which data are often lacking, such as resource availability for coyotes on private property and observer experience. Managers should take advantage of citizen scientists in human-dominated landscapes to monitor coyotes in order to understand their interactions with humans.

  4. Contributions and complexities from the use of in vivo animal models to improve understanding of human neuroimaging signals

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major advances in our understanding of how functional brain imaging signals relate to neuronal activity over the previous two decades have arisen from physiological research studies involving experimental animal models. This approach has been successful partly because it provides opportunities to measure both the hemodynamic changes that underpin many human functional brain imaging techniques and the neuronal activity about which we wish to make inferences. Although research into the coupling of neuronal and hemodynamic responses using animal models has provided a general validation of the correspondence of neuroimaging signals to specific types of neuronal activity, it is also highlighting the key complexities and uncertainties in estimating neural signals from hemodynamic markers. This review will detail how research in animal models is contributing to our rapidly evolving understanding of what human neuroimaging techniques tell us about neuronal activity. It will highlight emerging issues in the interpretation of neuroimaging data that arise from in vivo research studies, for example spatial and temporal constraints to neuroimaging signal interpretation, or the effects of disease and modulatory neurotransmitters upon neurovascular coupling. We will also give critical consideration to the limitations and possible complexities of translating data acquired in the typical animals models used in this area to the arena of human fMRI. These include the commonplace use of anesthesia in animal research studies and the fact that many neuropsychological questions that are being actively explored in humans have limited homologs within current animal models for neuroimaging research. Finally we will highlighting approaches, both in experimental animals models (e.g. imaging in conscious, behaving animals) and human studies (e.g. combined fMRI-EEG), that mitigate against these challenges. PMID:25191214

  5. A Mid-Layer Model for Human Reliability Analysis: Understanding the Cognitive Causes of Human Failure Events

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; April M. Whaley; Ronald L. Boring; James Y. H. Chang; Song-Hua Shen; Ali Mosleh; Johanna H. Oxstrand; John A. Forester; Dana L. Kelly; Erasmia L. Lois

    2010-06-01

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method’s middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  6. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological systems theory provides a useful framework for organizing and synthesizing findings related to the development of the perception of hunger, thirst and satiety, or alimentary interoception. It is argued that neither developmental psychology nor the psychology of eating and drinking have adequately dealt with the ontogeny of alimentary interoception and that a more serious consideration of the species-typical developmental system of food and fluid intake and the many modifications that have been made therein is likely necessary for a full understanding of both alimentary and emotional development. PMID:19956358

  7. Lessons from the analysis of nonhuman primates for understanding human aging and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Verdier, Jean-Michel; Acquatella, Isabelle; Lautier, Corinne; Devau, Gina; Trouche, Stéphanie; Lasbleiz, Christelle; Mestre-Francés, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are necessary tools for solving the most serious challenges facing medical research. In aging and neurodegenerative disease studies, rodents occupy a place of choice. However, the most challenging questions about longevity, the complexity and functioning of brain networks or social intelligence can almost only be investigated in nonhuman primates. Beside the fact that their brain structure is much closer to that of humans, they develop highly complex cognitive strategies and they are visually-oriented like humans. For these reasons, they deserve consideration, although their management and care are more complicated and the related costs much higher. Despite these caveats, considerable scientific advances have been possible using nonhuman primates. This review concisely summarizes their role in the study of aging and of the mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative disorders associated mainly with cognitive dysfunctions (Alzheimer's and prion diseases) or motor deficits (Parkinson's and related diseases). PMID:25788873

  8. Systems biological approaches to measure and understand vaccine immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I; Kazmin, Dmitri A; Oh, Jason; Pulendran, Bali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of using systems approaches to identify molecular signatures that can be used to predict vaccine immunity in humans. Such approaches are now being used extensively in vaccinology, and are beginning to yield novel insights about the molecular networks driving vaccine immunity. In this review, we present a broad review of the methodologies involved in these studies, and discuss the promise and challenges involved in this emerging field of “systems vaccinology.” PMID:23796714

  9. Developmental programming and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nuyt, Anne Monique; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review There is a growing body of evidence linking adverse events or exposures during early life and adult-onset diseases. After important epidemiological studies from many parts of the world, research now focuses on mechanisms of organ dysfunction and on refining the understanding of the interaction between common elements of adverse perinatal conditions, such as nutrition, oxidants, and toxins exposures. This review will focus on advances in our comprehension of developmental programming of hypertension. Recent findings Recent studies have unraveled important mechanisms of oligonephronia and impaired renal function, altered vascular function and structure as well as sympathetic regulation of the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, interactions between prenatal insults and postnatal conditions are the subject of intensive research. Prematurity vs. intrauterine growth restriction modulate differently programming of high blood pressure. Along with antenatal exposure to glucocorticoids and imbalanced nutrition, a critical role for perinatal oxidative stress is emerging. Summary While the complexity of the interactions between antenatal and postnatal influences on adult blood pressure is increasingly recognized, the importance of postnatal life in (positively) modulating developmental programming offers the hope of a critical window of opportunity to reverse programming and prevent or reduce related adult-onset diseases. PMID:19434052

  10. New dimensions in our understanding of the human health effects of environmental pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.O.

    1996-12-31

    The term {open_quotes}hazardous{close_quotes} waste is used primarily in reference to potential hazards to human health and, to a lesser decree, hazards to wildlife and the ecosystem. Many of the chemicals associated with hazardous waste sites are also widely distributed throughout the environment; therefore, the health hazards associated with hazardous waste sites are not different from those associated with general environmental contamination. Until recently, it was generally assumed that cancer was the human disease of greatest concern associated with toxic chemicals. In fact, most governmental regulations related to exposure are designed on the basis of presumed cancer risks. Since the evidence that hazardous chemicals can cause cancer is strong, it is appropriate to be concerned about cancer risk. Recent evidence, however, has triggered a reevaluation of the assumption that only cancer is of concern. New evidence suggests that noncancer endpoints may occur more frequently than cancer, may affect a greater number of individuals, and may occur at lower concentrations. Of particular concern is evidence of irreversible effects on the embryo and very young children, which influence intelligence, attention span, sexual development, and immune function. Although these effects are often subtle and difficult to quantify, the combined evidence is sufficiently compelling to necessitate a reevaluation of those outcomes of primary concern to human health. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Understanding Context, Understanding Practice in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Anne

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 Erica Burman offered a strong critique of the individually oriented developmental psychology which, she argued, underpinned much of early years' practice. She proposed that this should be replaced by an attempt to understand how culture informs development. In this paper I attempt to continue the discussion started by Burman by looking at…

  12. Measurement of Androgen and Estrogen Concentrations in Cord Blood: Accuracy, Biological Interpretation, and Applications to Understanding Human Behavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Hollier, Lauren P.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Hickey, Martha; Maybery, Murray T.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately measuring hormone exposure during prenatal life presents a methodological challenge and there is currently no “gold standard” approach. Ideally, circulating fetal hormone levels would be measured at repeated time points during pregnancy. However, it is not currently possible to obtain fetal blood samples without significant risk to the fetus, and therefore surrogate markers of fetal hormone levels must be utilized. Umbilical cord blood can be readily obtained at birth and largely reflects fetal circulation in late gestation. This review examines the accuracy and biological interpretation of the measurement of androgens and estrogens in cord blood. The use of cord blood hormones to understand and investigate human development is then discussed. PMID:24829559

  13. Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and workflows developed for connecting the IDW modeling tools: ABM, Data-Driven Modeling, and SWAT.

  14. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: Clinical implications for physicians and surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

  15. Understanding the apothecaries within: the necessity of a systematic approach for defining the chemical output of the human microbiome.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Kirk; Sampey, Brante; Watkins, Steven M; Milburn, Michael; Eckhart, Andrea D

    2014-02-01

    The human microbiome harbors a massive diversity of microbes that effectively form an "organ" that strongly influences metabolism and immune function and hence, human health. Although the growing interest in the microbiome has chiefly arisen due to its impact on human physiology, the probable rules of operation are embedded in the roots of microbiology where chemical communication (i.e., with metabolites) is a dominant feature of coexistence. Indeed, recent examples in microbiome research offer the impression that the collective microbiome operates as an "apothecary," creating chemical concoctions that influence health and alter drug response. Although these principles are not unappreciated, the majority of emphasis is on metagenomics and research efforts often omit systematic efforts to interrogate the chemical component of the complex equation between microbial community and host phenotype. One of the reasons for this omission may be due to the inaccessibility to high-breadth, high-throughput, and scalable technologies. Since these technologies are now available, we propose that a more systematic effort to survey the host-microbiota chemical output be embedded into microbiome research as there is strong likelihood, and growing precedence, that this component may often be integral to developing our understanding of these ultimate apothecaries and how they impact human health. PMID:24422665

  16. Understanding nano-anatomy of healthy and carious human teeth: a prerequisite for nanodentistry.

    PubMed

    Gaiser, Sebastian; Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; White, Shane N; Müller, Bert

    2012-12-01

    The anatomy of human teeth reflects its usage. Spatially resolved X-ray scattering permits quantitative studies of the characteristic arrangement of the anisotropic calcium phosphate crystallites and the collagen fibers within the hard tissues of the crown. The present study summarizes the distinctive nanometer-sized anatomical features of the tooth hard tissues including their interface taking advantage of spatially resolved synchrotron radiation-based small-angle X-ray scattering. The comparison of slices from eight teeth indicates a long-range organization of tooth nanostructures. PMID:22589047

  17. The superiority of "chemical thinking" for understanding free human society according to Hegel.

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Mark R; Ver Eecke, Wilfried

    2003-05-01

    This paper examines the claim of G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831) that "chemical thinking"-the method of thinking employed in chemistry-marks a significant advance upon (and hence is superior to) "mechanistic thinking"-the method of thinking characteristic of physics. This is done in the context of Mancur Olson's theory of collective action and public goods. The analogy between the efficiency of a catalyst in bringing about chemical transformation and the function of leaders in free human society in developing latent groups to provide public goods is explored. PMID:12796117

  18. Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A.; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible etiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups. PMID:23140142

  19. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data. PMID:20199563

  20. Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya

    The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

  1. Understanding human visual systems and its impact on our intelligent instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strojnik Scholl, Marija; Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Michelle K.

    2013-09-01

    We review the evolution of machine vision and comment on the cross-fertilization from the neural sciences onto flourishing fields of neural processing, parallel processing, and associative memory in optical sciences and computing. Then we examine how the intensive efforts in mapping the human brain have been influenced by concepts in computer sciences, control theory, and electronic circuits. We discuss two neural paths that employ the input from the vision sense to determine the navigational options and object recognition. They are ventral temporal pathway for object recognition (what?) and dorsal parietal pathway for navigation (where?), respectively. We describe the reflexive and conscious decision centers in cerebral cortex involved with visual attention and gaze control. Interestingly, these require return path though the midbrain for ocular muscle control. We find that the cognitive psychologists currently study human brain employing low-spatial-resolution fMRI with temporal response on the order of a second. In recent years, the life scientists have concentrated on insect brains to study neural processes. We discuss how reflexive and conscious gaze-control decisions are made in the frontal eye field and inferior parietal lobe, constituting the fronto-parietal attention network. We note that ethical and experiential learnings impact our conscious decisions.

  2. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  3. Enhancing Understanding Of Coupled Human-Natural Systems Through Collaborative Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santelmann, M. V.; Chan, S.; Morzillo, A.; Stebbins, A.; Wright, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the past decade, it has become clear that the dynamic nature of coupled human-natural systems must be better understood and incorporated into decision making. If the interactions between society and the rest of the ecosystem are poorly represented in system models, our ability to explore the potential consequences of feedbacks between the biophysical system and policy or management actions will be limited. Teams of researchers from three Oregon universities are collaborating with regional experts, water managers, and decision-makers to examine how climate change, population growth, and economic growth may alter the availability and use of water in the Willamette River Basin over the next one hundred years. A central project component is development of a version of the ENVISION modeling framework that will provide decision makers with a way to visualize the Willamette water system and evaluate the interaction of management choices with changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Key objectives of the project broader impacts team include: 1) assist with incorporating the human component of the system into the model, (2) fostering growth of the research team as an interdependent, interdisciplinary research community, and (3) communicating effectively with regional stakeholders. Through Learning-Action Networks we have been able to gather insightful, project-relevant knowledge on water use, management, policies and issues that impact water management in the region. We have identified the types of project outputs that managers and decision makers would find useful for anticipating water scarcity and informing integrative water systems responses. Events and processes used to accomplish our objectives began with field trips involving researchers, educators, and other stakeholders. Follow-up meetings and an all day symposium featured focus group interviews, plenary sessions on project progress, and interactive poster sessions in which participants could help identify water related policies and actions they would like to see modeled. Participants assisted in compiling an interactive table of potential policies and actions organized by water use sector and policy type (e.g., regulatory vs. incentive based). Involvement of K-12 educators and development of innovative interdisciplinary courses has enhanced the broader impacts of the project and helped us achieve multiple project objectives. We present plans to build on initial collaborative learning experiences to promote project outcomes that will advance coupled human-natural systems research and enhance the utility of model outcomes in water management.

  4. Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

  5. Understanding the foundations of the structural similarities between marketed drugs and endogenous human metabolites

    PubMed Central

    O'Hagan, Steve; Kell, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent comparison showed the extensive similarities between the structural properties of metabolites in the reconstructed human metabolic network (“endogenites”) and those of successful, marketed drugs (“drugs”). Results: Clustering indicated the related but differential population of chemical space by endogenites and drugs. Differences between the drug-endogenite similarities resulting from various encodings and judged by Tanimoto similarity could be related simply to the fraction of the bitstrings set to 1. By extracting drug/endogenite substructures, we develop a novel family of fingerprints, the Drug Endogenite Substructure (DES) encodings, based on the ranked frequency of the various substructures. These provide a natural assessment of drug-endogenite likeness, and may be used as descriptors with which to derive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Conclusions: “Drug-endogenite likeness” seems to have utility, and leads to a simple, novel and interpretable substructure-based molecular encoding for cheminformatics. PMID:26029108

  6. Understanding the tissue effects of tribo-corrosion: uptake, distribution, and speciation of cobalt and chromium in human bone cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Karan M; Quinn, Paul D; Gartland, Alison; Wilkinson, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt and chromium species are released in the local tissues as a result of tribo-corrosion, and affect bone cell survival and function. However we have little understanding of the mechanisms of cellular entry, intracellular distribution, and speciation of the metals that result in impaired bone health. Here we used synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and fluorescent-probing approaches of candidate receptors P2X7R and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), to better understand the entry, intra-cellular distribution and speciation of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) in human osteoblasts and primary human osteoclasts. We found that both Co and Cr were most highly localized at nuclear and perinuclear sites in osteoblasts, suggesting uptake through cell membrane transporters, and supported by a finding that P2X7 receptor blockade reduced cellular entry of Co. In contrast, metal species were present at discrete sites corresponding to the basolateral membrane in osteoclasts, suggesting cell entry by endocytosis and trafficking through a functional secretory domain. An intracellular reduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ was the only redox change observed in cells treated with Co2+, Cr3+, and Cr6+. Our data suggest that the cellular uptake and processing of Co and Cr differs between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25251692

  7. Understanding the topography of face and body selectivity in human ventral temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie; Silson, Edward; Baker, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Faces and body-parts are amongst the most salient visual stimuli in our environment. Research from human and non-human primates has reported multiple clusters of selectivity for faces and body-parts in the ventral visual pathway. Body-selective regions are often found close to face-selective regions, suggesting some sort of organizational principle. However, the nature of this organizational principle is not well established. Here, we investigated the topographical organization and specificity of body- and face-selective regions in visual temporal cortex at high resolution (1.2 mm isotropic voxels) using a 7T MRI scanner. First, we identified regions selective for faces and body-parts. Given prior reports of a body-part topography in lateral occipital cortex, we separately tested both hands and feet, which might be expected to have the most distinct representations. Second, we mapped population receptive fields in each participant to determine the extent to which the location of face- and body-selectivity reflect underlying retinotopic biases. Third, we tested the representational structure in face- and body-selective regions in a condition-rich event-related experiment. As expected, we found that faces elicited strong responses along the mid fusiform sulcus, in a region that has often been referred to as the Fusiform Face Area. This face selectivity coincided with a foveal representation of the visual field, while hands and feet produced robust responses adjacent and lateral to the face selectivity. We found little evidence for alternating patches of face and limb selectivity. Instead, we observed parallel streams of limb and face selectivity, extending from lateral to medial areas of the ventral cortex. Further, analysis of the representational structure of limb and face selective regions revealed striking differences. Our findings highlight the fine-grained organizational structure in ventral temporal and the importance of underlying retinotopic biases. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326311

  8. Human development II: we need an integrated theory for matter, life and consciousness to understand life and healing.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient's brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call "deep" cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call "holistic biology for holistic medicine". We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination), brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor), and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain and consciousness, the regulations of the immune system and cell growth, the dynamics of health and disease. We suggest that life utilizes an unseen fine structure of the physical energy of the universe at a subparticular or quantum level to give information-directed self-organization; we give a first sketch of a possible fractal structure of the energy able to both contain and communicate biological information and carry individual and collective consciousness. Finally, thorough our analysis, we put up a model for adult human metamorphosis. PMID:16830047

  9. Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity Across Species ABSTRACT: Plasticity is a typical feature of development and can lead to diver- gent phenotypes. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in developmental plasticity. Thus, in the context of the concept of developmental homology, epigenetic mechanisms

  10. Ivey's Developmental Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    Ivey's Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) is an innovative and comprehensive approach to helping which views client functioning in terms of cognitive-developmental functioning. DCT approximates a metamodel of helping in which treatment strategies are logically derived from and integrated with the cognitive-developmental level of the…

  11. Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

    2011-12-01

    Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and knobcone pines were established, that trended positively with 2 Mg C ha-1. Soil changes resulting from wild and prescribed fire were substantial. About 50% of the soil C (3-21 Mg ha-1) and 36% of soil N (41-650 kg ha-1) were lost from the upper profile (0-6.2 cm) compared to pre-fire conditions. Intense wildfire that killed most forest trees had about double the losses of C and N than forests burned at lower temperature with fewer trees killed. Average wildfire C losses were more than twice prescribed-fire losses. A long-term perspective is needed to compare episodic influences on soils, like harvesting and wildfire, to day-in, day-out effects of different species mixtures. Especially important is the effect of shrubs, that can rapidly achieve full leaf area but that lack the woody stem structure to store captured C as well as conifers. In theory, therefore, extending shrub cover will increase soil C. The annual profile soil C loss in Douglas-fir (-0.8 Mg ha-1yr-1), if continued beyond 11 yrs, would be similar to the effects of a fire-return interval of less than a third of the historical interval of about 100 years. National and regional soil-C monitoring would benefit from being grounded in existing experimental studies to help integrate large-scale changes with an unfolding understanding of processes in ways useful to decisionmakers.

  12. Linking soil forming processes, geomorphological dynamics and human activity to understand past and future patterns of landscape change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoorl, J. M.; Finke, P. A.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Sonneveld, M. P. W.

    2012-04-01

    The interactions between soil formation, slope processes, human activities and changing climate are important in shaping landscapes. However, these aspects of landscape development have not often been combined in integrated quantitative analysis. This means that we cannot yet make accurate assessments of the sustainability of our land-based activities under changing climate and management conditions. In particular, important questions about the effects of human activity on soil formation and of erosion on soil formation remain unanswered. Models that can serve as a framework for the calculation of such interactions have recently become available, offering methods to rapidly and significantly increase our knowledge of the behaviour of the combined human-soil-landscape system under climatic influence. If quantitative data about interactions become available, these models can simulate landscape development and provide testable predictions. Recent exploratory work in this direction is promising. With diminishing computational limitations and increasing attention for parsimony in model building, Landscape Evolutin Models (LEMs) now allow quantitative incorporation of soil formation processes (e.g. LAPSUS) and recent soil formation models allow calculation of the evolution of soil properties in ways that are suited for such incorporation (e.g. SoilGen2). A major step forward is possible whereby landscape evolution and soil formation will be integrated through quantitative modelling, with possibilities to include dynamic feedback mechanisms between soil and landscape. Such a model will allow us to study the coupled human-environmental system and is a significant contribution to landscape change management. Our objective is to propose a model framework and platform for others to join or to be inspired. Altogether with the common goal to increase our understanding of the quantitative interaction between slope processes, soil formation and human activity through measurements and modelling.

  13. Understanding the MIND phenotype: macrophage/microglia inflammation in neurocognitive disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Tissue macrophages play important roles in maintaining homeostasis in most organs of the body including the brain where microglia represent the resident phagocytic cells of this compartment. The possibility of one day harnessing macrophage plasticity to treat or ameliorate disorders including obesity, cancer, organ damage, intestinal disorders, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease in which these cells play a role, is a very exciting prospect. Inflammatory signaling is required for regenerative repair, healing, and pathogen clearance functions. However, when the inflammatory response persists in a chronic fashion over an extended period of time, damage to neurons is followed by neuronal injury and dysfunction. Macrophages in the brain are heterogeneous arising from tissues during embryogenesis, and in the adult, from bone marrow derived monocytes that enter through the blood-brain-barrier. While much of our insight regarding macrophage functional subtypes has been garnered through elegant studies in mice, which are amenable to genetic manipulation, far less is known about such cells in human tissues, and particularly in the brain under normal, disease, or injurious conditions. In this regard, non-human primate models for human immunodeficiency virus have been extremely useful for understanding the contribution of bone marrow-derived monocytes in neurological disease and their interaction and impact on the activation state of resident microglia in the brain. This review will focus on what has been learned from the rhesus macaque models about the types of macrophages present in the brains of animals with encephalitis. In vitro studies, which have used human blood monocytes differentiated into macrophages to address the question of macrophage subsets in HIV infection will be highlighted. Recent insights on macrophage phenotype and persistent inflammation in the brain in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder from immunohistochemical studies on human autopsy tissue will be examined. PMID:25852823

  14. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  15. Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  16. Understanding the Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Coastal Wetlands: The Human Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Denise

    2010-05-01

    In the 21st century coastal systems are subject to the pressures of centuries of population growth and resource exploitation. In 2003, in the US approximately 153 million people (53 percent of the population) lived in coastal counties, an increase of 33 million people since 1980 and this is expected to increase by approximately 7 million by the year 2008. Eight of the world's top ten largest cities are located at the coast, 44 % of the world's population (more people than inhabited the entire globe in 1950) live within 150 km of the coast and in 2001 over half the world's population lived within 200 km of a coastline. . Increased population density at the coasts often brings pollution and habitat degradation - decreasing the value of many of the resources that initially attract the coastal development - and it also means the effect of sea-level rise on coastal geomorphic systems must be seen in the context of additional human pressures. For global sea-level debate centers on the magnitude and rate of the rise around most of the world; the exception being those areas still experiencing falling sea-levels due to isostatic rebound. Many coastal island states are clearly vulnerable. While the ‘lurid and misleading maps' of the 1980's used by many to indicate areas to be flooded by rising seas in the future, have been replaced by more considered discussion of the response of coastal dynamics to rising seas there is still considerable debate about the amount of sea-level rise shorelines will experience in the 21st century. For coastal wetlands four main sets of physical factors - fine sediment regime; tidal conditions; coastal configuration; and relative sea-level change - define the geomorphic context for coastal marsh development and survival during the 21st century. Each of these factors is influenced by changes in climate and human alterations to coastal and inshore environments. In turn changes in sediment dynamics are mediated by both physical forcing and biotic factors, and plant growth is an additional factor influencing the survival of more organic marshes. Salt marsh surfaces are frequently considered to be in an equilibrium relationship with local mean sea level but the projection of salt marsh sustainability under future climate scenarios is a complex issue and depends on: the relative importance of organic matter to marsh vertical development; the complexities governing organic matter accumulation during rising sea level; the importance of subsurface processes in determining surface elevation change; and the role of storm events and hydrologic changes in controlling sediment deposition, soil conditions and plant growth. The effects of global change, both climate and human induced, on coastal wetlands will be manifest differently among various geomorphic settings but their vulnerability to global change in the 21st century should be taken seriously by coastal managers and policy-makers alike.

  17. From classic to spontaneous and humanized models of multiple sclerosis: impact on understanding pathogenesis and drug development.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nun, Avraham; Kaushansky, Nathali; Kawakami, Naoto; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Berer, Kerstin; Liblau, Roland; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Wekerle, Hartmut

    2014-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), presents as a complex disease with variable clinical and pathological manifestations, involving different pathogenic pathways. Animal models, particularly experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been key to deciphering the pathophysiology of MS, although no single model can recapitulate the complexity and diversity of MS, or can, to date, integrate the diverse pathogenic pathways. Since the first EAE model was introduced decades ago, multiple classic (induced), spontaneous, and humanized EAE models have been developed, each recapitulating particular aspects of MS pathogenesis. The advances in technologies of genetic ablation and transgenesis in mice of C57BL/6J background and the development of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in C57BL/6J mice yielded several spontaneous and humanized EAE models, and resulted in a plethora of EAE models in which the role of specific genes or cell populations could be precisely interrogated, towards modeling specific pathways of MS pathogenesis/regulation in MS. Collectively, the numerous studies on the different EAE models contributed immensely to our basic understanding of cellular and molecular pathways in MS pathogenesis as well as to the development of therapeutic agents: several drugs available today as disease modifying treatments were developed from direct studies on EAE models, and many others were tested or validated in EAE. In this review, we discuss the contribution of major classic, spontaneous, and humanized EAE models to our understanding of MS pathophysiology and to insights leading to devising current and future therapies for this disease. PMID:25175979

  18. What Happened, and Why: Toward an Understanding of Human Error Based on Automated Analyses of Incident Reports. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maille, Nicolas P.; Statler, Irving C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Rosenthal, Loren; Shafto, Michael G.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) project of NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program was to develop technologies that will enable proactive management of safety risk, which entails identifying the precursor events and conditions that foreshadow most accidents. This presents a particular challenge in the aviation system where people are key components and human error is frequently cited as a major contributing factor or cause of incidents and accidents. In the aviation "world", information about what happened can be extracted from quantitative data sources, but the experiential account of the incident reporter is the best available source of information about why an incident happened. This report describes a conceptual model and an approach to automated analyses of textual data sources for the subjective perspective of the reporter of the incident to aid in understanding why an incident occurred. It explores a first-generation process for routinely searching large databases of textual reports of aviation incident or accidents, and reliably analyzing them for causal factors of human behavior (the why of an incident). We have defined a generic structure of information that is postulated to be a sound basis for defining similarities between aviation incidents. Based on this structure, we have introduced the simplifying structure, which we call the Scenario as a pragmatic guide for identifying similarities of what happened based on the objective parameters that define the Context and the Outcome of a Scenario. We believe that it will be possible to design an automated analysis process guided by the structure of the Scenario that will aid aviation-safety experts to understand the systemic issues that are conducive to human error.

  19. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

  20. 45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration...

  2. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration...

  3. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.345 - Developmental pay adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Developmental pay adjustments. 9701.345 Section...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE...SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration...

  5. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  6. Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process

    PubMed Central

    Cottignoli, Valentina; Relucenti, Michela; Agrosì, Giovanna; Cavarretta, Elena; Familiari, Giuseppe; Salvador, Loris; Maras, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances, mineralization site, its microarchitecture, and composition in calcific heart valve remain poorly understood. A multiscale investigation, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), from micrometre up to nanometre, was conducted on human severely calcified aortic and mitral valves, to provide new insights into calcification process. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial relationship existing between bioapatite crystals, their local growing microenvironment, and the presence of a hierarchical architecture. Here we detected the presence of bioapatite crystals in two different mineralization sites that suggest the action of two different growth processes: a pathological crystallization process that occurs in biological niches and is ascribed to a purely physicochemical process and a matrix-mediated mineralized process in which the extracellular matrix acts as the template for a site-directed nanocrystals nucleation. Different shapes of bioapatite crystallization were observed at micrometer scale in each microenvironment but at the nanoscale level crystals appear to be made up by the same subunits. PMID:26509159

  7. Use of Gene Ontology Annotation to understand the peroxisome proteome in humans.

    PubMed

    Mutowo-Meullenet, Prudence; Huntley, Rachael P; Dimmer, Emily C; Alam-Faruque, Yasmin; Sawford, Tony; Jesus Martin, Maria; O'Donovan, Claire; Apweiler, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) is the de facto standard for the functional description of gene products, providing a consistent, information-rich terminology applicable across species and information repositories. The UniProt Consortium uses both manual and automatic GO annotation approaches to curate UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) entries. The selection of a protein set prioritized for manual annotation has implications for the characteristics of the information provided to users working in a specific field or interested in particular pathways or processes. In this article, we describe an organelle-focused, manual curation initiative targeting proteins from the human peroxisome. We discuss the steps taken to define the peroxisome proteome and the challenges encountered in defining the boundaries of this protein set. We illustrate with the use of examples how GO annotations now capture cell and tissue type information and the advantages that such an annotation approach provides to users. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/GOA/ and http://www.uniprot.org. PMID:23327938

  8. Biological Niches within Human Calcified Aortic Valves: Towards Understanding of the Pathological Biomineralization Process.

    PubMed

    Cottignoli, Valentina; Relucenti, Michela; Agrosì, Giovanna; Cavarretta, Elena; Familiari, Giuseppe; Salvador, Loris; Maras, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances, mineralization site, its microarchitecture, and composition in calcific heart valve remain poorly understood. A multiscale investigation, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), from micrometre up to nanometre, was conducted on human severely calcified aortic and mitral valves, to provide new insights into calcification process. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial relationship existing between bioapatite crystals, their local growing microenvironment, and the presence of a hierarchical architecture. Here we detected the presence of bioapatite crystals in two different mineralization sites that suggest the action of two different growth processes: a pathological crystallization process that occurs in biological niches and is ascribed to a purely physicochemical process and a matrix-mediated mineralized process in which the extracellular matrix acts as the template for a site-directed nanocrystals nucleation. Different shapes of bioapatite crystallization were observed at micrometer scale in each microenvironment but at the nanoscale level crystals appear to be made up by the same subunits. PMID:26509159

  9. Understanding pharmacology in humans: Phase I and Phase II (data generation).

    PubMed

    Merlo Pich, Emilio

    2011-10-01

    The discovery of novel drugs is a complex and highly regulated process organized around a critical moment, that is, when the novel compound is tested in humans. This process encompasses a series of clinical studies, identified as Phase I and Phase II, whose composite outcome should deliver the data needed for an informed decision about progressing or not the compound in full development (Phase III). Over the last 10 years the global delivery of novel treatments from the pharmaceutical industry has plunged to the level of the '70ies in spite of a 10-fold larger investment, the differential mostly due to failures in Phase III. There is the need to improve the decision making at the early clinical stage by using innovation and the high-profile achievements of basic science generated in academic and biomedical labs. A specific attention should be paid to applied biotechnologies, in particular nanotechnology and biomedical devices not only for drug deliver but also for biomarker detection. This path, also supported by regulatory agencies, is calling for an important change of perspective about how drug discovery is made, which we believe should start from the full implementation of the paradigm of Translational Medicine. PMID:21783419

  10. Mechanistic understanding of time-dependent oral absorption based on gastric motor activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Kazutaka; Choe, Sally Y; Löbenberg, Raimar; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-09-01

    The relationship of gastric motor activity and gastric emptying of 0.7 mm caffeine pellets with their absorption was investigated in the fed state in healthy human subjects by simultaneous monitoring of antral motility and plasma concentrations. A kinetic model for gastric emptying-dependent absorption yielded multiple phases of gastric emptying and rate constants (k(g)) with large inter-individual differences and large variability in onset of gastric emptying (50-175 min). The model suggests that 50% of the dose is emptied in 1-2h and over 90% emptied by 3.5h following dosing, in all subjects. The maximum values of k(g) (k(g)(max)) were much greater than those reported for emptying of liquids in the fasted state and were comparable to k(g) values in the late Phase II/III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The model described the observed irregular absorption rate-time and plasma concentration-time profiles adequately but not in detail. The model was more successful at simulating double-peak phenomena in absorption rate profiles and onset of caffeine absorption. The results suggest that gastric emptying regulates drug absorption of small particles in the fed state. Further, estimates of k(a) derived using the time-dependent absorption model were closer to the intrinsic absorption rate constant for caffeine. PMID:18434110

  11. Optimal Human Development: Some Implications for Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandtstadter, Jochen; Schneewind, Klaus A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses decision problems relating to developmental goals. It is argued that developmental planning and intervention should be based on scientifically founded programmatic models of human development. (MS)

  12. Transformation from Developmental Mathematics Student to Mathematics Teacher: Narratives of Adult Learning Experiences 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Gary L.

    2010-01-16

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of developmental mathematics students who, after successful completion of their developmental courses, chose a career in teaching and to gain ...

  13. Understanding human impact on the Baltic ecosystem: changing views in recent decades.

    PubMed

    Elmgren, R

    2001-08-01

    Grave environmental problems, including contamination of biota by organochlorines and heavy metals, and increasing deep-water oxygen deficiency, were discovered in the Baltic Sea in the late 1960s. Toxic pollutants, including the newly discovered PCB, were initially seen as the main threat to the Baltic ecosystem, and the impaired reproduction found in Baltic seals and white-tailed eagles implied a threat also to human fish eaters. Countermeasures gradually gave results, and today the struggle to limit toxic pollution of the Baltic is an international environmental success story. Calculations showed that Baltic deep-water oxygen consumption must have increased, and that the Baltic nutrient load had grown about fourfold for nitrogen and 8 times for phosphorus. Evidence of increased organic production at all trophic levels in the ecosystem gradually accumulated. Phosphorus was first thought to limit Baltic primary production, but measurements soon showed that nitrogen is generally limiting in the open Baltic proper, except for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. Today, the debate is concerned with whether phosphorus, by limiting nitrogen-fixers, can control open-sea ecosystem production, even where phytoplankton is clearly nitrogen limited. The Baltic lesson teaches us that our views of newly discovered environmental problems undergo repeated changes, and that it may take decades for scientists to agree on their causes. Once society decides on countermeasures, it may take decades for them to become effective, and for nature to recover. Thus, environmental management decisions can hardly wait for scientific certainty. We should therefore view environmental management decisions as experiments, to be monitored, learned from, and then modified as needed. PMID:11697254

  14. Understanding the nature of visual short-term memory representation in human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bettencourt, Katherine; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-09-01

    Recent work has shown that the human parietal cortex, in particular superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), plays a central role in visual short-term memory (VSTM) storage. However, much remains unknown about the nature of these memory representations including whether they are similar or distinct from perceptual representations. Using fMRI multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), it has been shown that VSTM representations in occipital cortex are highly similar to perceptual representations. Here, we tested whether the same would be true for VSTM representations in superior IPS. On the one hand, VSTM representations in superior IPS could simply be an extension of the sensory representations formed during perception. This would predict a high degree of similarity between VSTM and perceptual representations in this region. However, we have previously shown that VSTM representations in superior IPS, unlike those in occipital cortex, are robust to visual distraction. This suggests that the nature of VSTM representation in the two regions may differ, and that representations in superior IPS may be consolidated and thus, distinct from perceptual representations. In the present study, we had participants complete both a VSTM and perceptual task using face and gazebo stimuli. We then decoded between the two stimuli types both within a task and across the two tasks. To minimize any attention or memory effects in the perceptual task, participants performed a one back letter task at fixation. Pilot results showed decoding of both memory and perceptual information in superior IPS, and, importantly, successful cross decoding between the two tasks. This suggests that, just like in occipital cortex, VSTM information in superior IPS is represented in a similar manner to perceptual information. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325980

  15. mTOR: dissecting regulation and mechanism of action to understand human disease

    PubMed Central

    Goberdhan, D.C.I.; Boyd, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    This timely meeting brought together groups with shared interests in the regulation and effects of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR, see Figure 1), a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase with roles in cell metabolism, cell growth and cell survival. Although for some years it has been known that mTOR acts as a hub for inputs from growth factors (in particular insulin and insulin-like growth factors), nutrients and cellular stresses, some of the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. Recent work implicating mTOR in a variety of important human pathologies, including cancer, Type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders has heightened interest and accelerated progress in dissecting out the control and functions of mTOR. An important goal of this meeting was to bring together individuals approaching the key problems from very different perspectives. In particular discussion of work addressing the role of nutrient sensors and transporters in mTOR regulation, brought a novel flavour to this TOR-centric meeting, which was welcomed by many delegates. The meeting was divided into three sessions, all intimately linked: ‘Insulin/TOR signalling and translational control’, ‘Nutrient regulation of mTOR’ and ‘The mTOR signalling pathway: physiology, pathology and treatments’. The scientific programme resulted in a lively and interactive meeting with extensive discussion following talks and also around posters. It was especially useful in raising some of the remaining questions that have yet to be fully addressed and in highlighting recent work that may ultimately help to provide several of the answers. Since the discovery of TOR proteins in yeast by Mike Hall and colleagues in the early nineteen-nineties working in Basel, more than 3000 papers on mTOR have been published; moreover, as Michael Hall indicated in his excellent introductory lecture, the literature is still expanding exponentially. It is only the newer areas covered at this meeting that are very briefly reviewed here. PMID:19143634

  16. Human sialic acid acetyl esterase: Towards a better understanding of a puzzling enzyme.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Flavia; Damiati, Eufemia; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Benaglia, Giuliana; Pianta, Stefano; Schauer, Roland; Schwartz-Albiez, Reinhard; Borsani, Giuseppe; Bresciani, Roberto; Monti, Eugenio

    2015-09-01

    Sialic acid acetyl esterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the hydroxyl groups in position 9 and 4 of sialic acid. Recently, a dispute has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. In order to get new insights on human SIAE biology and to clarify its seemingly contradictory molecular properties, we combined in silico characterization, phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling with cellular studies in COS7 cells. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis revealed that in most tissues only the "long" isoform, originally referred to lysosomal sialic acid esterase, is detected. Using the homology modeling approach, we predicted a model of SIAE 3D structure, which fulfills the topological features of SGNH-hydrolase family. In addition, the model and site-directed mutagenesis experiments allowed the definition of the residues involved in catalysis. SIAE transient expression revealed that the protein is glycosylated and is active in vitro as an esterase with a pH optimum corresponding to 8.4-8.5. Moreover, glycosylation influences the biological activity of the enzyme and is essential for release of SIAE into the culture medium. According to these findings, co-localization experiments demonstrated the presence of SIAE in membranous structures corresponding to endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Thus, at least in COS7 cells, SIAE behaves as a typical secreted enzyme, subjected to glycosylation and located along the classical secretory route or in the extracellular space. In these environments, the enzyme could act on 9-O-acetylated sialic acid residues, contributing to the fine-tuning of the various functions played by this acidic sugar. PMID:26022516

  17. Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology of Methanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanol is a high production volume chemical used as a feedstock for chemical syntheses and as a solvent and fuel additive. Methanol is acutely toxic to humans, causing acidosis, blindness in death at high dosages, but its developmental and reproductive toxicity in humans is poo...

  18. Developmental biology of uterine glands.

    PubMed

    Gray, C A; Bartol, F F; Tarleton, B J; Wiley, A A; Johnson, G A; Bazer, F W; Spencer, T E

    2001-11-01

    All mammalian uteri contain endometrial glands that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). In rodents, uterine secretory products of the endometrial glands are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and conceptus implantation. Analyses of the ovine uterine gland knockout model support a primary role for endometrial glands and, by default, their secretions in peri-implantation conceptus survival and development. Uterine adenogenesis is the process whereby endometrial glands develop. In humans, this process begins in the fetus, continues postnatally, and is completed during puberty. In contrast, endometrial adenogenesis is primarily a postnatal event in sheep, pigs, and rodents. Typically, endometrial adenogenesis involves differentiation and budding of glandular epithelium from luminal epithelium, followed by invagination and extensive tubular coiling and branching morphogenesis throughout the uterine stroma to the myometrium. This process requires site-specific alterations in cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling as well as paracrine cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions that support the actions of specific hormones and growth factors. Studies of uterine development in neonatal ungulates implicate prolactin, estradiol-17 beta, and their receptors in mechanisms regulating endometrial adenogenesis. These same hormones appear to regulate endometrial gland morphogenesis in menstruating primates and humans during reconstruction of the functionalis from the basalis endometrium after menses. In sheep and pigs, extensive endometrial gland hyperplasia and hypertrophy occur during gestation, presumably to provide increasing histotrophic support for conceptus growth and development. In the rabbit, sheep, and pig, a servomechanism is proposed to regulate endometrial gland development and differentiated function during pregnancy that involves sequential actions of ovarian steroid hormones, pregnancy recognition signals, and lactogenic hormones from the pituitary or placenta. That disruption of uterine development during critical organizational periods can alter the functional capacity and embryotrophic potential of the adult uterus reinforces the importance of understanding the developmental biology of uterine glands. Unexplained high rates of peri-implantation embryonic loss in humans and livestock may reflect defects in endometrial gland morphogenesis due to genetic errors, epigenetic influences of endocrine disruptors, and pathological lesions. PMID:11673245

  19. Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Karola

    2014-01-01

    What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology. PMID:25191292

  20. Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Karola

    2014-01-01

    What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology. PMID:25191292

  1. Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

  2. Progress in Application of the Neurosciences to an Understanding of Human Learning: The Challenge of Finding a Middle-Ground Neuroeducational Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, O. Roger

    2014-01-01

    Modern neuroscientific research has substantially enhanced our understanding of the human brain. However, many challenges remain in developing a strong, brain-based theory of human learning, especially in complex environments such as educational settings. Some of the current issues and challenges in our progress toward developing comprehensive…

  3. Socio-hydrologic Modeling to Understand and Mediate the Competition for Water between Humans and Ecosystems: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Li, Zheng; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Around the world the demand for water resources is growing in order to satisfy rapidly increasing human populations, leading to competition for water between humans and ecosystems. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling development and evaluation of effective mediation strategies. We present a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. Interactions between patterns of water resources management and climate driven hydrological variability within the prevailing socio-economic environment have contributed to the emergence of new whole system dynamics over the last 100 years. In particular, data analysis reveals a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages of water resources development and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. A quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that explicitly includes the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment, is able to mimic broad features of this pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear differential equations that include four state variables describing the co-evolution of storage capacity, irrigated area, human population, and ecosystem health, which are all connected by feedback mechanisms. The model is used to generate insights into the dominant controls of the trajectory of co-evolution of the coupled human-water system, to serve as the theoretical framework for more detailed analysis of the system, and to generate organizing principles that may be transferable to other systems in different climatic and socio-economic settings.

  4. Current Understandings of Molecular Biology of Echinococcus multilocularis, a Pathogen for Alveolar Echinococcosis in Humans- a Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Xiaoqiang; DING, Juntao; GUO, Xiaola; ZHENG, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Echinococcus multilocularis is a tiny tapeworm, responsible for 0.3~0.5 million alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Methods: We searched relevant papers published between 1981 and 2013 based on the database sources such as PubMed and Google scholar, and collected and integrated the data for analysis. Results: The parasite is able to use host-originated molecules to modulate its development and has complex signalling pathways than expected previously. E. multilocularis utilizes many types of alternative splicing approaches to generate transcript isoforms. Recently, the genome of E. multilocularis has been deciphered. Conclusion: These data will give us a profound understanding of biology of E. multilocularis, which will promote the use as a model to study helminths. PMID:26622288

  5. 76 FR 59142 - Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities-Integrating Study Results To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ...for assessing nonclinical reproductive and developmental toxicity...nonclinical information: Reproductive toxicology; general toxicology...adverse human developmental or reproductive outcomes. The approach includes...performed using relevant model systems or at appropriate dose...

  6. Change in Gene Expression in Zebrafish as an Endpoint for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals that adversely affect the developing nervous system may have long-term consequences on human health. Little information exists on a large number of environmental chemicals to guide the risk assessments for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). As traditional developmental ...

  7. 77 FR 43335 - Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities; Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Community Living Administration on Intellectual and Developmental..., Administration on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: For the program of... written comments on the collection of information to Carla Thomas, Administration on Intellectual...

  8. Developmental genes and the origin and evolution of Metazoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses the role of developmental genes in evolution of life and the use of molecular approaches to confirm morphologic homology, to aid in understanding developmental mechanisms of evolution of novel structures, and to investigate some aspects of the evolution of life. Topics examined include developmental genes and homology; the role of co-optation and divergence, homeosis, and heterochrony as mechanisms of evolution; and life history evolution and model organisms.

  9. Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability

    PubMed Central

    Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2013-01-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

  10. Precolombian settlements in French Guiana : geoarchaeological approach toward a new understanding of the human impact on landscape.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brancier, J.; Cammas, C.; Todisco, D.; Fouache, E.

    2012-04-01

    Recent archaeological research in French Guiana conducted by INRAP (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives), specifically in the Couac Program (Cirad, Inra, Inrap) revealed precolombian settlements on different geomorphic contexts like coastal and fluvial areas, as is seen in Brazil, but also what seems to be quite a dense occupation on higher grounds (mounds). Most of the times, the excavation shows cultural remains like pottery, archaeological pits and ditches, as well as sediments that are described by the archaeologists as "thick and dark-coloured layers". In Brazil, dark layers found in archaeological sites are called Terra Preta do Indio or Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), and their study is thought necessary to explain and understand ancient human settlement. In Brazil, geoarchaeological methods as well as chemical analyses, pedology and micromorphology helped to describe ADE and understand their archaeological potential and characteristics. In order to better understand the French Guiana dark layers, we studied two sites from the estuarine zone of the lower Maroni River (Surinam border) (Chemin Saint Louis and Balaté at Saint Laurent du Maroni), and two ring-ditched hilltop sites, on ferralsols, in the interfluvial forest area ("Montagnes Couronnées" in French) (MC 87 et 88, near Regina). Regarding Brazilians research on ADE, we described for the first time the archaeological stratigraphy of French Guiana ancient settlement using a geoarchaeological approach combining biogeochemistry, pedology in correlation with micromorphological analyses. Our first results show that dark layers from archaeological sites studied are very different from natural soils underneath in the estuarine zone. Although, the pH is quite low, micromorphological analyses show clay coatings in the alluvial terrace before human settlement. These analyses also show more organic matter and charcoals in the archaeological layers than beneath, and very large amounts of phytolithes, that give to botanists a new way of research. Due to either the acid context and / or to the ancient lifestyle, very few bones were found. We also found geochemical and micromorphological differences between the sites in the estuarine zone or in forest area. First geoarchaeological results give information about the nature of the sites, and suggest that French Guiana dark layers have original properties. We therefore suggest, in accordance with the archaeologist team, to call them Guianan Dark Earth (GDE). If we compare the GDE of this study with data from bibliographic review on ADE, micromorphological analyses show that GDE presents less anthropogenic components than ADE. Chemical analyses also show differences between GDE and ADE, like pH and available nutrients, lower in estuarine GDE. These differences suggested that GDE can have different properties than those of ADE, but are nonetheless part of the archaeological soils of the Amazonian basin.

  11. Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells

    E-print Network

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    ARTICLES Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells Kristy Red-Horse1 , Hiroo Ueno2 , Irving L. Weissman2 & Mark A. Krasnow1 Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding

  12. The Need for Developmental Models in Supervising School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental models, like Stoltenberg, McNeil, and Delworth's integrated developmental model (IDM) for supervision (1998), provide supervisors with an important resource in understanding and managing the counseling student's development and experience. The current status of school counseling supervision is discussed as well as the…

  13. Adaptation to a Myocardial Infarction from a Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Explored the interactional effect between victims' (N=30) adult developmental stage and their coping and emotional reactions following a myocardial infarction (MI). The findings point to the usefulness of adult developmental psychology in understanding the divergent emotional and coping reactions of MI patients across the life-cycle. (Author/JAC)

  14. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 16 (2005) 385396 The developmental context of cell-cycle control in plants

    E-print Network

    Murray, J.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 16 (2005) 385­396 Review The developmental context of cell-cycle. This necessitates a close relationship between cell cycle control, differentiation and development that can of cell cycle regulators in plants, creating a challenge to understand how these genes control plant

  15. Examining student understanding of the science of a societal issue in Botswana: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suping, Shanah Mompoloki

    Science has had such an impact on our way of life that it has been at the centre of discussion for all issues of health, education, development, and the safe stewardship of the Earth's resources. Science has advanced so quickly in the last 50 years that the amount of knowledge generated by scientists is overwhelming. Science teachers who have persistently introduced children to science from a very young age, have been charged with a daunting task of presenting science knowledge to students in ways that not only make it easy to understand, but also make it relevant to them. The methods of how best they should go about this task have been debated from time immemorial. Due to the many concerns and demands placed on science teachers and science education programs in general, there have been a number of efforts to reform and redefine the science curriculum. Science education reform efforts in the US and elsewhere have examined all possible nucleotides in the building up of the reform DNA molecule. Many studies have measured people's level of understanding on given issues that affect their communities, but little attention has been given to conceptions and level of scientific literacy among students in developing countries. This study assessed Botswana school children's knowledge about ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and its effects on human health using a scientific literacy lens. Results show that students do not know as much as one would expect them to know, from public school through the first year in college. Exploratory factor analysis identified four indicators of knowledge about UVR. These are: (a) diseases related to UVR, (b) items that can be used for protections against UVR, (c) misconceptions held about UVR, and (d) general issues surrounding UVR. MANOVA analysis showed that whereas there are no differences in general based on school location, certain groups of students performed differently depending on the school type, type of science pursued at school and or the gender of the student.

  16. Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.

    PubMed

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

  17. Geoarchaeological approaches to understanding human-environment interactions in Australia's tropical north: the Weipa shell mounds revisited.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanning, P. C.; Holdaway, S. J.; Shiner, J.; Petchey, F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Cape York Peninsula, particularly the Weipa region, has seen sustained archaeological investigation since the 1960s. These studies primarily concentrated on the shell mounds associated with coastal environments first observed at the beginning of the 20th century. Despite claims that the shell mounds were of natural origin, archaeological investigations convincingly demonstrated that they are primarily cultural deposits. Geomorphological studies indicate that chenier (beach ridge) formation occurred after sea-level stabilisation in the mid- to late Holocene, and is connected to the formation of estuaries at the mouths of the Mission, Pine, Hey and Embley Rivers. Anadara shell bed formation is in turn connected with the evolution of the estuaries. However, the relationship between shell mound age and location relative to the coastline at Weipa is neither well defined, nor tested at multiple locations. Given that the coast is susceptible to the effects of sea-level fluctuations and environmental change, and the Anadara beds can become depleted as a result of environmental shifts, the shell mounds provide a datable record of human reaction to coastal landscape and environmental change. Here, we report preliminary results of a new investigation of the shell mounds of the Weipa region. Radiocarbon and OSL-based age determinations from samples of shell, charcoal and sediment collected from trenches excavated into shell mounds on the northern shore of the Embley River indicate a relationship between the time of initial accumulation of shell and the age of the landform features upon which they were built, which in turn are a result of coastline evolution during the mid to late Holocene. These mounds are the oldest yet recorded for the Weipa region, with accumulation in one case commencing around 3500 cal BP. Accumulation appears to be more or less continuous, and abruptly ceases after 400-650 yrs. We discuss implications for understanding human-environment interactions in the past, and our strategy for further research.

  18. Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

  19. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Integrating Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Balbus, John; Birnbaum, Linda; Brune-Drisse, Marie Noel; Grandjean, Philippe; Gray, Kimberly; Landrigan, Philip J.; Sly, Peter D.; Suk, William; Cory Slechta, Deborah; Thompson, Claudia; Hanson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    There are now robust data supporting the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm. This includes human and animal data focusing on nutrition or environmental chemicals during development. However, the term DOHaD has not been generally accepted as the official term to be used when one is concerned with understanding the pathophysiological basis for how environmental influences acting during early development influence the risk of later noncommunicable diseases. Similarly, there is no global research or public health program built around the DOHaD paradigm that encompasses all aspects of environment. To better inform the global health efforts aimed at addressing the growing epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases of environmental origin, we propose a two-pronged approach: first, to make it clear that the current concept of DOHaD comprehensively includes a range of environmental factors and their relevance to disease occurrence not just throughout the life span but potentially across several generations; and second, to initiate the discussion of how adoption of DOHaD can promote a more realistic, accurate, and integrative approach to understanding environmental disruption of developmental programming and better inform clinical and policy interventions. PMID:26241070

  20. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Integrating Environmental Influences.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Balbus, John; Birnbaum, Linda; Brune-Drisse, Marie Noel; Grandjean, Philippe; Gray, Kimberly; Landrigan, Philip J; Sly, Peter D; Suk, William; Cory Slechta, Deborah; Thompson, Claudia; Hanson, Mark

    2015-10-01

    There are now robust data supporting the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm. This includes human and animal data focusing on nutrition or environmental chemicals during development. However, the term DOHaD has not been generally accepted as the official term to be used when one is concerned with understanding the pathophysiological basis for how environmental influences acting during early development influence the risk of later noncommunicable diseases. Similarly, there is no global research or public health program built around the DOHaD paradigm that encompasses all aspects of environment. To better inform the global health efforts aimed at addressing the growing epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases of environmental origin, we propose a two-pronged approach: first, to make it clear that the current concept of DOHaD comprehensively includes a range of environmental factors and their relevance to disease occurrence not just throughout the life span but potentially across several generations; and second, to initiate the discussion of how adoption of DOHaD can promote a more realistic, accurate, and integrative approach to understanding environmental disruption of developmental programming and better inform clinical and policy interventions. PMID:26241070

  1. How sleep affects the developmental learning of bird song

    E-print Network

    How sleep affects the developmental learning of bird song Se´bastien Dere´gnaucourt1 , Partha P ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Sleep affects learning and development in humans and other animals, but the role of sleep in developmental learning has never been examined. Here we show the effects of night-sleep on song development

  2. Understanding resilience

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

  3. [Characteristics of Developmental Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Hunter R., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    These three serial issues focus on the characteristics and administration of developmental education programs. The following articles are featured: (1) "Characteristics of Successful Programs," which reviews research findings concerning the characteristics associated with effective and ineffective developmental programs and includes a list of…

  4. Reconceptualizing Developmental Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Andrew D.; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the emerging literature on developmental relationships and proposes a typology of relationships. Developmental relationships are defined as either formal or informal relationships where an individual takes an active interest in and initiates actions to advance the development of another. The authors focus on five dimensions of…

  5. Developmental Psychopathology Psychology 333

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Developmental Psychopathology Psychology 333 Spring 2008 Instructor Name: V. Robin Weersing, Ph@sciences.sdsu.edu Prerequisites Please note that Introductory Psychology (PSY 101) and Developmental Psychology (PSY 230 techniques. Material will be presented and discussed in class that is not contained in the textbook

  6. Developmental Cell Supplemental Data

    E-print Network

    Bartel, David

    ::gfp plus ajm-1::gfp which mark seam cell nuclei and cell borders, respectively (a gift from M. Maduro and J1 Developmental Cell Supplemental Data Li et al. Regulatory mutations of mir-48, a C. elegans let-7/hbl-1 controls developmental time and is regulated by microRNAs. Dev Cell 4, 625-637. Mello, C. C

  7. Developmental epidemiology of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne

    2012-07-01

    This review focuses on developmental aspects in the epidemiology of anxiety disorders including prevalence, onset, natural course, longitudinal outcome, and correlates and risk factors, with focus on childhood through young adulthood. Anxiety disorders are frequent and early-emerging conditions. They may remit spontaneously; however, the same or other mental disorders often recur. Although risk factors have been identified, more work is needed to identify the most powerful predictors for onset and the progression to more complex forms of psychopathology and to understand the underlying mechanisms and interactions. This identification is crucial to facilitate research prevention, early interventions, and treatment programs. PMID:22800989

  8. Contributions of human tissue analysis to understanding the mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis in total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Jiri; Vaculova, Jana; Goodman, Stuart B.; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic loosening and osteolysis are the most frequent late complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA) leading to revision of the prosthesis. This review aims to demonstrate how histopathological studies contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of aseptic loosening/osteolysis development. Only studies analysing periprosthetic tissues retrieved from failed implants in humans were included. Data from 101 studies (5532 patients with failure of THA implants) published in English or German between 1974 and 2013 were included. “Control” samples were reported in 45 of the 101 studies. The most frequently examined tissues were the bone-implant interface membrane and pseudosynovial tissues. Histopathological studies contribute importantly to determination of key cell populations underlying the biological mechanisms of aseptic loosening and osteolysis. The studies demonstrated the key molecules of the host response at the protein level (chemokines, cytokines, nitric oxide metabolites, metalloproteinases). However, these studies also have important limitations. Tissues harvested at revision surgery reflect specifically end-stage failure and may not adequately reveal the evolution of pathophysiological events that lead to prosthetic loosening and osteolysis. One possible solution is to examine tissues harvested from stable total hip arthroplasties that have been revised at various time periods due to dislocation or periprosthetic fracture in multicenter studies. PMID:24525037

  9. Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

  10. What Happened, and Why: Toward an Understanding of Human Error Based on Automated Analyses of Incident Reports. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Posse, Christian; Rosenthal, Loren J.; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling project of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program was to develop technologies to enable proactive management of safety risk, which entails identifying the precursor events and conditions that foreshadow most accidents. Information about what happened can be extracted from quantitative data sources, but the experiential account of the incident reporter is the best available source of information about why an incident happened. In Volume I, the concept of the Scenario was introduced as a pragmatic guide for identifying similarities of what happened based on the objective parameters that define the Context and the Outcome of a Scenario. In this Volume II, that study continues into the analyses of the free narratives to gain understanding as to why the incident occurred from the reporter s perspective. While this is just the first experiment, the results of our approach are encouraging and indicate that it will be possible to design an automated analysis process guided by the structure of the Scenario that can achieve the level of consistency and reliability of human analysis of narrative reports.

  11. Nursing Perspectives on Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Carl V.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.; Panaite, Vanessa; Council, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Health care disparities have been documented in cancer screenings of adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities nurses were surveyed to better understand and improve this deficiency. Two thirds of respondents believed that adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities received fewer cancer…

  12. Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Angela

    2005-01-01

    The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

  13. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  14. NCT and Developmental Psychology: A Welcome Rapprochement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary

    2013-01-01

    For over 50 years, developmental psychologists have conducted research around the world to understand the relation between culture and cognition. In fact, psychologists have been interested in this topic for over a century. In the late 1800s, Wundt introduced "Elements of Folk Psychology," the study of how culture becomes part of higher…

  15. Developmental Dyslexia: A Review of Biological Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1985-01-01

    The author considers cerebral dominance and brain asymmetry, the development of the cerebral cortex and examples of aberrancy, and diseases of the immune system, all of which relate to recent anatomical and epidemiological findings in developmental dyslexia. These discoveries have led to testable hypotheses which may enhance current understandings

  16. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  17. Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

  19. A Developmental Sequence of Skills Leading to Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the developmental sequence of skills involved in the understanding of relational concepts and in the development of conservation. Fifty kindergarten children participated in the study. (BD/BR)

  20. 5 CFR 9901.345 - Accelerated Compensation for Developmental Positions (ACDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Developmental Positions (ACDP). 9901.345 Section 9901.345 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN... Pay § 9901.345 Accelerated Compensation for Developmental Positions (ACDP). (a) Accelerated Compensation for Developmental Positions (ACDP) is an increase to base salary that may be provided to...

  1. Gaps in college biology students' understanding of photosynthesis: Implications for human constructivist learning theory and college classroom practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin

    1999-11-01

    The main research question of this study was: What gaps in biochemical understanding are revealed by a range of university introductory biology students as they work through a critically acclaimed multimedia program on photosynthesis, and what are the corresponding implications for elaboration of the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin Learning Theory (ANG, now Human Constructivism)? Twelve students, mixed for ability, gender and ethnicity, were recruited from two sections of "Bio 101." Before and after instruction in photosynthesis, in-depth clinical interviews were conducted during which participants completed a range of cognitive tasks such as sorting, concept mapping, explaining and predicting. Some tasks involved interacting with a computer simulation of photosynthesis. This study primarily employed qualitative case study and verbal analysis methods. Verbal analysis of the clinical interviews revealed numerous gaps that were categorized into typologies. The two major categories were propositional gaps and processing gaps. Propositional gaps were evident in development of participants' concepts, links and constructs. Significant among these were conceptual distance gaps and continuity of matter gaps. Gaps such as convention gaps and relative significance gaps seem to be due to naivete in the discipline. Processing gaps included gaps in graphic decoding skills and relevant cognitive habits such as self-monitoring and consulting prior knowledge. Although the gaps were easier to detect and isolate with the above-average participants, all participants showed evidence of at least some of these gaps. Since some gaps are not unexpected at all but the highest literacy levels, not all the gaps identified are to be considered deficiencies. The gaps identified support the attention given by ANG theorists to the role of prior knowledge and metacognition as well as the value of graphic organizers in knowledge construction. In addition, this study revealed numerous gaps in graphic decoding, indicating that both direct experience and explicit instruction are needed if students are to "learn how to learn with graphics," especially those graphics central to understanding a computer simulation's representations of structures, inputs, processes and outputs. It is hypothesized that gaps similar to those revealed in this study may be at the root of some alternative conceptions documented in the literature.

  2. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  3. Pediatric HIV Infection and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, John F.

    This paper presents an overview of the developmental disabilities associated with pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and examines efficacious practices for assessment and intervention programming. The focus population is early childhood into school age. The paper describes the complex array of challenges presented by these…

  4. Developmentally-Based AIDS/HIV Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mary E.; Bibace, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Presents a developmental approach to educating school-age children about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV). The paper describes, for three age groups, general characteristics of children's thought processes, ways in which they assimilate information about aspects of AIDS, and implications for educating…

  5. Understanding Human Original Actions Directed at Real-World Goals: The Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sitnikova, Tatiana; Rosen, Bruce R.; Lord, Louis-David; West, W. Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive, original actions, which can succeed in multiple contextual situations, require understanding of what is relevant to a goal. Recognizing what is relevant may also help in predicting kinematics of observed, original actions. During action observation, comparisons between sensory input and expected action kinematics have been argued critical to accurate goal inference. Experimental studies with laboratory tasks, both in humans and nonhuman primates, demonstrated that the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) can learn, hierarchically organize, and use goal-relevant information. To determine whether this LPFC capacity is generalizable to real-world cognition, we recorded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in the human brain during comprehension of original and usual object-directed actions embedded in video-depictions of real-life behaviors. We hypothesized that LPFC will contribute to forming goal-relevant representations necessary for kinematic predictions of original actions. Additionally, resting-state fMRI was employed to examine functional connectivity between the brain regions delineated in the video fMRI experiment. According to behavioral data, original videos could be understood by identifying elements relevant to real-life goals at different levels of abstraction. Patterns of enhanced activity in four regions in the left LPFC, evoked by original, relative to usual, video scenes, were consistent with previous neuroimaging findings on representing abstract and concrete stimuli dimensions relevant to laboratory goals. In the anterior left LPFC, the activity increased selectively when representations of broad classes of objects and actions, which could achieve the perceived overall behavioral goal, were likely to bias kinematic predictions of original actions. In contrast, in the more posterior regions, the activity increased even when concrete properties of the target object were more likely to bias the kinematic prediction. Functional connectivity was observed between contiguous regions along the rostro-caudal LPFC axis, but not between the regions that were not immediately adjacent. These findings generalize the representational hierarchy account of LPFC function to diverse core principles that can govern both production and comprehension of flexible real-life behavior. PMID:25224997

  6. The Importance of Ecology-Based Nature Education Project in Terms of Nature Integration and Understanding the Human-Ecosystem Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meydan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to define the importance of 12-day ecology-based education training upon integration with nature and understanding the human-ecosystem relationship. In accordance with this purpose, there has been collected some survey data interviewing with the participants of "Lake Beysehir National Park and Ecology-based Nature…

  7. Unusual feeding behavior in wild great apes, a window to understand origins of self-medication in humans: Role of sociality and physiology on learning process

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Dale H.

    Unusual feeding behavior in wild great apes, a window to understand origins of self-medication Medicinal plants Gut detoxication abilities Observational learning Self-medication Chimpanzees Western with pharmacological prop- erties. Providing insight on the origins of human self-medication, this study investigates

  8. Management of Developmentally Disabled Children with Chronic Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of chronic infections in developmentally disabled children is reviewed, along with appropriate management strategies for care providers and implications for other children. Discussed are herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (Author/JDD)

  9. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown significant correlations between conditions during development and various diseases later in life. In humans, low birth weight has been used as a surrogate for adverse developmental conditions, but the specific conditions affecting...

  10. Identification of a Developmental Gene Expression Signature, Including HOX Genes, for the Normal Human Colonic Crypt Stem Cell Niche: Overexpression of the Signature Parallels Stem Cell Overpopulation During Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R.; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z.

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region—the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (?18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ?30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis. PMID:23980595

  11. Blurring the boundaries: developmental and activity-dependent determinants of neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Verena; Baines, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The human brain comprises approximately 100 billion neurons that express a diverse, and often subtype-specific, set of neurotransmitters and voltage-gated ion channels. Given this enormous complexity, a fundamental question is how is this achieved? The acquisition of neurotransmitter phenotype was viewed as being set by developmental programs ‘hard wired’ into the genome. By contrast, the expression of neuron-specific ion channels was considered to be highly dynamic (i.e., ‘soft wired’) and shaped largely by activity-dependent mechanisms. Recent evidence blurs this distinction by showing that neurotransmitter phenotype can be altered by activity and that neuron type-specific ion channel expression can be set, and perhaps limited by, developmental programs. Better understanding of these early regulatory mechanisms may offer new avenues to avert the behavioral changes that are characteristic of many mental illnesses. PMID:23876426

  12. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. PMID:25725910

  13. Developmental milestones record

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the early years is to follow your child's development. Most parents also watch for different milestones. Talk ... child's provider if you have concerns about your child's development. Closely watching a "checklist" or calendar of developmental ...

  14. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Children with kernicterus are more likely to have cerebral palsy, hearing and vision problems, and problems with their ... developmental disabilities, such as: ADHD , autism spectrum disorder , cerebral palsy , hearing loss , intellectual disability , learning disability, vision impairment , ...

  15. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  16. Developmental plasticity and evolution--quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Moczek, A P

    2015-10-01

    The role of developmental (phenotypic) plasticity in ecology and evolution is receiving a growing appreciation among the biologists, and many plasticity-specific concepts have become well established as part of the mainstream evolutionary biological thinking. In this essay, I posit that despite this progress several key perspectives in developmental plasticity remain remarkably traditional, and that it may be time to re-evaluate their continued usefulness in the face of the available evidence as the field looks to its future. Specifically, I discuss the utility of viewing plastic development as ultimately rooted in genes and genomes, and investigate the common notion that the environment--albeit a critical source of information--nevertheless remains passive, external to and separable from the organism responding to it. I end by highlighting conceptual and empirical opportunities that may permit developmental plasticity research to transcend its current boundaries and to continue its contributions toward a holistic and realistic understanding of organismal development and evolution. PMID:26374347

  17. Historical perspective on developmental concepts and terminology.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    In their ontogeny and phylogeny all living beings are historical entities. The revolution in biology of the 18th and 19th centuries that did away with the scala naturae according to which we humans, the acme of creation, "made a little lower than the angels," also led to the gradual realization that a humble one-celled protist ("protoctist"), such as Entamoeba histolytica of ill repute [Margulis and Chapman, ] has the same 4-billion-year phylogeny as that of Homo sapiens, vivid testimony to common ancestry and the relatedness of all living beings on earth. The group of medical geneticists who assembled at the NIH, Bethesda, MD this January to address terms pertaining to human ontogeny, did so in the long tradition of Sydenham, Linnaeus, Meckel, Geoffroy St-Hilaire père et fils, Wilhelm His and so many others before who had over the previous two centuries wrestled as earnestly as they could with concepts of "classification" and nomenclature of developmental anomalies. The prior massive need for classification per se in medical morphology has diminished over the years in favor of ever more sophisticated understanding of pathogenesis and cause through experimental biology and genetics; however, in the winter of 2013 it was still found prudent to respect terminological precedent on general terms while recognizing recent advances in developmental pathology requiring clarification and definition of special terms. Efforts along similar lines instigated by the German Society of Anatomists at their first meeting in Leipzig in 1887 culminated, after intense years of work by hundreds of experts and consultants under the goad of Wilhelm His, in the Basel Nomina Anatomica [BNA, His (1895)]. His, himself, stated prefatorily that the BNA had no legislative weight, only an evanescent consensus of many to be amended in the future as needed and indicated. Without hubris, no one before or after will do the same. The more substantial the consensus the more permanent the structure. After some 120 years the BNA is alive and flourishing. Now retitled Terminologia Anatomica, it has been amended and added to many times, is still in Latin but now with synonyms in English, the new lingua franca of science, for every anatomical, histological and embryological term. May our successors be equally effective. PMID:24123982

  18. Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling to Quantitatively Predict the Developmental Toxicity of Halogenated Azole compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicity is a relevant endpoint for the comprehensive assessment of human health risk from chemical exposure. However, animal developmental toxicity studies remain unavailable for many environmental contaminants due to the complexity and cost of these types of analy...

  19. Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects

    SciTech Connect

    Royland, Joyce E.; Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H.; Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S.

    2008-09-01

    The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression ({>=} 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans.

  20. Developmental disruptions underlying brain abnormalities in ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiami; Higginbotham, Holden; Li, Jingjun; Nichols, Jackie; Hirt, Josua; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Anton, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human ciliopathies. Nevertheless, the role of primary cilia function in corticogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we delineate the functions of primary cilia in the construction of cerebral cortex and their relevance to ciliopathies, using an shRNA library targeting ciliopathy genes known to cause brain disorders, but whose roles in brain development are unclear. We used the library to query how ciliopathy genes affect distinct stages of mouse cortical development, in particular neural progenitor development, neuronal migration, neuronal differentiation and early neuronal connectivity. Our results define the developmental functions of ciliopathy genes and delineate disrupted developmental events that are integrally related to the emergence of brain abnormalities in ciliopathies. PMID:26206566

  1. The Concept of Homology as a Basis for Evaluating Developmental Mechanisms: Exploring Selective Attention Across the Life-Span

    PubMed Central

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Research with human infants as well as non-human animal embryos and infants has consistently demonstrated the benefits of intersensory redundancy for perceptual learning and memory for redundantly specified information during early development. Studies of infant affect discrimination, face discrimination, numerical discrimination, sequence detection, abstract rule learning, and word comprehension and segmentation have all shown that intersensory redundancy promotes earlier detection of these properties when compared to unimodal exposure to the same properties. Here we explore the idea that such intersensory facilitation is evident across the life-span and that this continuity is an example of a developmental behavioral homology. We present evidence that intersensory facilitation is most apparent during early phases of learning for a variety of tasks, regardless of developmental level, including domains that are novel or tasks that require discrimination of fine detail or speeded responses. Under these conditions, infants, children, and adults all show intersensory facilitation, suggesting a developmental homology. We discuss the challenge and propose strategies for establishing appropriate guidelines for identifying developmental behavioral homologies. We conclude that evaluating the extent to which continuities observed across development are homologous can contribute to a better understanding of the processes of development. PMID:22711341

  2. The role of the one-carbon cycle in the developmental origins of Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Finer, S; Saravanan, P; Hitman, G; Yajnik, C

    2014-03-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in certain populations, such as in India, where there is also a rising prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, obesity and their complications. Human cohorts and animal models provide compelling data suggesting the role of the one-carbon cycle in modulating the risk of diabetes and adiposity via developmental programming. Early mechanistic studies in animals suggest that alterations to the cellular provision of methyl groups (via the one-carbon cycle) in early developmental life may disrupt DNA methylation and induce future adverse phenotypic changes. Furthermore, replacement of micronutrient deficits at suitable developmental stages may modulate this risk. Current human studies are limited by a range of factors, including the accuracy and availability of methods to measure nutritional components in the one-carbon cycle, and whether its disruptions exert tissue-specific effects. A greater understanding of the causal and mechanistic role of the one-carbon cycle is hoped to generate substantial insights into its role in the developmental origins of complex metabolic diseases and the potential of targeted and population-wide prevention strategies. PMID:24344881

  3. Stress physiology and developmental psychopathology: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    In the past 25 years research on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis has emerged as a vital area within the field of developmental psychopathology. Extensive animal research has provided knowledge of the substrates and physiological mechanisms that guide development of stress reactivity and regulation using methods that are not feasible in humans. Recent advances in understanding the anatomy and physiology of the HPA axis in humans and its interactions with other stress-mediating systems, including accurate assessment of salivary cortisol, more sophisticated neuroimaging methods, and a variety of genetic analyses, have led to greater knowledge of how psychological and biological processes impact functioning.A growing body of research on HPA axis regulation and reactivity in relation to psychopathology has drawn increased focus on the prenatal period, infancy, and the pubertal transition as potentially sensitive periods of stress system development in children. Theories such as the Allostatic Load Model have guided research by integrating multiple physiological systems and mechanisms by which stress can affect mental and physical health. However, almost none of the prominent theoretical models in stress physiology are truly developmental, and future work must incorporate how systems interact with the environment across the lifespan in both normal and atypical development. Our theoretical advancement will depend on our ability to integrate biological and psychological models. Researchers are increasingly realizing the importance of communication across disciplinary boundaries in order to understand how experiences influence neurobehavioral development. Importantly, knowledge gained over the past 25 years has been translated to both prevention and treatment interventions, and we look forward to the dissemination of interventions that promote recovery from adversity. PMID:24342845

  4. Embodied understanding

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner. PMID:26175701

  5. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings

  6. Production of genetically and developmentally modified seaweeds: exploiting the potential of artificial selection techniques

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Rolland, Elodie; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Plant feedstock with specific, modified developmental features has been a quest for centuries. Since the development and spread of agriculture, there has been a desire for plants producing disproportionate—or more abundant and more nutritional—biomass that meet human needs better than their native counterparts. Seaweed aquaculture, targeted for human consumption and the production of various raw materials, is a rapidly expanding field and its stakeholders have increasing vested interest for cost-effective and lucrative seaweed cultivation processes. Thus, scientific research on seaweed development is particularly timely: the potential for expansion of seaweed cultivation depends on the sector's capacity to produce seaweeds with modified morphological features (e.g., thicker blades), higher growth rates or delayed (or even no) fertility. Here, we review the various technical approaches used to modify development in macroalgae, which have attracted little attention from developmental biologists to date. Because seaweed (or marine macroalgae) anatomy is much less complex than that of land plants and because seaweeds belong to three different eukaryotic phyla, the mechanisms controlling their morphogenesis are key to understanding their development. Here, we present efficient sources of developmentally and genetically modified seaweeds—somatic variants, artificial hybrids and mutants—as well as the future potential of these techniques. PMID:25852700

  7. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Robert B; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S; Hsü, Kenneth J

    2014-08-19

    The original centrally defining features of "Homo floresiensis" are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1. PMID:25092307

  8. Rare events in earth history include the LB1 human skeleton from Flores, Indonesia, as a developmental singularity, not a unique taxon

    PubMed Central

    Eckhardt, Robert B.; Henneberg, Maciej; Weller, Alex S.; Hsü, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The original centrally defining features of “Homo floresiensis” are based on bones represented only in the single specimen LB1. Initial published values of 380-mL endocranial volume and 1.06-m stature are markedly lower than later attempts to confirm them, and facial asymmetry originally unreported, then denied, has been established by our group and later confirmed independently. Of nearly 200 syndromes in which microcephaly is one sign, more than half include asymmetry as another sign and more than one-fourth also explicitly include short stature. The original diagnosis of the putative new species noted and dismissed just three developmental abnormalities. Subsequent independent attempts at diagnosis (Laron Syndrome, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II, cretinism) have been hampered a priori by selectively restricted access to specimens, and disparaged a posteriori using data previously unpublished, without acknowledging that all of the independent diagnoses corroborate the patent abnormal singularity of LB1. In this report we establish in detail that even in the absence of a particular syndromic diagnosis, the originally defining features of LB1 do not establish either the uniqueness or normality necessary to meet the formal criteria for a type specimen of a new species. In a companion paper we present a new syndromic diagnosis for LB1. PMID:25092307

  9. Evo-Devo: evolutionary developmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hall, Brian K

    2003-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental biology (Evo-Devo) as a discipline is concerned, among other things, with discovering and understanding the role of changes in developmental mechanisms in the evolutionary origin of aspects of the phenotype. In a very real sense, Evo-Devo opens the black box between genotype and phenotype, or more properly, phenotypes as multiple life history stages arise in many organisms from a single genotype. Changes in the timing or positioning of an aspect of development in a descendant relative to an ancestor (heterochrony and heterotopy) were two evolutionary developmental mechanisms identified by Ernst Haeckel in the 1870s. Many more have since been identified, in large part because of our enhanced understanding of development and because new mechanisms emerge as development proceeds: the transfer from maternal to zygotic genomic control; cell-to-cell interactions; cell differentiation and cell migration; embryonic inductions; functional interactions at the tissue and organ levels; growth. Within these emergent processes, gene networks and gene cascades (genetic modules) link the genotype with morphogenetic units (cellular modules, namely germ layers, embryonic fields or cellular condensations), while epigenetic processes such as embryonic inductions, tissue interactions and functional integration, link morphogenetic units to the phenotype. Evolutionary developmental mechanisms also include interactions between individuals of the same species, individuals of different species, and species and their biotic and/or abiotic environment. Such interactions link ecological communities. Importantly, there is little to distinguish the causality that underlies these interactions from that which underlies inductive interactions within embryos. PMID:14756324

  10. What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed Central

    Meltzoff, Andrew N; Decety, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Both developmental and neurophysiological research suggest a common coding between perceived and generated actions. This shared representational network is innately wired in humans. We review psychological evidence concerning the imitative behaviour of newborn human infants. We suggest that the mechanisms involved in infant imitation provide the foundation for understanding that others are 'like me' and underlie the development of theory of mind and empathy for others. We also analyse functional neuroimaging studies that explore the neurophysiological substrate of imitation in adults. We marshal evidence that imitation recruits not only shared neural representations between the self and the other but also cortical regions in the parietal cortex that are crucial for distinguishing between the perspective of self and other. Imitation is doubly revealing: it is used by infants to learn about adults, and by scientists to understand the organization and functioning of the brain. PMID:12689375

  11. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain…

  12. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand its basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain processes…

  13. Developmental Deltamethrin Exposure Causes Persistent Changes in Dopaminergic Gene Expression, Neurochemistry, and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kung, Tiffany S; Richardson, Jason R; Cooper, Keith R; White, Lori A

    2015-08-01

    Pyrethroids are commonly used insecticides that are considered to pose little risk to human health. However, there is an increasing concern that children are more susceptible to the adverse effects of pesticides. We used the zebrafish model to test the hypothesis that developmental exposure to low doses of the pyrethroid deltamethrin results in persistent alterations in dopaminergic gene expression, neurochemistry, and locomotor activity. Zebrafish embryos were treated with deltamethrin (0.25-0.50??g/l), at concentrations below the LOAEL, during the embryonic period [3-72?h postfertilization (hpf)], after which transferred to fresh water until the larval stage (2-weeks postfertilization). Deltamethrin exposure resulted in decreased transcript levels of the D1 dopamine (DA) receptor (drd1) and increased levels of tyrosine hydroxylase at 72?hpf. The reduction in drd1 transcripts persisted to the larval stage and was associated with decreased D2 dopamine receptor transcripts. Larval fish, exposed developmentally to deltamethrin, had increased levels of homovanillic acid, a DA metabolite. Since the DA system is involved in locomotor activity, we measured the swim activity of larval fish following a transition to darkness. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin significantly increased larval swim activity which was attenuated by concomitant knockdown of the DA transporter. Acute exposure to methylphenidate, a DA transporter inhibitor, increased swim activity in control larva, while reducing swim activity in larva developmentally exposed to deltamethrin. Developmental exposure to deltamethrin causes locomotor deficits in larval zebrafish, which is likely mediated by dopaminergic dysfunction. This highlights the need to understand the persistent effects of low-dose neurotoxicant exposure during development. PMID:25912032

  14. Developmental Neurotoxicology: History and Outline of Developmental Neurotoxicity Study Guidelines.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present work provides a brief review of basic concepts in developmental neurotoxicology, as well as current representative testing guidelines for evaluating developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of xenobiotics. Historically, DNT was initially recognized as a “functional” teratoge...

  15. Developmental Trajectory of Number Acuity Reveals a Severe Impairment in Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Manuela; Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Berteletti, Ilaria; Conte, Stefano; Lucangeli, Daniela; Dehaene, Stanisalas; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a learning disability that affects the acquisition of knowledge about numbers and arithmetic. It is widely assumed that numeracy is rooted on the "number sense", a core ability to grasp numerical quantities that humans share with other animals and deploy spontaneously at birth. To probe the links between number sense…

  16. Developmental variations in environmental influences including endocrine disruptors on pubertal timing and neuroendocrine control: Revision of human observations and mechanistic insight from rodents.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Gérard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Puberty presents remarkable individual differences in timing reaching over 5 years in humans. We put emphasis on the two edges of the age distribution of pubertal signs in humans and point to an extended distribution towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final pubertal stages. Such distortion of distribution is a recent phenomenon. This suggests changing environmental influences including the possible role of nutrition, stress and endocrine disruptors. Our ability to assess neuroendocrine effects and mechanisms is very limited in humans. Using the rodent as a model, we examine the impact of environmental factors on the individual variations in pubertal timing and the possible underlying mechanisms. The capacity of environmental factors to shape functioning of the neuroendocrine system is thought to be maximal during fetal and early postnatal life and possibly less important when approaching the time of onset of puberty. PMID:25592640

  17. COGEDE-1030; NO. OF PAGES 7 Please cite this article in press as: Dunham MJ, Fowler DM. Contemporary, yeast-based approaches to understanding human genetic variation, Curr Opin Genet Dev (2013), http://dx.doi.org/

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Maitreya

    2013-01-01

    variants, work in yeast and other model organisms will be necessary for understand- ing the essential yeast and human can be relatively easy to recognize. Famously, work in yeast correctly predicted. Contemporary, yeast-based approaches to understanding human genetic variation, Curr Opin Genet Dev (2013), http

  18. Psychological autonomy and hierarchical relatedness as organizers of developmental pathways.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heidi

    2016-01-19

    The definition of self and others can be regarded as embodying the two dimensions of autonomy and relatedness. Autonomy and relatedness are two basic human needs and cultural constructs at the same time. This implies that they may be differently defined yet remain equally important. The respective understanding of autonomy and relatedness is socialized during the everyday experiences of daily life routines from birth on. In this paper, two developmental pathways are portrayed that emphasize different conceptions of autonomy and relatedness that are adaptive in two different environmental contexts with very different affordances and constraints. Western middle-class children are socialized towards psychological autonomy, i.e. the primacy of own intentions, wishes, individual preferences and emotions affording a definition of relatedness as psychological negotiable construct. Non-Western subsistence farmer children are socialized towards hierarchical relatedness, i.e. positioning oneself into the hierarchical structure of a communal system affording a definition of autonomy as action oriented, based on responsibility and obligations. Infancy can be regarded as a cultural lens through which to study the different socialization agendas. Parenting strategies that aim at supporting these different socialization goals in German and Euro-American parents on the one hand and Nso farmers from North Western Cameroon on the other hand are described. It is concluded that different pathways need to be considered in order to understand human psychology from a global perspective. PMID:26644589

  19. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF DI-N-HEXYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk to Human Reproduction (CERHR) convened an expert panel charged with examini...

  20. NTP CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF RISKS TO HUMAN REPRODUCTION: PHTHALATES EXPERT PANEL REPORT ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phthalates are a family of environmentally important compounds with diverse uses. Reproductive toxicity has been demonstrated for some members of this family. The NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risk to Human Reproduction (CERHR) convened an expert panel charged with examini...