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1

The New Dysmorphology: Application of Insights from Basic Developmental Biology to the Understanding of Human Birth Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information obtained from studies of developmental and cellular processes in lower organisms is beginning to make significant contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human birth defects, and it is now becoming possible to treat birth defects as inborn errors of development. Mutations in genes for transcription factors, receptors, cell adhesion molecules, intercellular junctions, molecules involved in signal transduction,

Charles J. Epstein

1995-01-01

2

Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development.  

PubMed

This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built. PMID:20100419

Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

2010-02-01

3

Developmental patterns of chimpanzee cerebral tissues provide important clues for understanding the remarkable enlargement of the human brain.  

PubMed

Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement. PMID:23256194

Sakai, Tomoko; Matsui, Mie; Mikami, Akichika; Malkova, Ludise; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2012-12-19

4

Developmental Approaches to Understanding and Treating Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade our understanding of early social communication development in young children with autism has undergone a remarkable change. We now know something about how young children with autism process the social world in a very different way from typical children. This has led to truly developmental models of autism. In turn, these have had profound impacts on

Tony Charman

2010-01-01

5

Developmental changes in the understanding of generics  

PubMed Central

Generic sentences (such as “Birds lay eggs” ) are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about novel animals and questioned about their properties, using generic and non-generic questions. Three primary findings emerged. First, both children and adults distinguished generic from non-generic reference, interpreting generics as referring to kinds. Thus, under certain contexts children and adults accepted that “Dobles have claws” even when all the dobles in the available context were clawless. Second, adults further distinguished properties that are inborn from those that are acquired. Inborn properties were judged to be predicated of a generic kind, even when all available instances have lost the property, but this was not the case for acquired properties. Third, children did not distinguish inborn from acquired properties. These data suggest the existence of developmental changes in conceptual or semantic understanding, and are interpreted in light of recent theories of psychological essentialism.

Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

2012-01-01

6

Understanding the Human Estimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the various forms of estimation (human-based, algorithmic, and machine learners), human-based remains the predominant methodology of choice (1). Algorithmic-based (e.g. COCOMO, FPA) approaches rely heavily upon human intervention for supplying estimates for many of the sub-components. Understanding the role of the human estimator is critical for improving the effort estimation process. Every human estimator draws upon his or her

Gary D. Boetticher; Nazim Lokhandwala; James C. Helm

7

The use of constructive-developmental theory to advance the understanding of leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructive-developmental theory is a stage theory of adult development that focuses on the growth and elaboration of a person's ways of understanding the self and the world. In this article we review how the constructive-developmental frameworks of Kegan [Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press], Torbert [Torbert, W. R. (1987).

Cynthia D. McCauley; Wilfred H. Drath; Charles J. Palus; Patricia M. G. O'Connor; Becca A. Baker

2006-01-01

8

Developmental stability and human violence.  

PubMed Central

Developmental stability (the precision with which genotypes are translated into phenotypes under physically stressful developmental conditions), is a major source of phenotypic and behavioural variation, yet researchers have largely ignored its potential role in the ontogeny of individual propensities toward human aggression and violence. In this study, we measured fluctuating asymmetry of the body and administered aggression and fighting history questionnaires to 229 college students (139 female and 90 male undergraduates). Among males, but not females, fluctuating asymmetry correlated negatively and significantly with the participants' number of fights and propensity to escalate agonistic encounters to physical violence. Principal components analyses and scree tests suggested that two psychometric factors underlie observed correlations between self-report measures of aggressive tendencies. The first factor, 'aggressive negative affect', reflected verbal aggression and hostility toward others, while the second factor, 'self-assessed fighting ability', reflected physical violence and a tendency to win fights. The two factors correlated minimally. For both males and females, the second factor correlated with number of fights while the first factor did not. Fluctuating asymmetry did not significantly correlate with either factor for either sex, but for both sexes, psychometric intelligence (IQ) correlated positively with the first factor.

Furlow, B; Gangestad, S W; Armijo-Prewitt, T

1998-01-01

9

How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

Pennington, Bruce F.

2009-01-01

10

Contemporary Issues in Toxicology: A New Frontier in Understanding the Mechanisms of Developmental Abnormalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews some of the important issues that may lead to understanding basic developmental processes and mechanisms by which toxic agents may interfere with normal and abnormal development. Approximately 70% of developmental defects are of unknown ...

C. A. Kimmel W. M. Generoso R. D. Thomas K. S. Bakshi

1993-01-01

11

Building artificial humans to understand humans.  

PubMed

If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human-android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science. PMID:17846711

Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shuichi

2007-09-20

12

Understanding China through the humanities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the educational value of the humanities in reaching a comprehensive appreciation of China both as an ancient culture and as an important world power. Through the humanities we can begin to understand the essential qualities of a people--what they value, how they think, and how they express themselves through religion, philosophy, art, and literature. The importance of

Dorothy P James

1997-01-01

13

DEVELOPMENTAL IMMUNOTOXICITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To compile literature information for web-based dissemination. The report will be on our current understanding of the science of development of the immune system, to provide examples of perturbations that can be brought about by environmental agents and that could produce effects...

14

Developmental Issues in Understanding, Assessing, and Managing Pediatric Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infants, children, and adolescents presenting with pain differ dramatically in physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral,\\u000a and social characteristics. This chapter presents an overview of basic concepts that should be understood in the delivery\\u000a of developmentally appropriate care and addresses their relevance to pain assessment and management. The developmental issues\\u000a concern variations in maturation and growth in perception and central processing of

Kenneth D. Craig; Christine T. Korol

15

An ontology of human developmental anatomy  

PubMed Central

Human developmental anatomy has been organized as structured lists of the major constituent tissues present during each of Carnegie stages 1–20 (E1–E50, ?8500 anatomically defined tissue items). For each of these stages, the tissues have been organized as a hierarchy in which an individual tissue is catalogued as part of a larger tissue. Such a formal representation of knowledge is known as an ontology and this anatomical ontology can be used in databases to store, organize and search for data associated with the tissues present at each developmental stage. The anatomical data for compiling these hierarchies comes from the literature, from observations on embryos in the Patten Collection (Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and from comparisons with mouse tissues at similar stages of development. The ontology is available in three versions. The first gives hierarchies of the named tissues present at each Carnegie stage (http://www.ana.ed.ac.uk/anatomy/database/humat/) and is intended to help analyse both normal and abnormal human embryos; it carries hyperlinked notes on some ambiguities in the literature that have been clarified through analysing sectioned material. The second contains many additional subsidiary tissue domains and is intended for handling tissue-associated data (e.g. gene-expression) in a database. This version is available at the humat site and at http://genex.hgu.mrc.ac.uk/Resources/intro.html/), and has been designed to be interoperable with the ontology for mouse developmental anatomy, also available at the genex site. The third gives the second version in GO ontology syntax (with standard IDs for each tissue) and can be downloaded from both the genex and the Open Biological Ontology sites (http://obo.sourceforge.net/)

Hunter, Amy; Kaufman, Matthew H; McKay, Angus; Baldock, Richard; Simmen, Martin W; Bard, Jonathan B L

2003-01-01

16

Understanding empathy: Integrating counseling, developmental, and social psychology perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature of social and developmental psychology on empathy theory and research. These 2 subdisciplines differ in their definitions and measures from each other, as well as from the counseling\\/psychotherapy area. At the same time, all 3 disciplines identify 2 major types of empathy: (a) affective empathy, or feeling the same way as another person, and (b) cognitive or

Gerald A. Gladstein

1983-01-01

17

Cognitive and developmental components of understanding the nature of science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which years of education, college major, or reflective judgment stage influences individual's understandings of the nature of science. Using a cross-sectional design influenced by the literature describing the development of reflective judgment and nature of science understandings, this study encompasses the viewpoints of 323 individuals from ninth grade through

Sharon Dotger

2006-01-01

18

Understanding Peace and War: A Review of Developmental Psychology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades the number of studies dealing with the developing understanding of peace and war among children and adolescents has considerably increased. No coherent overview is available despite this increase. The purpose of this review is to address this absence and to offer a systematic discussion of early and contemporary studies. Besides the absence of a coherent review,

Ilse Hakvoort; Louis Oppenheimer

1998-01-01

19

Developmental Changes in Children's Understandings of Intelligence and Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on children's concepts of intelligence has not considered how children conceptualise specific thinking skills. This study extends previous research on the development of children's concepts of intelligence and produces novel data on children's understandings of effective thinking and thinking skills. Seventy-five children were sampled…

Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

2009-01-01

20

Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

2004-01-01

21

Developmental Changes in Children's Understanding of Future Likelihood and Uncertainty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two measures assessed 4-10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 201) understanding of future likelihood and uncertainty. In one task, participants sequenced sets of event pictures varying by one physical dimension according to increasing future likelihood. In a separate task, participants rated characters' thoughts about the likelihood of future events,…

Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat

2011-01-01

22

Reading comprehension and understanding idiomatic expressions: A developmental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his\\/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a simple word-by-word comprehension strategy and to integrate figurative meaning into

Maria Chiara Levorato; Barbara Nesi; Cristina Cacciari

2004-01-01

23

Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all.  

PubMed

Specific learning disabilities (SLDs) are estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and they co-occur far more often than would be expected, given their prevalences. We need to understand the complex etiology of SLDs and their co-occurrences in order to underpin the training of teachers, school psychologists, and clinicians, so that they can reliably recognize SLDs and optimize the learning contexts for individual learners. PMID:23599478

Butterworth, Brian; Kovas, Yulia

2013-04-19

24

Understanding adverse events: human factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods

J. Reason

1995-01-01

25

Human-Specific Gain of Function in a Developmental Enhancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in gene regulation are thought to have contributed to the evolution of human development. However, in vivo evidence for uniquely human developmental regulatory function has remained elusive. In transgenic mice, a conserved noncoding sequence (HACNS1) that evolved extremely rapidly in humans acted as an enhancer of gene expression that has gained a strong limb expression domain relative to the

Shyam Prabhakar; Axel Visel; Jennifer A. Akiyama; Malak Shoukry; Keith D. Lewis; Amy Holt; Ingrid Plajzer-Frick; Harris Morrison; David R. FitzPatrick; Veena Afzal; Len A. Pennacchio; Edward M. Rubin; James P. Noonan

2008-01-01

26

Building artificial humans to understand humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The\\u000a answer to this question is not so easy. In human–android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android,\\u000a and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can

Hiroshi Ishiguro; Shuichi Nishio

2007-01-01

27

Global environmental change: Understanding the human dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental change often seems to be the most carefully examined issue of our time. Yet understanding the human side--human causes of and responses to environmental change--has not yet received sustained attention. The report offers a strategy for combining the efforts of natural and social scientists to better understand how our actions influence the global environment and how change in

P. C. Stern; O. R. Young; D. Druckman

1992-01-01

28

Understanding human functioning using graphical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the one hand and recent developments in graphical modeling on the other hand might be combined and open the door to a more comprehensive understanding of human

Markus Kalisch; Bernd AG Fellinghauer; Eva Grill; Marloes H Maathuis; Ulrich Mansmann; Peter Bühlmann; Gerold Stucki

2010-01-01

29

Developmental Counseling and Therapy: An Effective Approach to Understanding and Counseling Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the cognitive development of children, with a focus on Piagetian theory as a framework for understanding Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT). Describes both the assessment process and intervention planning, and provides specific applications to counseling children in school settings. (Contains 35 references.) (GCP)

Myers, Jane E.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Briggs, Michele Kielty

2002-01-01

30

Understanding Developmental Coordination Disorder and its Impact on Families: The contribution of single case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to employ the single case study approach to address unresolved issues in our understanding of Developmental Coordination Disorder. From a large cohort of clinically referred UK primary school children, six boys and one girl were selected to participate. The experiences of each child as he\\/she journeyed through the process of identification, diagnosis and service

Judith M. Peters; Sheila E. Henderson

2008-01-01

31

The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity: A Tool for Understanding Principals' Cultural Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals' understanding and skills pertaining to diversity are important in leading diverse schools and preparing all students for a democratic and multicultural society. Although educational leadership scholars have theorized about exemplary leadership of and for diversity, a developmental perspective on principals' diversity or cultural…

Hernandez, Frank; Kose, Brad W.

2012-01-01

32

Understanding Latino Children and Adolescents in the Mainstream: Placing Culture at the Center of Developmental Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic shifts in the U.S. population require developmental researchers to increase their attention to cultural diversity. Conceptual models that incorporate culturally relevant variables and focus on normative and positive development are needed to produce a more balanced understanding of Latino youth development. (Contains 1 table and 1…

Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo; Carranza, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Kruger, Gloria E.

2005-01-01

33

Characterizing Key Developmental Understandings and Pedagogically Powerful Ideas within a Statistical Knowledge for Teaching Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A hypothetical framework to characterize statistical knowledge for teaching (SKT) is described. Empirical grounding for the framework is provided by artifacts from an undergraduate course for prospective teachers that concentrated on the development of SKT. The theoretical notion of "key developmental understanding" (KDU) is used to identify…

Groth, Randall E.

2013-01-01

34

Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

35

A developmental examination of children's understanding of task difficulty in the physical domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine children's understanding of task difficulty in the physical domain using the developmental component of Nicholls’ theory of achievement motivation as a framework. Children (N = 144; 8 boys and 8 girls at each age from 5–13 years) enrolled in public schools in a Southern city were participants. They were shown one normative

Mary D. Fry

2000-01-01

36

Theory of Mind "Beliefs", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

37

Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

38

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole.

Reason, J

1995-01-01

39

Developmental Atlas of the Early First Trimester Human Embryo  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances in medical imaging are facilitating the clinical assessment of first trimester human embryos at increasingly earlier stages. To obtain data on early human development, we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and episcopic fluorescence capture (EFIC) to acquire digital images of human embryos spanning the time of dynamic tissue remodeling and organogenesis (Carnegie stages 13 to 23). These imaging data sets are readily resectioned digitally in arbitrary planes, suitable for rapid high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) observation. Using these imaging datasets, a web accessible digital Human Embryo Atlas (http://apps.nhlbi.nih.gov/humanaltas) was created containing serial 2D images of human embryos in three standard histological planes – sagittal, frontal, and transverse. In addition, annotations and 3D reconstructions were generated for visualizing different anatomical structures. Overall, this Human Embryo Atlas is a unique resource that provides morphologic data of human developmental anatomy that can accelerate basic research investigations into developmental mechanisms that underlie human congenital anomalies.

Yamada, Shigehito; Samtani, Rajeev R; Lee, Elaine S; Lockett, Elizabeth; Uwabe, Chigako; Shiota, Kohei; Anderson, Stasia A; Lo, Cecilia W

2010-01-01

40

Understanding Developmental Regulation in Adolescence: The Use of the Selection, Optimization,and Compensation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholarship pertinent to the nature of human plasticity and the contemporary theoretical stress on developmental systems theories suggest that the regulation of dynamic person-context relations should be the key focus of inquiry in the study of adolescent development. An exemplar of a theory congruent with this relational conception of adolescent development is the Selection, Optimization, and Compensation (SOC) model offered

Richard M. Lerner; Alexandra M. Freund; Imma De Stefanis; Tilmann Habermas

2001-01-01

41

Non-Human Primates: Model Animals for Developmental Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-human primates have been used to model psychiatric disease for several decades. The success of this paradigm has issued from comparable cognitive skills, brain morphology, and social complexity in adult monkeys and humans. Recently, interest in biological psychiatry has focused on similar brain, social, and emotional developmental processes in monkeys. In part, this is related to evidence that early postnatal

Eric E Nelson; James T Winslow

2009-01-01

42

Human-specific gain of function in a developmental enhancer  

PubMed Central

Changes in gene regulation are thought to have contributed to the evolution of human development. However, in vivo evidence for uniquely human developmental regulatory function has remained elusive. In transgenic mice, a conserved noncoding sequence (HACNS1) that evolved extremely rapidly in humans acted as an enhancer of gene expression that has gained a strong limb expression domain relative to the orthologous elements from chimpanzee and rhesus macaque. This gain of function was consistent across two developmental stages in the mouse and included the presumptive anterior wrist and proximal thumb. In vivo analyses with synthetic enhancers, in which human-specific substitutions were introduced into the chimpanzee enhancer sequence or reverted in the human enhancer to the ancestral state, indicated that 13 substitutions clustered in an 81-basepair module otherwise highly constrained among terrestrial vertebrates were sufficient to confer the human-specific limb expression domain.

Prabhakar, Shyam; Visel, Axel; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Shoukry, Malak; Lewis, Keith D.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Morrison, Harris; FitzPatrick, David R.; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Noonan, James P.

2008-01-01

43

Activation of Developmentally Mutated Human Globin Genes by Cell Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human fetal globin genes are not expressed in hybrid cells produced by the fusion of normal human lymphocytes with mouse erythroleukemia cells. In contrast, when lymphocytes from persons with globin gene developmental mutations (hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin) are used for these fusions, fetal globin is expressed in the hybrid cells. Thus, mutations of developmental origin can be reconstituted in vitro by fusing mutant lymphoid cells with differentiated cell lines of the proper lineage. This system can readily be used for analyses, such as globin gene methylation, that normally require large numbers of pure nucleated erythroid cells, which are difficult to obtain.

Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Enver, Tariq; Takegawa, Susumu; Anagnou, Nicholas P.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

1988-11-01

44

Human behavioral ecology, phenotypic (developmental) plasticity, and agricultural origins: insights from the emerging evolutionary synthesis.  

PubMed

The fields of human behavioral ecology (HBE) and evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) both stand to make significant contributions to our understanding of agricultural origins. These two approaches share a concern with phenotypic-plasticity and its evolutionary significance. HBE considers the adaptive plasticity of the human phenotype in response to resource distribution in time and space and has helped to advance understanding of the economic costs and benefits of food production. However, evo-devo and the associated subject of phenotypic (developmental) plasticity have so far been largely neglected as sources of insight into the domestication of plants, despite growing evidence for their evolutionary importance in nature and their roles in the origins of novel traits. We argue that it is important to consider environmentally induced phenotypic variation resulting directly from both natural- and human-induced ecological change as a source of the distinctive morphologies of domesticated plants. PMID:20642147

Gremillion, Kristen J; Piperno, Dolores R

2009-10-01

45

Human Developmental Enhancers Conserved between Deuterostomes and Protostomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of homologies, whether morphological, molecular, or genetic, is fundamental to our understanding of common biological principles. Homologies bridging the great divide between deuterostomes and protostomes have served as the basis for current models of animal evolution and development. It is now appreciated that these two clades share a common developmental toolkit consisting of conserved transcription factors and signaling

Shoa L. Clarke; Julia E. VanderMeer; Aaron M. Wenger; Bruce T. Schaar; Nadav Ahituv; Gill Bejerano

2012-01-01

46

Evolutionary and developmental foundations of human knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook souffl?s, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this

Marc D. Hauser; Elizabeth Spelke

47

Developmental scenario analysis of Smalltalk programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand long-term learning and the acquisition of expertise, human-computer interaction needs to take a developmental turn. Adopting a developmental approach means using longitudinal research methods, building developmental sequence models of the acquisition of expertise, and analyzing tasks as scenarios specific to developmental levels. The psychology of programming seems particularly amenable to a developmental approach because of the

Robert L. Campbell

1990-01-01

48

Understanding Leadership Behavior in Human Influence Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the results of the questionnaire for 97 staff members working in dot-jp, a non-profit organization in Japan, to understand the degrees of satisfaction of staff members with leaders. We then extracted human influence networks from the archives of e-mail used at dot-jp to understand relationships between leaders and other staff members. By integrating these two approaches, we revealed

Naohiro Matsumura; Yoshihiro Sasaki

2006-01-01

49

Developmentalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Develpmentalism . or the idea of the .developmental stateÿ . was one of the most spectacularly successful ideologies of the 20th century. The Cold War and the division of most ideas into a camp of either being politically to the .rightÿ or to the .leftÿ has obliterated the fact that Developmentalism was successfully performed along the whole political axis, from

Erik S. Reinert

2010-01-01

50

Human developmental exposure to endocrine active compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of exposure to environmental contaminants such as endocrine active chemicals (EACs) during critical periods of development, particularly in utero, remains largely unexplored. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that EACs can be detected and quantified in second trimester human amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid was obtained from women (n=175) undergoing routine amniocentesis between 14 and 21 weeks gestation. Samples were assayed

Warren G Foster; Claude L Hughes; Siu Chan; Lawrence Platt

2002-01-01

51

Towards understanding the workspace of human limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant attention in recent years has been given towards obtaining a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. Studies of those commands often include computer algorithms to describe path trajectories. These are typically in ‘open-form’ with specific descriptions of motions, but not ‘closed form’ mathematical solutions of

Karim Abdel-Malek; Jingzhou Yang; Richard Brand; Emad Tanbour

2004-01-01

52

Towards understanding the workspace of human limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant attention in recent years has been given towards obtaining a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. Studies of those commands often include computer algorithms to describe path trajectories. These are typically in \\

Karim Abdel-Malek; D. Jingzhou Yang; M. S. Richard Brand; Emad Tanbour

2004-01-01

53

Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as children are exposed to relevant content and have opportunities to organize this information, their theories become more accurate and differentiated. According to this perspective, there are no broad structural constraints on developing concepts, as asserted by cognitive developmental theorists. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to provide support for both theoretical perspectives, while at the same time to explore children's conceptualizations of the immune system, which has not been done previously in the cognitive-developmental literature. One hundred ninety children ranging in age from 4 years old through 11 years old, and a group of adults, participated. Each participant was interviewed regarding health concepts and the body's function in maintaining health. Participants were also asked to report if they had certain experiences that would have led to relevant content exposure. Qualitative analyses were utilized to code the interviews with rubrics based on both theoretical perspectives. Quantitative analyses consisted of a series of univariate ANOVAs (and post hoc tests when appropriate) examining all three coding variables (accuracy, differentiation, and developmental level) across various age-group combinations and exposure groups. Results of these analyses provided support for both theoretical perspectives. When the data were analyzed for developmental level by all ages, a stage-like progression consistent with Piagetian stages emerged. When accuracy and differentiation were examined (intuitive theories perspective), discrete groups could not be formed. Instead, a gradual increase in accuracy and differentiation was observed. Additional support for this perspective was found when the responses of participants who had additional exposure provided responses that were more accurate, differentiated, and sophisticated than those of participants with no additional exposure. Theoretical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

Landry-Boozer, Kristine L.

54

Developmental origins of variation in human hand preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though right-handedness is a prominant characteristic within all human societies, a substantial and stable proportion of individuals\\u000a are left-handed. Any comprehensive approach to the origin of variation in handedness must account for substantial evidence\\u000a that left-handedness is associated with reduced fitness, neurodevelopmental disorders, and reduced neuroanatomical asymmetry.\\u000a In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that developmental instability in early fetal

Ronald A. Yeo; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

55

Identification of Definitive and Fetal Zone Markers in the Human Fetal Adrenal Gland Reveals Putative Developmental Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organogenesis is a coordinated process involving cell rep- lication, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. We seek to understand the complex developmental signals involved in the ontogeny of the human fetal adrenal gland. The gland is comprised initially of two zones, the definitive and fetal zones. A third zone, the transitional zone, develops between them after midgestation. We have suggested that the

JENNIFER RATCLIFFE; MIKIYE NAKANISHI; ROBERT B. JAFFE

56

Genetic approaches to understanding human obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity and its associated comorbidities represent one of the biggest public health challenges facing the world today. The heritability of body weight is high, and genetic variation plays a major role in determining the interindividual differences in susceptibility or resistance to the obesogenic environment. Here we discuss how genetic studies in humans have contributed to our understanding of the central pathways that govern energy homeostasis. We discuss how the arrival of technological advances such as next-generation sequencing will result in a major acceleration in the pace of gene discovery. The study of patients harboring these genetic variants has informed our understanding of the molecular and physiological pathways involved in energy homeostasis. We anticipate that future studies will provide the framework for the development of a more rational targeted approach to the prevention and treatment of genetically susceptible individuals.

Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

2011-01-01

57

Towards a better understanding of human eye disease: insights from the zebrafish, Danio rerio  

PubMed Central

Visual impairment and blindness is widespread across the human population, and the development of therapies for ocular pathologies is of high priority. The zebrafish represents a valuable model organism for studying human ocular disease; it is utilized in eye research to understand underlying developmental processes, to identify potential causative genes for human disorders, and to develop therapies. Zebrafish eyes are similar in morphology, physiology, gene expression and function to human eyes. Furthermore, zebrafish are highly amenable to laboratory research. This review outlines the use of zebrafish as a model for human ocular diseases such as colobomas, glaucoma, cataracts, photoreceptor degeneration, as well as dystrophies of the cornea and retinal pigmented epithelium.

Bibliowicz, Jonathan; Tittle, Rachel K.; Gross, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

58

Understanding human dynamics in microblog posting activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activity patterns are an important issue in behavior dynamics research. Empirical evidence indicates that human activity patterns can be characterized by a heavy-tailed inter-event time distribution. However, most researchers give an understanding by only modeling the power-law feature of the inter-event time distribution, and those overlooked non-power-law features are likely to be nontrivial. In this work, we propose a behavior dynamics model, called the finite memory model, in which humans adaptively change their activity rates based on a finite memory of recent activities, which is driven by inherent individual interest. Theoretical analysis shows a finite memory model can properly explain various heavy-tailed inter-event time distributions, including a regular power law and some non-power-law deviations. To validate the model, we carry out an empirical study based on microblogging activity from thousands of microbloggers in the Celebrity Hall of the Sina microblog. The results show further that the model is reasonably effective. We conclude that finite memory is an effective dynamics element to describe the heavy-tailed human activity pattern.

Jiang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Hui; Li, Pei

2013-02-01

59

Understanding Immigrant College Students: Applying a Developmental Ecology Framework to the Practice of Academic Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Immigrant college student populations continue to grow, but the complexity of their unique needs and issues remain relatively unknown. To gain a better understanding of the multiple contextual factors impacting immigrant students from a systems-based approach, I applied Bronfenbrenner's (1977) human ecology framework to the study. Students…

Stebleton, Michael J.

2011-01-01

60

Human Developmental Enhancers Conserved between Deuterostomes and Protostomes  

PubMed Central

The identification of homologies, whether morphological, molecular, or genetic, is fundamental to our understanding of common biological principles. Homologies bridging the great divide between deuterostomes and protostomes have served as the basis for current models of animal evolution and development. It is now appreciated that these two clades share a common developmental toolkit consisting of conserved transcription factors and signaling pathways. These patterning genes sometimes show common expression patterns and genetic interactions, suggesting the existence of similar or even conserved regulatory apparatus. However, previous studies have found no regulatory sequence conserved between deuterostomes and protostomes. Here we describe the first such enhancers, which we call bilaterian conserved regulatory elements (Bicores). Bicores show conservation of sequence and gene synteny. Sequence conservation of Bicores reflects conserved patterns of transcription factor binding sites. We predict that Bicores act as response elements to signaling pathways, and we show that Bicores are developmental enhancers that drive expression of transcriptional repressors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Although the small number of identified Bicores suggests extensive rewiring of cis-regulation between the protostome and deuterostome clades, additional Bicores may be revealed as our understanding of cis-regulatory logic and sample of bilaterian genomes continue to grow.

Clarke, Shoa L.; VanderMeer, Julia E.; Wenger, Aaron M.; Schaar, Bruce T.; Ahituv, Nadav; Bejerano, Gill

2012-01-01

61

Computational Everyday Life Human Behavior Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human behavior understanding in everyday life is promising but not established research field. Our project named 'open life matrix' is focused on this field. In these years, many sensor houses and robotic room projects have been studied and sensing and network technology have been established. However, still we have problems to realize everyday life support information systems and services. There are two major problems. The first one is data representation and computational modeling problem in everyday life. The second one is that we don't have a good way to realize valuable services from research outcomes. We propose a challenge to solve these problems by a scheme for accumulating common data set and probabilistic causal modeling during everyday life services.

Motomura, Yoichi; Nishida, Yoshifumi

62

Understanding human functioning using graphical models  

PubMed Central

Background Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the one hand and recent developments in graphical modeling on the other hand might be combined and open the door to a more comprehensive understanding of human functioning. The objective of our paper therefore is to explore how graphical models can be used in the study of ICF data for a range of applications. Methods We show the applicability of graphical models on ICF data for different tasks: Visualization of the dependence structure of the data set, dimension reduction and comparison of subpopulations. Moreover, we further developed and applied recent findings in causal inference using graphical models to estimate bounds on intervention effects in an observational study with many variables and without knowing the underlying causal structure. Results In each field, graphical models could be applied giving results of high face-validity. In particular, graphical models could be used for visualization of functioning in patients with spinal cord injury. The resulting graph consisted of several connected components which can be used for dimension reduction. Moreover, we found that the differences in the dependence structures between subpopulations were relevant and could be systematically analyzed using graphical models. Finally, when estimating bounds on causal effects of ICF categories on general health perceptions among patients with chronic health conditions, we found that the five ICF categories that showed the strongest effect were plausible. Conclusions Graphical Models are a flexible tool and lend themselves for a wide range of applications. In particular, studies involving ICF data seem to be suited for analysis using graphical models.

2010-01-01

63

Developmental gene expression profiles of the human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

Background The schistosome blood flukes are complex trematodes and cause a chronic parasitic disease of significant public health importance worldwide, schistosomiasis. Their life cycle is characterised by distinct parasitic and free-living phases involving mammalian and snail hosts and freshwater. Microarray analysis was used to profile developmental gene expression in the Asian species, Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNAs were isolated from the three distinct environmental phases of the lifecycle – aquatic/snail (eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae), juvenile (lung schistosomula and paired but pre-egg laying adults) and adult (paired, mature males and egg-producing females, both examined separately). Advanced analyses including ANOVA, principal component analysis, and hierarchal clustering provided a global synopsis of gene expression relationships among the different developmental stages of the schistosome parasite. Results Gene expression profiles were linked to the major environmental settings through which the developmental stages of the fluke have to adapt during the course of its life cycle. Gene ontologies of the differentially expressed genes revealed a wide range of functions and processes. In addition, stage-specific, differentially expressed genes were identified that were involved in numerous biological pathways and functions including calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism and parasite defence. Conclusion The findings provide a comprehensive database of gene expression in an important human pathogen, including transcriptional changes in genes involved in evasion of the host immune response, nutrient acquisition, energy production, calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism, egg production and tegumental function during development. This resource should help facilitate the identification and prioritization of new anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets for the control of schistosomiasis.

Gobert, Geoffrey N; Moertel, Luke; Brindley, Paul J; McManus, Donald P

2009-01-01

64

Moving Targets: A Developmental Framework for Understanding Children's Changes following Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper proposes a developmental framework for disaster studies with children that allows researchers to explore the interaction between developmental change (defined as change that is extended, self-regulated, qualitative, and progressive) and cataclysmic change. It outlines three levels of analysis related to disasters: 1) observing the harm…

Franks, Bridget A.

2011-01-01

65

Moving Targets: A Developmental Framework for Understanding Children's Changes following Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a developmental framework for disaster studies with children that allows researchers to explore the interaction between developmental change (defined as change that is extended, self-regulated, qualitative, and progressive) and cataclysmic change. It outlines three levels of analysis related to disasters: 1) observing the harm…

Franks, Bridget A.

2011-01-01

66

Developmental differences in methylation of human alu repeats  

SciTech Connect

Alu repeats are especially rich in CpG dinucleotides, the principal target sites for DNA methylation in eukaryotes. The methylation state of Alus in different human tissues is investigated by simple, direct genomic blot analysis exploiting recent theoretical and practical advances concerning Alu sequence evolution. Whereas Alus are almost completely methylated in somatic tissues such as spleen, they are hypomethylated in the male germ line and tissues which depend on the differential expression of the paternal genome complement for development. In particular, we have identified a subset enriched in young Alus whose CpGs appear to be almost completely unmethylated in sperm DNA. The existence of this subset potentially explains the conservation of CpG dinucleotides in active Alu source genes. These profound, sequence-specific developmental changes in the methylation state of Alu repeats suggest a function for Alu sequences at the DNA level, such as a role in genomic imprinting. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Hellmann-Blunberg, U.; McCarthy Hintz, M.F.; Gatewood, J.M.; Schmid, C.W. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States))

1993-08-01

67

Comparative Developmental Anatomy of the Murine and Human Definitive Placentae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The placenta of eutherian mammals is a remarkable biological structure. It is composed of both zygote-derived and maternal cells, and mediates the complex interactions between the mother and the fetus that are necessary for fetal growth and survival. While the genetic basis of human placental development and function is largely unknown, its understanding is of immense clinical importance because placentopathies

P. Georgiades; A. C. Ferguson-Smith; G. J. Burton

2002-01-01

68

Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

West, Paul R., E-mail: pwest@stemina.co [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, Gabriela G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Animal Sciences, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2010-08-15

69

Being Human: A Handbook in Human Growth and Development for the Developmentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook is intended to provide practitioners with information on establishing and organizing a Human Growth and Development program in agencies and facilities which provide training to developmentally disabled persons. The handbook discusses the legal foundation (Florida law) for establishing the program as well as specific methods for…

Fletcher, Donna; Ogle, Peggy

70

Rites of passage: understanding participation of children with developmental coordination disorder.  

PubMed

Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty participating in the typical activities of childhood and are known to have a more sedentary pattern of activities than their peers. Little research has been done to investigate the impact of these deficits on the lives of children with DCD and the importance of their participation in the typical activities of childhood. This qualitative study explored the impact of the disorder and the importance of participation for children with DCD from the perspective of the parent. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with parents of children with DCD who attended a university clinic specializing in using the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach, a cognitive-based intervention. Findings revealed that incompetence in everyday activities had serious negative effects for the children. Conversely, intervention that was focused on enablement at the activity and participation level had a significant positive impact on the children's quality of life. Emerging themes highlighted the notion that performance competency played an important role in being accepted by peers and being able "to be part of the group". As well, parents reported that successful participation built confidence in their children and allowed them to try other new activities. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health provides a unique framework for analyzing and understanding the impact of the physical disability on the lives of families with children with DCD. Results illustrate how intervention that focuses on enabling children to choose their own functional goals in the area of physical activity has important implications for enabling participation and building the social networks of children with DCD. PMID:14624835

Mandich, A D; Polatajko, H J; Rodger, S

2003-11-01

71

Community Colleges: New Federal Research Center May Enhance Current Understanding of Developmental Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Education reported that approximately 42 percent of entering community college students were not sufficiently prepared for college-level courses and enrolled in at least one developmental education course. Researchers also estimate that fewer than 25 perc...

2013-01-01

72

Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to

Morrisette

1993-01-01

73

Inbreeding and developmental stability in a small human population.  

PubMed

Inbreeding coefficients are reported for all members of the isolated Havasupai tribe of northern Arizona (USA), based upon pedigrees which are as deep as eight generations. Because inbreeding has been repeatedly shown to reduce developmental homeostasis in a large number of species, we ask if the degree of inbreeding in the Havasupai is associated with reduced developmental stability. Fluctuating asymmetry in two dermatoglyphic traits suggests that inbreeding significantly compromises developmental homeostasis in this population. PMID:8346899

Markow, T A; Martin, J F

74

Developmentally regulated interactions of human thymocytes with different laminin isoforms  

PubMed Central

The gene family of heterotrimeric laminin molecules consists of at least 15 naturally occurring isoforms which are formed by five different ?, three ? and three ? subunits. The expression pattern of the individual laminin chains in the human thymus was comprehensively analysed in the present study. Whereas laminin isoforms containing the laminin ?1 chain (e.g. LN-1) were not present in the human thymus, laminin isoforms containing the ?2 chain (LN-2/4) or the ?5 chain (LN-10/11) were expressed in the subcapsular epithelium and in thymic blood vessels. Expression of the laminin ?4 chain seemed to be restricted to endothelial cells of the thymus, whereas the LN-5 isoform containing the ?3 chain could be detected on medullary thymic epithelial cells and weakly in the subcapsular epithelium. As revealed by cell attachment assays, early CD4? CD8? thymocytes which are localized in the thymus beneath the subcapsular epithelium adhered strongly to LN-10/11, but not to LN-1, LN-2/4 or LN-5. Adhesion of these thymocytes to LN-10/11 was mediated by the integrin ?6?1. During further development, the cortically localized CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes have lost the capacity to adhere to laminin-10/11. Neither do these cells adhere to any other laminin isoform tested. However, the more differentiated single positive CD8+ thymocytes which were mainly found in the medulla were able to bind to LN-5 which is expressed by medullary epithelial cells. Interactions of CD8+ thymocytes with LN-5 were integrin ?6?4-dependent. These results show that interactions of developing human thymocytes with different laminin isoforms are spatially and developmentally regulated.

Kutlesa, Snjezana; Siler, Ulrich; Speiser, Angelika; Wessels, Johannes T; Virtanen, Ismo; Rousselle, Patricia; Sorokin, Lydia M; Muller, Claudia A; Klein, Gerd

2002-01-01

75

Developmental and Reproductive Outcomes in Humans and Animals After Glyphosate Exposure: A Critical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an

Amy Lavin Williams; Rebecca E. Watson; John M. DeSesso

2012-01-01

76

Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific evaluation was made of functionalspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and endocrine alterations were observed in experimental animals, following in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. The lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for developmental neurobehavioral

Abraham Brouwer; Ulf G. Ahlborg; Martin Van den Berg; Linda S. Birnbaum; E. Ruud Boersma; Bart Bosveld; Michael S. Denison; L. Earl Gray; Lars Hagmar; Edel Holene; Marcel Huisman; Sandra W. Jacobson; Joseph L. Jacobson; Corine Koopman-Esseboom; Janna G. Koppe; Beverly M. Kulig; Dennis C. Morse; Gina Muckle; Richard E. Peterson; Pieter J. J. Sauer; Richard F. Seegal; Annette E. Smits-Van Prooije; Bert C. L. Touwen; Nynke Weisglas-Kuperus; Gerhard Winneke

1995-01-01

77

Towards Understanding Human Mitochondrial Leucine Aminoacylation Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific recognition of tRNAs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases is governed by sets of aminoacylation identity elements, well defined for numerous prokaryotic systems and eukaryotic cytosolic systems. Only restricted information is available for aminoacylation of human mitochondrial tRNAs, despite their particularities linked to the non-classical structures of the tRNAs and their involvement in a growing number of human neurodegenerative disorders linked to

Bénédicte Sohm; Magali Frugier; Hervé Brulé; Krzysztof Olszak; Anna Przykorska; Catherine Florentz

2003-01-01

78

Understanding the ideal cooperative characteristic between two humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observing current lifestyles and human growth performance in these past decades we can make a deduction that human workforce going to be reduced until a serious level. We believed that in critical field such as health industries, robots that cooperated with human to handle human patient will provide the help needed to fill the gap. In order to design human cooperative robot that will be able to act and react with human-like features so that the robot can replace the human counterparts, we need to understand how human communicates with human first. This paper discussed the ideal characteristic of how two humans cooperate to complete a cooperative task. The cooperative task experiment involved carrying experiment object in several direction and varying the information available to the experiment subjects. We calculated the smoothness during the cooperative task to understand the ideal cooperative characteristic between two humans.

Abu Bakar, Shahriman; Ikeura, Ryojun; Salleh, Ahmad Faizal; Yano, Takemi

2009-12-01

79

Understanding Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Benefits of Thematic Center-Based Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmentally appropriate practice acknowledges and respects the unique learning styles, approaches, and individual needs of students, and is the key to establishing an effective and sucessful learning environment. Early childhood classrooms that utilize this approach, in combination with hands-on exploration and thematic, center-based instruction, maximize the support of students' overall physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. It is this type

Santia Mazzaferro

2008-01-01

80

Developmental Relational Counseling: A Model for Self-Understanding in Relation to Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental relational counseling (DRC) is an integrative framework designed to help clients develop personal awareness and relational functioning and conceptualize personal growth. DRC emerged from both authors' clinical work and was significantly influenced by relational-cultural theory and guided by the Enneagram personality typology and…

Duffey, Thelma; Haberstroh, Shane

2012-01-01

81

Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

82

Developmental Relational Counseling: A Model for Self-Understanding in Relation to Others  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental relational counseling (DRC) is an integrative framework designed to help clients develop personal awareness and relational functioning and conceptualize personal growth. DRC emerged from both authors' clinical work and was significantly influenced by relational-cultural theory and guided by the Enneagram personality typology and…

Duffey, Thelma; Haberstroh, Shane

2012-01-01

83

A MODE-OF-ACTION-BASED QSAR APPROACH TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

QSAR models of developmental toxicity (devtox) have met with limited regulatory acceptance due to the use of ill-defined endpoints, lack of biological interpretability, and poor model performance. More generally, the lack of biological inference of many QSAR models is often due t...

84

Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological…

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

85

Human behavior understanding for video surveillance: Recent advance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the wide applications of video cameras in surveillance, video analysis technologies have attracted the attention from the researchers in computer vision field. In video analysis, human behavior recognition and understanding is an important research direction. By recognition and understanding the human behaviors, we can predict and recognize the happening of crimes and help to the police or other agencies

Xin Xu; Jinshan Tang; Xiaorning Liu; Xiaolong Zhang

2010-01-01

86

Understanding Climate's Influence on Human Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hominin fossil record documents a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo; the first use of stone tools; increases ...

2010-01-01

87

FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

88

A developmental social psychology of identity: understanding the person-in-context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay focuses on the socialization of identity formation. It provides a theory about the developmental social psychology of identity. A set of propositions are derived from the authors'reading, research, cultural observations and clinical experience regarding adolescent identity formation. The essay covers the socialization process, nature of the self, processes of growth and development, person-in-context, and a statement on the

GERALD R. ADAMS; SHEILA K. MARSHALL

1996-01-01

89

Understanding complexity in the human brain.  

PubMed

Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind-brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind-brain mechanisms. PMID:21497128

Bassett, Danielle S; Gazzaniga, Michael S

2011-04-14

90

Understanding complexity in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind–brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind–brain mechanisms.

Bassett, Danielle S.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

2011-01-01

91

Human handedness and the concept of developmental stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model is proposed to explain the etiology of pathological handedness. Developmental instability, caused by elevated genotypic homozygosity, environmental disturbances, or their interaction, overrides programmed laterality and handedness in the same way that it perturbs the bilaterally symmetrical expression of morphological and metric traits. The model predicts that pathological handedness should be elevated among individuals with higher than average homozygosity

T. A. Markow

1992-01-01

92

"Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2004-01-01

93

Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday\\u000a living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation\\u000a computing should be about anticipatory user interfaces that should be human-centered, built for humans based on human models.\\u000a They should

Maja Pantic; Alex Pentland; Anton Nijholt; Thomas S. Huang; Th. S. Huang

2007-01-01

94

Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract

Ken Ueno; Koichi Furukawa

2005-01-01

95

Bridging epidemiology and model organisms to increase understanding of endocrine disrupting chemicals and human health effects.  

PubMed

Concerning temporal trends in human reproductive health has prompted concern about the role of environmentally mediated risk factors. The population is exposed to chemicals present in air, water, food and in a variety of consumer and personal care products, subsequently multiple chemicals are found human populations around the globe. Recent reviews find that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can adversely affect reproductive and developmental health. However, there are still many knowledge gaps. This paper reviews some of the key scientific concepts relevant to integrating information from human epidemiologic and model organisms to understand the relationship between EDC exposure and adverse human health effects. Additionally, areas of new insights which influence the interpretation of the science are briefly reviewed, including: enhanced understanding of toxicity pathways; importance of timing of exposure; contribution of multiple chemical exposures; and low dose effects. Two cases are presented, thyroid disrupting chemicals and anti-androgens chemicals, which illustrate how our knowledge of the relationship between EDCs and adverse human health effects is strengthened and data gaps reduced when we integrate findings from animal and human studies. PMID:21112393

Woodruff, Tracey J

2010-11-26

96

Human handedness and the concept of developmental stability.  

PubMed

A model is proposed to explain the etiology of pathological handedness. Developmental instability, caused by elevated genotypic homozygosity, environmental disturbances, or their interaction, overrides programmed laterality and handedness in the same way that it perturbs the bilaterally symmetrical expression of morphological and metric traits. The model predicts that pathological handedness should be elevated among individuals with higher than average homozygosity and individuals who have developed under unfavorable uterine environments. Suggestions are offered for specific populations in which the predictions may be tested. PMID:1490630

Markow, T A

1992-01-01

97

Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

Restifo, Linda L.

2005-01-01

98

Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect

Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

S.T. Rao

2006-09-15

99

Developmental differences in the nature of self-representations: Implications for the understanding, assessment, and treatment of maladaptive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self has only recently emerged as a viable construct for theorists and practitioners of a behavioral persuasion. In this article, the reason for the self's late entry into the field of explanatory constructs is first examined. Critical changes in our models for predicting, understanding, and altering human behavior are explored, with special attention to the emerging role of self-representations

Susan Harter

1990-01-01

100

Effects of sucrose concentration on the developmental potential of human frozen-thawed oocytes at different stages of maturity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUD: Success of human oocyte cryopreservation depends on multiple cryobiological factors that could influence the developmental potential of the oocytes. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of different sucrose concentrations on the developmental potential of human frozen- thawed oocytes at different maturity stages. METHODS: A total of 355 oocytes collected from small follicles were randomly divided

Z. J. Chen; M. Li; Y. Li; L. X. Zhao; R. Tang; Y. Sheng; X. Gao; C. H. Chang

2004-01-01

101

William James and the Art of Human Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes (a) that William James (1842–1910), one of the founders of philosophical pragmatism as well as psychological science, developed a distinctive theory of human understanding, according to which all knowledge, including scientific knowledge, is ultimately based on \\

David E. Leary

1992-01-01

102

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

103

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food for thought (hypotheses, not facts) about

Gilbert Gottlieb; Robert Lickliter

2004-01-01

104

Understanding human dendritic cell biology through gene profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells are potent antigen presenting cells whose function has been associated with a variety of immunological disorders. Because of their relevance to human disease, extensive efforts have been made to gain a better understanding of their biology. One aspect of these efforts has been in the identification of pertinent molecules expressed in these cells through gene profiling experiments and

Z. Tang; A. Saltzman

2004-01-01

105

Developmental Morphological and Histological Studies on Structures of the Human Fetal Shoulder Joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, morphological changes in the interior structures of the developing human shoulder joint were studied at different prenatal ages (9, 12, 16, 23 and 40 weeks) and were compared with the same structures in the adult joint. It was found that the shoulder joint had gone through important developmental changes during the 12th week of the prenatal

Laila M. Aboul Mahasen; Sohair A. Sadek

2002-01-01

106

Developmental Morphological and Histological Studies on Structures of the Human Fetal Elbow Joint  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, morphological changes in the developing human elbow joint were studied at different prenatal ages (8, 12, 16, 20, 29 and 40 weeks) and were compared with the same structures in the adult joint. The elbow joint had gone through its most important developmental changes during the 20th week of prenatal life, probably due to the direct

Laila M. Aboul Mahasen; Sohair A. Sadek

2000-01-01

107

Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n…

Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

2011-01-01

108

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

109

The genomic structure and developmental expression patterns of the human OPA-containing gene ( HOPA )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the genomic organization of the human OPA-containing gene (HOPA) and characterized its developmental expression. The gene encoding HOPA, which contains a rare polymorphism tightly associated with non-specific mental retardation, is 25 kb in length and consists of 44 exons. A promoter scan analysis demonstrates two possible transcription initiation sites without TATA boxes upstream from the putative translation initiation

Robert A. Philibert; Suzanne L. Winfield; Pat Damschroder-Williams; Carola Tengstrom; Brian M. Martin; Edward I. Ginns

1999-01-01

110

Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

2004-01-01

111

Perchlorate and Radioiodide Kinetics Across Life Stages in the Human: Using PBPK Models to Predict Dosimetry and Thyroid Inhibition and Sensitive Subpopulations Based on Developmental Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate (ClO4 ?) is a drinking-water contaminant, known to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats. This effect has only been seen in humans at high doses, yet the potential for long term effects from developmental endocrine disruption emphasizes the need for improved understanding of perchlorate’s effect during the perinatal period. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic\\/dynamic (PBPK\\/PD) models for ClO4 and its effect

Rebecca A. Clewell; Elaine A. Merrill; Jeffery M. Gearhart; Peter J. Robinson; Teresa R. Sterner; David R. Mattie; Harvey J. Clewell III

2007-01-01

112

Developmental Regulation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in Human Prefrontal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound cell recognition molecule that exerts important functions in normal neurodevelopment including cell migration, neurite outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and synaptic plasticity. Alternative splicing of NCAM mRNA generates three main protein isoforms: NCAM-180, -140, and -120. Ectodomain shedding of NCAM isoforms can produce an extracellular 105–115 kDa soluble NCAM fragment (NCAM-EC) and a smaller intracellular cytoplasmic fragment (NCAM-IC). NCAM also undergoes a unique post-translational modification in brain by the addition of polysialic acid (PSA)-NCAM. Interestingly, both PSA-NCAM and NCAM-EC have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The developmental expression patterns of the main NCAM isoforms and PSA-NCAM have been described in rodent brain, but no studies have examined NCAM expression across human cortical development. Western blotting was used to quantify NCAM in human postmortem prefrontal cortex in 42 individuals ranging in age from mid-gestation to early adulthood. Each NCAM isoform (NCAM-180, -140, and -120), post-translational modification (PSA-NCAM) and cleavage fragment (NCAM-EC and NCAM-IC) demonstrated developmental regulation in frontal cortex. NCAM-180, -140, and -120, as well as PSA-NCAM, and NCAM-IC all showed strong developmental regulation during fetal and early postnatal ages, consistent with their identified roles in axon growth and plasticity. NCAM-EC demonstrated a more gradual increase from the early postnatal period to reach a plateau by early adolescence, potentially implicating involvement in later developmental processes. In summary, this study implicates the major NCAM isoforms, PSA- NCAM and proteolytically cleaved NCAM in pre- and postnatal development of the human prefrontal cortex. These data provide new insights on human cortical development and also provide a basis for how altered NCAM signaling during specific developmental intervals could affect synaptic connectivity and circuit formation, and thereby contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Cox, Elizabeth T.; Brennaman, Leann H.; Gable, Karissa L.; Hamer, Robert M.; Glantz, Leisa A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Gilmore, John H.; Maness, Patricia F.; Jarskog, L. Fredrik

2009-01-01

113

Toward An Integrative "Educare" System: An Investigation of Teachers' Understanding and Uses of Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children in Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate how early childhood teachers in Korea understand developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and follow DAP's instructional guidelines. In order to obtain insights for developing "educare," an integrated system for the education and care of young children in Korea, a comparison of early childhood…

Kim, Juhu; Kim, Sun-Young; Maslak, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

114

Different developmental rates of selected brain structures in humans.  

PubMed

Various rates of development are characteristic for particular structures of the human central nervous system (CNS). The differences of the maturing brain stem and telencephalon are evident in a routine neuropathological examination. The fetal and postnatal archi- and neocortex also reveals uneven levels of maturation. In order to precisely describe those differences in humans we performed a morphological and morphometric study on the dorsal vagal nucleus of the medulla oblongata, on Ammon's horn and on neocortex from midgestation to the 18th postnatal month. The numerical density of neurones, cell perikarya and nuclear cross-sectional area, and the ratio of nucleus to perikaryon area were measured. The results demonstrate a development-dependent decrease in cell density and progressive differentiation of neurones according to their changing size. They express a process of maturation which differs in rate across the CNS structures examined. PMID:8787214

Dambska, M; Kuchna, I

1996-01-01

115

Reward-related processing in the human brain: Developmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pursuit of rewarding experiences motivates everyday human behavior, and can prove beneficial when pleasurable, positive consequences result (e.g., satisfying hunger, earning a paycheck). However, reward seeking may also be maladaptive and lead to risky decisions with potentially negative long-term consequences (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use). Such risky decision making is often observed during adolescence, a time in which important

Dominic S. Fareri; Laura N. Martin; Mauricio R. Delgado

2008-01-01

116

Increase developmental plasticity of human keratinocytes with gene suppression  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence indicates that p53 suppression increased the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation. This occurred even with the enforced expression of as few as two canonical transcription factors, Oct4 and Sox2. In this study, primary human keratinocytes were successfully induced into a stage of plasticity by transient inactivation of p53, without enforced expression of any of the transcription factors previously used in iPSC generation. These cells were later redifferentiated into neural lineages. The gene suppression plastic cells were morphologically indistinguishable from human ES cells. Gene suppression plastic cells were alkaline phosphatase-positive, had normal karyotypes, and expressed p53. Together with the accumulating evidence of similarities and overlapping mechanisms between iPSC generation and cancer formation, this finding sheds light on the emerging picture of p53 sitting at the crossroads between two intricate cellular potentials: stem cell vs. cancer cell generation. This finding further supports the crucial role played by p53 in cellular reprogramming and suggests an alternative method to switch the lineage identity of human cells. This reported method offers the potential for directed lineage switching with the goal of generating autologous cell populations for novel clinical applications for neurodegenerative diseases.

Li, Shengwen Calvin; Jin, Yangsun; Loudon, William G.; Song, Yahui; Ma, Zhiwei; Weiner, Leslie P.; Zhong, Jiang F.

2011-01-01

117

Can we understand modern humans without considering pathogens?  

PubMed Central

Throughout our evolutionary history, humankind has always lived in contact with large numbers of pathogens. Some cultural traits, such as sedentarization and animal domestication, have considerably increased new parasitic contacts and epidemic transitions. Here, we review the various phenotypic traits that have been proposed to be affected by the highly parasitic human environment, including fertility, birth weight, fluctuating asymmetry, body odours, food recipes, sexual behaviour, pregnancy sickness, language, religion and intellectual quotient. We also discuss how such knowledge is important to understanding several aspects of the current problems faced by humanity in our changing world and to predicting the long-term consequences of parasite eradication policies on our health and well-being. The study of the evolutionary interactions between humans and parasites is a burgeoning and most promising field, as demonstrated by the recent increasing popularity of Darwinian medicine.

Thomas, Frederic; Daoust, Simon P; Raymond, Michel

2012-01-01

118

Non-human primates: a comparative developmental perspective on yawning.  

PubMed

There is a long history of yawning in Old World monkeys being viewed as a form of communication, in particular, as a kind of threat. Yawning in agonistic and tense situations is seen in adult males, in particular, and it varies with male hormonal levels and social status. Experiments are reviewed that demonstrate operant control of the rate of yawning in adult male macaques, using food rewards. This indicates a degree of flexibility in the production of yawning. However, although adult male Old World monkeys often engage in 'canine contests', there is little evidence for the contagious yawning seen in humans. Experiments are reviewed showing that chimpanzees tested under comparable conditions to human adults, namely exposed to video sequences showing yawns, may yawn contagiously to yawn stimuli. Chimpanzees also yawn to computer animations of yawns. There is controversy in the literature over whether other species, including dogs and some monkeys, may also show contagious yawning. Further research is required to address unresolved issues. A hypothesis is put forward that in modern industrial society adults' natural pattern of yawning is inhibited, and that being reminded to yawn by seeing another individual yawn (contagious yawning) can help us to catch up on missed yawns. This would explain the lack of contagious yawning reported in young children and chimpanzees in natural surroundings, as these populations do not have the same social constraints on yawning. PMID:20357464

Anderson, James R

2010-03-26

119

"Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

2009-01-01

120

Control of Developmental Regulators by Polycomb in Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Polycomb group proteins are essential for early development in metazoans, but their contributions to human development are not well understood. We have mapped the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) subunit SUZ12 across the entire nonrepeat portion of the genome in human embryonic stem (ES) cells. We found that SUZ12 is distributed across large portions of over two hundred genes encoding key developmental regulators. These genes are occupied by nucleosomes trimethylated athistoneH3K27, are transcriptionally repressed, and contain some of the most highly conserved noncoding elements in the genome. We found that PRC2 target genes are preferentially activated during ES cell differentiation and that the ES cell regulators OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG cooccupy a significant subset of these genes. These results indicate that PRC2 occupies a special set of developmental genes in ES cells that must be repressed to maintain pluripotency and that are poised for activation during ES cell differentiation.

Lee, Tong Ihn; Jenner, Richard G.; Boyer, Laurie A.; Guenther, Matthew G.; Levine, Stuart S.; Kumar, Roshan M.; Chevalier, Brett; Johnstone, Sarah E.; Cole, Megan F.; Isono, Kyo-ichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Fuchikami, Takuya; Abe, Kuniya; Murray, Heather L.; Zucker, Jacob P.; Yuan, Bingbing; Bell, George W.; Herbolsheimer, Elizabeth; Hannett, Nancy M.; Sun, Kaiming; Odom, Duncan T.; Otte, Arie P.; Volkert, Thomas L.; Bartel, David P.; Melton, Douglas A.; Gifford, David K.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Young, Richard A.

2013-01-01

121

Mitochondria in human oogenesis and preimplantation embryogenesis: engines of metabolism, ionic regulation and developmental competence.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are the most abundant organelles in the mammalian oocyte and early embryo. While their role in ATP production has long been known, only recently has their contribution to oocyte and embryo competence been investigated in the human. This review considers whether such factors as mitochondrial complement size, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and defects, levels of respiration, and stage-specific spatial distribution, influence the developmental normality and viability of human oocytes and preimplantation-stage embryos. The finding that mitochondrial polarity can differ within and between oocytes and embryos and that these organelles may participate in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+)homeostasis are discussed in the context of how focal domains of differential respiration and intracellular-free Ca(2+)regulation may arise in early development and what functional implications this may have for preimplantation embryogenesis and developmental competence after implantation. PMID:15333778

Van Blerkom, Jonathan

2004-09-01

122

The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The authors review the empirical developmental evidence within each of these components to show

Katherine Nelson; Robyn Fivush

2004-01-01

123

Robust human motion detection via fuzzy set based image understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an image understanding approach to monitor human movement and identify the abnormal circumstance by robust motion detection for the care of the elderly in a home-based environment. In contrast to the conventional approaches which apply either a single feature extraction scheme or a fixed object model for motion detection and tracking, we introduce a multiple feature extraction scheme for robust motion detection. The proposed algorithms include 1) multiple image feature extraction including the fuzzy compactness based detection of interesting points and fuzzy blobs, 2) adaptive image segmentation via multiple features, 3) Hierarchical motion detection, 4) a flexible model of human motion adapted in both rigid and non-rigid conditions, and 5) Fuzzy decision making via multiple features.

Li, Qin; You, Jane

2006-02-01

124

Understanding and Choosing Assessments and Developmental Screeners for Young Children Ages 3-5: Profiles of Selected Measures. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document has three purposes. First, the compendium aims to help Head Start managers and other early childhood education administrators review information regarding the reliability and validity of commonly used assessment and developmental screening t...

J. Wessel K. Darling-Churchill M. Zaslow S. Moodie T. Halle

2011-01-01

125

A developmental shift from positive to negative connectivity in human amygdala-prefrontal circuitry.  

PubMed

Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. Although tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4-22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than 10 years, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants 10 years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

Gee, Dylan G; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Tottenham, Nim

2013-03-01

126

A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections.

Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

2013-01-01

127

Chromatin remodeling by the CHD7 protein is impaired by mutations that cause human developmental disorders  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the CHD7 gene cause human developmental disorders including CHARGE syndrome. Genetic studies in model organisms have further established CHD7 as a central regulator of vertebrate development. Functional analysis of the CHD7 protein has been hampered by its large size. We used a dual-tag system to purify intact recombinant CHD7 protein and found that it is an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Biochemical analyses indicate that CHD7 has characteristics distinct from SWI/SNF- and ISWI-type remodelers. Further investigations show that CHD7 patient mutations have consequences that range from subtle to complete inactivation of remodeling activity, and that mutations leading to protein truncations upstream of amino acid 1899 of CHD7 are likely to cause a hypomorphic phenotype for remodeling. We propose that nucleosome remodeling is a key function for CHD7 during developmental processes and provide a molecular basis for predicting the impact of disease mutations on that function.

Bouazoune, Karim; Kingston, Robert E.

2012-01-01

128

Simplified ontologies allowing comparison of developmental mammalian gene expression  

PubMed Central

Model organisms represent an important resource for understanding the fundamental aspects of mammalian biology. Mapping of biological phenomena between model organisms is complex and if it is to be meaningful, a simplified representation can be a powerful means for comparison. The Developmental eVOC ontologies presented here are simplified orthogonal ontologies describing the temporal and spatial distribution of developmental human and mouse anatomy. We demonstrate the ontologies by identifying genes showing a bias for developmental brain expression in human and mouse.

Kruger, Adele; Hofmann, Oliver; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hide, Winston

2007-01-01

129

Developmental trajectories during adolescence in males and females: a cross-species understanding of underlying brain changes  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood that encompasses vast changes within brain systems that parallel some, but not all, behavioral changes. Elevations in emotional reactivity and reward processing follow an inverted U shape in terms of onset and remission, with the peak occurring during adolescence. However, cognitive processing follows a more linear course of development. This review will focus on changes within key structures and will highlight the relationships between brain changes and behavior, with evidence spanning from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to molecular studies of receptor and signaling factors in animals. Adolescent changes in neuronal substrates will be used to understand how typical and atypical behaviors arise during adolescence. We draw upon clinical and preclinical studies to provide a neural framework for defining adolescence and its role in the transition to adulthood.

Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

2011-01-01

130

Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. I: behavioral effects.  

PubMed Central

Alterations in nervous system function after exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant may be identified and characterized using neurobehavioral methods. A number of methods can evaluate alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in laboratory animals exposed to toxicants during nervous system development. Fundamental issues underlying proper use and interpretation of these methods include a) consideration of the scientific goal in experimental design, b) selection of an appropriate animal model, c) expertise of the investigator, d) adequate statistical analysis, and e) proper data interpretation. Strengths and weaknesses of the assessment methods include sensitivity, selectivity, practicality, and variability. Research could improve current behavioral methods by providing a better understanding of the relationship between alterations in motor function and changes in the underlying structure of these systems. Research is also needed to develop simple and sensitive assays for use in screening assessments of sensory and cognitive function. Assessment methods are being developed to examine other nervous system functions, including social behavior, autonomic processes, and biologic rhythms. Social behaviors are modified by many classes of developmental neurotoxicants and hormonally active compounds that may act either through neuroendocrine mechanisms or by directly influencing brain morphology or neurochemistry. Autonomic and thermoregulatory functions have been the province of physiologists and neurobiologists rather than toxicologists, but this may change as developmental neurotoxicology progresses and toxicologists apply techniques developed by other disciplines to examine changes in function after toxicant exposure.

Cory-Slechta, D A; Crofton, K M; Foran, J A; Ross, J F; Sheets, L P; Weiss, B; Mileson, B

2001-01-01

131

A Developmental Stage-Specific Switch from DAZL to BOLL Occurs during Fetal Oogenesis in Humans, but Not Mice.  

PubMed

The Deleted in Azoospermia gene family encodes three germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins (DAZ, DAZL and BOLL) that are essential for gametogenesis in diverse species. Targeted disruption of Boll in mice causes male-specific spermiogenic defects, but females are apparently fertile. Overexpression of human BOLL promotes the derivation of germ cell-like cells from genetically female (XX), but not male (XY) human ES cells however, suggesting a functional role for BOLL in regulating female gametogenesis in humans. Whether BOLL is expressed during oogenesis in mammals also remains unclear. We have therefore investigated the expression of BOLL during fetal oogenesis in humans and mice. We demonstrate that BOLL protein is expressed in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary, at a later developmental stage than, and almost mutually-exclusive to, the expression of DAZL. Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. By quantifying the extent of co-expression of DAZL and BOLL with markers of meiosis, we show that this window likely corresponds to the later stages of meiotic prophase I. Finally, we demonstrate that Boll is also transiently expressed during oogenesis in the fetal mouse ovary, but is simultaneously co-expressed within the same germ cells as Dazl. These data reveal significant similarities and differences between the expression of BOLL homologues during oogenesis in humans and mice, and raise questions as to the validity of the Boll(-/-) mouse as a model for understanding BOLL function during human oogenesis. PMID:24086306

He, Jing; Stewart, Kayleigh; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Childs, Andrew J

2013-09-25

132

A Developmental Stage-Specific Switch from DAZL to BOLL Occurs during Fetal Oogenesis in Humans, but Not Mice  

PubMed Central

The Deleted in Azoospermia gene family encodes three germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins (DAZ, DAZL and BOLL) that are essential for gametogenesis in diverse species. Targeted disruption of Boll in mice causes male-specific spermiogenic defects, but females are apparently fertile. Overexpression of human BOLL promotes the derivation of germ cell-like cells from genetically female (XX), but not male (XY) human ES cells however, suggesting a functional role for BOLL in regulating female gametogenesis in humans. Whether BOLL is expressed during oogenesis in mammals also remains unclear. We have therefore investigated the expression of BOLL during fetal oogenesis in humans and mice. We demonstrate that BOLL protein is expressed in the germ cells of the human fetal ovary, at a later developmental stage than, and almost mutually-exclusive to, the expression of DAZL. Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. By quantifying the extent of co-expression of DAZL and BOLL with markers of meiosis, we show that this window likely corresponds to the later stages of meiotic prophase I. Finally, we demonstrate that Boll is also transiently expressed during oogenesis in the fetal mouse ovary, but is simultaneously co-expressed within the same germ cells as Dazl. These data reveal significant similarities and differences between the expression of BOLL homologues during oogenesis in humans and mice, and raise questions as to the validity of the Boll-/- mouse as a model for understanding BOLL function during human oogenesis.

He, Jing; Stewart, Kayleigh; Kinnell, Hazel L.; Anderson, Richard A.; Childs, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

133

How evolutionary principles improve the understanding of human health and disease  

PubMed Central

An appreciation of the fundamental principles of evolutionary biology provides new insights into major diseases and enables an integrated understanding of human biology and medicine. However, there is a lack of awareness of their importance amongst physicians, medical researchers, and educators, all of whom tend to focus on the mechanistic (proximate) basis for disease, excluding consideration of evolutionary (ultimate) reasons. The key principles of evolutionary medicine are that selection acts on fitness, not health or longevity; that our evolutionary history does not cause disease, but rather impacts on our risk of disease in particular environments; and that we are now living in novel environments compared to those in which we evolved. We consider these evolutionary principles in conjunction with population genetics and describe several pathways by which evolutionary processes can affect disease risk. These perspectives provide a more cohesive framework for gaining insights into the determinants of health and disease. Coupled with complementary insights offered by advances in genomic, epigenetic, and developmental biology research, evolutionary perspectives offer an important addition to understanding disease. Further, there are a number of aspects of evolutionary medicine that can add considerably to studies in other domains of contemporary evolutionary studies.

Gluckman, Peter D; Low, Felicia M; Buklijas, Tatjana; Hanson, Mark A; Beedle, Alan S

2011-01-01

134

Our Complex Universe: A Human Understanding through Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature, in all its aspects, provides us with a foundation for creating art in all its forms. Among the most inspirational of these aspects are those of the sky, from sunsets to stars to galaxies. But it works both ways. While we can strive to know the Universe through physics and mathematics, the unending complexity of the structures we examine overwhelms the senses and hinders our ability to appreciate the beauty and meaning of our surroundings. The arts provide avenues for understanding and interpreting the complexity of nature in human terms. In doing so, they reveal more of nature's aesthetics and thereby have the power to inspire scientists to look ever deeper into our Universe.

Kaler, J. B.

2013-04-01

135

Improving Social Understanding of Individuals of Intellectual and Developmental disabilities through a 3D-Facial Expression Intervention Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have specific difficulties in cognitive social-emotional capability, which affect numerous aspects of social competence. This study evaluated the learning effects of using 3D-emotion system intervention program for individuals with IDD in learning socially based-emotions…

Cheng, Yufang; Chen, Shuhui

2010-01-01

136

Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

137

Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

138

Human Inspired Self-developmental Model of Neural Network (HIM): Introducing Content/Form Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents cross-disciplinary research between medical/psychological evidence on human abilities and informatics needs to update current models in computer science to support alternative methods for computation and communication. In [10] we have already proposed hypothesis introducing concept of human information model (HIM) as cooperative system. Here we continue on HIM design in detail. In our design, first we introduce Content/Form computing system which is new principle of present methods in evolutionary computing (genetic algorithms, genetic programming). Then we apply this system on HIM (type of artificial neural network) model as basic network self-developmental paradigm. Main inspiration of our natural/human design comes from well known concept of artificial neural networks, medical/psychological evidence and Sheldrake theory of "Nature as Alive" [22].

Krají?ek, Ji?í

139

The human beta-globin gene contains a downstream developmental specific enhancer.  

PubMed Central

The human beta-globin gene is part of a multigene family and is expressed specifically in adult human erythroid tissue (for review, 1). When the human beta-globin is introduced into fertilized mouse eggs, it is first activated in foetal liver and remains expressed in adult erythroid tissues. It therefore mimicks the pattern of expression of its murine counterpart. It has previously been shown in tissue culture and transgenic mice that sequences downstream from the beta-globin promoter are involved in this regulation. We now show that at least part of these sequences are located 0.5-1.2kb downstream from the poly A addition site and constitute a transcriptional enhancer element that is erythroid and developmental specific. Images

Kollias, G; Hurst, J; deBoer, E; Grosveld, F

1987-01-01

140

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Induce Developmental Neurotoxicity in a Human in Vitro Model: Evidence for Endocrine Disruption  

PubMed Central

Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and bioaccumulative flame retardants, which are found in rising concentrations in human tissues. They are of concern for human health because animal studies have shown that they possess the potential to be developmentally neurotoxic. Objective Because there is little knowledge of the effects of PBDEs on human brain cells, we investigated their toxic potential for human neural development in vitro. Moreover, we studied the involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) disruption in the effects caused by PBDEs. Methods We used the two PBDE congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99 (0.1–10 ?M), which are most prominent in human tissues. As a model of neural development, we employed primary fetal human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), which are cultured as neurospheres and mimic basic processes of brain development in vitro: proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Results PBDEs do not disturb hNPC proliferation but decrease migration distance of hNPCs. Moreover, they cause a reduction of differentiation into neurons and oligodendrocytes. Simultaneous exposure with the TH receptor (THR) agonist triiodothyronine rescues these effects on migration and differentiation, whereas the THR antagonist NH-3 does not exert an additive effect. Conclusion PBDEs disturb development of hNPCs in vitro via endocrine disruption of cellular TH signaling at concentrations that might be of relevance for human exposure.

Schreiber, Timm; Gassmann, Kathrin; Gotz, Christine; Hubenthal, Ulrike; Moors, Michaela; Krause, Guido; Merk, Hans F.; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Abel, Josef; Rose, Christine R.; Fritsche, Ellen

2010-01-01

141

Developmental and Pathological Changes in the Human Cardiac Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Organization, Replication and Copy Number  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has recently been shown to have a complex organization with abundant dimeric molecules, branched structures and four-way junctions. In order to understand the physiological significance of the heart-specific mtDNA maintenance mode and to find conditions that modify human heart mtDNA structure and replication, we analyzed healthy human heart of various ages as well as

Jaakko L. O. Pohjoismäki; Steffi Goffart; Robert W. Taylor; Douglas M. Turnbull; Anu Suomalainen; Howard T. Jacobs; Pekka J. Karhunen; Antoni L. Andreu

2010-01-01

142

Histone acetylation at the human ?-globin locus changes with developmental age  

PubMed Central

To delineate the relationship between epigenetic modifications and hemoglobin switching, we compared the pattern of histone acetylation and pol II binding across the ?-globin locus at fetal and adult stages of human development. To make this comparison possible, we introduced an external control into experimental samples in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Using this common standard, we found that the locus control region (LCR) was acetylated to the same level at all stages, whereas acetylation levels at the individual gene regions correlated with the state of transcription. In the active genes, the promoters were less acetylated compared with the coding regions. Furthermore, all globin promoters were acetylated to a similar level irrespective of the state of transcription. However, after correction for the loss of nucleosomes, the level of acetylation per histone at the active ? and ? promoters was 5- to 7-fold greater than that at the inactive ? promoter. Although the histone acetylation level within the LCR was developmentally stable, pol II binding in fetal erythroblasts was 2- to 3-fold greater than that in adult erythroblasts. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in histone acetylation and pol II take place as the human ?-globin gene region undergoes its developmental switches.

Yin, Wenxuan; Barkess, Grainne; Fang, Xiangdong; Xiang, Ping; Cao, Hua; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

2007-01-01

143

Combinatorial assembly of developmental stage-specific enhancers controls gene expression programs during human erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Gene-distal enhancers are critical for tissue-specific gene expression, but their genomic determinants within a specific lineage at different stages of development are unknown. Here we profile chromatin state maps, transcription factor occupancy, and gene expression profiles during human erythroid development at fetal and adult stages. Comparative analyses of human erythropoiesis identify developmental stage-specific enhancers as primary determinants of stage-specific gene expression programs. We find that erythroid master regulators GATA1 and TAL1 act cooperatively within active enhancers but confer little predictive value for stage specificity. Instead, a set of stage-specific coregulators collaborates with master regulators and contributes to differential gene expression. We further identify and validate IRF2, IRF6, and MYB as effectors of an adult-stage expression program. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of lineage-specific master regulators and transcriptional coregulators within developmental stage-specific enhancers determines gene expression programs and temporal regulation of transcriptional networks in a mammalian genome. PMID:23041383

Xu, Jian; Shao, Zhen; Glass, Kimberly; Bauer, Daniel E; Pinello, Luca; Van Handel, Ben; Hou, Serena; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H

2012-10-04

144

Combinatorial Assembly of Developmental Stage-Specific Enhancers Controls Gene Expression Programs during Human Erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Gene-distal enhancers are critical for tissue-specific gene expression, but their genomic determinants within a specific lineage at different stages of development are unknown. Here we profile chromatin state maps, transcription factor occupancy, and gene expression profiles during human erythroid development at fetal and adult stages. Comparative analyses of human erythropoiesis identify developmental stage-specific enhancers as primary determinants of stage-specific gene expression programs. We find that erythroid master regulators GATA1 and TAL1 act cooperatively within active enhancers but confer little predictive value for stage specificity. Instead, a set of stage-specific co-regulators collaborates with master regulators and contributes to differential gene expression. We further identify and validate IRF2, IRF6, and MYB as effectors of an adult-stage expression program. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of lineage-specific master regulators and transcriptional co-regulators within developmental stage-specific enhancers determines gene expression programs and temporal regulation of transcriptional networks in a mammalian genome.

Xu, Jian; Shao, Zhen; Glass, Kimberly; Bauer, Daniel E.; Pinello, Luca; Van Handel, Ben; Hou, Serena; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H.

2012-01-01

145

Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans--an overview focusing on developmental toxicology.  

PubMed

Despite being relatively well studied from a botanical, chemical, and (acute) pharmacological perspective, little is known about the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca (an hallucinogenic brew used for magico-ritual purposes) in pregnant women and in their children, and the potential toxicity of long-term ayahuasca consumption. It is the main objective of the present text to do an overview of the risks and possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in humans, reviewing studies on the acute ayahuasca administration to humans, on the possible risks associated with long-term consumption by adults and adolescents, and on the possible toxic effects on pregnant animals and in their offspring. Acute ayahuasca administration, as well as long-term consumption of this beverage, does not seem to be seriously toxic to humans. Although some nonhuman developmental studies suggested possible toxic effects of ayahuasca or of some of its alkaloids, the limited human literature on adolescents exposed to ayahuasca as early as in the uterus reports no serious toxic effects of the ritual consumption of the brew. Researchers must take caution when extrapolating nonhuman data to humans and more data are needed in basic and human research before a definite opinion can be made regarding the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in pregnant women and in their children. PMID:23662333

dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

146

Developmental changes in the spatial organization of neurons in the neocortex of humans and common chimpanzees.  

PubMed

In adult humans the prefrontal cortex possesses wider minicolumns and more neuropil space than other cortical regions. These aspects of prefrontal cortex architecture, furthermore, are increased in comparison to chimpanzees and other great apes. In order to determine the developmental appearance of this human cortical specialization, we examined the spatial organization of neurons in four cortical regions (frontal pole [Brodmann's area 10], primary motor [area 4], primary somatosensory [area 3b], and prestriate visual cortex [area 18]) in chimpanzees and humans from birth to approximately the time of adolescence (11 years of age). Horizontal spacing distance (HSD) and gray level ratio (GLR) of layer III neurons were measured in Nissl-stained sections. In both human and chimpanzee area 10, HSD was significantly higher in the postweaning specimens compared to the preweaning ones. No significant age-related differences were seen in the other regions in either species. In concert with other recent studies, the current findings suggest that there is a relatively slower maturation of area 10 in both humans and chimpanzees as compared to other cortical regions, and that further refinement of the spatial organization of neurons within this prefrontal area in humans takes place after the postweaning periods included here. J. Comp. Neurol. 521:4249-4259, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23839595

Teffer, Kate; Buxhoeveden, Daniel P; Stimpson, Cheryl D; Fobbs, Archibald J; Schapiro, Steven J; Baze, Wallace B; McArthur, Mark J; Hopkins, William D; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Semendeferi, Katerina

2013-12-15

147

Advancing Our Understanding of the Human Microbiome Using QIIME.  

PubMed

High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have enabled rapid advances in microbial ecology and our understanding of the human microbiome. QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is an open-source bioinformatics software package designed for microbial community analysis based on DNA sequence data, which provides a single analysis framework for analysis of raw sequence data through publication-quality statistical analyses and interactive visualizations. In this chapter, we demonstrate the use of the QIIME pipeline to analyze microbial communities obtained from several sites on the bodies of transgenic and wild-type mice, as assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequences generated on the Illumina MiSeq platform. We present our recommended pipeline for performing microbial community analysis and provide guidelines for making critical choices in the process. We present examples of some of the types of analyses that are enabled by QIIME and discuss how other tools, such as phyloseq and R, can be applied to expand upon these analyses. PMID:24060131

Navas-Molina, José A; Peralta-Sánchez, Juan M; González, Antonio; McMurdie, Paul J; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Xu, Zhenjiang; Ursell, Luke K; Lauber, Christian; Zhou, Hongwei; Song, Se Jin; Huntley, James; Ackermann, Gail L; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Holmes, Susan; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob

2013-01-01

148

Identification of definitive and fetal zone markers in the human fetal adrenal gland reveals putative developmental genes.  

PubMed

Organogenesis is a coordinated process involving cell replication, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. We seek to understand the complex developmental signals involved in the ontogeny of the human fetal adrenal gland. The gland is comprised initially of two zones, the definitive and fetal zones. A third zone, the transitional zone, develops between them after midgestation. We have suggested that the definitive zone is comprised of a pool of progenitor cells that proliferate and differentiate into cells of the transitional and fetal zones. However, it has not been possible to demonstrate that definitive zone cells have this capacity because of the absence of protein markers unique to these cells; thus, they could not be purified or positively identified. We sought to identify definitive and fetal zone markers to facilitate cell sorting and identify molecules of biological interest in adrenal development. We performed subtractive hybridization, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence to identify unique markers of definitive zone cells. NovH and metallopanstimulin were identified by subtraction hybridization, primarily in the definitive zone. P-Glycoprotein, also principally on definitive zone cells, and the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, predominantly on fetal zone cells, were identified by immunofluorescence. Identification of cellular markers unique to each zone of the fetal adrenal gland will enhance the ability to characterize the proliferative potential of definitive zone cells and assess their capacity to differentiate into cells of the transitional and fetal zones. Purified cells also will permit detailed molecular and mechanistic studies of regulation of human fetal adrenal development. PMID:12843175

Ratcliffe, Jennifer; Nakanishi, Mikiye; Jaffe, Robert B

2003-07-01

149

The Developmental Perspective in Integral Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The process of making meaning is a core determinant of human experience. Understanding this process, developmentally, is a vital part of integral counseling. In this article, the authors introduce the concept of ego development stages as increasingly complex and flexible systems of meaning making. An understanding of ego development stages can…

Cook-Greuter, Susanne R.; Soulen, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

150

The Developmental Perspective in Integral Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of making meaning is a core determinant of human experience. Understanding this process, developmentally, is a vital part of integral counseling. In this article, the authors introduce the concept of ego development stages as increasingly complex and flexible systems of meaning making. An understanding of ego development stages can…

Cook-Greuter, Susanne R.; Soulen, Jeffrey

2007-01-01

151

Developmental- and differentiation-specific patterns of human ?- and ?-globin promoter DNA methylation  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying the human fetal-to-adult ?-globin gene switch remain to be determined. While there is substantial experimental evidence to suggest that promoter DNA methylation is involved in this process, most data come from studies in nonhuman systems. We have evaluated human ?- and ?-globin promoter methylation in primary human fetal liver (FL) and adult bone marrow (ABM) erythroid cells. Our results show that, in general, promoter methylation and gene expression are inversely related. However, CpGs at ?162 of the ? promoter and ?126 of the ? promoter are hypomethylated in ABM and FL, respectively. We also studied ?-globin promoter methylation during in vitro differentiation of erythroid cells. The ? promoters are initially hypermethylated in CD34+ cells. The upstream ? promoter CpGs become hypomethylated during the preerythroid phase of differentiation and are then remethylated later, during erythropoiesis. The period of promoter hypomethylation correlates with transient ?-globin gene expression and may explain the previously observed fetal hemoglobin production that occurs during early adult erythropoiesis. These results provide the first comprehensive survey of developmental changes in human ?- and ?-globin promoter methylation and support the hypothesis that promoter methylation plays a role in human ?-globin locus gene switching.

Mabaera, Rodwell; Richardson, Christine A.; Johnson, Kristin; Hsu, Mei; Fiering, Steven

2007-01-01

152

Priming 3D Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Toward Cartilage Formation Via Developmental Pathways.  

PubMed

The field of regenerative medicine has increasingly recognized the importance to be inspired by developmental processes to identify signaling pathways crucial for 3D organogenesis and tissue regeneration. Here, we aimed at recapitulating the first events occurring during limb development (ie, cell condensation and expansion of an undifferentiated mesenchymal cell population) to prime 3D cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hBM-MSC) toward the chondrogenic route. Based on embryonic development studies, we hypothesized that Wnt3a and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induce hBM-MSC to proliferate in 3D culture as an undifferentiated pool of progenitors (defined by clonogenic capacity and expression of typical markers), retaining chondrogenic potential upon induction by suitable morphogens. hBM-MSC were responsive to Wnt signaling in 3D pellet culture, as assessed by significant upregulation of main target genes and increase of unphosphorylated ?-catenin levels. Wnt3a was able to induce a five-fold increase in the number of proliferating hBM-MSC (6.4% vs. 1.3% in the vehicle condition), although total DNA content of the 3D construct was decreasing over time. Preconditioning with Wnt3a improved transforming growth factor-?1 mediated chondrogenesis (30% more glycosaminoglycans/cell in average). In contrast to developmental and 2D MSC culture models, FGF2 antagonized the Wnt-mediated effects. Interestingly, the CD146(+) subpopulation was found to be more responsive to Wnt3a. The presented data indicate a possible strategy to prime 3D cultures of hBM-MSC by invoking a "developmental engineering" approach. The study also identifies some opportunities and challenges to cross-fertilize skeletal development models and 3D hBM-MSC culture systems. PMID:23777290

Centola, Matteo; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Schären, Stefan; Glaser, Nicolas; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

2013-07-27

153

Developmental Changes in GABAergic Mechanisms in Human Visual Cortex Across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Functional maturation of visual cortex is linked with dynamic changes in synaptic expression of GABAergic mechanisms. These include setting the excitation–inhibition balance required for experience-dependent plasticity, as well as, intracortical inhibition underlying development and aging of receptive field properties. Animal studies have shown that there is developmental regulation of GABAergic mechanisms in visual cortex. In this study, we show for the first time how these mechanisms develop in the human visual cortex across the lifespan. We used Western blot analysis of postmortem tissue from human primary visual cortex (n = 30, range: 20 days to 80 years) to quantify expression of eight pre- and post-synaptic GABAergic markers. We quantified the inhibitory modulating cannabinoid receptor (CB1), GABA vesicular transporter (VGAT), GABA synthesizing enzymes (GAD65/GAD67), GABAA receptor anchoring protein (Gephyrin), and GABAA receptor subunits (GABAA?1, GABAA?2, GABAA?3). We found a complex pattern of different developmental trajectories, many of which were prolonged and continued well into the teen, young adult, and even older adult years. These included a monotonic increase or decrease (GABAA?1, GABAA?2), a biphasic increase then decrease (GAD65, Gephyrin), or multiple increases and decreases (VGAT, CB1) across the lifespan. Comparing the balances between the pre- and post-synaptic markers we found three main transition stages (early childhood, early teen years, aging) when there were rapid switches in the composition of the GABAergic signaling system, indicating that functioning of the GABAergic system must change as the visual cortex develops and ages. Furthermore, these results provide key information for translating therapies developed in animal models into effective treatments for amblyopia in humans.

Pinto, Joshua G.A.; Hornby, Kyle R.; Jones, David G.; Murphy, Kathryn M.

2010-01-01

154

Allelic diversity in human developmental neurogenetics: insights into biology and disease  

PubMed Central

One of the biggest challenges in neuroscience is illuminating the architecture of developmental brain disorders, which include structural malformations of the brain and nerves, intellectual disability, epilepsy, as well as some psychiatric conditions like autism and potentially schizophrenia. Ongoing gene identification reveals a great diversity of genetic causes underlying abnormal brain development, illuminating new biochemical pathways often not suspected based on genetic studies in other organisms. Our greater understanding of genetic disease also shows the complexity of “allelic diversity”, in which distinct mutations in a given gene can cause a wide range of distinct diseases or other phenotypes. These diverse alleles not only provide a platform for discovery of critical protein-protein interactions in a genetic fashion, but also illuminate the likely genetic architecture of as yet poorly characterized neurological disorders.

Walsh, Christopher A.; Engle, Elizabeth C.

2010-01-01

155

A DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF GIRLS AND WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a graduate student in marriage, family and child therapy, my fellow students and I were taught several developmental models for understanding how humans grow and change from infancy, through childhood to adulthood. The conclusion of the majority of these models is that autonomy and differentiation are primary goals of healthy human development. However, for at least twenty years, feminist

Donna Emmanuel

1992-01-01

156

Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

Zhao, Guoping

2012-01-01

157

Chromatin remodeling by the CHD7 protein is impaired by mutations that cause human developmental disorders.  

PubMed

Mutations in the CHD7 gene cause human developmental disorders including CHARGE syndrome. Genetic studies in model organisms have further established CHD7 as a central regulator of vertebrate development. Functional analysis of the CHD7 protein has been hampered by its large size. We used a dual-tag system to purify intact recombinant CHD7 protein and found that it is an ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. Biochemical analyses indicate that CHD7 has characteristics distinct from SWI/SNF- and ISWI-type remodelers. Further investigations show that CHD7 patient mutations have consequences that range from subtle to complete inactivation of remodeling activity, and that mutations leading to protein truncations upstream of amino acid 1899 of CHD7 are likely to cause a hypomorphic phenotype for remodeling. We propose that nucleosome remodeling is a key function for CHD7 during developmental processes and provide a molecular basis for predicting the impact of disease mutations on that function. PMID:23134727

Bouazoune, Karim; Kingston, Robert E

2012-11-07

158

Establishment and assessment of a new human embryonic stem cell-based biomarker assay for developmental toxicity screening.  

PubMed

A metabolic biomarker-based in vitro assay utilizing human embryonic stem (hES) cells was developed to identify the concentration of test compounds that perturbs cellular metabolism in a manner indicative of teratogenicity. This assay is designed to aid the early discovery-phase detection of potential human developmental toxicants. In this study, metabolomic data from hES cell culture media were used to assess potential biomarkers for development of a rapid in vitro teratogenicity assay. hES cells were treated with pharmaceuticals of known human teratogenicity at a concentration equivalent to their published human peak therapeutic plasma concentration. Two metabolite biomarkers (ornithine and cystine) were identified as indicators of developmental toxicity. A targeted exposure-based biomarker assay using these metabolites, along with a cytotoxicity endpoint, was then developed using a 9-point dose-response curve. The predictivity of the new assay was evaluated using a separate set of test compounds. To illustrate how the assay could be applied to compounds of unknown potential for developmental toxicity, an additional 10 compounds were evaluated that do not have data on human exposure during pregnancy, but have shown positive results in animal developmental toxicity studies. The new assay identified the potential developmental toxicants in the test set with 77% accuracy (57% sensitivity, 100% specificity). The assay had a high concordance (?75%) with existing in vivo models, demonstrating that the new assay can predict the developmental toxicity potential of new compounds as part of discovery phase testing and provide a signal as to the likely outcome of required in vivo tests. PMID:24123775

Palmer, Jessica A; Smith, Alan M; Egnash, Laura A; Conard, Kevin R; West, Paul R; Burrier, Robert E; Donley, Elizabeth L R; Kirchner, Fred R

2013-10-03

159

Neural differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells follows developmental principles but with variable potency  

PubMed Central

For the promise of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to be realized, it is necessary to ask if and how efficiently they may be differentiated to functional cells of various lineages. Here, we have directly compared the neural-differentiation capacity of human iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have shown that human iPSCs use the same transcriptional network to generate neuroepithelia and functionally appropriate neuronal types over the same developmental time course as hESCs in response to the same set of morphogens; however, they do it with significantly reduced efficiency and increased variability. These results were consistent across iPSC lines and independent of the set of reprogramming transgenes used to derive iPSCs as well as the presence or absence of reprogramming transgenes in iPSCs. These findings, which show a need for improving differentiation potency of iPSCs, suggest the possibility of employing human iPSCs in pathological studies, therapeutic screening, and autologous cell transplantation.

Hu, Bao-Yang; Weick, Jason P.; Yu, Junying; Ma, Li-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Qing; Thomson, James A.; Zhang, Su-Chun

2010-01-01

160

Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxitants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

EPAâ??s program for the screening and prioritization of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) necessitates the generation of a list of chemicals that are known mammalian developmental neurotoxicants. This chemical list will be used to evaluate the sensitivity, reliability...

161

Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2001-01-01

162

Human enhancement and communication: on meaning and shared understanding.  

PubMed

Our technologies have enabled us to change both the world and our perceptions of the world, as well as to change ourselves and to find new ways to fulfil the human desire for improvement and for having new capacities. The debate around using technology for human enhancement has already raised many ethical concerns, however little research has been done in how human enhancement can affect human communication. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether some human enhancements could change our shared lifeworld so radically that human communication as we know it would not be possible any longer. After exploring the kinds of communication problems we are concerned with as well as mentioning some possible enhancement interventions that could bring about such problems, we will address some of the ethical implications that follow from these potential communication problems. We argue that because of the role that communication plays in human society, this issue deserves attention. PMID:23054673

Cabrera, Laura; Weckert, John

2012-10-05

163

Developmental Changes in the Discrimination of Dynamic Human Actions in Infancy  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to assess 4-month-old and 10-month-old infants’ discrimination of action based on featural, configural, and temporal sources of action information. Younger infants were able to discriminate changes to all three sources of information, but older infants were only able to reliably discriminate changes to featural information. These results highlight a previously unknown aspect of early action processing, and suggest that action perception may undergo a developmental process akin to perceptual narrowing.

Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

2011-01-01

164

Reconnecting with Values and Ethics: Learning Lessons from Literature and Human Developmental Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Combining literature and human development is seen as an effective strategy for enhancing personal and professional growth of the judiciary. Three theoretical perspectives provide a framework for understanding experiences associated with development in middle and later adulthood: adults' varied learning styles, the life cycle and age-related…

Murrell, Patricia H.; Carpenter, William E.

1999-01-01

165

Developmental patterns of DR6 in normal human hippocampus and in Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Death receptor 6 (DR6) is highly expressed in the human brain: it has been shown to induce axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases and to mediate axonal degeneration through binding to N-terminal ? amyloid precursor protein (N-APP). Methods We investigated the expression of DR6 during prenatal and postnatal development in human hippocampus and temporal cortex by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis (118 normal human brain specimens; 9 to 41 gestational weeks; 1 day to 7 months postnatally; 3 to 91 years). To investigate the role of N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway in the development of hippocampal Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated pathology, we examined DR6 immunoreactivity (IR) in the developing hippocampus from patients with Down syndrome (DS; 48 brain specimens; 14 to 41 gestational weeks; 7 days to 8 months postnatally; 15 to 64 years) and in adults with DS and AD. Results DR6 was highly expressed in human adult hippocampus and temporal cortex: we observed consistent similar temporal and spatial expression in both control and DS brain. Western blot analysis of total homogenates of temporal cortex and hippocampus showed developmental regulation of DR6. In the hippocampus, DR6 IR was first apparent in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare at 16 weeks of gestation, followed by stratum oriens, radiatum, pyramidale (CA1 to CA4) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus between 21 and 23 gestational weeks, reaching a pattern similar to adult hippocampus around birth. Increased DR6 expression in dystrophic neurites was detected focally in a 15-year-old DS patient. Abnormal DR6 expression pattern, with increased expression within dystrophic neurites in and around amyloid plaques was observed in adult DS patients with widespread AD-associated neurodegeneration and was similar to the pattern observed in AD hippocampus. Double-labeling experiments demonstrated the colocalization, in dystrophic neurites, of DR6 with APP. We also observed colocalization with hyper-phosphorylated Tau and with caspase 6 (increased in hippocampus with AD pathology) in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites and within the white matter. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a developmental regulation of DR6 in human hippocampus and suggest an abnormal activation of the N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway, which can contribute to initiation or progression of hippocampal AD-associated pathology.

2013-01-01

166

Understanding Human-Computer Interactions in Map Revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking, parsing and modeling human-computer interac- tions to edit, revise documents is di-cult but necessary if we are to develop automated technologies that will aid or replace humans. This paper introduces a system for accessing and recording a stream of events related to human actions in a real-time map (cartographic) revision sys- tem. The recorded events are parsed into a

Jun Zhou; Walter F. Bischof; Terry Caelli

2004-01-01

167

EVALUATION OF HUMAN NEURAL PROGENITOR CELLS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY SCREENING: TIME COURSE OF EFFECTS ON CELL PROLIFERATION AND VIABILITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a screen for DNT. ReNcell CX (ReN CX) cells are a...

168

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

169

Developmental Changes of Prefrontal Activation in Humans: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Preschool Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous morphological studies indicated that development of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) appears to continue into late adolescence. Although functional brain imaging studies have sought to determine the time course of functional development of the PFC, it is unclear whether the developmental change occurs after adolescence to adulthood and when it achieves a peak because of the narrow or discontinuous

Yuki Kawakubo; Toshiaki Kono; Ryu Takizawa; Hitoshi Kuwabara; Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi; Kiyoto Kasai; Kenji Hashimoto

2011-01-01

170

High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

2013-01-01

171

Systems Approach to Understanding Electromechanical Activity in the Human Heart  

PubMed Central

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a workshop of cardiologists, cardiac electrophysiologists, cell biophysicists, and computational modelers on August 20 and 21, 2007, in Washington, DC, to advise the NHLBI on new research directions needed to develop integrative approaches to elucidate human cardiac function. The workshop strove to identify limitations in the use of data from nonhuman animal species for elucidation of human electromechanical function/activity and to identify what specific information on ion channel kinetics, calcium handling, and dynamic changes in the intracellular/extracellular milieu is needed from human cardiac tissues to develop more robust computational models of human cardiac electromechanical activity. This article summarizes the workshop discussions and recommendations on the following topics: (1) limitations of animal models and differences from human electrophysiology, (2) modeling ion channel structure/function in the context of whole-cell electrophysiology, (3) excitation–contraction coupling and regulatory pathways, (4) whole-heart simulations of human electromechanical activity, and (5) what human data are currently needed and how to obtain them. The recommendations can be found on the NHLBI Web site at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/meetings/workshops/electro.htm.

Rudy, Yoram; Ackerman, Michael J.; Bers, Donald M.; Clancy, Colleen E.; Houser, Steven R.; London, Barry; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Przywara, Dennis A.; Rasmusson, Randall L.; Solaro, R. John; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Varro, Andras; Weiss, James N.; Lathrop, David A.

2010-01-01

172

Understanding and modelling heterogeneity of human preferences for engineering design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's competitive market, it is essential for companies to provide products which not only achieve high performance, but also appeal to the tastes of consumers. Therefore, a key element of design is an understanding of consumer preferences for product features. In this work, the random-effects ordered logit model is proposed as the modelling framework to capture the impact of

Christopher Hoyle; Wei Chen; Nanxin Wang; Gianna Gomez-Levi

2011-01-01

173

Which Aesthetic has the Greatest Effect on Human Understanding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the creation of graph drawing algorithms and systems, designers claim that by producing layouts that optimise certain aesthetic qualities, the graphs are easier to understand. Such aesthetics include maximise symmetry, minimise edge crosses and minimise bends. A previous study aimed to validate these claims with respect to three aesthetics, using paper-based experiments (11). The study reported here is superior

Helen C. Purchase

1997-01-01

174

Understanding actors and object-goals in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

When another person takes £10 from your hand, it matters if they are a shopkeeper or a robber. That is, the meaning of a simple, goal-directed action can vary depending on the identity of the actors involved. Research examining action understanding has identified an action observation network (AON) that encodes action features such as goals and kinematics. However, it is

Richard Ramsey; Antonia F. de C. Hamilton

2010-01-01

175

Developmental alterations of the respiratory human retrotrapezoid nucleus in sudden unexplained fetal and infant death.  

PubMed

The study aims were twofold: 1) identify the localization and the cytoarchitecture of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) in the human fetus and infant and 2) ascertain if the RTN, given its essential role in animal studies for the maintenance of breathing and chemoreception, showed abnormalities in victims of sudden perinatal and infant death (sudden intrauterine unexplained death/SIUD - and sudden infant death syndrome/SIDS). We examined SIDS and SIUD cases and Controls (n=58) from 34 gestational weeks to 8 months of postnatal age by complete autopsy, in-depth autonomic nervous system histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis of the PHOX2B gene, a transcriptional factor involved in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome that has been defined as a marker of rat RTN neurons. We identified a group of PHOX2B-immunopositive neurons within the caudal pons, contiguous to the facial/parafacial complex, in 90% of Controls, likely the homologous human RTN (hRTN). We observed structural and/or PHOX2B-expression abnormalities of the hRTN in 71% of SIUD/SIDS cases vs 10% of Controls (p<0.05). In conclusion we suggest that developmental abnormalities of the hRTN may seriously compromise chemoreception control, playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of both SIUD and SIDS. PMID:22796552

Lavezzi, Anna M; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Yu, Margaret Y; Jennings, Lawrence J; Corna, Melissa F; Casale, Valentina; Oneda, Roberta; Matturri, Luigi

2012-07-15

176

Pyrosequencing as a tool for better understanding of human microbiomes.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the analysis of microbial communities in diverse environments, including the human body. This article reviews several aspects of one of these technologies, the pyrosequencing technique, including its principles, applications, and significant contribution to the study of the human microbiome, with especial emphasis on the oral microbiome. The results brought about by pyrosequencing studies have significantly contributed to refining and augmenting the knowledge of the community membership and structure in and on the human body in healthy and diseased conditions. Because most oral infectious diseases are currently regarded as biofilm-related polymicrobial infections, high-throughput sequencing technologies have the potential to disclose specific patterns related to health or disease. Further advances in technology hold the perspective to have important implications in terms of accurate diagnosis and more effective preventive and therapeutic measures for common oral diseases. PMID:22279602

Siqueira, José F; Fouad, Ashraf F; Rôças, Isabela N

2012-01-23

177

Visible Speech Improves Human Language Understanding: Implications for Speech Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from the study of human language understanding is presented suggesting that our ability to perceive visible speech can greatly influence our ability to understand and remember spoken language. A view of the speaker's face can greatly aid in the perception of ambiguous or noisy speech and can aid cognitive processing of speech leading to better understanding and recall. Some

Laura A. Thompson; William C. Ogden

1995-01-01

178

HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION DESIGN: UNDERSTANDING USER NEEDS AND REQUIREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal-Directed Task Analysis is being applied to assessing the needs and requirements for developing novel techniques and tools to permit a small number of humans to supervise large robotic teams. The paper presents a preliminary overall goal hierarchy as well as a preliminary communication goal hierarchy based upon the initial analysis. This research involves working directly with the Nashville Metro

Julie A. Adams

179

Humanities in Dental Education: A Focus on Understanding the Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)|

Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.

1999-01-01

180

Humanities in Dental Education: A Focus on Understanding the Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)

Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.

1999-01-01

181

Genital Measures: Comments on Their Role in Understanding Human Sexuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the use of genital measures in the study of both applied and basic work in human sexuality. Some of the advantages of psychophysiological measures are considered along with cautions concerning unwarranted assumptions. Some of the advances that are possible in both applied and basic work are examined. (Author)

Geer, James H.

1976-01-01

182

The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Understanding Human Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Cold War, security studies have broadened to take into account a wide range of non-military threats ranging from poverty to environmental concerns rather than just national defense. Security scholars, backed by international organizations and a growing number of national governments, have developed the concept of Human Security, focusing on the welfare of ordinary people against

Ronald F. Inglehart; Pippa Norris

2011-01-01

183

Understanding Broadscale Wildfire Risks in a Human-Dominated Landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broadscale statistical evaluations of wildfire incidence can answer policy-relevant questions about the effectiveness of microlevel vegetation management and can identify subjects needing further study. A dynamic time series cross-sectional model was used to evaluate the statistical links between forest wildfire and vegetation management, human land use, and climatic factors in Florida counties. Four forest wildfire risk functions were estimated: one

Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; David T. Butry; Thomas P. Holmes; D. Evan Mercer

2002-01-01

184

[Developmental disorders].  

PubMed

Developmental disorders, which are usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, include mental retardation, learning disorders, motor skills disorder, communication disorders, pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and tic disorders. Epidemiological studies have indicated that these disorders are characterized not only by high heritability (e.g., 0.80 for PDD) but also by their shared genetic etiology. Furthermore, retrospective or prospective longitudinal studies have revealed that adult psychiatric disorders are often preceded either by their juvenile counterparts (homotypic continuity) or by different disorders (heterotypic continuity). Recent genetic studies have detected copy number variants (CNVs; e.g., deletions on 1q21.1, 3q29, and 22q.11.21 and duplications on 16p11.2) as shared genetic factors for PDD, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. While these CNVs are generally very rare (<1%), their effect size is much larger than that of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Although the mechanism by which CNVs cause these abnormalities remains unclear, pleiotropic effect of CNVs may provide insights into the high rate of comorbidity among developmental disorders and heterotypic continuity between developmental disorders and adult disorders. In addition, longitudinal neuroimaging studies have provided evidence for irregularities in the typical trajectories in developmental disorders. For instance, retarded cortical development is identified in ADHD in cortical trajectory, and early acceleration of brain growth is identified in PDD. Finally, we outlined several research topics as the future direction for investigation of developmental disorders: a longitudinal clinical study in subjects with specific disorder-related CNVs; detailed analysis of genetic factors relevant to developmental disorders, including smaller CNVs and INDELs; and functional analysis of genetic factors by using induced pluripotent stem cell technology or non-human primate animal models. PMID:22308259

Kushima, Itaru; Okada, Takashi; Ozaki, Norio

2012-02-01

185

Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

Neumann, David L.

2010-01-01

186

Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

Neumann, David L.

2010-01-01

187

Cloning of the human interferon-related developmental regulator (IFRD1) gene coding for the PC4 protein, a member of a novel family of developmentally regulated genes.  

PubMed

The rat PC4 gene had been initially isolated as a nerve growth factor-inducible sequence in PC12 cells. Although its function remains unknown, recently it has been shown that PC4 is necessary to muscle differentiation and that it might have a role in signal transduction. We report the isolation of the human homolog of the rat PC4 gene, renamed here IFRD1 (interferon-related developmental regulator 1). Several human IFRD1 clones were identified by searching the EST database using the rat IFRD1 (PC4) cDNA as a query. An EST clone containing the entire ORF was chosen for sequencing. Human IFRD1 presented a predicted protein product of 453 amino acids, highly conserved (90.2% identity) compared to the rat IFRD1 (PC4) protein sequences. The mapping assignment of human IFRD1 to chromosome 7q22-q31 was retrieved from the UniGene database maintained at NCBI. A comparison of human IFRD1 (PC4) protein to databases revealed 47% identity to the protein encoded by the human gene SKMc15, originally isolated from a chromosome 3-specific library. Therefore, SKMc15 is a gene related to IFRD1, being the second member of a novel family. We analyzed their expression during murine development, and we found that mouse IFRD1 appears more expressed in specific differentiating structures at midgestation, while mouse SKMc15 is highly expressed soon after gastrulation and in the hepatic primordium, suggesting an involvement in early hematopoiesis. PMID:9722946

Buanne, P; Incerti, B; Guardavaccaro, D; Avvantaggiato, V; Simeone, A; Tirone, F

1998-07-15

188

Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning.  

PubMed

The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups and analyses of media coverage. Overall the research presents a complex picture of attitude to and constructions of human cloning. In all of the analyses, therapeutic cloning was viewed more favourably than reproductive cloning. However, while participants in the focus groups were generally negative about both forms of cloning, and this was also reflected in the media analyses, quantitative results showed more positive responses. In the quantitative research, therapeutic cloning was generally accepted when the benefits of such procedures were clear, and although reproductive cloning was less accepted there was still substantial support. Participants in the focus groups only differentiated between therapeutic and reproductive cloning after the issue of therapeutic cloning was explicitly raised; initially they saw cloning as being reproductive cloning and saw no real benefits. Attitudes were shown to be associated with underlying values associated with scientific progress rather than with age, gender or education, and although there were a few differences in the quantitative data based on religious affiliation, these tended to be small effects. Likewise in the focus groups there was little direct appeal to religion, but the main themes were 'interfering with nature' and the 'status of the embryo', with the latter being used more effectively to try to close down further discussion. In general there was a close correspondence between the media analysis and focus group responses, possibly demonstrating the importance of media as a resource, or that the media reflect public discourse accurately. However, focus group responses did not simply reflect media coverage. PMID:17449156

Shepherd, Richard; Barnett, Julie; Cooper, Helen; Coyle, Adrian; Moran-Ellis, Jo; Senior, Victoria; Walton, Chris

2007-04-20

189

Improving animal and human health through understanding liver fluke immunology.  

PubMed

Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812

Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W

2010-08-01

190

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle.  

PubMed

Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts-including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

2013-05-27

191

Human embryonic stem cell-derived test systems for developmental neurotoxicity: a transcriptomics approach.  

PubMed

Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) and many forms of reproductive toxicity (RT) often manifest themselves in functional deficits that are not necessarily based on cell death, but rather on minor changes relating to cell differentiation or communication. The fields of DNT/RT would greatly benefit from in vitro tests that allow the identification of toxicant-induced changes of the cellular proteostasis, or of its underlying transcriptome network. Therefore, the 'human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived novel alternative test systems (ESNATS)' European commission research project established RT tests based on defined differentiation protocols of hESC and their progeny. Valproic acid (VPA) and methylmercury (MeHg) were used as positive control compounds to address the following fundamental questions: (1) Does transcriptome analysis allow discrimination of the two compounds? (2) How does analysis of enriched transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and of individual probe sets (PS) distinguish between test systems? (3) Can batch effects be controlled? (4) How many DNA microarrays are needed? (5) Is the highest non-cytotoxic concentration optimal and relevant for the study of transcriptome changes? VPA triggered vast transcriptional changes, whereas MeHg altered fewer transcripts. To attenuate batch effects, analysis has been focused on the 500 PS with highest variability. The test systems differed significantly in their responses (<20 % overlap). Moreover, within one test system, little overlap between the PS changed by the two compounds has been observed. However, using TFBS enrichment, a relatively large 'common response' to VPA and MeHg could be distinguished from 'compound-specific' responses. In conclusion, the ESNATS assay battery allows classification of human DNT/RT toxicants on the basis of their transcriptome profiles. PMID:23179753

Krug, Anne K; Kolde, Raivo; Gaspar, John A; Rempel, Eugen; Balmer, Nina V; Meganathan, Kesavan; Vojnits, Kinga; Baquié, Mathurin; Waldmann, Tanja; Ensenat-Waser, Roberto; Jagtap, Smita; Evans, Richard M; Julien, Stephanie; Peterson, Hedi; Zagoura, Dimitra; Kadereit, Suzanne; Gerhard, Daniel; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Heke, Michael; Natarajan, Karthick; Henry, Margit; Winkler, Johannes; Marchan, Rosemarie; Stoppini, Luc; Bosgra, Sieto; Westerhout, Joost; Verwei, Miriam; Vilo, Jaak; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Hescheler, Jürgen; Hothorn, Ludwig; Bremer, Susanne; van Thriel, Christoph; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Hengstler, Jan G; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Leist, Marcel; Sachinidis, Agapios

2012-11-21

192

Non-invasive imaging of human embryos to predict developmental competence.  

PubMed

Although some aspects of human embryo development are conserved with those of other species, including the mouse, many aspects such as the timing of reprogramming and occurrence in the absence of transcription, duration of transcriptional silence and identity of genes with modulated expression in the oocyte to embryo transition, appear to be unique. Yet, frequently, the only data available for understanding the programs of early embryo development is that derived from model or agricultural species. We suggest that a specific understanding of basic aspects of human embryo development can affect a two-fold positive impact: 1) We can improve the health of a substantial subset of patients who seek assisted reproduction by improving diagnostics of viable embryo development in the clinic and, 2) we can use the information we gather to improve derivation and diagnosis of pluripotent stem cell lines (including reference or gold-standard human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and closely-related induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines) and their fates in novel basic and clinical applications. PMID:21802136

Reijo Pera, R A

2011-07-28

193

The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the essential properties of human intelligence, currently unparalleled in its power relative to other biological forms and relative to artificial forms of intelligence? We suggest that answering this question depends critically on understanding developmental process. This paper considers three principles potentially essential to building…

Smith, Linda B.; Breazeal, Cynthia

2007-01-01

194

Immunoinformatics and its relevance to understanding human immune disease.  

PubMed

Immunology research is characterized by the production of increasingly vast amounts of data, fuelled by genomics and proteomics projects and large-scale screening of pathogen- and antigen-host interactions. The need to store, manage and analyze this rapidly growing resource of experimental, clinical and epidemiologic data has given rise to the field known as immunoinformatics. Immunoinformatics represents computational methods and resources that are used in the study of immune function. It lies at the intersection of experimental and computational sciences and encompasses domain-specific databases, computational models and strategies drawn from artificial intelligence. For example, computational or artificial intelligence models are increasingly being used to simulate and improve our understanding of immune system behavior, such as antigen processing and presentation, as well as for analysis of host and pathogen genomes. Systemic models focus on simulating the behavior of cells or whole organs and can be used for applications such as tracking the course of infection or optimization of immunization protocols. Immunomics, the large-scale screening of immune processes, which includes powerful immunoinformatic tools, offers great promise for future translation of basic immunology research advances into clinical practice. Immunoinformatics is central to the research fields of immunogenomics, immunoproteomics and computational vaccinology. PMID:20477662

Brusic, Vladimir; Petrovsky, Nikolai

2005-05-01

195

Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. III: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations.  

PubMed Central

We review pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors that should be considered in the design and interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity studies. Toxicologic effects on the developing nervous system depend on the delivered dose, exposure duration, and developmental stage at which exposure occurred. Several pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) govern chemical disposition within the dam and the nervous system of the offspring. In addition, unique physical features such as the presence or absence of a placental barrier and the gradual development of the blood--brain barrier influence chemical disposition and thus modulate developmental neurotoxicity. Neonatal exposure may depend on maternal pharmacokinetic processes and transfer of the xenobiotic through the milk, although direct exposure may occur through other routes (e.g., inhalation). Measurement of the xenobiotic in milk and evaluation of biomarkers of exposure or effect following exposure can confirm or characterize neonatal exposure. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models that incorporate these and other determinants can estimate tissue dose and biologic response following in utero or neonatal exposure. These models can characterize dose--response relationships and improve extrapolation of results from animal studies to humans. In addition, pharmacologic data allow an experimenter to determine whether exposure to the test chemical is adequate, whether exposure occurs during critical periods of nervous system development, whether route and duration of exposure are appropriate, and whether developmental neurotoxicity can be differentiated from direct actions of the xenobiotic.

Dorman, D C; Allen, S L; Byczkowski, J Z; Claudio, L; Fisher, J E; Fisher, J W; Harry, G J; Li, A A; Makris, S L; Padilla, S; Sultatos, L G; Mileson, B E

2001-01-01

196

Developmental Changes of Prefrontal Activation in Humans: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Preschool Children and Adults  

PubMed Central

Previous morphological studies indicated that development of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) appears to continue into late adolescence. Although functional brain imaging studies have sought to determine the time course of functional development of the PFC, it is unclear whether the developmental change occurs after adolescence to adulthood and when it achieves a peak because of the narrow or discontinuous range in the participant's age. Moreover, previous functional studies have not focused on the anterior frontal region, that is, the frontopolar regions (BA9/10). Thus, the present study investigated the developmental change in frontopolar PFC activation associated with letter fluency task by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), in subjects from preschool children to adults. We analyzed the relative concentration of hemoglobin (?Hb) in the prefrontal cortex measured during the activation task in 48 typically-developing children and adolescents and 22 healthy adults. Consistent with prior morphological studies, we found developmental change with age in the children/adolescents. Moreover, the average ?oxy-Hb in adult males was significantly larger than that in child/adolescent males, but was not true for females. These data suggested that functional development of the PFC continues into late adolescence. Although the developmental change of the frontopolar PFC was independent of gender from childhood to adolescence, in adulthood a gender difference was shown.

Kawakubo, Yuki; Kono, Toshiaki; Takizawa, Ryu; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Ishii-Takahashi, Ayaka; Kasai, Kiyoto

2011-01-01

197

Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health and Ecological Connections. Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary and Assessment; Vector-Borne Disease Emergence and Resurgence (Overview, The Global Threat of Emergent/Reemergent Vector-Borne Diseases, Why We Do Not Understand the Ecological Connections Between the Environment and Human Health: The Ca...

2008-01-01

198

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information,

Katrina R Prescott; Andrew O M Wilkie

2007-01-01

199

Developmental Change in Perceived Contingency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Developmental change in perceived contingency was studied. Overall, the results point to a systematic, orderly, and evidently reliable developmental decline in illusory perceived contingency for chance activities. Young children really do not understand t...

J. R. Weisz

1982-01-01

200

The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others.…

Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

2004-01-01

201

Towards Better Human Robot Interaction: Understand Human Computer Interaction in Social Gaming Using a Video-Enhanced Diary Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer's decision making process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider as they can help

Swee Lan See; Mitchell Tan; Qin En Looi

2009-01-01

202

UNDERSTANDING WHAT DETERMINES THE FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF HUMAN GERMLINE MUTATIONS  

PubMed Central

Surprising findings about human germline mutation come from applying new technologies to detect rare mutations in germline DNA and from analyzing DNA sequence divergence between human and closely related species as well as human polymorphic variation. In this Review we discuss how these approaches affect our current understanding of the roles that sex, age, mutation hot spots, germline selection and genomic factors play in determining human base substitution mutation patterns and frequencies. To enhance progress, more extensive molecular data on the human germline with regard to mutation origin, DNA repair, epigenetic status and the consequences to gamete development of newly arisen mutations are needed.

Arnheim, Norman; Calabrese, Peter

2009-01-01

203

Developmental processes in face perception  

PubMed Central

Understanding the developmental origins of face recognition has been the goal of many studies of various approaches. Contributions of experience-expectant mechanisms (early component), like perceptual narrowing, and lifetime experience (late component) to face processing remain elusive. By investigating captive chimpanzees of varying age, a rare case of a species with lifelong exposure to non-conspecific faces at distinctive levels of experience, we can disentangle developmental components in face recognition. We found an advantage in discriminating chimpanzee above human faces in young chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant contribution of an early component that drives the perceptual system towards the conspecific morphology, and an advantage for human above chimpanzee faces in old chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant late component that shapes the perceptual system along the critical dimensions of the face exposed to. We simulate the contribution of early and late components using computational modeling and mathematically describe the underlying functions.

Dahl, Christoph D.; Rasch, Malte J.; Tomonaga, Masaki; Adachi, Ikuma

2013-01-01

204

Developmental processes in face perception.  

PubMed

Understanding the developmental origins of face recognition has been the goal of many studies of various approaches. Contributions of experience-expectant mechanisms (early component), like perceptual narrowing, and lifetime experience (late component) to face processing remain elusive. By investigating captive chimpanzees of varying age, a rare case of a species with lifelong exposure to non-conspecific faces at distinctive levels of experience, we can disentangle developmental components in face recognition. We found an advantage in discriminating chimpanzee above human faces in young chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant contribution of an early component that drives the perceptual system towards the conspecific morphology, and an advantage for human above chimpanzee faces in old chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant late component that shapes the perceptual system along the critical dimensions of the face exposed to. We simulate the contribution of early and late components using computational modeling and mathematically describe the underlying functions. PMID:23304435

Dahl, Christoph D; Rasch, Malte J; Tomonaga, Masaki; Adachi, Ikuma

2013-01-09

205

Developmental Continuity and Change in Responses to Social and Nonsocial Categories in Human Extrastriate Visual Cortex  

PubMed Central

It is well known that adult human extrastriate visual cortex contains areas that respond in a selective fashion to specific categories of visual stimuli. Three regions have been identified with particular regularity: the fusiform face area (FFA), which responds to faces more than to other objects; the parahippocampal place area (PPA), which responds selectively to images of houses, places, and visual scenes; and the extrastriate body area (EBA), which responds specifically to images of bodies and body parts. While the presence of these regions in the mature human brain is well-established, the degree to which children possess these areas and the degree of functional specialization of these areas in children of various ages has thus far remained unclear. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the development of the FFA, EBA, and PPA in healthy, typically developing 7- to 11-year-old children and adults. Our results revealed a right FFA and a bilateral EBA and PPA in the children that were localized in a way consistent with these same regions in adults. In addition, the response profiles of these regions were very similar in adults and children with comparable levels of functional specificity at all of the ages tested. We discuss the implications of this research for understanding abnormal regional specialization for social and nonsocial object categories in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Lopez, Juliana; Morris, James P.

2009-01-01

206

A 3'-flanking NF-kappaB site mediates developmental silencing of the human zeta-globin gene.  

PubMed Central

The central developmental event in the human (h)alpha-globin gene cluster is selective silencing of the zeta-globin gene as erythropoiesis shifts from primitive erythroblasts in the embryonic yolk sac to definitive erythroblasts in the fetal liver. Previous studies have demonstrated that full developmental silencing of the hzeta-globin gene in transgenic mice requires the proximal 2.1 kb of its 3'-flanking region. In the current report, we localize this silencing activity to a 108 bp segment located 1.2 kb 3' to the zeta-globin gene. Protein(s) in nuclear extracts from cell lines representing the fetal/adult erythroid stage bind specifically to an NF-kappaB motif located at this site. In contrast, this binding activity is lacking in the nuclear extract of an embryonic-stage erythroid line expressing zeta-globin. This complex is quantitatively recognized by antisera to the NF-kappaB p50 and to a lesser extent to p65 subunits. A two-base substitution that disrupts NF-kappaB site protein binding in vitro also results in the loss of the developmental silencing activity in vivo. The data suggest that NF-kappaB complex formation is a crucial component of hzeta-globin gene silencing. This finding expands the roles of this widely distributed transcriptional complex to include negative regulation in mammalian development.

Wang, Z; Liebhaber, S A

1999-01-01

207

Psychological perspective on human developmental stability and fluctuating asymmetry: Sources, applications and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years researchers from diverse disciplines in the life sciences have turned their attention to the issue of developmental stability in the organism. Their key measure, èuctuating asymmetry (FA), is deéned as the random, stress-induced deviations from perfect symmetry that develop during the development ofbilaterally symmetrical traits. This is regarded as a promising measure of the stress experienced by

Rotem Kowner

2001-01-01

208

GENETIC ANOMALIES IN MAMMALIAN GERM CELLS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The induction of heritable mutations in germ cells represents a potential health concern. his paper will highlight several themes in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis and their implications in reproductive and developmental risk. dditionally, factors that influence the yield of g...

209

Analysis of gene expression in a developmental context emphasizes distinct biological leitmotifs in human cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years, the molecular underpinnings of the long-observed resemblance between neoplastic and immature tissue have begun to emerge. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling has revealed similar gene expression signatures in several tumor types and early developmental stages of their tissue of origin. However, it remains unclear whether such a relationship is a universal feature of malignancy, whether heterogeneities exist

Kamila Naxerova; Carol J Bult; Anne Peaston; Karen Fancher; Barbara B Knowles; Simon Kasif; Isaac S Kohane

2008-01-01

210

EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Agents that may affect reproductive and developmental toxicity are of great concern to the general public. espite this, both the regulatory and public health arenas have been made somewhat haphazard use of the existing data when interpreting these health effects. ppropriate infor...

211

Can Developmental Disorders Reveal the Component Parts of the Human Language Faculty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential profiles of language impairments in genetic developmental disorders have been argued to reveal the component parts of the language system and perhaps even the genetic specification of those components. Focusing predominantly on a comparison between Williams syndrome and Specific Language Impairment, we ar- gue that the detailed level of behavioral fractionations observed in these disorders goes beyond the possible

Michael Thomas; Annette Karmiloff-Smith

2005-01-01

212

Isolation and functional characterization of human erythroblasts at distinct stages: implications for understanding of normal and disordered erythropoiesis in vivo.  

PubMed

Terminal erythroid differentiation starts from morphologically recognizable proerythroblasts that proliferate and differentiate to generate red cells. Although this process has been extensively studied in mice, its characterization in humans is limited. By examining the dynamic changes of expression of membrane proteins during in vitro human terminal erythroid differentiation, we identified band 3 and ?4 integrin as optimal surface markers for isolating 5 morphologically distinct populations at successive developmental stages. Functional analysis revealed that these purified cell populations have distinct mitotic capacity. Use of band 3 and ?4 integrin enabled us to isolate erythroblasts at specific developmental stages from primary human bone marrow. The ratio of erythroblasts at successive stages followed the predicted 1:2:4:8:16 pattern. In contrast, bone marrows from myelodysplastic syndrome patients exhibited altered terminal erythroid differentiation profiles. Thus, our findings not only provide new insights into the genesis of the red cell membrane during human terminal erythroid differentiation but also offer a means of isolating and quantifying each developmental stage during terminal erythropoiesis in vivo. Our findings should facilitate a comprehensive cellular and molecular characterization of each specific developmental stage of human erythroblasts and should provide a powerful means of identifying stage-specific defects in diseases associated with pathological erythropoiesis. PMID:23422750

Hu, Jingping; Liu, Jing; Xue, Fumin; Halverson, Gregory; Reid, Marion; Guo, Anqi; Chen, Lixiang; Raza, Azra; Galili, Naomi; Jaffray, Julie; Lane, Joseph; Chasis, Joel Anne; Taylor, Naomi; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

2013-02-19

213

The Role of Human Intelligence in the USAs 1960s Efforts to Understand Soviet Space Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent declassification of material from the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) and the archives of the US State Department provide several new insights into US intelligence's knowledge of Soviet Space Activities and sources of that knowledge. It is apparent that there was a significant human intelligence source providing information on subjects such as the USSR's Voskhod 3 mission and manned lunar program activities. This new understanding shows that US intelligence was employing the complete panoply of intelligence tools and that human intelligence appears to have provided many key understandings

Pesavento, P.

214

The developmental brain gene NPAS3 contains the largest number of accelerated regulatory sequences in the human genome.  

PubMed

To identify the evolutionary genetic novelties that contributed to shape human-specific traits such as the use of a complex language, long-term planning and exceptional learning abilities is one of the ultimate frontiers of modern biology. Evolutionary signatures of functional shifts could be detected by comparing noncoding regions that are highly conserved across mammals or primates and rapidly accumulated nucleotide substitutions only in the lineage leading to humans. As gene loci densely populated with human-accelerated elements (HAEs) are more likely to have contributed to human-specific novelties, we sought to identify the transcriptional units and genomic 1 Mb intervals of the entire human genome carrying the highest number of HAEs. To this end, we took advantage of four available data sets of human genomic accelerated regions obtained through different comparisons and algorithms and performed a meta-analysis of the combined data. We found that the brain developmental transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 3 (NPAS3) contains the largest cluster of noncoding-accelerated regions in the human genome with up to 14 elements that are highly conserved in mammals, including primates, but carry human-specific nucleotide substitutions. We then tested the ability of the 14 HAEs identified at the NPAS3 locus to act as transcriptional regulatory sequences in a reporter expression assay performed in transgenic zebrafish. We found that 11 out of the 14 HAEs present in NPAS3 act as transcriptional enhancers during development, particularly within the nervous system. As NPAS3 is known to play a crucial role during mammalian brain development, our results indicate that the high density of HAEs present in the human NPAS3 locus could have modified the spatiotemporal expression pattern of NPAS3 in the developing human brain and, therefore, contributed to human brain evolution. PMID:23408798

Kamm, Gretel B; Pisciottano, Francisco; Kliger, Rafi; Franchini, Lucía F

2013-02-13

215

The Developmental Brain Gene NPAS3 Contains the Largest Number of Accelerated Regulatory Sequences in the Human Genome  

PubMed Central

To identify the evolutionary genetic novelties that contributed to shape human-specific traits such as the use of a complex language, long-term planning and exceptional learning abilities is one of the ultimate frontiers of modern biology. Evolutionary signatures of functional shifts could be detected by comparing noncoding regions that are highly conserved across mammals or primates and rapidly accumulated nucleotide substitutions only in the lineage leading to humans. As gene loci densely populated with human-accelerated elements (HAEs) are more likely to have contributed to human-specific novelties, we sought to identify the transcriptional units and genomic 1 Mb intervals of the entire human genome carrying the highest number of HAEs. To this end, we took advantage of four available data sets of human genomic accelerated regions obtained through different comparisons and algorithms and performed a meta-analysis of the combined data. We found that the brain developmental transcription factor neuronal PAS domain-containing protein 3 (NPAS3) contains the largest cluster of noncoding-accelerated regions in the human genome with up to 14 elements that are highly conserved in mammals, including primates, but carry human-specific nucleotide substitutions. We then tested the ability of the 14 HAEs identified at the NPAS3 locus to act as transcriptional regulatory sequences in a reporter expression assay performed in transgenic zebrafish. We found that 11 out of the 14 HAEs present in NPAS3 act as transcriptional enhancers during development, particularly within the nervous system. As NPAS3 is known to play a crucial role during mammalian brain development, our results indicate that the high density of HAEs present in the human NPAS3 locus could have modified the spatiotemporal expression pattern of NPAS3 in the developing human brain and, therefore, contributed to human brain evolution.

Kamm, Gretel B.; Pisciottano, Francisco; Kliger, Rafi; Franchini, Lucia F.

2013-01-01

216

Towards Better Human Robot Interaction: Understand Human Computer Interaction in Social Gaming Using a Video-Enhanced Diary Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand\\u000a the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer’s decision making\\u000a process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider\\u000a as they can help

Swee Lan See; Mitchell Tan; Qin En Looi

217

Let7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are ~22nt-long small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression in eukaryotic cells. Based upon their importance in regulating development and terminal differentiation in model systems, erythrocyte microRNA profiles were examined at birth and in adults to determine if changes in their abundance coincide with the developmental phenomenon of hemoglobin switching.

Seung-Jae Noh; Samuel H Miller; Y Terry Lee; Sung-Ho Goh; Francesco M Marincola; David F Stroncek; Christopher Reed; Ena Wang; Jeffery L Miller

2009-01-01

218

Genomic features and computational identification of human microRNAs under long-range developmental regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Recent functional studies have demonstrated that many microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by RNA polymerase II in a specific\\u000a spatiotemporal manner during the development of organisms and play a key role in cell-lineage decisions and morphogenesis.\\u000a They are therefore functionally related to a number of key protein coding developmental genes, that form genomic regulatory\\u000a blocks (GRBs) with arrays of highly conserved

Ying Sheng; Christopher Previti

2011-01-01

219

Conservation of CD4+ T cell-dependent developmental mechanisms in the blood fluke pathogens of humans  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma blood flukes are trematode parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution that infect over 200 million people globally. We previously showed that Schistosoma mansoni growth and development in the mammalian host is dependent on signals from host CD4+ T cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie this dependence, we sought to determine the evolutionary origins and limits of this aspect of the host-pathogen relationship. By infecting RAG-1?/? mice with a range of different schistosome species and strains, we tested several hypotheses concerning the time during Schistosoma evolution at which this dependence arose, and whether this dependence is specific to Schistosoma or is also found in other blood flukes. Our data indicate that the developmental dependence on CD4+ T cells previously described for S. mansoni is conserved in the evolutionarily basal species Schistosoma japonicum, suggesting this developmental adaptation arose early in Schistosoma evolution. We also demonstrate that the development of the more evolutionarily-derived species Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum are dependent on adaptive immune signals. Together, these data suggest that the blood fluke parasites of humans utilize common mechanisms to infect their hosts and to co-opt immune signals in the coordination of parasite development. Thus, exploitation of host-schistosome interactions to impair or prevent parasite development may represent a novel approach to combating of all the schistosome pathogens of humans.

Lamb, Erika W.; Crow, Emily T.; Lim, K.C.; Liang, Yung-san; Lewis, Fred A.; Davies, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

220

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of conditions sharing as their common features impairment in social reciprocity,\\u000a developmental disturbances affecting communication, and manifestation of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism is the\\u000a prototypical pervasive developmental disorder, and others include Asperger's Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative\\u000a Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Critical to understanding these conditions\\u000a is appreciation of

Kathleen Koenig; Katherine D. Tsatsanis

221

The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)|

Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2003-01-01

222

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

223

The Circuit of Culture: A Strategy for Understanding the Evolving Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this conceptual article, the authors explore the possibilities of another approach to examining the human dimensions of wildland fire. They argue that our understanding of this issue could be enhanced by considering a cultural studies construct known as the “circuit of culture.” This cross-disciplinary perspective provides increased analytic power by accounting for the meaningful role of 5 cultural processes

Joseph G. Champ; Jeffrey J. Brooks

2010-01-01

224

Locke's Case for Religious Toleration: Its Neglected Foundation in the Essay Concerning Human Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Essay Concerning Human Understanding is considered Locke'smagnum opus, its relation to his political philosophy has been a perennial puzzle for scholars. Scholars have typically focused on the question of Locke's natural law doctrine in the Essay and the Two Treatises. This article takes a different approach to uncovering the political significance of the Essay by relating the theological

J. Judd Owen

2007-01-01

225

The Dolphin's (Tursiops truncatus) Understanding of Human Gazing and Pointing: Knowing What and Where  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested whether the understanding by dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) of human pointing and head-gazing cues extends to knowing the identity of an indicated object as well as its location. In Experiment 1, the dolphins Phoenix and Akeakamai processed the identity of a cued object (of 2 that were present), as shown by their success in selecting a matching object

Adam A. Pack; Louis M. Herman

2007-01-01

226

Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

2002-01-01

227

Understanding the Unconscious Brain: Can Humans process Emotional Information in a Non-Linear Way?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late seventies, the cognitive approach to emotion was more or less the only approach. Much of contemporary psychology has come to recognize that a great deal of human emotional functioning is rooted in unconscious processes. Evidence was found in many behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Although we are beginning to understand some of the mechanisms behind unconscious emotional information

Maurits van den Noort; Peggy Bosch; Kenneth Hugdahl

228

Toward new understandings of human–animal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

229

A non-human primateâ??s understanding of solidity: dissociations between seeing and acting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies often reveal a dissociation between what infants know as revealed by action and what they know as revealed by perception. We explored whether non-human primates exhibit a similar dissociation, focusing on what rhesus macaques know about solidity. In a series of search experiments, Hauser (2001) found that rhesus do not possess a complete understanding of solidity, searching below a

Laurie R. Santos; Marc D. Hauser

2002-01-01

230

UNESCO and the Associated Schools Project: Symbolic Affirmation of World Community, International Understanding, and Human Rights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The UNESCO Associated Schools Project emphasizes world community, human rights, and international understanding. This article investigates the emergence and global diffusion of the project from 1953 to 2001, estimating the influence of national, regional, and world characteristics on the likelihood of a country adopting a UNESCO school. It also…

Suarez, David F.; Ramirez, Francisco O.; Koo, Jeong-Woo

2009-01-01

231

Conceptions of Human-Computer Interaction: A Model for Understanding Student Errors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a human-computer interaction (HCI) conceptions model designed to help in the understanding of the cognitive processes involved when college students learn to program computers. Examines syntactic and algorithmic HCI operational errors and reviews conceptions based on natural language reasoning, independent computer reasoning, and…

Rath, Alex; Brown, David E.

1995-01-01

232

Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.  

EPA Science Inventory

The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

233

A new ontology (structured hierarchy) of human developmental anatomy for the first 7 weeks (Carnegie stages 1-20).  

PubMed

This paper describes a new ontology of human developmental anatomy covering the first 49 days [Carnegie stages (CS)1-20], primarily structured around the parts of organ systems and their development. The ontology includes more than 2000 anatomical entities (AEs) that range from the whole embryo, through organ systems and organ parts down to simple or leaf tissues (groups of cells with the same morphological phenotype), as well as features such as cavities. Each AE has assigned to it a set of facts of the form , with the relationships including starts_at and ends_at (CSs), part_of (there can be several parents) and is_a (this gives the type of tissue, from an organ system down to one of ~ 80 simple tissues predominantly composed of a single cell kind, which is also specified). Leaf tissues also have a develops_from link to its parent tissue. The ontology includes ~14 000 such facts, which are mainly from the literature and an earlier ontology of human developmental anatomy (EHDAA, now withdrawn). The relationships enable these facts to be integrated into a single, complex hierarchy (or mathematical graph) that was made and can be viewed in the OBO-Edit browser (oboedit.org). Each AE has an EHDAA2 ID that may be useful in an informatics context, while the ontology as a whole can be used for organizing databases of human development. It is also a knowledge resource: a user can trace the lineage of any tissue back to the egg, study the changes in cell phenotype that occur as a tissue develops, and use the structure to add further (e.g. molecular) information. The ontology may be downloaded from www.obofoundry.org. Queries and corrections should be sent to j.bard@ed.ac.uk. PMID:22973865

Bard, Jonathan

2012-09-14

234

Developmental origins of adult diseases  

PubMed Central

There is considerable evidence for the fact that early life environment in human beings are associated with future development of various metabolic diseases. Fetal programming and perinatal events appear to exert effects on later life that are independent of environmental risk factors in adults. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms are limited and remains unclear. However several animal models and epidemiological studies have shown this association, and it is assumed secondary to the penalties of developmental plasticity. In this review, we amalgamate facts from several disciplines to support this hypothesis.

Mathew, Vivek; Ayyar, S. Vageesh

2012-01-01

235

Mutations in the human SC4MOL gene encoding a methyl sterol oxidase cause psoriasiform dermatitis, microcephaly, and developmental delay.  

PubMed

Defects in cholesterol synthesis result in a wide variety of symptoms, from neonatal lethality to the relatively mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay found in individuals with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. We report here the identification of mutations in sterol-C4-methyl oxidase–like gene (SC4MOL) as the cause of an autosomal recessive syndrome in a human patient with psoriasiform dermatitis, arthralgias, congenital cataracts, microcephaly, and developmental delay. This gene encodes a sterol-C4-methyl oxidase (SMO), which catalyzes demethylation of C4-methylsterols in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. C4-Methylsterols are meiosis-activating sterols (MASs). They exist at high concentrations in the testis and ovary and play roles in meiosis activation. In this study, we found that an accumulation of MASs in the patient led to cell overproliferation in both skin and blood. SMO deficiency also substantially altered immunocyte phenotype and in vitro function. MASs serve as ligands for liver X receptors ? and ?(LXR? and LXR?), which are important in regulating not only lipid transport in the epidermis, but also innate and adaptive immunity. Deficiency of SMO represents a biochemical defect in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, the clinical spectrum of which remains to be defined. PMID:21285510

He, Miao; Kratz, Lisa E; Michel, Joshua J; Vallejo, Abbe N; Ferris, Laura; Kelley, Richard I; Hoover, Jacqueline J; Jukic, Drazen; Gibson, K Michael; Wolfe, Lynne A; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zwick, Michael E; Vockley, Jerry

2011-03-01

236

Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Human Genome Evolution12  

PubMed Central

Dietary transitions in human history have been suggested to play important roles in the evolution of mankind. Genetic variations caused by adaptation to diet during human evolution could have important health consequences in current society. The advance of sequencing technologies and the rapid accumulation of genome information provide an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize genetic variations in human populations and unravel the genetic basis of human evolution. Series of selection detection methods, based on various theoretical models and exploiting different aspects of selection signatures, have been developed. Their applications at the species and population levels have respectively led to the identification of human specific selection events that distinguish human from nonhuman primates and local adaptation events that contribute to human diversity. Scrutiny of candidate genes has revealed paradigms of adaptations to specific nutritional components and genome-wide selection scans have verified the prevalence of diet-related selection events and provided many more candidates awaiting further investigation. Understanding the role of diet in human evolution is fundamental for the development of evidence-based, genome-informed nutritional practices in the era of personal genomics.

Ye, Kaixiong; Gu, Zhenglong

2011-01-01

237

Recapitulation of endochondral bone formation using human adult mesenchymal stem cells as a paradigm for developmental engineering  

PubMed Central

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are typically used to generate bone tissue by a process resembling intramembranous ossification, i.e., by direct osteoblastic differentiation. However, most bones develop by endochondral ossification, i.e., via remodeling of hypertrophic cartilaginous templates. To date, endochondral bone formation has not been reproduced using human, clinically compliant cell sources. Here, we aimed at engineering tissues from bone marrow-derived, adult human MSC with an intrinsic capacity to undergo endochondral ossification. By analogy to embryonic limb development, we hypothesized that successful execution of the endochondral program depends on the initial formation of hypertrophic cartilaginous templates. Human MSC, subcutaneously implanted into nude mice at various stages of chondrogenic differentiation, formed bone trabeculae only when they had developed in vitro hypertrophic tissue structures. Advanced maturation in vitro resulted in accelerated formation of larger bony tissues. The underlying morphogenetic process was structurally and molecularly similar to the temporal and spatial progression of limb bone development in embryos. In particular, Indian hedgehog signaling was activated at early stages and required for the in vitro formation of hypertrophic cartilage. Subsequent development of a bony collar in vivo was followed by vascularization, osteoclastic resorption of the cartilage template, and appearance of hematopoietic foci. This study reveals the capacity of human MSC to generate bone tissue via an endochondral program and provides a valid model to study mechanisms governing bone development. Most importantly, this process could generate advanced grafts for bone regeneration by invoking a “developmental engineering” paradigm.

Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

2010-01-01

238

The age of criminal responsibility: developmental science and human rights perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The minimum age of criminal responsibility (MACR) was set at ten years old in 1963. Since then a deeper appreciation of children's rights and understanding of their unique capabilities and experiences has been gained. This paper seeks to examine the implications of these developments for our understanding of this MACR. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Research is reviewed that illuminates questions

Elly Farmer

2011-01-01

239

Understanding Human Action in Daily Life Scene based on Action Decomposition using Dictionary Terms and Bayesian Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a novel approach for understanding human actions in daily life scene by decomposing the human motions into actions primitive using the definition of the motion verb in dictionary and representing the relationship of the action words using Bayesian network. Because there are so many variant of human motions and the difficulty in naming the human

Juanda Lokman; Jun-ichi Imai; Masahide Kaneko

2008-01-01

240

In Utero Exposures, Infant Growth, and DNA Methylation of Repetitive Elements and Developmentally Related Genes in Human Placenta  

PubMed Central

Background: Fetal programming describes the theory linking environmental conditions during embryonic and fetal development with risk of diseases later in life. Environmental insults in utero may lead to changes in epigenetic mechanisms potentially affecting fetal development. Objectives: We examined associations between in utero exposures, infant growth, and methylation of repetitive elements and gene-associated DNA in human term placenta tissue samples. Methods: Placental tissues and associated demographic and clinical data were obtained from subjects delivering at Women and Infants Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island (USA). Methylation levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and the Alu element AluYb8 were determined in 380 placental samples from term deliveries using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Genomewide DNA methylation profiles were obtained in a subset of 184 samples using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadArray. Multiple linear regression, model-based clustering methods, and gene set enrichment analysis examined the association between birth weight percentile, demographic variables, and repetitive element methylation and gene-associated CpG locus methylation. Results: LINE-1 and AluYb8 methylation levels were found to be significantly positively associated with birth weight percentile (p = 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and were found to differ significantly among infants exposed to tobacco smoke and alcohol. Increased placental AluYb8 methylation was positively associated with average methylation among CpG loci found in polycomb group target genes; developmentally related transcription factor binding sites were overrepresented for differentially methylated loci associated with both elements. Conclusions: Our results suggest that repetitive element methylation markers, most notably AluYb8 methylation, may be susceptible to epigenetic alterations resulting from the intrauterine environment and play a critical role in mediating placenta function, and may ultimately inform on the developmental basis of health and disease.

Wilhelm-Benartzi, Charlotte S.; Houseman, E. Andres; Maccani, Matthew A.; Poage, Graham M.; Koestler, Devin C.; Langevin, Scott M.; Gagne, Luc A.; Banister, Carolyn E.; Padbury, James F.

2011-01-01

241

Viewpoint invariants from three-dimensional data: The role of reflection in human activity understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activity understanding from three-dimensional data, such as from depth cameras, requires viewpointinvariant matching. In this paper, we propose a new method of constructing invariants that allows distinction between isometries based on rotation, which preserve handedness, and those that involve reflection, which reverse right and left hands. The state-of-the-art in viewpoint invariants uses either global descriptors such as moments or

Ramakrishna Kakarala; Prabhu Kaliamoorthi; Wanqing Li

2011-01-01

242

Understanding the continuum of discrete-trial traditional behavioral to social-pragmatic developmental approaches in communication enhancement for young children with autism/PDD.  

PubMed

Clinicians are faced with the challenge of making informed decisions amidst heated debates over the most effective treatment approaches for young children with autism. This article provides a more specific focus to this debate by considering the practice of enhancing spontaneous language and related social-communicative abilities of young children with autism/pervasive developmental disorder (PPD). First, a historical perspective of the evolution of different approaches for enhancing communication and related abilities is presented, followed by a description of characteristics of the approaches. The approaches are described along a continuum from massed discrete trial, traditional behavioral to social-pragmatic, developmental. The current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of early services for children with autism/PDD is examined and conclusions are presented with consideration of the need for more meaningful outcome measures than are currently used for the next generation of outcome research. PMID:9857391

Prizant, B M; Wetherby, A M

1998-01-01

243

45 CFR 1385.4 - Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities. 1385.4 Section 1385...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS...

2009-10-01

244

45 CFR 1386.22 - Access to records, facilities and individuals with developmental disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to records, facilities and individuals with developmental disabilities. 1386.22 Section 1386...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT...

2009-10-01

245

45 CFR 1385.4 - Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Rights of individuals with developmental disabilities. 1385.4 Section 1385...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS...

2010-10-01

246

45 CFR 1386.22 - Access to records, facilities and individuals with developmental disabilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to records, facilities and individuals with developmental disabilities. 1386.22 Section 1386...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT...

2010-10-01

247

45 CFR 1386.32 - Periodic reports: Federal assistance to State Developmental Disabilities Councils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Periodic reports: Federal assistance to State Developmental Disabilities Councils. 1386.32 Section...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT...

2012-10-01

248

45 CFR 1386.32 - Periodic reports: Federal assistance to State Developmental Disabilities Councils.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Periodic reports: Federal assistance to State Developmental Disabilities Councils. 1386.32 Section...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT...

2011-10-01

249

Visualization of the metaphase II meiotic spindle in living human oocytes using the Polscope enables the prediction of embryonic developmental competence after ICSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Meiotic spindles in living human oocytes can be visualized by the Polscope. This study investi- gated the relationship between the presence\\/location of the spindle in metaphase II (MII) oocytes and developmental competence of embryos in vitro. METHODS: The spindles in 626 MII oocytes were examined by the Polscope and divided into six groups (A-F) based on the presence or

Jeong-Hee Moon; Chang-Seop Hyun; Seok-Won Lee; Weon-Young Son; San-Hyun Yoon; Jin-Ho Lim

2003-01-01

250

Human developmental neurotoxicity of methylmercury: Impact of variables and risk modifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental and food toxicant which has long been known to affect neurodevelopment in both humans and experimental animals. Risk assessment for MeHg is mainly based on human data coming from the massive episodes of poisoning in Japan and Iraq, as well as from large scale epidemiological studies concerning childhood development and neurotoxicity in relation to

Anna F. Castoldi; Carolina Johansson; Natalia Onishchenko; Teresa Coccini; Elisa Roda; Marie Vahter; Sandra Ceccatelli; Luigi Manzo

2008-01-01

251

Global Developmental Gene Expression and Pathway Analysis of Normal Brain Development and Mouse Models of Human Neuronal Migration Defects  

PubMed Central

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3?), and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can be used to define novel candidates for related human diseases.

Pramparo, Tiziano; Libiger, Ondrej; Jain, Sonia; Li, Hong; Youn, Yong Ha; Hirotsune, Shinji; Schork, Nicholas J.; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

2011-01-01

252

The Extended Nutrigenomics - Understanding the Interplay between the Genomes of Food, Gut Microbes, and Human Host  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive investigation of nutritional health effects at the molecular level requires the understanding of the interplay between three genomes, the food, the gut microbial, and the human host genome. Food genomes are researched for discovery and exploitation of macro- and micronutrients as well as specific bioactives, with those genes coding for bioactive proteins and peptides being of central interest. The human gut microbiota encompasses a complex ecosystem in the intestine with profound impact on host metabolism. It is being studied at genomic and, more recently, also at proteomic and metabonomic level. Humans are being characterized at the level of genetic pre-disposition and inter-individual variability in terms of (i) response to nutritional interventions and direction of health trajectories; (ii) epigenetic, metabolic programming at certain life stages with health consequences later in life and even for subsequent generations; and (iii) acute genomic expression as a holistic response to diet, monitored at gene transcript, protein and metabolite level. Modern nutrition science explores health-related aspects of bioactive food components, thereby promoting health, preventing, or delaying the onset of disease, optimizing performance and assessing benefits and risks in individuals and subpopulations. Personalized nutrition means adapting food to individual needs, depending on the human host’s life stage, -style, and -situation. Traditionally, nutrigenomics and nutri(epi)genetics are seen as the key sciences to understand human variability in preferences and requirements for diet as well as responses to nutrition. This article puts the three nutrition and health-relevant genomes into perspective, namely the food, the gut microbial and the human host’s genome, and calls for an “extended nutrigenomics” approach in order to build the future tools for personalized nutrition, health maintenance, and disease prevention. We discuss examples of these genomes, proteomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes under the definition of genomics as the overarching term covering essentially all Omics rather than the sole study of DNA and RNA.

Kussmann, Martin; Van Bladeren, Peter J.

2011-01-01

253

Genomic features and computational identification of human microRNAs under long-range developmental regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Recent functional studies have demonstrated that many microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by RNA polymerase II in a specific spatiotemporal manner during the development of organisms and play a key role in cell-lineage decisions and morphogenesis. They are therefore functionally related to a number of key protein coding developmental genes, that form genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) with arrays of highly conserved non-coding elements (HCNEs) functioning as long-range enhancers that collaboratively regulate the expression of their target genes. Given this functional similarity as well as recent zebrafish transgenesis assays showing that the miR-9 family is indeed regulated by HCNEs with enhancer activity, we hypothesized that this type of miRNA regulation is prevalent. In this paper, we therefore systematically investigate the regulatory landscape around conserved self-transcribed miRNAs (ST miRNAs), with their own known or computationally inferred promoters, by analyzing the hallmarks of GRB target genes. These include not only the density of HCNEs in their vicinity but also the presence of large CpG islands (CGIs) and distinct patterns of histone modification marks associated with developmental genes. Results Our results show that a subset of the conserved ST miRNAs we studied shares properties similar to those of protein-coding GRB target genes: they are located in regions of significantly higher HCNE/enhancer binding density and are more likely to be associated with CGIs. Furthermore, their putative promoters have both activating as well as silencing histone modification marks during development and differentiation. Based on these results we used both an elevated HCNE density in the genomic vicinity as well as the presence of a bivalent promoter to identify 29 putative GRB target miRNAs/miRNA clusters, over two-thirds of which are known to play a role during development and differentiation. Furthermore these predictions include miRNAs of the miR-9 family, which are the only experimentally verified GRB target miRNAs. Conclusions A subset of the conserved miRNA loci we investigated exhibits typical characteristics of GRB target genes, which may partially explain their complex expression profiles during development.

2011-01-01

254

Spatial frequency discrimination learning in normal and developmentally impaired human vision  

PubMed Central

Perceptual learning effects demonstrate that the adult visual system retains neural plasticity. If perceptual learning holds any value as a treatment tool for amblyopia, trained improvements in performance must generalise. Here we investigate whether spatial frequency discrimination learning generalises within task to other spatial frequencies, and across task to contrast sensitivity. Before and after training, we measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency discrimination (at a range of reference frequencies 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 c/deg). During training, normal and amblyopic observers were divided into three groups. Each group trained on a spatial frequency discrimination task at one reference frequency (2, 4, or 8 c/deg). Normal and amblyopic observers who trained at lower frequencies showed a greater rate of within task learning (at their reference frequency) compared to those trained at higher frequencies. Compared to normals, amblyopic observers showed greater within task learning, at the trained reference frequency. Normal and amblyopic observers showed asymmetrical transfer of learning from high to low spatial frequencies. Both normal and amblyopic subjects showed transfer to contrast sensitivity. The direction of transfer for contrast sensitivity measurements was from the trained spatial frequency to higher frequencies, with the bandwidth and magnitude of transfer greater in the amblyopic observers compared to normals. The findings provide further support for the therapeutic efficacy of this approach and establish general principles that may help develop more effective protocols for the treatment of developmental visual deficits.

Astle, Andrew T.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

2010-01-01

255

Role of growth factors in the developmental regulation of the human fetal adrenal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the human fetal adrenals is characterized by rapid growth and high levels of steroidogenic activity during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy. By midgestation, the human fetal adrenals are composed of two distinct cortical zones: the predominant fetal zone, which occupies 80–90% of the cortical volume and produces large amounts of the ?5-steroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and the narrow definitive

Sam Mesiano; Robert B. Jaffe

1997-01-01

256

NF-Y recruits both transcription activator and repressor to modulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression of human ?-globin gene.  

PubMed

The human embryonic, fetal and adult ?-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal ?-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal ?-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal ?-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed ?-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of ?-globin gene. PMID:23071749

Zhu, Xingguo; Wang, Yongchao; Pi, Wenhu; Liu, Hui; Wickrema, Amittha; Tuan, Dorothy

2012-10-10

257

NF-Y Recruits Both Transcription Activator and Repressor to Modulate Tissue- and Developmental Stage-Specific Expression of Human ?-Globin Gene  

PubMed Central

The human embryonic, fetal and adult ?-like globin genes provide a paradigm for tissue- and developmental stage-specific gene regulation. The fetal ?-globin gene is expressed in fetal erythroid cells but is repressed in adult erythroid cells. The molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional switch during erythroid development is not completely understood. Here, we used a combination of in vitro and in vivo assays to dissect the molecular assemblies of the active and the repressed proximal ?-globin promoter complexes in K562 human erythroleukemia cell line and primary human fetal and adult erythroid cells. We found that the proximal ?-globin promoter complex is assembled by a developmentally regulated, general transcription activator NF-Y bound strongly at the tandem CCAAT motifs near the TATA box. NF-Y recruits to neighboring DNA motifs the developmentally regulated, erythroid transcription activator GATA-2 and general repressor BCL11A, which in turn recruit erythroid repressor GATA-1 and general repressor COUP-TFII to form respectively the NF-Y/GATA-2 transcription activator hub and the BCL11A/COUP-TFII/GATA-1 transcription repressor hub. Both the activator and the repressor hubs are present in both the active and the repressed ?-globin promoter complexes in fetal and adult erythroid cells. Through changes in their levels and respective interactions with the co-activators and co-repressors during erythroid development, the activator and the repressor hubs modulate erythroid- and developmental stage-specific transcription of ?-globin gene.

Zhu, Xingguo; Wang, Yongchao; Pi, Wenhu; Liu, Hui; Wickrema, Amittha; Tuan, Dorothy

2012-01-01

258

Understanding the nature of wealth and its effects on human fitness.  

PubMed

Studying fitness consequences of variable behavioural, physiological and cognitive traits in contemporary populations constitutes the specific contribution of human behavioural ecology to the study of human diversity. Yet, despite 30 years of evolutionary anthropological interest in the determinants of fitness, there exist few principled investigations of the diverse sources of wealth that might reveal selective forces during recent human history. To develop a more holistic understanding of how selection shapes human phenotypic traits, be these transmitted by genetic or cultural means, we expand the conventional focus on associations between socioeconomic status and fitness to three distinct types of wealth-embodied, material and relational. Using a model selection approach to the study of women's success in raising offspring in an African horticultural population (the Tanzanian Pimbwe), we find that the top performing models consistently include relational and material wealth, with embodied wealth as a less reliable predictor. Specifically, child mortality risk is increased with few household assets, parent nonresidency, child legitimacy, and one or more parents having been accused of witchcraft. The use of multiple models to test various hypotheses greatly facilitates systematic comparative analyses of human behavioural diversity in wealth accrual and investment across different kinds of societies. PMID:21199839

Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Beheim, Bret A

2011-02-12

259

Understanding the basis of auriculocondylar syndrome: Insights from human, mouse and zebrafish genetic studies.  

PubMed

Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth defect syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24123988

Clouthier, David E; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Tavares, Andre L P; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T

2013-10-04

260

Developmental Silencing of Human ?-Globin Gene Expression Is Mediated by the Transcriptional Repressor RREB1*  

PubMed Central

The mammalian embryonic ?-globin genes, including that of humans, are expressed at the early embryonic stage and then switched off during erythroid development. This autonomous silencing of the ?-globin gene transcription is probably regulated by the cooperative work of various protein-DNA and protein-protein complexes formed at the ?-globin promoter and its upstream enhancer (HS-40). We present data here indicating that a protein-binding motif, ZF2, contributes to the repression of the HS-40-regulated human ?-promoter activity in erythroid cell lines and in transgenic mice. Combined site-directed mutagenesis and EMSA suggest that repression of the human ?-globin promoter is mediated through binding of the zinc finger factor RREB1 to ZF2. This model is further supported by the observation that human ?-globin gene transcription is elevated in the human erythroid K562 cell line or the primary erythroid culture upon RNA interference (RNAi)2 knockdown of RREB1 expression. These data together suggest that RREB1 is a putative repressor for the silencing of the mammalian ?-globin genes during erythroid development. Because ?-globin is a powerful inhibitor of HbS polymerization, our experiments have provided a foundation for therapeutic up-regulation of ?-globin gene expression in patients with severe hemoglobinopathies.

Chen, Ruei-Lin; Chou, Yu-Chi; Lan, Yii-Jenq; Huang, Ting-Shuo; Shen, C.-K. James

2010-01-01

261

Role of gene order in developmental control of human gamma- and beta-globin gene expression.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of gene order on globin gene developmental regulation, we produced transgenic mice containing two tandemly arranged gamma- or beta-globin or gamma beta- and beta gamma-globin genes linked to a 2.5-kb cassette containing sequences of the locus control region (LCR). Analysis of constructs containing two identical gamma or beta genes assessed the effect of gene order on globin gene expression, while analysis of constructs containing tandemly arranged gamma and beta genes assessed any additional effects of the trans-acting environment. When two gamma genes were tandemly linked to the LCR, expression from the proximal gamma gene was three- to fourfold higher than expression from the distal gamma gene, and the ratio of proximal to distal gene expression remained unchanged throughout development. Similarly, when two beta genes were tandemly linked to the LCR, the proximal beta gene was predominantly expressed throughout development. These results indicate that proximity to LCR increases gene expression, perhaps by influencing the frequency of interaction between the LCR and globin gene promoters. An arrangement where the gamma gene was proximal and the beta gene distal to the LCR resulted in predominant gamma-gene expression in the embryo. When the order was reversed and the gamma gene was placed distally to the LCR, gamma-gene expression in the embryo was still up to threefold higher than expression of the LCR-proximal beta gene. These findings suggest that the embryonic trans-acting environment interacts preferentially with the gamma genes irrespective of their order or proximity to the LCR. We conclude that promoter competition rather than gene order plays the major role in globin gene switching. PMID:8336720

Peterson, K R; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

1993-08-01

262

Maturation and developmental stage-related changes in fetal globin gene expression are reproduced in transiently transfected primary adult human erythroblasts.  

PubMed

A novel system is described, which uses transfection of primary human erythroblasts for the study of gene regulation in differentiating human red cells. This system includes a protocol for liquid culture of erythroid progenitors, which reproduces developmental differences in globin gene expression found between adult and cord blood as well as the maturation-related changes in fetal globin levels observed in adult cells. Reporter constructs driven by globin gene promoters were electroporated into adult and cord blood-derived erythroblasts at different time points during culture. Both the developmental stage and maturation-related differences in endogenous fetal and adult globin gene expression could be reproduced by the transiently transfected reporter constructs. Transfection of primary human erythroblasts during differentiation provides a previously unavailable opportunity to study dynamic aspects of erythropoiesis. PMID:9923443

Ni, H; Yang, X D; Stoeckert, C J

1999-01-01

263

Developmental Changes in the Discrimination of Dynamic Human Actions in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent evidence suggests that adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to assess…

Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

264

A human sexuality program for developmentally disabled women in a sheltered workshop setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a human sexuality program at a sheltered workshop involving primarily emotionally and mentally disabled women, designed to respond to the need to learn about their sexuality and discuss such feelings openly. Because of their limited reading skills, most retarded individuals do not possess the ability to learn about general sexual information from pamphlets and booklets which are

Denise Thaler Green

1983-01-01

265

Developmental competence of immature and failed/abnormally fertilized human oocytes in nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer holds great promise for basic studies of reprogramming human somatic cells and for the potential development of novel cell-based therapeutics. The aim of this study was to examine experimental aspects of human nuclear transfer via use of an abundant source of oocytes, those that are routinely discarded from assisted reproduction clinics. The results suggest and reinforce several findings based on the analysis of multiple parameters: first, it was observed that supplementation of commercial culture media with hormones promoted embryo development after parthenogenetic activation. Second, the use of the chemical activation reagent puromycin resulted in significant differences in cleavage rates in oocytes that were failed/abnormally fertilized after intracytoplasmic sperm injection relative to those from IVF (P < 0.05). Third, cycloheximide promoted cleavage rates >/=40% in both groups of oocytes; moreover, two blastocysts were produced following cycloheximide treatment. Finally, the use of a subset of oocytes for nuclear transfer resulted in cleaved embryos that expressed green fluorescent protein from a transgene in donor nuclei from human embryonic stem cells. In light of these results, it is suggested that the discarded oocytes can be used to investigate new human nuclear transfer protocols for embryonic stem cell derivation. PMID:18492373

McElroy, Sohyun Lee; Kee, Kehkooi; Tran, Nam; Menses, Juanito; Giudice, Linda C; Reijo Pera, Renee A

2008-05-01

266

Developmental Changes in the Discrimination of Dynamic Human Actions in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence suggests that adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to assess…

Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

267

Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait  

SciTech Connect

The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Saltman, D.L. (Genelabs, Inc., Redwood City, CA (United States))

1991-12-01

268

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions.

Prescott, Katrina R; Wilkie, Andrew O M

2007-01-01

269

Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.  

PubMed

A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained. PMID:21922641

Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

2011-09-15

270

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-08-01

271

Cognitive and Behavioral Distribution of Rewards: Developmental and Instructional Tests of Young Children's Understanding and Application of Some Principles of Equity. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two studies attempted to determine: (1) at what age children understand and apply the principle of equity; and (2) whether theory based instruction is effective in helping young children understand the principle of equity. Further, do children exposed to such instruction perform better on a behavioral test than children not exposed to such…

Vance, Barbara

272

Symmetry States of the physical space: an expanded reference frame for understanding human consciousness.  

PubMed

A remarkable phenomenon is taking place around the globe, one that I have been fortunate enough to witness and in which to participate. The relics of the historical Buddha, also known as Siddhartha or Shakyamuni Buddha, still survive today over 2500 years since his enlightenment, and, for the first time in history, are traveling throughout the world. In common Buddhist practice, relics are highly venerated and treasured remains of realized Masters. It is very rare for relics to travel from city to city and be available for viewing by the general public. The Buddha relic tour is demonstrating that a direct experience of the spiritual state is not mysterious, nor is it for a select few. The spiritual state, here defined as a universal theme of unconditional love, is a component of human evolutionary unfoldment, a process through which thousands of human beings have passed, and through which thousands more will pass. We are "waking up" as a species. Consequently, more information is required about this transformation of human consciousness. The Buddha relics offer us a priceless means by which we can obtain a richer perspective about the nature of human consciousness, spiritual realities such as love, and ultimately understanding ourselves. PMID:22106870

Manek, Nisha J

2011-11-22

273

B lymphopoiesis is active throughout human life, but there are developmental age-related changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed several questions concerning age-related changes in hu- man B lymphopoiesis. The relative abun- dance of pro-B, pre-B, immature, naive, and mature B cells among the CD19 lymphocyte fraction of human bone mar- row was found not to change appreciably over the interval between 24 and 88 years of age. Moreover, proliferation of pro-B and large pre-B cells

Maria Isabel; D. Rossi; Takafumi Yokota; Kay L. Medina; Karla P. Garrett; Philip C. Comp; Arthur H. Schipul; Paul W. Kincade

2003-01-01

274

Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Human Placenta: Maternal Immunity and Developmentally Regulated Receptors on Trophoblasts Converge  

Microsoft Academic Search

During human pregnancy, CMV infects the uterine-placental interface with varied outcomes from fetal intrauterine growth restriction\\u000a to permanent birth defects, depending on the level of maternal immunity and gestational age. Virus spreads from infected uterine\\u000a blood vessels, amplifies by replicating in decidual cells, and disseminates to the placenta in immune complexes. Cytotrophoblasts\\u000a – epithelial cells of the placenta – differentiate

L. Pereira; E. Maidji

275

Translation efficiency in humans: tissue specificity, global optimization and differences between developmental stages  

PubMed Central

Various studies in unicellular and multicellular organisms have shown that codon bias plays a significant role in translation efficiency (TE) by co-adaptation to the tRNA pool. Yet, in humans and other mammals the role of codon bias is still an open question, with contradictory results from different studies. Here we address this question, performing a large-scale tissue-specific analysis of TE in humans, using the tRNA Adaptation Index (tAI) as a direct measure for TE. We find tAI to significantly correlate with expression levels both in tissue-specific and in global expression measures, testifying to the TE of human tissues. Interestingly, we find significantly higher correlations in adult tissues as opposed to fetal tissues, suggesting that the tRNA pool is more adjusted to the adult period. Optimization based analysis suggests that the tRNA pool—codon bias co-adaptation is globally (and not tissue-specific) driven. Additionally, we find that tAI correlates with several measures related to the protein functionally importance, including gene essentiality. Using inferred tissue-specific tRNA pools lead to similar results and shows that tissue-specific genes are more adapted to their tRNA pool than other genes and that related sets of functional gene groups are translated efficiently in each tissue. Similar results are obtained for other mammals. Taken together, these results demonstrate the role of codon bias in TE in humans, and pave the way for future studies of tissue-specific TE in multicellular organisms.

Waldman, Yedael Y.; Tuller, Tamir; Shlomi, Tomer; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

2010-01-01

276

Species differences in developmental toxicity of epoxiconazole and its relevance to humans.  

PubMed

Epoxiconazole, a triazole-based fungicide, was tested in toxicokinetic, prenatal and pre-postnatal toxicity studies in guinea pigs, following oral (gavage) administration at several dose levels (high dose: 90 mg/kg body weight per day). Maternal toxicity was evidenced by slightly increased abortion rates and by histopathological changes in adrenal glands, suggesting maternal stress. No compound-related increase in the incidence of malformations or variations was observed in the prenatal study. In the pre-postnatal study, epoxiconazole did not adversely affect gestation length, parturition, or postnatal growth and development. Administration of epoxiconazole did not alter circulating estradiol levels. Histopathological examination of the placentas did not reveal compound-related effects. The results in guinea pigs are strikingly different to those observed in pregnant rats, in which maternal estrogen depletion, pathological alteration of placentas, increased gestation length, late fetal death, and dystocia were observed after administration of epoxiconazole. In the studies reported here, analysis of maternal plasma concentrations and metabolism after administration of radiolabeled epoxiconazole demonstrated that the different results in rats and guinea pigs were not due to different exposures of the animals. A comprehensive comparison of hormonal regulation of pregnancy and birth in murid rodents and primates indicates that the effects on pregnancy and parturition observed in rats are not applicable to humans. In contrast, the pregnant guinea pig shares many similarities to pregnant humans regarding hormonal regulation and is therefore considered to be a suitable species for extrapolation of related effects to humans. PMID:23630118

Schneider, Steffen; Hofmann, Thomas; Stinchcombe, Stefan; Moreno, Maria Cecilia Rey; Fegert, Ivana; Strauss, Volker; Gröters, Sibylle; Fabian, Eric; Thiaener, Jutta; Fussell, Karma C; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

2013-04-29

277

Developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of arithmetic skills in an otherwise-normal child. Although poor teaching, environmental deprivation, and low intelligence have been implicated in the etiology of developmental dyscalculia, current data indicate that this learning disability is a brain-based disorder with a familial-genetic predisposition. The neurologic substrate of developmental dyscalculia is thought to involve both hemispheres, particularly the left parietotemporal areas. Developmental dyscalculia is a common cognitive handicap; its prevalence in the school population is about 5-6%, a frequency similar to those of developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unlike these, however, it is as common in females as in males. Developmental dyscalculia frequently is encountered in neurologic disorders, examples of which include attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. The long-term prognosis of developmental dyscalculia is unknown; it appears, however, to persist, at least for the short-term, in about half of affected preteen children. The consequences of developmental dyscalculia and its impact on education, employment, and psychologic well-being of affected individuals are unknown. PMID:11516606

Shalev, R S; Gross-Tsur, V

2001-05-01

278

Amino acid turnover by human oocytes is influenced by gamete developmental competence, patient characteristics and gonadotrophin treatment  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Can amino acid profiling differentiate between human oocytes with differing competence to mature to metaphase II (MII) in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER Oocytes which remained arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage after 24 h of in vitro maturation (IVM) displayed differences in the depletion/appearance of amino acids compared with oocytes which progressed to MII and patient age, infertile diagnosis and ovarian stimulation regime significantly affected oocyte amino acid turnover during IVM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Amino acid profiling has been proposed as a technique which can distinguish between human pronucleate zygotes and cleavage stage embryos with the potential to develop to the blastocyst stage and implant to produce a pregnancy and those that arrest. Most recently, the amino acid turnover by individual bovine oocytes has been shown to be predictive of oocyte developmental competence as indicated by the gamete's capacity to undergo fertilization and early cleavage divisions in vitro. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The study was conducted between March 2005 and March 2010. A total of 216 oocytes which were at the GV or metaphase I (MI) stages at the time of ICSI were donated by 67 patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTINGS, METHODS The research was conducted in university research laboratories affiliated to a hospital-based infertility clinic. Oocytes were cultured for 24 h and the depletion/appearance of amino acids was measured during the final 6 h of IVM. Amino acid turnover was analysed in relation to oocyte meiotic progression, patient age, disease aetiology and controlled ovarian stimulation regime. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The depletion/appearance of key amino acids was linked to the maturation potential of human oocytes in vitro. Oocytes which arrested at the GV stage (n = 9) depleted significantly more valine and isoleucine than those which progressed to MI (n = 32) or MII (n = 107) (P < 0.05). Glutamate, glutamine, arginine and valine depletion or appearance differed in MII versus degenerating oocytes (n = 20) (P < 0.05). Glutamine, arginine, methionine, phenylalanine, total depletion and total turnover all differed in oocytes from patients aged < 35 years versus patients ?35 years (P < 0.05). MII oocytes obtained following ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH depleted more isoleucine (P < 0.05) and more alanine and lysine (P < 0.05) appeared than oocytes from hMG-stimulated cycles. MII oocytes from patients with a polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology (n = 33) depleted more serine (P < 0.05) than oocytes from women with normal ovaries (n = 61). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Immature oocytes collected at the time of ICSI were used as the model for human oocyte maturation. These oocytes have therefore failed to respond to the ovulatory hCG trigger in vivo (they are meiotically incompetent), and have limited capacity to support embryo development in vitro. The lack of cumulus cells and stress of the conditions in vitro may have influenced turnover of amino acids, and owing to the small sample sizes further studies are required to confirm these findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The findings provide support for the hypothesis that oocyte metabolism reflects oocyte quality. Longitudinal studies are required to link these functional metabolic indices of human oocyte quality with embryo developmental competence. Oocyte amino acid profiling may be a useful tool to quantify the impact of new assisted reproduction technologies (ART) on oocyte quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS This project was funded by the UK Biology and Biotechnology Research Council (BB/C007395/1) and the Medical Research Council (G 0800250). K.E.H was in receipt of a British Fertility Society/Merck Serono studentship. H.J.L. is a shareholder in Novocellus Ltd, a company which seeks to devise a non-invasive biochemical test of embryo health.

Hemmings, K.E.; Maruthini, D.; Vyjayanthi, S.; Hogg, J.E.; Balen, A.H.; Campbell, B.K.; Leese, H.J.; Picton, H.M.

2013-01-01

279

Three dimensional anatomy of complete duct systems in human breast: pathological and developmental implications.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To reconstruct the arrangement in space of all major ducts and their branches from nipple to periphery of a human breast obtained at necropsy. METHODS: Duct tracing through cleared haematoxylin stained 2 mm sub-gross coronal slices of a complete necropsy breast and computer modelling of duct territories. RESULTS: All branches were traced for 10 complete duct systems of a single breast from a 19 year old girl. Their complexity prevented comprehensive modelling of individual ducts and rami using available computer software, but the territories (catchments) drained by individual duct systems did not overlap and could be reconstructed. Catchment volume and length of the central unbranched duct draining each catchment varied greatly. Duct spacing showed non-random uniformity which is also seen in rodent mammary glands. CONCLUSIONS: These spatial relations are consistent with mutual growth inhibition between duct systems during mammary development. Although there is no clear morphological distinction between mammary duct end buds and lateral buds in women, the present study does suggest that processes of branching morphogenesis occurring during development of the breasts in women do show some analogies with the growth of end buds/lateral branches/alveoli during rodent mammary gland development. Rodent models of mammary development may usefully suggest hypotheses about human breast biology. Less laborious methods of three dimensional reconstruction of mammary ducts and their branches from sub-gross slices, allowing more specimens to be studied, would be valuable for the study of normal human breast development and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia. Increasing power and decreasing costs of high definition image processing hardware and software may make such endeavours practicable. Images

Moffat, D F; Going, J J

1996-01-01

280

Do robots have goals? How agent cues influence action understanding in non-human primates.  

PubMed

The capacity to understand goals and intentions emerges early and universally in humans and is a basic precondition for the interpretation and prediction of others' actions, be it other humans, animals, or even robots. It is unclear, however, how this goal attribution system is acquired, in particular with regard to the role of prior experience with the actor and visual characteristics that are necessary. In four preferential looking time experiments we examined how familiarity, appearance, and movement of different agents influence the capability of marmosets to perceive the behavior of these agents as goal directed. To this end we compared the monkeys' reactions to the same goal-directed actions performed by four different agents: a human actor, a conspecific, a monkey-like small robot, and a black box. The results showed that monkeys attributed goals to the human actor, the conspecific, and the robot, but not the box. Thus, the monkeys extended their capacity for goal attribution not only to familiar agents, but also to agents not previously encountered, provided that they had some conspecific-like features. Our results suggest that in non-human primates, the system for goal attribution does not require previous experience with a specific agent or agent-category, as long as it exhibits certain visual characteristics like face, body or legs. Furthermore, the results suggest that the capacity to attribute goals emerged very early during evolution and, at least in marmoset monkeys, does not necessarily require pre-learned associations in order to fulfill its function when dealing with unfamiliar agents. PMID:23454673

Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; Burkart, Judith M

2013-02-27

281

Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental

Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

282

Developmentally-related candidate retinoic acid target genes regulated early during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma.  

PubMed

Embryonal carcinoma is a model of embryonic development as well as tumor cell differentiation. In response to all-trans retinoic acid (RA), the human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, NT2/D1, differentiates toward a neuronal lineage with associated loss of cell growth and tumorigenicity. Through the use of cDNA-based microarrays we sought to identify the early downstream targets of RA during differentiation commitment of NT2/D1 cells. A total of 57 genes were induced and 37 genes repressed by RA. RA regulated genes were restricted at 8 h with 27 genes induced and five repressed. The total number of RA-responsive transcripts increased at 24 and 48 h and their pattern of expression was more symmetrical. For a given time point less than 1% of the 9128 cDNAs on the expression array were regulated by RA. Many of these gene products are associated with developmental pathways including those of TGF-beta (Lefty A, NMA, follistatin), homeo domain (HoxD1, Meis2, Meis1, Gbx2), IGF (IGFBP3, IGFBP6, CTGF), Notch (manic fringe, ADAM11), Hedgehog (patched) and Wnt (Frat2, secreted frizzled-related protein 1) signaling. In addition a large cassette of genes induced by RA at 24-48 h are associated with cell adhesion, cytoskeletal and matrix remodeling, growth suppression and intracellular signaling cascades. The majority of repressed genes are associated with protein/RNA processing, turnover or metabolism. The early induced genes identified may play a regulatory role in RA-mediated growth suppression and terminal differentiation and may have physiologic or pharmacologic importance during normal human development and retinoid-based cancer therapy or prevention. PMID:11973648

Freemantle, Sarah J; Kerley, Joanna S; Olsen, Shannon L; Gross, Robert H; Spinella, Michael J

2002-04-25

283

Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans.  

PubMed Central

Large numbers and large quantities of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, transgenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans.

Colborn, T; vom Saal, F S; Soto, A M

1993-01-01

284

Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans  

SciTech Connect

Large numbers and large quantities of endoncrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, trangenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistent of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans.

Colborn, T. (W. Alton Jones Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC (United States)); vom Saal, F.S. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)); Soto, A.M. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

1993-10-01

285

The Rapidly Expanding Family of Human Polyomaviruses: Recent Developments in Understanding Their Life Cycle and Role in Human Pathology  

PubMed Central

Since their discovery in 1971, the polyomaviruses JC (JCPyV) and BK (BKPyV), isolated from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, respectively, remained for decades as the only known members of the Polyomaviridae family of viruses of human origin. Over the past five years, the application of new genomic amplification technologies has facilitated the discovery of several novel human polyomaviruses (HPyVs), bringing the present number to 10. These HPyVs share many fundamental features in common such as genome size and organization. Infection by all HPyVs is widespread in the human population, but they show important differences in their tissue tropism and association with disease. Much remains unknown about these new viruses. In this review, we discuss the problems associated with studying HPyVs, such as the lack of culture systems for the new viruses and the gaps in our basic understanding of their biology. We summarize what is known so far about their distribution, life cycle, tissue tropism, their associated pathologies (if any), and future research directions in the field.

White, Martyn K.; Gordon, Jennifer; Khalili, Kamel

2013-01-01

286

Vitamin D Signaling in the Bovine Immune System: A Model for Understanding Human Vitamin D Requirements  

PubMed Central

The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance.

Nelson, Corwin D.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Lippolis, John D.; Sacco, Randy E.; Nonnecke, Brian J.

2012-01-01

287

Genome Architecture of the Human ?-Globin Locus Affects Developmental Regulation of Gene Expression†  

PubMed Central

To test the role of gene order in globin gene expression, mutant human ?-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome constructs were used, each having one additional globin gene encoding a “marked” transcript (?m, ?m, or ?m) integrated at different locations within the locus. When a ?m-globin gene was placed between the locus control region (LCR) and the ?-globin gene, ?m-globin expression dominated primitive and definitive erythropoiesis; only ?m-globin mRNA was detected during the fetal and adult definitive stages of erythropoiesis. When an A?m-globin gene was placed at the same location, A?m-globin was expressed during embryonic erythropoiesis and the fetal liver stage of definitive erythropoiesis but was silenced during the adult stage. The downstream wild-type ?-globin genes were not expressed. When an ?m-globin gene was placed between the ?- and ?-globin genes, it remained silent during embryonic erythropoiesis; only the LCR-proximal wild-type ?-globin gene was expressed. Placement of a ?m-globin gene upstream of the G?-globin gene resulted in expression of ?m-globin in embryonic cells and in a significant decrease in expression of the downstream wild-type ?-globin gene. These results indicate that distance from the LCR, an inherent property of spatial gene order, is a major determinant of temporal gene expression during development.

Harju, Susanna; Navas, Patrick A.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Peterson, Kenneth R.

2005-01-01

288

Developmental transcription factor EN1--a novel biomarker in human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.  

PubMed

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), a rare and progressive salivary malignancy, is characterized by histogenetic, morphologic, and clinical heterogeneity. Extensive efforts to characterize the molecular events associated with these tumors have included the identification of biomarkers for prognostication and post-therapy assessment. In a previous study of genome-wide methylation screening, the authors of the current report identified a limited number of differentially methylated gene regions in ACC, and significant hypermethylation was observed at the transcriptional start sites of genes that encode for the transcription factor engrailed homeobox 1 (EN1). Clinicopathologic correlation analyses indicated that EN1 methylation status is correlated with histologic tumor grade, tumor location, and final patient outcome. To ascertain definitively whether aberrant EN1 expression accompanies human salivary ACC, the authors used an immunohistochemical technique to directly evaluate EN1 protein expression in ACC of the salivary gland. The data revealed increased EN1 protein expression in solid type ACC, which was correlated with a significantly lower survival rate. The current results validated EN1 as a potential biomarker in a large cohort of patients with salivary ACC. Immunohistochemical analysis of EN1 in biopsy specimens obtained for diagnostic purposes and/or surgically resected material may reveal that EN1 is a biologic predictor of poor prognosis in patients with salivary ACC. PMID:21800291

Bell, Diana; Bell, Achim; Roberts, Dianna; Weber, Randal S; El-Naggar, Adel K

2011-07-28

289

Early developmental emergence of human amygdala-prefrontal connectivity after maternal deprivation.  

PubMed

Under typical conditions, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connections with the amygdala are immature during childhood and become adult-like during adolescence. Rodent models show that maternal deprivation accelerates this development, prompting examination of human amygdala-mPFC phenotypes following maternal deprivation. Previously institutionalized youths, who experienced early maternal deprivation, exhibited atypical amygdala-mPFC connectivity. Specifically, unlike the immature connectivity (positive amygdala-mPFC coupling) of comparison children, children with a history of early adversity evidenced mature connectivity (negative amygdala-mPFC coupling) and thus, resembled the adolescent phenotype. This connectivity pattern was mediated by the hormone cortisol, suggesting that stress-induced modifications of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis shape amygdala-mPFC circuitry. Despite being age-atypical, negative amygdala-mPFC coupling conferred some degree of reduced anxiety, although anxiety was still significantly higher in the previously institutionalized group. These findings suggest that accelerated amygdala-mPFC development is an ontogenetic adaptation in response to early adversity. PMID:24019460

Gee, Dylan G; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel J; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Hare, Todd A; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Tottenham, Nim

2013-09-09

290

Developmentally stable chromatin structure in the human. beta. -globin gene cluster  

SciTech Connect

The DNase I-hypersensitive sites in the human embryonic ..beta..-globin gene region have been mapped in erythroid-enriched fractions of disaggregated fetal livers, in adult nucleated red blood cells, and in fetal brain tissue. The analysis of a region extending 11 kilobases (kb) 5' of the epsilion-globin gene reveals many minor nuclease-hypersensitive sites and one major site located 6.1 kb upstream of the epsilon-globin gene. All of these hypersensitive sites are erythroid-specific, and the major site is stable throughout erythroid development. As assayed by nuclear runoff transcription, little or no epsilon-globin gene expression is detectable in fetal or adult erythroid cells. Thus, the presence of the major hypersensitive site 5' of the epsilon-globin gene in both fetal and adult erythroid cells demonstrates that this site is not specifically correlated with transcription of the gene or with a particular stage of development. Rather, this site may reflect an early event in erythroid differentiation. In addition, DNase I has been used to probe the overall sensitivity of epsilon-globin chromatin in fetal erythroid cells. The findings indicate that the epsilon-globin gene as well as the other genes in the ..beta..-globin cluster reside within the chomatin domain that is more DNase I-sensitive than bulk chromatin.

Forrester, W.C.; Thompson, C.; Elder, J.T.; Groudine, M.

1986-03-01

291

Human ?-Globin Locus Control Region HS5 Contains CTCF- and Developmental Stage-Dependent Enhancer-Blocking Activity in Erythroid Cells  

PubMed Central

The human ?-globin locus contains five developmentally regulated ?-type globin genes. All five genes depend on the locus control region (LCR), located at the 5? end of the locus, for abundant globin gene transcription. The LCR is composed of five DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HSs), at least a subset of which appear to cooperate to form a holocomplex in activating genes within the locus. We previously tested the requirement for proper LCR polarity by inverting it in human ?-globin yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice and observed reduced expression of all the ?-type globin genes regardless of developmental stage. This phenotype clearly demonstrated an orientation-dependent activity of the LCR, although the mechanistic basis for the observed activity was obscure. Here, we describe genetic evidence demonstrating that human HS5 includes enhancer-blocking (insulator) activity that is both CTCF and developmental stage dependent. Curiously, we also observed an attenuating activity in HS5 that was specific to the ?-globin gene at the primitive stage and was independent of the HS5 CTCF binding site. These observations demonstrate that the phenotype observed in the LCR-inverted locus was in part attributable to placing the HS5 insulator between the LCR HS enhancers (HS1 to HS4) and the promoter of the ?-globin gene.

Tanimoto, Keiji; Sugiura, Akiko; Omori, Akane; Felsenfeld, Gary; Douglas Engel, James; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi

2003-01-01

292

Understanding the human parental brain: A critical role of the orbitofrontal cortex.  

PubMed

The bond between a parent and an infant often appears to form effortlessly and intuitively, and this relationship is fundamental to infant survival and development. Parenting is considered to depend on specific brain networks that are largely conserved across species and in place even before parenthood. Efforts to understand the neural basis of parenting in humans have focused on the overlapping networks implicated in reward and social cognition, within which the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is considered to be a crucial hub. This review examines emerging evidence that the OFC may be engaged in several phases of parent-infant interactions, from early, privileged orienting to infant cues, to ongoing monitoring of interactions and subsequent learning. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that the OFC rapidly responds to a range of infant communicative cues, such as faces and voices, supporting their efficient processing. Crucially, this early orienting response may be fundamental in supporting adults to respond rapidly and appropriately to infant needs. We suggest a number of avenues for future research, including investigating neural activity in disrupted parenting, exploring multimodal cues, and consideration of neuroendocrine involvement in responsivity to infant cues. An increased understanding of the brain basis of caregiving will provide insight into our greatest challenge: parenting our young. PMID:24171901

Parsons, Christine E; Stark, Eloise A; Young, Katherine S; Stein, Alan; Kringelbach, Morten L

2013-11-01

293

Models of conceptual understanding in human respiration and strategies for instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior research has indicated that students of all ages show little understanding of respiration beyond breathing in and out and the need for air to survive. This occurs even after instruction with alternative conceptions persisting into adulthood. Whether this is due to specific educational strategies or to the level of difficulty in understanding a complex system is an important question. The purpose of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of middle school students' development of mental models of human respiration. The study was composed of two major parts, one concerned with documenting and analyzing how students learn, and one concerned with measuring the effect of teaching strategies. This was carried out through a pre-test, "learning aloud" case studies in which students engaged in one-on-one tutoring interviews with the researcher, and a post-test. Transcript data from the intervention and post-test indicates that all students in this study were successful in constructing mental models of a complex concept, respiration, and in successfully applying these mental models to transfer problems. Differences in the pretest and posttest means were on the order of two standard deviations in size. While findings were uncovered in the use of a variety of strategies, possibly most interesting are the new views of analogies as an instructional strategy. Some analogies appear to be effective in supporting construction of visual/spatial features. Providing multiple, simple analogies that allow the student to construct new models in small steps, using student generated analogies, and using analogies to determine prior knowledge may also increase the effectiveness of analogies. Evidence suggested that students were able to extend the dynamic properties of certain analogies to the dynamics of the target conception and that this, in turn, allowed students to use the new models to explain causal relationships and give new function to models. This suggests that construction of causal, dynamic mental models is supported by the use of analogies containing dynamic and causal relationships.

Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne

294

Auditory learning: a developmental method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by the human autonomous development process from infancy to adulthood, we have built a robot that develops its cognitive and behavioral skills through real-time interactions with the environment. We call such a robot a developmental robot. In this paper, we present the theory and the architecture to implement a developmental robot and discuss the related techniques that address an

Yilu Zhang; Juyang Weng; Wey-Shiuan Hwang

2005-01-01

295

Changes in Health Perceptions after Exposure to Human Suffering: Using Discrete Emotions to Understand Underlying Processes  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to human suffering is associated with negative changes in perceptions about personal health. We further examined the relation of possible health perception changes, to changes in five discrete emotions (i.e., fear, guilt, hostility/anger, and joviality), as a guide to understand the processes underlying health perception changes, provided that each emotion conveys information regarding triggering conditions. Methodology/Findings An experimental group (N?=?47) was exposed to images of human affliction, whereas a control group (N?=?47) was exposed to relaxing images. Participants in the experimental group reported more health anxiety and health value, as well as lower health-related optimism and internal health locus of control, in comparison to participants exposed to relaxing images. They also reported more fear, guilt, hostility and sadness, as well as less joviality. Changes in each health perception were related to changes in particular emotions. Conclusion These findings imply that health perceptions are shaped in a constant dialogue with the representations about the broader world. Furthermore, it seems that the core of health perception changes lies in the acceptance that personal well-being is subject to several potential threats, as well as that people cannot fully control many of the factors the determine their own well-being.

Paschali, Antonia A.; Mitsopoulou, Efi; Tsaggarakis, Valentinos; Karademas, Evangelos C.

2012-01-01

296

Human cytochrome P450 1A1 structure and utility in understanding drug and xenobiotic metabolism.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is an extrahepatic monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates and drugs, as well as the activation of certain toxins and environmental pollutants. CYP1A1 is particularly well known for its ability to biotransform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene in tobacco smoke, into carcinogens. CYP1A1 possesses functional similarities and differences with human CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 enzymes, but the structural basis for this has been unclear. We determined a 2.6 ? structure of human CYP1A1 with the inhibitor ?-naphthoflavone. ?-Naphthoflavone binds within an enclosed active site, with the planar benzochromen-4-one core packed flat against the I helix that composes one wall of the active site, and the 2-phenyl substituent oriented toward the catalytic heme iron. Comparisons with previously determined structures of the related cytochrome P450 1A2 and 1B1 enzymes reveal distinct features among the active sites that may underlie the functional variability of these enzymes. Finally, docking studies probed the ability of CYP1A structures to assist in understanding their known in vitro interactions with several typical substrates and inhibitors. PMID:23508959

Walsh, Agnes A; Szklarz, Grazyna D; Scott, Emily E

2013-03-18

297

Meckel on developmental pathology.  

PubMed

Before Schleiden and Schwann, Darwin and Mendel there passed briefly a towering giant, Johann Friedrich Meckel the Younger (1781-1833), now glimpsed only fleetingly and obscurely through the mist of time and former controversies, who can nowadays easily and clearly be identified as the father of a "pre-modern" developmental biology. At his beginning this prodigiously gifted physician-scholar had, as one would say nowadays, an unfair advantage, his cradle having been rocked, as it were, by the preparators in his father's and grandfather's huge collection of normal and abnormal anatomical "specimens" in the home in which he was born and raised including his father's own skeleton (with two anatomical anomalies!). Initially reluctant to follow in the steps of his illustrious anatomist/physician grandfather and father, he nevertheless early demonstrated extraordinary gifts in anatomy and zootomy. Napoleon's conquest of his homeland notwithstanding, Meckel spent at least 2 extremely fruitful years in Paris, under the tutelage of Cuvier, but also in close contact with Geoffroy St. Hilaire (Etienne), Lamarck, and von Humboldt. He not only translated Cuvier's Leçons d'anatomie comparée into German but also greatly enriched this pivotal treatise with observations of embryonic and malformed fetuses and animals only of passing interest to his mentor. In his numerous publications, Meckel was the first to relate abnormal to normal development, define anomalies of incomplete differentiation (vestigia), but, most importantly, to relate those malformations known in humans to those that are normal adult developmental states in "lower" animals (atavisms). Thus, Meckel's three-fold parallelism of the scala naturae, normal ontogeny, and the malformations in humans and animals makes him a recapitulationist par excellence, however, without ever venturing into a fully articulated and explicit theory of descent. Today Meckel is remembered solely as the discoverer of the syndrome and cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

2006-01-15

298

Advanced simulation technology used to reduce accident rates through a better understanding of human behaviors and human perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings and technology have attained a mutually dependent and symbiotic relationship. It is easy to recognize how each depends on the other for survival. It is also easy to see how technology advances due to human activities. However, the role technology plays in advancing humankind is seldom examined. This presentation examines two research areas where the role of advanced visual simulation systems play an integral and essential role in understanding human perception and behavior. The ultimate goal of this research is the betterment of humankind through reduced accident and death rates in transportation environments. The first research area examined involved the estimation of time-to-contact. A high-fidelity wrap-around simulator (RAS) was used to examine people's ability to estimate time-to- contact. The ability of people to estimate the amount of time before an oncoming vehicle will collide with them is a necessary skill for avoiding collisions. A vehicle approached participants at one of three velocities, and while en route to the participant, the vehicle disappeared. The participants' task was to respond when they felt the accuracy of time-to-contact estimates and the practical applications of the result. The second area of research investigates the effects of various visual stimuli on underground transportation tunnel walls for the perception of vehicle speed. A RAS is paramount in creating visual patterns in peripheral vision. Flat-screen or front-screen simulators do not have this ability. Results are discussed in terms of speed perception and the application of these results to real world environments.

Manser, Michael P.; Hancock, Peter A.

1996-06-01

299

Developmental Immunotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

300

Developmental Milestones  

MedlinePLUS

... to do if you’re worried about your child’s development or think there’s a problem. Watch the video » Related Pages Developmental Disabilities Child Development Positive Parenting Tips National Center on Birth Defects ...

301

Developmental regulation of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene is mediated by synergistic interactions among multiple tissue- and stage-specific elements.  

PubMed Central

The stage-specific regulation of mammalian embryonic globin genes has been an experimentally elusive problem, in part because of the developmentally early timing of their expression. We have carried out a systematic analysis of truncation and internal deletion mutations within the 5'-flanking region of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene (epsilon) in erythroid and nonerythroid cell lines. Within a 670-bp region upstream from the constitutive promoter are multiple positive and negative control elements. Of these, a positive regulatory element (epsilon-PRE II) which is active only in embryonic erythroid cells is of particular interest. Remarkably, although it is inactive on its own, in the presence of other sequences located further upstream, it confers tissue- and developmental stage-specific expression on a constitutive epsilon-globin or heterologous promoter. The activity of epsilon-PRE II is also modulated by another positive regulatory domain located further downstream to direct erythroid cell-specific, but little or no embryonic stage-specific, transcription. A nuclear factor highly enriched in embryonic erythroid cells binds specifically within a 19-bp region of epsilon-PRE II. Nuclei from adult erythroid cells also contain a factor that binds to this region but forms a complex of faster electrophoretic mobility. We speculate that interactions between epsilon-PRE II and other upstream control elements play an important role in the developmental regulation of the human embryonic beta-like globin gene. Images

Trepicchio, W L; Dyer, M A; Baron, M H

1993-01-01

302

Cloning of the Human Interferon-Related Developmental Regulator (IFRD1) Gene Coding for the PC4 Protein, a Member of a Novel Family of Developmentally Regulated Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rat PC4 gene had been initially isolated as a nerve growth factor-inducible sequence in PC12 cells. Although its function remains unknown, recently it has been shown that PC4 is necessary to muscle differentiation and that it might have a role in signal transduction. We report the isolation of the human homolog of the rat PC4 gene, renamed here IFRD1

Pasquale Buanne; Barbara Incerti; Daniele Guardavaccaro; Virginia Avvantaggiato; Antonio Simeone; Felice Tirone

1998-01-01

303

From 'human being' to 'social subject': "unfreezing" ergonomics and the implications for understanding and intervening health-disease process.  

PubMed

Ergonomics has been successful in increasing productivity and comfort in the work arena. It has also contributed to reducing occupational accidents. Despite this, ergonomics is frequently limited to understanding the health-disease process related to human-technology interactions, as this process is more complex than what can be understood from an ergonomic evaluation. Recognising this limit, this work ontologically and epistemologically contrasts the notions of 'human being' and 'social subject', and concludes that the study object of ergonomics, or human-technology interaction, greatly depends on social aspects that nowadays are not tackled explicitly: route (history), project, structure, agency, motivations and power. It also analyses how participatory ergonomics tacitly includes many of these aspects, including some implications that the change of notion, from 'human being' to 'social subject', brings to the understanding of the health-disease process and the reduction of associated risks during human activities. PMID:22317190

Morales, Karen Lange; García-Acosta, Gabriel

2012-01-01

304

The spirit of despotism: Understanding the tyrant within  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to better understand the developmental history of despotic regimes and the existence of leadership by terror. To gain greater insight into this phenomenon, the unusual relationship between leaders and followers in despotic regimes is explored, and the self-destructive cycle that characterizes such regimes is examined. The price paid in the form of human suffering

2006-01-01

305

Parent-offspring conflict theory: an evolutionary framework for understanding conflict within human families.  

PubMed

Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psychology: parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT). In the current article, we articulate POCT for psychological scientists, extend its scope by connecting it to the broader framework of life history theory, and draw out its implications for understanding conflict within human families. We specifically apply POCT to 2 instances of early mother-offspring interaction (prenatal conflict and weaning conflict); discuss the effects of genetic relatedness on behavioral conflict between parents, children, and their siblings; review the emerging literature on parent-offspring conflict over the choice of mates and spouses; and examine parent-offspring conflict from the perspective of imprinted genes. This review demonstrates the utility of POCT, not only for explaining what is known about conflict within families but also for generating novel hypotheses, suggesting new lines of research, and moving us toward the "big picture" by integrating across biological and psychological domains of knowledge. PMID:21604906

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J

2011-07-01

306

Towards an integrative approach to understanding the role of chemerin in human health and disease.  

PubMed

Chemerin is an adipocyte-secreted protein with autocrine/paracrine roles on adipose development and function as well as endocrine roles in metabolism and immunity. Following prochemerin secretion, protease-mediated generation of chemerin isoforms with a range of biological activities is a key regulatory mechanism controlling local, context-specific chemerin bioactivity. Together, experimental and clinical data indicate that localized and/or circulating chemerin expression and activation are elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. These elevations are positively correlated with deleterious changes in glucose, lipid, and cytokine homeostasis, and may serve as a link between obesity, inflammation and other metabolic disorders. This review highlights the current state of knowledge regarding chemerin expression, processing, biological function and relevance to human disease, particularly with respect to adipose tissue development, inflammation, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it discusses study variability, deficiencies in current measurement, and questions concerning chemerin function in disease, with a special emphasis on techniques and tools used to properly assess chemerin biology. An integration of basic and clinical research is key to understanding how chemerin influences disease pathobiology, and whether modulation of chemerin levels and/or activity may serve as a potential method to prevent and treat metabolic diseases. PMID:23216632

Rourke, J L; Dranse, H J; Sinal, C J

2012-12-06

307

Current understanding of the mechanism of benzene-induced leukemia in humans: implications for risk assessment  

PubMed Central

Benzene causes acute myeloid leukemia and probably other hematological malignancies. As benzene also causes hematotoxicity even in workers exposed to levels below the US permissible occupational exposure limit of 1 part per million, further assessment of the health risks associated with its exposure, particularly at low levels, is needed. Here, we describe the probable mechanism by which benzene induces leukemia involving the targeting of critical genes and pathways through the induction of genetic, chromosomal or epigenetic abnormalities and genomic instability, in a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC); stromal cell dysregulation; apoptosis of HSCs and stromal cells and altered proliferation and differentiation of HSCs. These effects modulated by benzene-induced oxidative stress, aryl hydrocarbon receptor dysregulation and reduced immunosurveillance, lead to the generation of leukemic stem cells and subsequent clonal evolution to leukemia. A mode of action (MOA) approach to the risk assessment of benzene was recently proposed. This approach is limited, however, by the challenges of defining a simple stochastic MOA of benzene-induced leukemogenesis and of identifying relevant and quantifiable parameters associated with potential key events. An alternative risk assessment approach is the application of toxicogenomics and systems biology in human populations, animals and in vitro models of the HSC stem cell niche, exposed to a range of levels of benzene. These approaches will inform our understanding of the mechanisms of benzene toxicity and identify additional biomarkers of exposure, early effect and susceptibility useful for risk assessment.

McHale, Cliona M.; Zhang, Luoping; Smith, Martyn T.

2012-01-01

308

Understanding goal-directed human actions and physical causality: the role of mother-infant interaction.  

PubMed

This study addresses the relation between early cognitive development and mother-infant interaction. Infants at the age of 6 and 10 months recruited from labs in three European countries--Germany, Great Britain, and France--were tested on two cognitive tasks: understanding of goal-directed human action and physical causality. Mother-infant interaction was assessed with the CARE-Index. In the goal-directed action task, the overall sample of the 6-month olds did not yet reliably discriminate between an object-change and a path-change trial while a subsample of infants of modestly controlling mothers did. All infants at 10 months of age showed discrimination. In the physical causality task, the overall sample of the 6-month olds did not yet reliably discriminate between an expected and an unexpected launching event. At 10 months of age, the overall sample showed discrimination, due to the major subsample of infants of highly sensitive mothers. Our findings support the view that exogenous factors influence cognitive development within a particular time window, in highly specific ways, depending on the age of the subjects, the cognitive domain, and the quality of mother-infant interaction. PMID:23063850

Hohenberger, Annette; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Serres, Josette; de Schoenen, Scania; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Aschersleben, Gisa

2012-10-13

309

Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

2009-06-01

310

Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?  

PubMed

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

2009-02-24

311

Ad cerebrum per scientia: Ira Hirsh, psychoacoustics, and new approaches to understanding the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Research Director of CID, Ira emphasized the importance of combining information from biology with rigorous studies of behavior, such as psychophysics, to better understand how the brain and body accomplish the goals of everyday life. In line with this philosophy, my doctoral dissertation sought to explain brain functional asymmetries (studied with dichotic listening) in terms of the physical dimensions of a library of test sounds designed to represent a speech-music continuum. Results highlighted individual differences plus similarities in terms of patterns of relative ear advantages, suggesting an organizational basis for brain asymmetries depending on physical dimensions of stimulus and gesture with analogs in auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor systems. My subsequent work has employed a number of noninvasive methods (OAEs, EPs, qEEG, PET, MRI) to explore the neurobiological bases of individual differences in general and functional asymmetries in particular. This research has led to (1) the AXS test battery for assessing the neurobiology of human sensory-motor function; (2) the handshaking model of brain function, describing dynamic relations along all three body/brain axes; (3) the four-domain EPIC model of functional asymmetries; and (4) the trimodal brain, a new model of individual differences based on psychoimmunoneuroendocrinology.

Lauter, Judith

2002-05-01

312

Genomic Assessment of Human Cumulus Cell Marker Genes as Predictors of Oocyte Developmental Competence: Impact of Various Experimental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Single embryo transfer (SET) is the most successful way to reduce the frequency of multiple pregnancies following in vitro fertilisation. However, selecting the embryo for SET with the highest chances of pregnancy remains a difficult challenge since morphological and kinetics criteria provide poor prediction of both developmental and implantation ability. Partly through the expression of specific genes, the oocyte-cumulus interaction helps the oocyte to acquire its developmental competence. Our aim was therefore to identify at the level of cumulus cells (CCs) genes related to oocyte developmental competence. Methodology/Principal Findings 197 individual CCs were collected from 106 patients undergoing an intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Gene expression of CCs was studied using microarray according to the nuclear maturity of the oocyte (immature vs. mature oocyte) and to the developmental competence of the oocyte (ability to reach the blastocyst stage after fertilisation). Microarray study was followed by a meta-analysis of the behaviour of these genes in other datasets available in Gene Expression Omnibus which showed the consistency of this list of genes. Finally, 8 genes were selected according to oocyte developmental competence from the 308 differentially expressed genes (p<0.0001) for further validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Three of these 8 selected genes were validated as potential biomarkers (PLIN2, RGS2 and ANG). Experimental factors such as inter-patient and qPCR series variability were then assessed using the Generalised Linear Mixed Model procedure, and only the expression level of RGS2 was confirmed to be related to oocyte developmental competence. The link between biomarkers and pregnancy was finally evaluated and level of RGS2 expression was also correlated with clinical pregnancy. Conclusion/Significance RGS2, known as a regulator of G protein signalling, was the only gene among our 8 selected candidates biomarkers of oocyte competence to cover many factors of variability, including inter-patient factors and experimental conditions.

Chevalier, Catherine; Teusan, Raluca; Cadoret, Veronique; Guerif, Fabrice; Houlgatte, Remi; Royere, Dominique

2012-01-01

313

Human embryonic stem cells: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and non-human primate embryonic stem (ES) cells are invaluable resources for developmental studies, pharmaceutical research and a better understanding of human disease and replacement therapies. In 1998, subsequent to the establishment of the first monkey ES cell line in 1995, the first human ES cell line was developed. Later, three of the National Institute of Health (NIH) lines (BG01,

Steven L. SticeA; Nolan L. BoydA; Sujoy K. DharaA; Brian A. GerweA; David W. MachacekA; Soojung ShinB

314

The Significance of Human-Animal Relationships as Modulators of Trauma Effects in Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid,…

Yorke, Jan

2010-01-01

315

The Significance of Human-Animal Relationships as Modulators of Trauma Effects in Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid,…

Yorke, Jan

2010-01-01

316

Assessment of Boric Acid and Borax Using the IEHR Evaluative Process for Assessing Human Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Agents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist n...

J. A. Moore

1995-01-01

317

The significance of human–animal relationships as modulators of trauma effects in children: a developmental neurobiological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid, or cortisol leading to an ongoing over?arousal of the anatomic nervous system. Kindling

Jan Yorke

2010-01-01

318

Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for…

Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

2008-01-01

319

Developmental Risk I: Depression and the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article discusses recent findings on the neurobiology of pediatric depression as well as the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in determining the risk for the disorder. Utilizing data from both animal and human studies, the authors focus on the evolving understanding of the developmental neurobiology of emotional regulation, cognitive function and social behavior as it applies to the risk and clinical course of depression. Treatment implications and directions for future research are also discussed.

Weir, John M.; Zakama, Arthurine; Rao, Uma

2012-01-01

320

The Lifenet View: Fostering Contextual Understanding in the Professional Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The work described in this article represents an effort to foster a contextual understanding of human development in culturally and developmentally diverse classrooms through autobiographical reflection and reflexive inquiry. The author's goal is to use the exercise to foster "deep learning" about human development and to develop a classroom…

Armstrong, Jan

2010-01-01

321

Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

ScienceCinema

Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

322

Developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

Shalev, Ruth S

2004-10-01

323

A novel X-linked disorder with developmental delay and autistic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Genomic duplications that lead to autism and other human diseases are interesting pathological lesions since the underlying mechanism almost certainly involves dosage sensitive genes. We aim to understand a novel genomic disorder with profound phenotypic consequences, most notably global developmental delay, autism, psychosis, and anorexia nervosa. METHODS: We evaluated the affected individuals, all maternally related, using childhood autism rating

N. Kaya; D. Colak; A. Albakheet; M. Al-Owain; N. Abu-Dheim; B. Al-Younes; J. Al-Zahrani; N. M. Mukaddes; A. Dervent; N. Al-Dosari; A. Al-Odaib; I. V. Kayaalp; M. Al-Sayed; Z. Al-Hassnan; M. J. Nester; M. Al-Dosari; H. Al-Dhalaan; A. Chedrawi; H. Gunoz; B. Karakas; N. Sakati; F. S. Alkuraya; G. G. Gascon; P. T. Ozand

2012-01-01

324

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and Methodological Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of \\

Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Thomas S. Weisner; Ariel Kalil

2008-01-01

325

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and Methodological Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel; Way, Niobe

2008-01-01

326

Big thoughts in small brains? Dogs as am odel for understanding human social cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we argued that dogs can provide a good model for both the evolution of human social-cognitive abilities and studying the underlying neural and genetic structures of these behavioural features. The key di¡erence between the present and other approaches for modelling human social evolution lies in the assumption that there is a large overlap between the human and

J o?

327

RNA tumor viruses, oncogenes, human cancer and AIDS: On the frontiers of understanding  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 31 papers divided into six sections. The section headings are: Molecular Genetics of the RNA Tumor Viruses, Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in Human Cells, Molecular Biology of Human Cancers, HTLV/LAV, T-Cell Leukemia and AIDS, Experimental Model Systems for the Study of Human Neoplasia and Related Diseases, and Perspectives.

Furmanski, P.; Hager, J.C.; Rich, M.A.

1985-01-01

328

Understanding the Evolution of Human Pigmentation: Recent Contributions from Population Genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in human skin and hair color is one of the most striking aspects of human variability, and explaining this diversity is one of the central questions of human biology. Only in the last decade or so has it been realistically possible to address this question experimentally using population genetic approaches. On the basis of earlier studies in mice, and

Jonathan L Rees; Rosalind M Harding

2012-01-01

329

Understanding the human person from the standpoint of the relational sociology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the question of how to conceptualize the human person as a living subject. The main difficulty consists on relating the single components of the human person to itself and to the external world. It is based on Margaret Archer's thesis about the shortcoming of modernity in dealing with the human person and the need for a

Pierpaolo Donati

330

‘A friend who understand fully’: notes on humanizing research in a multiethnic youth community  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I conceptualize ethnographic, qualitative, and social language research with marginalized and oppressed communities as humanizing research. Humanizing research is a methodological stance, which requires that our inquiries involve dialogic consciousness?raising and the building of relationships of dignity and care for both researchers and participants. I offer evidence that such humanization is not only ethically necessary but also

Django Paris

2011-01-01

331

Understanding resilience  

PubMed Central

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathe, Aleksander A.

2013-01-01

332

Neural Substrates for Action Understanding at Different Description Levels in the Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding complex movements and action goals is an important skill for our social interactions. Successful social interactions entail understanding of actions at different levels of action description, ranging from detailed movement trajectories that support learning of complex motor skills through imitation to distinct features of actions that allow us to discriminate between action goals and different action styles. Previous studies

Vaia Lestou; Frank E. Pollick; Zoe Kourtzi

2008-01-01

333

Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial

1995-01-01

334

Understanding our genetic inheritance: The US Human Genome Project, The first five years FY 1991--1995  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the 21st century and will by of immense benefit to the field of medicine. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than 4000 genetic diseases that affect mankind, as well as the many multifactorial diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role. A centrally coordinated project focused on specific objectives is believed to be the most efficient and least expensive way of obtaining this information. The basic data produced will be collected in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible on convenient form to all who need it. This report describes the plans for the U.S. human genome project and updates those originally prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National Research Council (NRC) in 1988. In the intervening two years, improvements in technology for almost every aspect of genomics research have taken place. As a result, more specific goals can now be set for the project.

none,

1990-04-01

335

Developmental toxicology: status of the field and contribution of the National Toxicology Program.  

PubMed Central

The NTP has conducted developmental toxicity studies on more than 50 chemicals, often in multiple species. Several chemicals caused developmental toxicity in the absence of any toxicity to the mother. Although hazard to humans is determined by the level of exposure to the chemical and its inherent toxicity, those agents that selectively disturb the development of the conceptus are of particular concern because other manifestations of toxicity would not warn the mother of overexposure. Whether the LOAEL (lowest-observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity was high or low did not correlate with the potential of chemicals to cause developmental toxicity. The form of developmental toxicity that determined the LOAEL most frequently was decreased body weight in mice and rats, but not rabbits, where the LOAEL was determined more often by an increase in resorptions. Several in vitro and short-term tests appear promising as screens to predict the outcome of developmental toxicity studies in mammals. However, the only screens that have undergone formal validation studies are those evaluated by the NTP. Improvements in our ability to predict risk to humans have been limited by our knowledge of the mechanisms by which agents cause developmental toxicity. Thus, future growth is dependent on a better understanding of the biological processes that regulate normal development, therein providing the necessary framework for understanding mechanisms of abnormal development.

Schwetz, B A; Harris, M W

1993-01-01

336

MMG: A Learning Game Platform for Understanding and Predicting Human Recall Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a How humans infer probable information from the limited observed data? How they are able to build on little knowledge about\\u000a the context in hand? Is the human memory repeatedly constructing and reconstructing the events that are being recalled? These\\u000a are a few questions that we are interested in answering with our multimodal memory game (MMG) platform that studies human\\u000a memory

Umer Fareed; Byoung-Tak Zhang

2010-01-01

337

Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generic sentences (such as "Birds lay eggs") are important in that they refer to kinds (e.g., birds as a group) rather than individuals (e.g., the birds in the henhouse). The present set of studies examined aspects of how generic nouns are understood by English speakers. Adults and children (4- and 5-year-olds) were presented with scenarios about…

Gelman, Susan A.; Bloom, Paul

2007-01-01

338

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

Berg, Gary A.

2000-01-01

339

Understanding the Human Genome Project: Using Stations to Provide a Comprehensive Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A lesson was designed for lower division general education, non-major biology lecture-only course that included the historical and scientific context, some of the skills used to study the human genome, results, conclusions and ethical consideration. Students learn to examine and compare the published Human Genome maps, and employ the strategies…

Soto, Julio G.

2005-01-01

340

Bridging epidemiology and model organisms to increase understanding of endocrine disrupting chemicals and human health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerning temporal trends in human reproductive health has prompted concern about the role of environmentally mediated risk factors. The population is exposed to chemicals present in air, water, food and in a variety of consumer and personal care products, subsequently multiple chemicals are found human populations around the globe. Recent reviews find that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can adversely affect

Tracey J. Woodruff

2011-01-01

341

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

Berg, Gary A.

2000-01-01

342

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of the literature in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as it may apply specifically to educational environments. The origin of HCI and its relation- ship to other areas of study such as human factors, usability, and computer interface design are examined. Additionally, the notion of computers as a medium was investigated in or-

GARY A. BERG

2000-01-01

343

Advanced simulation technology used to reduce accident rates through a better understanding of human behaviors and human perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings and technology have attained a mutually dependent and symbiotic relationship. It is easy to recognize how each depends on the other for survival. It is also easy to see how technology advances due to human activities. However, the role technology plays in advancing humankind is seldom examined. This presentation examines two research areas where the role of advanced

Michael P. Manser; Peter A. Hancock

1996-01-01

344

Familial human hypodontia – is it all in the genes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The congenital absence of teeth is one of the commonest developmental abnormalities seen in human populations. Familial hypodontia or oligodontia represents an absence of varying numbers of primary and\\/or secondary teeth as an isolated trait. While much progress has been made in understanding the developmental basis of tooth formation, knowledge of the aetiological basis of inherited tooth loss remains poor.

M. T. Cobourne

2007-01-01

345

Use of Primate Folliculogenesis Models in Understanding Human Reproductive Biology and Applicability to Toxicology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nonhuman primate reproductive system provides an excellent model for studying basic physiological processes applicable to humans. The article reviews hormonal observations and experimental manipulations useful in the evaluation of ovarian events in va...

C. N. Sakai G. D. Hodgen

1988-01-01

346

Interbeing and Mindfulness: A Bridge to Understanding Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains and compares Thich Naht Hanh's concept of interbeing and mindfulness and Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Describes the application of mindful practices to holistic nursing and nursing education. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)|

Sitzman, Kathleen L.

2002-01-01

347

A human factors approach to understanding patient safety during pediatric cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric cardiac surgery–a highly complex, low-error-tolerant field with patients who are normally sick and require complex corrections at a very early age–has long recognized the need to study human factors and their relationship to medical outcomes. The current study uses a multidisciplinary pediatric cardiac team at a high-volume institution (>300 cases per year) to study patient safety practices using human

Cynthia Galvan; Emile A. Bacha; Julie Mohr; Paul Barach

2005-01-01

348

Grasping the affordances, understanding the reasoning: toward a dialectical theory of human tool use.  

PubMed

One of the most exciting issues in psychology is, What are the psychological mechanisms underlying human tool use? The computational approach assumes that the use of a tool (e.g., a hammer) requires the extraction of sensory information about object properties (heavy, rigid), which can then be translated into appropriate motor outputs (grasping, hammering). The ecological approach suggests that humans perceive not the properties of tools per se but what they afford (a heavy, rigid object affords pounding). This is the theory of affordances. In this article, we examine the potential of the computational view and the ecological view to account for human tool use. To anticipate our conclusions, neither of these approaches is likely to be satisfactory, notably because of their incapacity to resolve the issue of why humans spontaneously use tools. In response, we offer an original theoretical framework based on the idea that affordance perception and technical reasoning work together in a dialectical way. The thesis we defend here is that humans have the ability to view body action as a problem to be solved. It is precisely at this point that technical reasoning occurs. However, even if the ability to do technical reasoning gives humans the illusion of constantly doing less (e.g., TV remote control), they are still forced to use body action-and to perceive affordances-to operate the product of the reasoning (pushing buttons with the fingers). This is the principle of dialectic. PMID:20438236

Osiurak, François; Jarry, Christophe; Le Gall, Didier

2010-04-01

349

Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies.  

PubMed

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. PMID:22957800

Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

2012-09-07

350

Understanding attraction: cooperation and human intentionality as determinants of spatial interaction and corporate location  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is argued that identification and analysis of spatial patterns have an important role to play in the development of materialist social theory. Spatial forms reveal material conditions that govern social processes and, therefore, provide keys to the understanding of how societies work. Two examples are provided. First, it is argued that gravity patterns in spatial interaction

B Malmberg

1996-01-01

351

Ad cerebrum per scientia: Ira Hirsh, psychoacoustics, and new approaches to understanding the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Research Director of CID, Ira emphasized the importance of combining information from biology with rigorous studies of behavior, such as psychophysics, to better understand how the brain and body accomplish the goals of everyday life. In line with this philosophy, my doctoral dissertation sought to explain brain functional asymmetries (studied with dichotic listening) in terms of the physical dimensions

Judith Lauter

2002-01-01

352

Man Bites Mosquito: Understanding the Contribution of Human Movement to Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics  

PubMed Central

In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.

Adams, Ben; Kapan, Durrell D.

2009-01-01

353

Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent Food and Drug Administration legislation enables the mandating of product performance standards for cigarette smoke and the evaluation of manufacturers’ health claims for modified tobacco products. Laboratory studies used for these evaluations, and also to understand tobacco smoke toxicology, use machines to generate smoke. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate methods to assess human smoking behavior and replicate this in the laboratory. Methods Smoking behavior and smoking machine studies were identified using PubMed and publically available databases for internal tobacco company documents. Results The smoking machine was developed to generate smoke to allow for comparing cigarette tar and nicotine yields. The intent was to infer relative human disease risk, but this concept was flawed because humans tailor their smoking to the product and chemical yields and toxicological effects change with different smoking profiles. While smoking machines also allow for mechanistic assessments of smoking-related diseases, the interpretations also are limited. However, available methods to assess how humans puff could be used to provide better laboratory assessments, but these need to be validated. Separately, the contribution of smoke mouth-holding and inhalation to dose need to be assessed, because these parts of smoking are not captured by the smoking machine. Better comparisons of cigarettes might be done by tailoring human puff profiles to the product based on human studies and comparing results across regimens. Conclusions There are major research gaps that limit the use of smoking machine studies for informing tobacco control regulation and mechanistic studies.

Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard J.; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

2009-01-01

354

miRNA expression profiling in a human stem cell-based model as a tool for developmental neurotoxicity testing.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether microRNA (miRNA) profiling could be a useful tool for in vitro developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. Therefore, to identify the possible DNT biomarkers among miRNAs, we have studied the changes in miRNA expressions in a mixed neuronal/glial culture derived from carcinoma pluripotent stem cells (NT2 cell line) after exposure to methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) during the process of neuronal differentiation (2-36 days in vitro (DIV1)). The neuronal differentiation triggered by exposure to retinoic acid (RA) was characterized in the control culture by mRNA expression analysis of neuronal specific markers such as MAP2, NF-200, Tubulin ?III, MAPT-tau, synaptophysin as well as excitatory (NMDA, AMPA) and inhibitory (GABA) receptors. The results obtained from the miRNA expression analysis have identified the presence of a miRNA signature which is specific for neural differentiation in the control culture and another for the response to MeHgCl-induced toxicity. In differentiated neuronal control cultures, we observed the downregulation of the stemness phenotype-linked miR-302 cluster and the overexpression of several miRNAs specific for neuronal differentiation (e.g. let-7, miR-125b and miR-132). In the cultures exposed to MeHgCl (400 nM), we observed an overexpression of a signature composed of five miRNAs (miR-302b, miR-367, miR-372, miR-196b and miR-141) that are known to be involved in the regulation of developmental processes and cellular stress response mechanisms. Using gene ontology term and pathway enrichment analysis of the validated targets of the miRNAs deregulated by the toxic treatment, the possible effect of MeHgCl exposure on signalling pathways involved in axon guidance and learning and memory processes was revealed. The obtained data suggest that miRNA profiling could provide simplified functional evaluation of the toxicity pathways involved in developmental neurotoxicity in comparison with the transcriptomics studies. PMID:23903816

Pallocca, Giorgia; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Pamies, David; Laurenza, Incoronata; Bal-Price, Anna

2013-08-01

355

The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing students to take informed positions on complex problems through critical evaluation is a primary goal of university education. Socioscientific issues (SSI) have been established as effective contexts for students to develop this competency, as well as reasoning skills and content knowledge. This mixed-methods study investigates the effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program focused on the development of evidence-based reasoning to form personal commitments on SSI. Specifically, the study investigates how human biology majors differ from traditional biology majors in their reasoning with SSI, their perceptions of experiences with SSI, their understanding of scientific inquiry, their levels and perceptions of science content knowledge, and their general program perceptions. These outcomes were assessed through open-ended questionnaires on SSI and scientific inquiry and a basic biology concept test administered to 95 participants representing both programs and 16 semi-structured student interviews. Although the two groups did not differ significantly in their decisions or factors influencing their decisions in SSI, human biology majors showed higher levels of socioscientific reasoning, suggesting that learning contextualized in SSI helped them understand and reason with similar issues. While biology majors reported few experiences with socioscientific reasoning, human biology majors felt well equipped to reason with SSI and more likely to consider alternative perspectives in their decision making. Human biology majors also were more likely to view social science research as a form of inquiry and less likely to view scientific inquiry as purely experimental. No difference was found between groups in basic biology content knowledge, although human biology majors felt they were exposed to less detailed biology content. This exploratory study illustrates a novel approach to interdisciplinary, SSI-based science education at the college level.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.

356

Putting it all together: dealing with complexity in the understanding of the human condition.  

PubMed

In this paper, two mental health nurses who have experienced long academic careers reflect on the way their own thinking and teaching about the human condition has changed over the course of their careers. Three major paradigms that have attempted to explain the human condition, the biological sciences, psychodynamic theory, and socio-cultural theory, are discussed. It is argued that no single approach is sufficient to address the complexities of providing care within psychiatric and mental health nursing. It is further argued that the integration of these perspectives has not been well considered or articulated in practice. The authors conclude that the arguments presented in this paper are likely to challenge people's loyalties to a particular perspective of the human condition. PMID:15149385

Gallop, R; Reynolds, W

2004-06-01

357

Cardiomyopathy of Friedreich's Ataxia: Use of Mouse Models to Understand Human Disease and Guide Therapeutic Development  

PubMed Central

Friedreich’s ataxia is a multisystem disorder of mitochondrial function affecting primarily the heart and brain. Patients experience a severe cardiomyopathy that can progress to heart failure and death. Although the gene defect is known, the precise function of the deficient mitochondrial protein, frataxin, is not known and limits therapeutic development. Animal models have been valuable for understanding the basic events of this disease. A significant need exists to focus greater attention on the heart disease in Friedreich’s ataxia, to understand its long-term outcome, and to develop new therapeutic strategies using existing medications and approaches. This review discusses some key features of the cardiomyopathy in Friedreich’s ataxia and potential therapeutic developments.

Pride, P. Melanie; Babbey, Clifford M.

2011-01-01

358

Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

Moore, J.A.

1995-03-01

359

A daily behavior enabled hidden Markov model for human behavior understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Hierarchical Context Hidden Markov Model (HC-HMM) for behavior understanding from video streams in a nursing center. The proposed HC-HMM infers elderly behaviors through three contexts which are spatial, activities, and temporal context. By considering the hierarchical architecture, HC-HMM builds three modules composing the three components, reasoning in the primary and the secondary relationship. The spatial contexts

Pau-choo Chung; Chin-de Liu

2008-01-01

360

The Visual and Verbal as Modes to Express Understanding of the Human Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this study, students’ expression of understanding of structure and function in three systems of the body through visual\\u000a (drawn) and verbal (written and spoken) modes was probed. Those with good comprehension had high scores in both modes. Pedagogical\\u000a practices must emphasise explicit use of drawings and words to link structure and function concepts. This can help students\\u000a of lower

Sindhu Mathai; Jayashree Ramadas

2006-01-01

361

The Role of Intuitive Ontologies in Scientific Understanding – the Case of Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological evidence suggests that laypeople understand the world around them in terms of intuitive ontologies which describe\\u000a broad categories of objects in the world, such as ‘person’, ‘artefact’ and ‘animal’. However, because intuitive ontologies\\u000a are the result of natural selection, they only need to be adaptive; this does not guarantee that the knowledge they provide\\u000a is a genuine reflection of

Helen De Cruz; Johan De Smedt

2007-01-01

362

Perceptions of Students in Developmental Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The number of students enrolling in colleges and universities requiring remedial programs is increasing. Developmental courses are used to increase student academic skills. Understanding how students perceive their placement and experience in developmental courses can provide valuable insight for high schools, community colleges, and universities…

Koch, Bevan; Slate, John R.; Moore, George

2012-01-01

363

Technique and Facilitation of Developmental Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors working with developmental groups need: (1) a thorough understanding of their group, (2) great skill, and (3) deep personal involvement. The author suggests specific characteristics for successful developmental groups: (1) the desire of the entire residence hall staff to be involved, (2) a co-ed group limited to eight members, and (3)…

Meyer, Marilyn M.

364

Understanding the role of representations of human-leopard conflict in Mumbai through media-content analysis.  

PubMed

Attempts to minimize the effects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) on conservation goals require an understanding of the mechanisms by which such conflicts are caused and sustained. This necessitates looking beyond the natural sciences to the human dimensions of wildlife management. Public dissemination of information regarding HWC occurs largely through the mass media. We conducted a content analysis of print media articles on human-leopard conflict in Mumbai, India. We sought to understand the framing of HWC and the changes in media coverage over a 10-year period (2001-2011) during which a large number of attacks on people prior to 2005 were followed by a program of trapping and relocation. After 2005, when there was a decrease in the level of conflict, the tone of English-language media reports changed. The perpetrator framing was over 5 times more likely before 2005, whereas a neutral framing was twice as likely after 2005. English-language and non-English-language print media differed significantly in their framing of HWC and in the kinds of solutions advocated. Our results also suggest the print mass media in Mumbai could be an influential conduit for content that diminishes HWC. These media outlets seem attentive to human-leopard conflict, capable of correcting erroneous perceptions and facilitating mitigation and effective management. We believe better contact and mutual understanding between conservation professionals and the mass media could be an important component of managing HWC. We further suggest that in such interactions conservation professionals need to be aware of cultural and linguistic differences in reporting within the country. PMID:23530914

Bhatia, Saloni; Athreya, Vidya; Grenyer, Richard; MacDonald, David W

2013-03-26

365

BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to aquatic species.

McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

2011-01-01

366

Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

367

Students' Understanding of Connections between Human Engineered and Natural Environmental Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research draws on developments in educational research where "learning progressions" are emerging as a strategy for synthesizing research on science learning and applying that research to policy and practice, and advances in the natural sciences, where "interdisciplinary research on coupled human and natural systems" has become increasingly…

Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Anderson, Charles W.

2010-01-01

368

Possible Contributions of Biol'ogy totaard an Understanding of Human Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

I fOST SCIENTISTS realize that the knowledge they accumulate is sig- ,LVI nificant chiefly as it affects the lives and thoughts of fellow men. Some of the viewpoints and discoveries of biology that have some bearing upon human problems are presented in this paper. It may be assumed that we are primarily concerned with the future of mankind. I7e want

R. E. HUNGATE

369

Understanding RUTH: Creating Believable Behaviors for a Virtual Human Under Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pursuing the ultimate goal of enabling intelligent conversation with a virtual human, two key challenges are selecting nonverbal behaviors to implement and realizing those behaviors practically and reliably. In this paper, we explore the signals interlocutors use to display uncertainty face to face. Peoples' signals were identified and annotated through systematic coding and then implemented onto our ECA (Embodied

Oh Insuk; Matthew Stone

2007-01-01

370

Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

Lee, Yeung Chung

2011-01-01

371

Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

Jacobsen, Judith E.

372

Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

2009-01-01

373

Understanding hereditary diseases using the dog and human as companion model systems  

PubMed Central

Animal models are requisite for genetic dissection of, and improved treatment regimens for, human hereditary diseases. While several animals have been used in academic and industrial research, the primary model for dissection of hereditary diseases has been the many strains of the laboratory mouse. However, given its greater (than the mouse) genetic similarity to the human, high number of naturally occurring hereditary diseases, unique population structure, and the availability of the complete genome sequence, the purebred dog has emerged as a powerful model for study of diseases. The major advantage the dog provides is that it is afflicted with approximately 450 hereditary diseases, about half of which have remarkable clinical similarities to corresponding diseases of the human. In addition, humankind has a strong desire to cure diseases of the dog so these two facts make the dog an ideal clinical and genetic model. This review highlights several of these shared hereditary diseases. Specifically, the canine models discussed herein have played important roles in identification of causative genes and/or have been utilized in novel therapeutic approaches of interest to the dog and human.

Tsai, Kate L.; Clark, Leigh Anne

2007-01-01

374

Understanding Inherited Disease through Human Migrations: A South-West Asian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome are inherited in a haploid manner and have been used extensively to reconstruct human lineages. mtDNA and the majority of the Y chromosome lack recombination and show high rates of apparently neutral mutation. Here, we demonstrate how detailed analysis of these uniparental inherited markers can reveal general and more subtle population movements within

K. McElreavey; L. Quintana-Murci

2002-01-01

375

General Constraints on the Architectures of Functionally Complex Learning Systems: Implications for Understanding Human Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human brain is a functionally complex system. It can be demonstrated both on theoretical grounds and from design experience with functionally complex electronic systems that practical considerations such as the needs to limit information recording and processing resources and to be able to make functional changes without excessive undesirable side effects place severe constraints on how information is stored

L. Andrew Coward

376

Relational Frame Theory: Some Implications for Understanding and Treating Human Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current paper, we attempt to show how both the basic and applied sciences of behavior analysis have been transformed by the modern research agenda in human language and cognition, known as Relational Frame Theory (RFT). At the level of basic process, the paper argues that the burgeoning literature on derived stimulus relations calls for a reinterpretation of complex

Yvonne Barnes-Holmes; Dermot Barnes-Holmes; Louise McHugh; Steven C. Hayes

2004-01-01

377

Images of the working brain: understanding human brain function with positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 15 years positron emission tomography (PET) has become a settled method of imaging the functioning human brain, both in normal volunteers and in patients with various disorders. Much of the work on sensory systems has been on the visual system, a conveniently studied and very important part of the brain. The motor system in health and disease

John D. G Watson

1997-01-01

378

Grasping the Affordances, Understanding the Reasoning: Toward a Dialectical Theory of Human Tool Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the most exciting issues in psychology is, What are the psychological mechanisms underlying human tool use? The computational approach assumes that the use of a tool (e.g., a hammer) requires the extraction of sensory information about object properties (heavy, rigid), which can then be translated into appropriate motor outputs (grasping,…

Osiurak, Francois; Jarry, Christophe; Le Gall, Didier

2010-01-01

379

Toward an understanding of the impact of software personal assistants on human organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent software personal assistants for human organi- zations are an active research area within the multiagent community. However, while many capabilities for these soft- ware personal assistants are imagined or already developed, there has been no quantiflcation of how an organization's performance is improved by software personal assistants. Moreover, while intuitively organizations will adapt to take advantage of the new

Steven Okamoto; Paul Scerri; Katia P. Sycara

2006-01-01

380

Vitamin D signaling in the bovine immune system: A model for understanding human vitamin D requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocr...

381

Germ-line transmission and developmental regulation of a 150-kb yeast artificial chromosome containing the human [beta]-globin locus in transgenic mice  

SciTech Connect

Sequential expression of the genes of the human [beta]-globin locus requires the formation of an erythroid-specific chromatin domain spanning > 200 kb. Regulation of this gene family involves both local interactions with proximal cis-acting sequences and long-range interactions with control elements upstream of the locus. To make it possible to analyze the interactions of cis-acting sequences of the human [beta]-globin locus in their normal spatial and sequence context, the authors characterized two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) 150 and 230 kb in size, containing the entire [beta]-globin locus. They have now successfully integrated the 150 kb YAC into the germ line of transgenic mice as a single unrearranged fragment that includes the locus control region, structural genes, and 30 kb of 3[prime] flanking sequences present in the native locus. Expression of the transgenic human [beta]-globin locus is tissue- and developmental stage-specific and closely follows the pattern of expression of the endogenous mouse [beta]-globin locus. By using homology-directed recombination in yeast and methods for the purification and transfer of YACs into transgenic mice, it will now be feasible to study the physiological role of cis-acting sequences in specifying an erythroid-specific chromatin domain and directing expression of [beta]-globin genes during ontogeny.

Gaensler, K.M.L.; Kitamura, M.; Kan, Yuet Wai (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-11-15

382

The Omo-Turkana Basin fossil hominins and their contribution to our understanding of human evolution in Africa.  

PubMed

The Omo-Turkana Basin, including the hominin fossil sites around Lake Turkana and the sites along the lower reaches of the Omo River, has made and continues to make an important contribution to improving our murky understanding of human evolution. This review highlights the various ways the Omo-Turkana Basin fossil record has contributed to, and continues to challenge, interpretations of human evolution. Despite many diagrams that look suspiciously like comprehensive hypotheses about human evolutionary history, any sensible paleoanthropologist knows that the early hominin fossil record is too meager to do anything other than offer very provisional statements about hominin taxonomy and phylogeny. If history tells us anything, it is that we still have much to learn about the hominin clade. Thus, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the hominin species represented at the Omo-Turkana Basin sites. We then focus on three specific topics for which the fossil evidence is especially relevant: the origin and nature of Paranthropus; the origin and nature of early Homo; and the ongoing debate about whether the pattern of human evolution is more consistent with speciation by cladogenesis, with greater taxonomic diversity or with speciation by anagenetic transformation, resulting in less taxonomic diversity and a more linear interpretation of human evolutionary history. PMID:22170695

Wood, Bernard; Leakey, Meave

383

Understanding the nano-topography changes and cellular influences resulting from the surface adsorption of human hair keratins.  

PubMed

Recent interest in the use of human hair keratins as a biomaterial has grown, fuelled by improvements in keratin extraction methods and better understanding of keratin bioactivity. The use of keratins as a bioactive coating for in vitro cell culture studies is an attractive proposition. In this light, the surface adsorption of human hair keratins onto tissue culture polystyrene surfaces has been investigated. Keratin density, nano-topography and hydrophobicity of keratin coated surfaces were characterized. To understand the cellular influence of these coated surfaces, murine L929 fibroblasts were cultured on them and evaluated for cytotoxicity, proliferation, metabolic activity and detachment behaviors compared to collagen type 1 coated surfaces. Keratins were deposited up to a density of 650 ng/cm(2) when a coating concentration of 80 ?g/ml or higher was used. The surface features formed by adsorbed keratins also changed in a coating concentration dependent manner. These surfaces improved L929 mouse fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in comparison to uncoated and collagen type 1 coated tissue culture polystyrene. Furthermore, the expression of fibronectin was accelerated on surfaces coated with solutions of higher keratin concentrations. These results suggest that human hair keratins can be used as a viable surface coating material to enhance substrate compliance for culturing cells. PMID:23184785

Taraballi, Francesca; Wang, Shuai; Li, Jian; Lee, Fiona Yann Yann; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Birch, William R; Teoh, Swee Hin; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Ng, Kee Woei

2012-05-03

384

Facts about Developmental Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

... day functioning, and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime. 1 Developmental Milestones Skills such as taking a ... developmental period and usually last throughout a person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is ...

385

An integrative framework for understanding cross-national human resource management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, debate in the area of cross-national human resource management (HRM) suggests that both “culture-bound” and “culture-free” factors and variables are important determinants of HRM policies and practices. HRM is presented as being context-specific and it is argued that with the growth of new markets world-wide, and increased levels of competition and globalization of business, there is a strong need

Pawan S Budhwar; Paul R Sparrow

2002-01-01

386

Human glucocorticoid receptor isoform ?: recent understanding of its potential implications in physiology and pathophysiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expresses two splicing isoforms ? and ? through alternative use of specific exons\\u000a 9? and 9?. In contrast to the classic receptor GR?, which mediates most of the known actions of glucocorticoids, the functions\\u000a of GR? have been largely unexplored. Owing to newly developed methods, for example microarrays and the jellyfish fluorescence\\u000a proteins, we

Tomoshige Kino; Yan A. Su; George P. Chrousos

2009-01-01

387

Understanding the formation of maxillary sinus in Japanese human foetuses using cone beam CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of the maxillary sinus (MS) is tied to the maturation of the craniofacial bones during development. The MS and\\u000a surrounding bone matrices in Japanese foetal specimens were inspected using cone beam computed tomography relative to the\\u000a nasal cavity (NC) and the surrounding bones, including the palatine bone, maxillary process, inferior nasal concha and lacrimal\\u000a bone. The human foetuses

Rieko Asaumi; Iwao Sato; Yoko Miwa; Kosuke Imura; Masataka Sunohara; Taisuke Kawai; Takashi Yosue

2010-01-01

388

Application of chemometrics in understanding the spatial distribution of human pharmaceuticals in surface water.  

PubMed

The growing interest in the environmental occurrence of veterinary and human pharmaceuticals is essentially due to their possible health implications to humans and ecosystem. This study assesses the occurrence of human pharmaceuticals in a Malaysian tropical aquatic environment taking a chemometric approach using cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. Water samples were collected from seven sampling stations along the heavily populated Langat River basin on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia and its main tributaries. Water samples were extracted using solid-phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for 18 pharmaceuticals and one metabolite, which cover a range of six therapeutic classes widely consumed in Malaysia. Cluster analysis was applied to group both pharmaceutical pollutants and sampling stations. Cluster analysis successfully clustered sampling stations and pollutants into three major clusters. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify those pollutants which had a significant impact in the definition of clusters. Finally, principal component analysis using a three-component model determined the constitution and data variance explained by each of the three main principal components. PMID:22193630

Al-Odaini, Najat Ahmed; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zali, Muniirah Abdul; Juahir, Hafizan; Yaziz, Mohamad Ismail; Surif, Salmijah

2011-12-24

389

Understanding the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of personality type has contributed a lot to our understanding and prediction of human behaviour, especially in organizational contexts. A great deal of interest is especially focused on what types of people are most effective in different management environments. This study aimed to identify differences in psychological types of management students and business executives using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Desai Tejas A; Kirti Sharda

390

Dynamic and Coordinated Epigenetic Regulation of Developmental Transitions in the Cardiac Lineage  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Heart development is exquisitely sensitive to the precise temporal regulation of thousands of genes that govern developmental decisions during differentiation. However, we currently lack a detailed understanding of how chromatin and gene expression patterns are coordinated during developmental transitions in the cardiac lineage. Here, we interrogated the transcriptome and several histone modifications across the genome during defined stages of cardiac differentiation. We find distinct chromatin patterns that are coordinated with stage-specific expression of functionally related genes, including many human disease-associated genes. Moreover, we discover a novel pre-activation chromatin pattern at the promoters of genes associated with heart development and cardiac function. We further identify stage-specific distal enhancer elements and find enriched DNA binding motifs within these regions that predict sets of transcription factors that orchestrate cardiac differentiation. Together, these findings form a basis for understanding developmentally regulated chromatin transitions during lineage commitment and the molecular etiology of congenital heart disease.

Wamstad, Joseph A.; Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Truty, Rebecca M.; Shrikumar, Avanti; Li, Fugen; Eilertson, Kirsten E.; Ding, Huiming; Wylie, John N.; Pico, Alexander R.; Capra, John A.; Erwin, Genevieve; Kattman, Steven J.; Keller, Gordon M.; Srivastava, Deepak; Levine, Stuart S.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Boyer, Laurie A.; Bruneau, Benoit G.

2012-01-01

391

A new approach to understanding the impact of circadian disruption on human health  

PubMed Central

Background Light and dark patterns are the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour solar day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with a variety of maladies. Ecological studies of human exposures to light are virtually nonexistent, however, making it difficult to determine if, in fact, light-induced circadian disruption directly affects human health. Methods A newly developed field measurement device recorded circadian light exposures and activity from day-shift and rotating-shift nurses. Circadian disruption defined in terms of behavioral entrainment was quantified for these two groups using phasor analyses of the circular cross-correlations between light exposure and activity. Circadian disruption also was determined for rats subjected to a consistent 12-hour light/12-hour dark pattern (12L:12D) and ones subjected to a "jet-lagged" schedule. Results Day-shift nurses and rats exposed to the consistent light-dark pattern exhibited pronounced similarities in their circular cross-correlation functions and 24-hour phasor representations except for an approximate 12-hour phase difference between species. The phase difference reflects the diurnal versus nocturnal behavior of humans versus rodents. Phase differences within species likely reflect chronotype differences among individuals. Rotating-shift nurses and rats subjected to the "jet-lagged" schedule exhibited significant reductions in phasor magnitudes compared to the day-shift nurses and the 12L:12D rats. The reductions in the 24-hour phasor magnitudes indicate a loss of behavioral entrainment compared to the nurses and the rats with regular light-dark exposure patterns. Conclusion This paper provides a quantitative foundation for systematically studying the impact of light-induced circadian disruption in humans and in animal models. Ecological light and activity data are needed to develop the essential insights into circadian entrainment/disruption actually experienced by modern people. These data can now be obtained and analyzed to reveal the interrelationship between actual light exposures and markers of circadian rhythm such as rest-activity patterns, core body temperature, and melatonin synthesis. Moreover, it should now be possible to bridge ecological studies of circadian disruption in humans to parametric studies of the relationships between circadian disruption and health outcomes using animal models.

Rea, Mark S; Bierman, Andrew; Figueiro, Mariana G; Bullough, John D

2008-01-01

392

Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such

Shoji Itakura

2008-01-01

393

Reproductive and developmental hazards and employment policies.  

PubMed Central

The task of informing workers of hazards in the workplace is seldom more difficult than with the subject of reproductive and developmental hazards. Occupational health staff and physicians are faced with a paucity of relevant medical information. Workers, kept aware of the thalidomide spectre with every media report of the latest descriptive epidemiology study, are anxious to know more. Employers, knowing that few agents are regulated on the basis of reproductive hazards, are encouraged to lessen workplace exposure to all agents but need guidance from government and scientists in setting priorities. Understandable ethical and scientific limitations on human studies require researchers to study animals and cells. The difficulties of extrapolating the results of this research to humans are well known. The scientific, medical, and workplace difficulties in dealing with reproductive and developmental hazards are mirrored in the regulatory positions found in North America. Some regard fetal protection policies as sex discrimination whereas others consider such policies as reasonable. Guidelines are provided to allow employers and medical practitioners to consider this difficult problem.

Johnston, J D; Jamieson, G G; Wright, S

1992-01-01

394

Population Physiology: Leveraging Electronic Health Record Data to Understand Human Endocrine Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Studying physiology and pathophysiology over a broad population for long periods of time is difficult primarily because collecting human physiologic data can be intrusive, dangerous, and expensive. One solution is to use data that have been collected for a different purpose. Electronic health record (EHR) data promise to support the development and testing of mechanistic physiologic models on diverse populations and allow correlation with clinical outcomes, but limitations in the data have thus far thwarted such use. For example, using uncontrolled population-scale EHR data to verify the outcome of time dependent behavior of mechanistic, constructive models can be difficult because: (i) aggregation of the population can obscure or generate a signal, (ii) there is often no control population with a well understood health state, and (iii) diversity in how the population is measured can make the data difficult to fit into conventional analysis techniques. This paper shows that it is possible to use EHR data to test a physiological model for a population and over long time scales. Specifically, a methodology is developed and demonstrated for testing a mechanistic, time-dependent, physiological model of serum glucose dynamics with uncontrolled, population-scale, physiological patient data extracted from an EHR repository. It is shown that there is no observable daily variation the normalized mean glucose for any EHR subpopulations. In contrast, a derived value, daily variation in nonlinear correlation quantified by the time-delayed mutual information (TDMI), did reveal the intuitively expected diurnal variation in glucose levels amongst a random population of humans. Moreover, in a population of continuously (tube) fed patients, there was no observable TDMI-based diurnal signal. These TDMI-based signals, via a glucose insulin model, were then connected with human feeding patterns. In particular, a constructive physiological model was shown to correctly predict the difference between the general uncontrolled population and a subpopulation whose feeding was controlled.

Albers, D. J.; Hripcsak, George; Schmidt, Michael

2012-01-01

395

Understanding the comparative catarrhine context of human pelvic form: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.  

PubMed

Comparative studies of catarrhine pelvic morphology in an evolutionary framework play an important role in paleoanthropology, especially since this is the context from which human bipedalism eventually arose. Given the abundance of potentially confounding evolutionary and mechanical factors influencing pelvic form, it is important to tease apart the effects of shape and size in the major component of the primate pelvis, the os coxae. However, os coxae form is difficult to assess via traditional morphometric methods. Here, we adopt a 3D geometric morphometric approach to landmark data. Our analyses included data from 30 extant catarrhine taxa. Data were transformed and registered using Procrustes analysis and analyzed via examination of principal components. Two analyses were performed: one excluding Homo sapiens, and a second including them. Results of the first analysis demonstrate that the total diversity of os coxae morphology is significantly greater in hominoids than it is in cercopithecoids. This appears to be driven by the greater effects of size diversity (i.e., allometric effects) in the case of the hominoids. This analysis also revealed a clear taxonomic/phylogenetic distinction between hominoids and cercopithecoids in terms of os coxae shape. The second analysis showed that Procrustes distances in shape space are significantly greater between extant Pan and Homo than they are between any two non-human catarrhine taxa. This analysis thus quantifies, on a comparative basis, the dramatic effect that the course of hominin evolution had upon the morphology of the human pelvis, within what is - even by catarrhine standards--a relatively short span of evolutionary time. PMID:23452956

Lycett, Stephen J; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

2013-02-26

396

Understanding nano-anatomy of healthy and carious human teeth: a prerequisite for nanodentistry.  

PubMed

The anatomy of human teeth reflects its usage. Spatially resolved X-ray scattering permits quantitative studies of the characteristic arrangement of the anisotropic calcium phosphate crystallites and the collagen fibers within the hard tissues of the crown. The present study summarizes the distinctive nanometer-sized anatomical features of the tooth hard tissues including their interface taking advantage of spatially resolved synchrotron radiation-based small-angle X-ray scattering. The comparison of slices from eight teeth indicates a long-range organization of tooth nanostructures. PMID:22589047

Gaiser, Sebastian; Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; White, Shane N; Müller, Bert

2012-02-09

397

Analysis in Serum-Free Culture of the Targets of Recombinant Human Hemopoietic Growth Factors: Interleukin 3 and Granulocyte\\/Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor are Specific for Early Developmental Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a serum-free culture system for enriched human hemopoietic progenitors to analyze the developmental stages and lineage specificities of the human hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. None of the individual factors alone efficiently supported hemopoietic colony formation. Neither interleukin 3 nor granulocyte\\/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor alone or in combination effectively supported proliferation of progenitor cells. However, when combined with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or

Yoshiaki Sonoda; Yu-Chung Yang; Gordon G. Wong; Steven C. Clark; Makio Ogawa

1988-01-01

398

Understanding human visual systems and its impact on our intelligent instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the evolution of machine vision and comment on the cross-fertilization from the neural sciences onto flourishing fields of neural processing, parallel processing, and associative memory in optical sciences and computing. Then we examine how the intensive efforts in mapping the human brain have been influenced by concepts in computer sciences, control theory, and electronic circuits. We discuss two neural paths that employ the input from the vision sense to determine the navigational options and object recognition. They are ventral temporal pathway for object recognition (what?) and dorsal parietal pathway for navigation (where?), respectively. We describe the reflexive and conscious decision centers in cerebral cortex involved with visual attention and gaze control. Interestingly, these require return path though the midbrain for ocular muscle control. We find that the cognitive psychologists currently study human brain employing low-spatial-resolution fMRI with temporal response on the order of a second. In recent years, the life scientists have concentrated on insect brains to study neural processes. We discuss how reflexive and conscious gaze-control decisions are made in the frontal eye field and inferior parietal lobe, constituting the fronto-parietal attention network. We note that ethical and experiential learnings impact our conscious decisions.

Strojnik Scholl, Marija; Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Michelle K.

2013-09-01

399

The human PD1 gene: complete cDNA, genomic organization, and developmentally regulated expression in B cell progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the complete cDNA sequence and the genomic structure of the human PD-1 homologue. An analysis of the expression pattern of the human PD-1 gene (hPD-1) and the murine PD-1 gene (mPD-1) in developing bone marrow B-lineage cells was also undertaken. The full length hPD-1 cDNA is 2106 nucleotides long and encodes a predicted protein of 288 amino acid

Lawrence R Finger; Jaiyu Pu; Robert Wasserman; Rajeev Vibhakar; Elaine Louie; Richard R Hardy; Peter D Burrows; Linda G Billips

1997-01-01

400

Applying developmental psychology to children's road safety: Problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the contributions of developmental psychology to our understanding of children's vulnerability as road users and to the formulation and assessment of appropriate intervention programs. Three limitations to the application of developmental psychology are discussed: (1) problems in the applicability to a new domain of both domain-general and domain-specific cognitive competence models; (2) the cultural relativity of developmental

James D. Demetre

1997-01-01

401

Applying an adult development perspective to developmental networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To elaborate how an adult development perspective can further an understanding of mentoring (developmental) networks and their value to focal individuals in terms of the developmental functions provided and outcomes such as personal learning, task performance and development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article utilizes Kegan's developmental stage theory to explore the implications of an adult development lens for individuals'

Dawn E. Chandler; Kathy E. Kram

2005-01-01

402

Understanding resilience.  

PubMed

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S; Mathé, Aleksander A

2013-02-15

403

A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

Shen, Song-Hua (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Chang, James Y. H. (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Boring,Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Whaley, April M. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H. (Vattenfall Ringhals AB, Varobacka, Sweden); Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Mosleh, Ali (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

2010-03-01

404

[Contribution of first polar body analysis to understanding of human aneuploidy mechanism].  

PubMed

In our species, reproduction failure rate is high. Clinical evidence is miscarriage where chromosomal origin was largely involved (66% of cases). The development of assisted reproduction techniques made possible to analyse unfertilized oocytes and preimplantation embryos. The results have shown a high rate of chromosome abnormalities before implantation (50%). Two mechanisms were identified which could generate aneuploidy, the meiosis non-disjunction and the premature separation of sister chromatids (PSSC). A FISH analysis of the first polar body, a cell complementary to the oocyte after meiosis, can be performed before intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We studied 2 distinct populations (patients over 38 years old and patients with recurrent implantation failure) and we confirmed that PSSC is the major mechanism linked to advanced maternal age in human. PMID:16737101

Selva, Jacqueline; Bergere, Marianne; Molina-Gomes, Denise; Hammoud, Ibrahim; Lombroso, Raoul; Vialard, François

2005-11-01

405

Understanding the role of NRF2-regulated miRNAs in human malignancies  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of over a hundred cytoprotective and antioxidant genes that provide cellular protection from reactive oxygen species. Chemotherapy resistance in several cancers has been linked to dysregulation of the NRF2 signalling pathway, moreover there is growing evidence that NRF2 may contribute to tumorigenesis. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate mRNA sequences. In cancer pathogenesis, aberrantly expressed miRNAs can act as either tumor suppressor or oncogenic miRNA. Recent evidence has been described that identifies a number of miRNA that can be regulated by NRF2. This review outlines the importance of NRF2 in regulating miRNA, and the functional role this may have in the tumorigenesis of human malignancies and their chemotherapy resistance.

Shah, Niraj M; Rushworth, Stuart A; Murray, Megan Y; Bowles, Kristian M; MacEwan, David J

2013-01-01

406

Towards the Understanding of the Neurogenesis of Social Cognition: Evidence from Impaired Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One accepted and straightforward approach to understand the genesis of social cogni- tion - as of any particular human neoformation - is to look for specific developmental disorders in the hope to find clear double dissociations. In this regard, contrasting subjects with autistic spec- trum disorders on the one hand and subjects with Williams syndrome on the other has gained

Miklós Gy?ri; Ágnes Lukács; Csaba Pléh

2004-01-01

407

Understanding Alcoholism Through microRNA Signatures in Brains of Human Alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting toward the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions.

Nunez, Yury O.; Mayfield, R. Dayne

2012-01-01

408

Toward a Practice-Oriented Approach to Developmental Education Theory: Instructor Worldviews and Beliefs about Developmental Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this exploratory, phenomenological study was to understand developmental mathematics in community college by examining the beliefs and worldviews of developmental mathematics instructors. This study interviewed 11 instructors in 4 demographically different community colleges within a single state with decentralized developmental

Rosen, Karen M.

2010-01-01

409

Real Time Imaging of Human Progenitor Neurogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human neural progenitors are increasingly being employed in drug screens and emerging cell therapies targeted towards neurological disorders where neurogenesis is thought to play a key role including developmental disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression. Key to the success of these applications is understanding the mechanisms by which neurons arise. Our understanding of development can provide some guidance but since little

Thomas M. Keenan; Aaron D. Nelson; Jeffrey R. Grinager; Jarett C. Thelen; Clive N. Svendsen

2010-01-01

410

Human development II: we need an integrated theory for matter, life and consciousness to understand life and healing.  

PubMed

For almost a decade, we have experimented with supporting the philosophical development of severely ill patients to induce recovery and spontaneous healing. Recently, we have observed a new pattern of extremely rapid, spontaneous healing that apparently can facilitate even the spontaneous remission of cancer and the spontaneous recovery of mental diseases like schizophrenia and borderline schizophrenia. Our working hypothesis is that the accelerated healing is a function of the patient's brain-mind and body-mind coming closer together due to the development of what we call "deep" cosmology. To understand and describe what happens at a biological level, we have suggested naming the process adult human metamorphosis, a possibility that is opened by the human genome showing full generic equipment for metamorphosis. To understand the mechanistic details in the complicated interaction between consciousness and biology, we need an adequate theory for biological information. In a series of papers, we propose what we call "holistic biology for holistic medicine". We suggest that a relatively simple model based on interacting wholenesses instead of isolated parts can shed a new light on a number of difficult issues that we need to explain and understand in biology and medicine in order to understand and use metamorphosis in the holistic medical clinic. We aim to give a holistic theoretical interpretation of biological phenomena at large, morphogenesis, evolution, immune system regulation (self-nonself discrimination), brain function, consciousness, and health in particular. We start at the most fundamental problem: what is biological information at the subcellular, cellular, and supracellular levels if we presume that it is the same phenomenon on all levels (using Occam's razor), and how can this be described scientifically? The problems we address are all connected to the information flow in the functioning, living organism: function of the brain and consciousness, the regulations of the immune system and cell growth, the dynamics of health and disease. We suggest that life utilizes an unseen fine structure of the physical energy of the universe at a subparticular or quantum level to give information-directed self-organization; we give a first sketch of a possible fractal structure of the energy able to both contain and communicate biological information and carry individual and collective consciousness. Finally, thorough our analysis, we put up a model for adult human metamorphosis. PMID:16830047

Ventegodt, Søren; Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Nielsen, Maj Lyck; Clausen, Birgitte; Merrick, Joav

2006-07-06

411

Characterization of a human cardiac gene which encodes for a LIM domain protein and is developmentally expressed in myocardial development.  

PubMed

A clone with high sequence homology to a rat muscle LIM protein has been isolated from a human fetal heart cDNA library. The isolated cDNA is 887 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 194 amino acid residues. Northern blot analysis revealed that it is predominantly expressed in fetal and neonatal hearts, with a low level of expression in adult heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle (soleus). No detectable expression of this transcript was found in other tissues. Its cardiac expression and structural similarity to the rat homolog implied a regulatory role in human cardiac muscle. The biological property was confirmed by zinc binding assay, demonstrating its zinc-binding affinity. Homology of CLP to a rat muscle LIM protein and its predominantly differential expression in cardiac tissue imply its significant putative role in the development and growth of the human heart. PMID:8782062

Fung, Y W; Wang, R; Liew, C C

1996-06-01

412

Understanding Measurements of Intestinal Permeability in Healthy Humans with Urine Lactulose and Mannitol Excretion  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to understand the information from differential two-sugar excretion (2-SE) in measuring intestinal permeability. In a crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers, we compared urinary excretion ratios of lactulose (L) to mannitol [(M) LMR] after ingestion in liquid formulation (LF) or in delayed-release, methacrylate-coated capsules (CAP). Both formulations were radiolabeled. Urine was collected every 2 hours from 0–8h, and from 8–24h. Two hours after LF, gastric residual was 15.9 ± 6.2 % (SEM), and the percentage in colon was 49.6 ± 7.8 %; in 11/12 participants, liquid had entered colon within 2h. Average CAP arrival time in colon was 5.16 ± 0.46h (mode 6 h). After LF, mannitol was extensively absorbed in the first 8h; lactulose absorption was low thoughout the 24h. After the LF, the LMR (geometric mean, 95% CI/hour) in the 0–2h urine was 0.08 [0.05, 0.11]), which was lower than in 8–24h urine (0.32,[0.16, 0.46]; p<0.05). Urine LMRs at 8–24h were similar after LF or CAP. We concluded that, after LF, sugar excretion in 0–2h urine may reflect both SI and colon permeability. Colonic permeability is reflected by urine sugar excretion between 6 and 24h. CAP delivery reduces mannitol excreted at 0–6h, compared to LF. The 0 to 5 or 6h 2-SE urine likely reflects both SI and colon permeability; the higher LMR in the 8–24h urine relative to 0–2h urine should be interpreted with caution and does not mean that colon is more permeable than SI.

Camilleri, Michael; Nadeau, Ashley; Lamsam, Jesse; Nord, Sara Linker; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane; Sweetser, Seth; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Singh, Ravinder

2009-01-01

413

Developmental Pharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

van den Anker, Johannes N.

2010-01-01

414

Developmental Pharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

van den Anker, Johannes N.

2010-01-01

415

Towards understanding transverse relaxation in human brain through its field dependence  

PubMed Central

Apparent transverse relaxation rate constants (R2† = 1/T2†) were measured in various regions of the healthy human brain using a multi-echo adiabatic spin echo (MASE) sequence at five different magnetic fields, 1.5, 1.9, 3, 4.7, and 7T. The R2† values showed a clear dependence on magnetic field strength (B0). The regional distribution of the R2† was well explained by the sum of three components: 1) regional non-hemin iron concentration ([Fe]), 2) regional macromolecular mass fraction (fM), 3) a region independent factor. Accordingly, R2† = ?[Fe] + ?fM + ?, where coefficients ?, ?, and ? were experimentally determined at each magnetic field, by a least square fitting method using multiple regression analysis. Whereas the coefficient ? linearly increased with B0, ? showed a quadratic dependence on top of a field independent component. The coefficient ? also increased slightly with B0, on top of a field independent component. The linear dependence of ? on B0 was consistent with that observed for the transverse relaxation rate of water protons in ferritin solutions, as found previously by others. The quadratic dependence of ? on B0 was accounted for by iso- and anisochronous exchange mechanisms using intrinsic relaxation parameters obtained from the literature.

Mitsumori, Fumiyuki; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Takaya, Nobuhiro; Garwood, Michael; Auerbach, Edward J; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia

2012-01-01

416

Toward understanding transverse relaxation in human brain through its field dependence.  

PubMed

Apparent transverse-relaxation rate constants (R?? = 1/T??) were measured in various regions of the healthy human brain using a multiecho adiabatic spin-echo sequence at five different magnetic fields, 1.5, 1.9, 3, 4.7, and 7 T. The R?? values showed a clear dependence on magnetic field strength (B(0) ). The regional distribution of the R??? was well explained by the sum of three components: (1) regional nonhemin iron concentration ([Fe]), (2) regional macromolecular mass fraction (f(M) ), and (3) a region-independent factor. Accordingly, R?? = ?[Fe] + ?f(M) + ?, where coefficients ?, ?, and ? were experimentally determined at each magnetic field by a least square fitting method using multiple regression analysis. Although the coefficient ? linearly increased with B(0) , ? showed a quadratic dependence on top of a field-independent component. The coefficient ? also increased slightly with B(0) on top of a field-independent component. The linear dependence of ? on B(0) was consistent with that observed for the transverse-relaxation rate of water protons in ferritin solutions as found previously by others. The quadratic dependence of ? on B(0) was accounted for by isochronous and anisochronous exchange mechanisms using intrinsic-relaxation parameters obtained from the literature. PMID:22161735

Mitsumori, Fumiyuki; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Takaya, Nobuhiro; Garwood, Michael; Auerbach, Edward J; Michaeli, Shalom; Mangia, Silvia

2011-12-08

417

Use of Gene Ontology Annotation to understand the peroxisome proteome in humans  

PubMed Central

The Gene Ontology (GO) is the de facto standard for the functional description of gene products, providing a consistent, information-rich terminology applicable across species and information repositories. The UniProt Consortium uses both manual and automatic GO annotation approaches to curate UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB) entries. The selection of a protein set prioritized for manual annotation has implications for the characteristics of the information provided to users working in a specific field or interested in particular pathways or processes. In this article, we describe an organelle-focused, manual curation initiative targeting proteins from the human peroxisome. We discuss the steps taken to define the peroxisome proteome and the challenges encountered in defining the boundaries of this protein set. We illustrate with the use of examples how GO annotations now capture cell and tissue type information and the advantages that such an annotation approach provides to users. Database URL: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/GOA/ and http://www.uniprot.org

Mutowo-Meullenet, Prudence; Huntley, Rachael P.; Dimmer, Emily C.; Alam-Faruque, Yasmin; Sawford, Tony; Jesus Martin, Maria; O'Donovan, Claire; Apweiler, Rolf

2013-01-01

418

Understanding protein synthesis: a role-play approach in large undergraduate human anatomy and physiology classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section presented with a traditional lecture served as the control group. A pretest/posttest assessment and a survey were administered to both sections and used in data analysis. In addition, overall test scores and item analysis were examined. The analysis revealed that participants in both groups improved significantly from pretest to posttest, but there were no significant differences between the groups in posttest scores. Neither group showed a significant change from posttest to the exam. However, there was a moderate positive effect on engagement and satisfaction survey questions from being in the study group (based on 255 total surveys returned by both groups). The role-play activity was at least as effective as the lecture in terms of student performance on the above-mentioned assessments. In addition, it proved successful in engaging students in the learning process and increasing their satisfaction.

Diana Sturges (Georgia Southern University)

2009-06-01

419

Personality and Leadership Developmental Levels as predictors of leader performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an empirical investigation of constructive-developmental theory as a theoretical framework for understanding leadership and as a predictor of 360-degree leader performance ratings. Constructive-developmental stage (conceptualized as Leadership Developmental Level) was found to predict performance ratings from all rater sources (superiors, peers, and subordinates). Furthermore, the predictive ability of Leadership Developmental Level is compared to that of Big

Sarah E. Strang; Karl W. Kuhnert

2009-01-01

420

Linking soil forming processes, geomorphological dynamics and human activity to understand past and future patterns of landscape change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between soil formation, slope processes, human activities and changing climate are important in shaping landscapes. However, these aspects of landscape development have not often been combined in integrated quantitative analysis. This means that we cannot yet make accurate assessments of the sustainability of our land-based activities under changing climate and management conditions. In particular, important questions about the effects of human activity on soil formation and of erosion on soil formation remain unanswered. Models that can serve as a framework for the calculation of such interactions have recently become available, offering methods to rapidly and significantly increase our knowledge of the behaviour of the combined human-soil-landscape system under climatic influence. If quantitative data about interactions become available, these models can simulate landscape development and provide testable predictions. Recent exploratory work in this direction is promising. With diminishing computational limitations and increasing attention for parsimony in model building, Landscape Evolutin Models (LEMs) now allow quantitative incorporation of soil formation processes (e.g. LAPSUS) and recent soil formation models allow calculation of the evolution of soil properties in ways that are suited for such incorporation (e.g. SoilGen2). A major step forward is possible whereby landscape evolution and soil formation will be integrated through quantitative modelling, with possibilities to include dynamic feedback mechanisms between soil and landscape. Such a model will allow us to study the coupled human-environmental system and is a significant contribution to landscape change management. Our objective is to propose a model framework and platform for others to join or to be inspired. Altogether with the common goal to increase our understanding of the quantitative interaction between slope processes, soil formation and human activity through measurements and modelling.

Schoorl, J. M.; Finke, P. A.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Sonneveld, M. P. W.

2012-04-01

421

Developmental and Acquired Dyslexias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marshall (1984) highlighted potential parallels between children with developmental disorders of reading and adults who had acquired reading disorders. He advocated the use of a cognitive neuropsychological framework in the investigation of children with developmental abnormalities of cognition, including those with developmental dyslexias.Developmental phonological dyslexia has been extensively described and is a pervasive disorder. The relationship between reading difficulty and

Christine M. Temple

2006-01-01

422

DEHP, bis(2)-ethylhexyl phthalate, alters gene expression in human cells: possible correlation with initiation of fetal developmental abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is a widely distributed phthalate, to which humans are exposed to due to its variety of commercial and manufacturing uses. As a plasticiser, it is found in a wide number of products, and metabolites of DEHP have been detected in urine samples from a high percentage ofthe peoplescreened for phthalates. We utilised DNA microarray analysis to evaluate DEHP

R Hokanson; W Hanneman; M Hennessey; K C Donnelly; T McDonald; R Chowdhary; D L Busbee

2006-01-01

423

The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad,…

Gross, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

424

Developmental Systems Science: Exploring the Application of Systems Science Methods to Developmental Science Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science theorists fully acknowledge the wide array of complex interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that together give rise to development. However, despite this conceptual understanding of development as a system, developmental science has not fully applied analytic methods commensurate with this systems perspective. This article provides a brief introduction to systems science, an approach to problem solving that

Jennifer Brown Urban; Nathaniel D. Osgood; Patricia L. Mabry

2011-01-01

425

Overexpression of Human and Fly Frataxins in Drosophila Provokes Deleterious Effects at Biochemical, Physiological and Developmental Levels  

PubMed Central

Background Friedreich's ataxia (FA), the most frequent form of inherited ataxias in the Caucasian population, is caused by a reduced expression of frataxin, a highly conserved protein. Model organisms have contributed greatly in the efforts to decipher the function of frataxin; however, the precise function of this protein remains elusive. Overexpression studies are a useful approach to investigate the mechanistic actions of frataxin; however, the existing literature reports contradictory results. To further investigate the effect of frataxin overexpression, we analyzed the consequences of overexpressing human (FXN) and fly (FH) frataxins in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained transgenic flies that overexpressed human or fly frataxins in a general pattern and in different tissues using the UAS-GAL4 system. For both frataxins, we observed deleterious effects at the biochemical, histological and behavioral levels. Oxidative stress is a relevant factor in the frataxin overexpression phenotypes. Systemic frataxin overexpression reduces Drosophila viability and impairs the normal embryonic development of muscle and the peripheral nervous system. A reduction in the level of aconitase activity and a decrease in the level of NDUF3 were also observed in the transgenic flies that overexpressed frataxin. Frataxin overexpression in the nervous system reduces life span, impairs locomotor ability and causes brain degeneration. Frataxin aggregation and a misfolding of this protein have been shown not to be the mechanism that is responsible for the phenotypes that have been observed. Nevertheless, the expression of human frataxin rescues the aconitase activity in the fh knockdown mutant. Conclusion/Significance Our results provide in vivo evidence of a functional equivalence for human and fly frataxins and indicate that the control of frataxin expression is important for treatments that aim to increase frataxin levels.

Soriano, Sirena; Botella, Jose A.; Schneuwly, Stephan; Martinez-Sebastian, Maria J.; Molto, Maria D.

2011-01-01

426

Developmentally-related candidate retinoic acid target genes regulated early during neuronal differentiation of human embryonal carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonal carcinoma is a model of embryonic development as well as tumor cell differentiation. In response to all-trans retinoic acid (RA), the human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell line, NT2\\/D1, differentiates toward a neuronal lineage with associated loss of cell growth and tumorigenicity. Through the use of cDNA-based microarrays we sought to identify the early downstream targets of RA during differentiation

Sarah J Freemantle; Joanna S Kerley; Shannon L Olsen; Robert H Gross; Michael J Spinella

2002-01-01

427

Confronting Analytical Dilemmas for Understanding Complex Human Interactions in Design-Based Research from a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Understanding human activity in real-world situations often involves complicated data collection, analysis, and presentation methods. This article discusses how Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can inform design-based research practices that focus on understanding activity in real-world situations. I provide a sample data set with…

Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2007-01-01

428

Human growth-differentiation factor 3 (hGDF3): developmental regulation in human teratocarcinoma cell lines and expression in primary testicular germ cell tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the cloning and initial characterization of a novel cDNA from human embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. This cDNA, which we named human growth differentiation factor 3 (hGDF3), encodes the homologue of mouse GDF3, a TGF? superfamily member belonging to the Growth\\/Differentiation Factors. We have analysed the expression of hGDF3 in human embryonal carcinoma cell lines and in primary testicular

Andrea AD Caricasole; Ron HN van Schaik; Laura M Zeinstra; Cristel DJ Wierikx; Ruud JHLM van Gurp; Mirjam van den Pol; Leendert HJ Looijenga; J Wolter Oosterhuis; Martin F Pera; Andrew Ward; Diederik de Bruijn; Piet Kramer; Frank H de Jong; Adriana JM van den Eijnden-van Raaij; AAD Caricasole

1998-01-01

429

Developmental neuroinflammation and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in and evidence for altered immune factors in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Stimulated by various epidemiological findings reporting elevated risk of schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to infection, one line of current research aims to explore the potential contribution of immune-mediated disruption of early brain development in the precipitation of long-term psychotic disease. Since the initial formulation of the "prenatal cytokine hypothesis" more than a decade ago, extensive epidemiological research and remarkable advances in modeling prenatal immune activation effects in animal models have provided strong support for this hypothesis by underscoring the critical role of cytokine-associated inflammatory events, together with downstream pathophysiological processes such as oxidative stress, hypoferremia and zinc deficiency, in mediating the short- and long-term neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal infection. Longitudinal studies in animal models further indicate that infection-induced developmental neuroinflammation may be pathologically relevant beyond the antenatal and neonatal periods, and may contribute to disease progression associated with the gradual development of full-blown schizophrenic disease. According to this scenario, exposure to prenatal immune challenge primes early pre- and postnatal alterations in peripheral and central inflammatory response systems, which in turn may disrupt the normal development and maturation of neuronal systems from juvenile to adult stages of life. Such developmental neuroinflammation may adversely affect processes that are pivotal for normal brain maturation, including myelination, synaptic pruning, and neuronal remodeling, all of which occur to a great extent during postnatal brain maturation. Undoubtedly, our understanding of the role of developmental neuroinflammation in progressive brain changes relevant to schizophrenia is still in infancy. Identification of these mechanisms would be highly warranted because they may represent a valuable target to attenuate or even prevent the emergence of full-blown brain and behavioral pathology, especially in individuals with a history of prenatal complications such as in-utero exposure to infection and/or inflammation. PMID:22122877

Meyer, Urs

2011-11-15

430

Is Human Decision Making under Ambiguity Guided by Loss Frequency Regardless of the Costs? A Developmental Study Using the Soochow Gambling Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Converging developmental decision-making studies have demonstrated that until late adolescence, individuals prefer options for which the risk of a loss is low regardless of the final outcome. Recent works have shown a similar inability to consider both loss frequency and final outcome among adults. The current study aimed to identify developmental

Aite, Ania; Cassotti, Mathieu; Rossi, Sandrine; Poirel, Nicolas; Lubin, Amelie; Houde, Olivier; Moutier, Sylvain

2012-01-01

431

Embryoprotective role of endogenous catalase in acatalasemic and human catalase-expressing mouse embryos exposed in culture to developmental and phenytoin-enhanced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in spontaneous and xenobiotic-enhanced embryopathies, and protein therapy with exogenous catalase suggests an embryoprotective role, although embryonic catalase activity is only about 5% of adult activity. Using mutant catalase-deficient (acatalasemic, aCat) mice and transgenic mice expressing human catalase (hCat, enhanced catalase activity) compared with a confirmed outbred CD-1 mouse model, we investigated the protective importance of constitutive embryonic catalase against endogenous ROS and the ROS-initiating teratogen phenytoin in embryo culture. Vehicle-exposed aCat and hCat embryos, respectively, exhibited reduced and enhanced catalase activity compared with wild-type (WT) controls, with conversely enhanced and reduced spontaneous embryopathies. Phenytoin was embryopathic in all strains without altering catalase activity but less so in the WT embryos for the aCat and hCat strains, which exhibited about half the catalase activity of CD-1 embryos. Phenytoin, respectively, enhanced and reduced embryopathies in aCat and hCat embryos. Among aCat embryos exposed to phenytoin, embryopathies increased with decreasing catalase activity and were completely blocked by addition of exogenous catalase, which increased embryonic catalase activity to WT levels. These results provide the first direct evidence that (1) the low level of constitutive embryonic catalase protects the conceptus from developmental and xenobiotic-enhanced oxidative stress and (2) embryonic variations in activity of this enzyme affect development. PMID:21252394

Abramov, Julia P; Wells, Peter G

2011-01-20

432

The inducible tissue-specific expression of the human IL-3/GM-CSF locus is controlled by a complex array of developmentally regulated enhancers  

PubMed Central

The closely linked human IL-3 and GM-CSF genes are tightly regulated and are expressed in activated T cells and mast cells. Here we used transgenic mice to study the developmental regulation of this locus and to identify DNA elements required for its correct activity in vivo. Because these two genes are separated by a CTCF-dependent insulator, and the GM-CSF gene is regulated primarily by its own upstream enhancer, the main aim was to identify regions of the locus required for correct IL-3 gene expression. We initially found that the previously identified proximal upstream IL-3 enhancers were insufficient to account for the in vivo activity of the IL-3 gene. However, an extended analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) spanning the entire upstream IL-3 intergenic region revealed the existence of a complex cluster of both constitutive and inducible DHSs spanning the ?34 to ?40 kb region. The tissue specificity of these DHSs mirrored the activity of the IL-3 gene, and included a highly inducible CyclosporinA-sensitive enhancer at ?37 kb which increased IL-3 promoter activity 40 fold. Significantly, inclusion of this region enabled correct in vivo regulation of IL-3 gene expression in T cells, mast cells and myeloid progenitor cells.

Baxter, Euan W.; Mirabella, Fabio; Bowers, Sarion R.; James, Sally R.; Bonavita, Aude-Marine; Bertrand, Elisabeth; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Hawwari, Abbas; Bert, Andrew G.; de Arce, Andrea Gonzalez; West, Adam G.; Bonifer, Constanze; Cockerill, Peter N.

2012-01-01

433

Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

Wang, Jing-Ru

2004-01-01

434

Some Implications of Life Span Developmental Psychology for Adult Education and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many adult educators do not consider developmental psychology relevant to adult education because the bulk of developmental theory offers little for practical ap- plication. This paper describes a different perspective of adult psychology—life span developmental psychology—which holds great promise for educators in understanding better adult learning. We attempt to make explicit and to strengthen connections between developmental theory and adult

Thomas L. Pourchot; M. Cecil Smith

2004-01-01

435

45 CFR 1386.35 - Allowable and non-allowable costs for Federal Assistance to State Developmental Disabilities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-allowable costs for Federal Assistance to State Developmental Disabilities Councils. 1386.35 Section...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT...

2009-10-01

436

45 CFR 1386.35 - Allowable and non-allowable costs for Federal Assistance to State Developmental Disabilities...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...non-allowable costs for Federal Assistance to State Developmental Disabilities Councils. 1386.35 Section...AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES, DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM FORMULA GRANT...

2010-10-01

437

Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood.  

PubMed

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible aetiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups. PMID:23140142

Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

2012-11-12

438

Transcriptomic analysis of four developmental stages of Strongyloides venezuelensis.  

PubMed

Strongyloides venezuelensis is one of some 50 species of genus Strongyloides, obligate gastrointestinal parasites of vertebrates, responsible for strongyloidiasis in humans and other domestic/companion animals. Although S. venezuelensis has been widely used as a model species for studying human/animal strongyloidiasis, the sequence information for this species has been quite limited. To create a more comprehensive catalogue of expressed genes for identification of genes potentially involved in animal parasitism, we conducted a de novo sequencing analysis of the transcriptomes from four developmental stages of S. venezuelensis, using a Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium pyrosequencing platform. A total of 14,573 contigs were produced after de novo assemblies of over 2 million sequencing reads and formed a dataset "Vene454". BLAST homology search of Vene454 against proteome and transcriptome data from other animal-parasitic and non-animal-parasitic nematode species revealed several interesting genes, which may be potentially related to animal parasitism, including nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase and ferrochelatase. The Vene454 dataset analysis also enabled us to identify transcripts that are specifically enriched in each developmental stage. This work represents the first large-scale transcriptome analysis of S. venezuelensis and the first study to examine the transcriptome of the lung L3 developmental stage of any Strongyloides species. The results not only will serve as valuable resources for future functional genomics analyses to understand the molecular aspects of animal parasitism, but also will provide essential information for ongoing whole genome sequencing efforts in this species. PMID:23022620

Nagayasu, Eiji; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Itoh, Takehiko; Yoshida, Ayako; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Maruyama, Haruhiko

2012-09-27

439

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1  

PubMed Central

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans.

King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

2011-01-01

440

Reproductive and developmental toxicity of dioxin in fish.  

PubMed

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

King-Heiden, Tisha C; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M; Lanham, Kevin A; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E

2011-09-21

441

An Exploration into the Developmental Psychology of Ethical Theory with Implications for Business Practice and Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is an attempt to understand ethical theory not just as a set of well-developed philosophical perspectives but\\u000a as a range of moral capacities that human beings more or less grow into over the course of their lives. To this end, we explore\\u000a the connection between formal ethical theories and stage developmental psychologies, showing how individuals mature morally,\\u000a regarding

Neil Brady; David Hart

2007-01-01

442

Potential teratogenicity of methimazole: exposure of zebrafish embryos to methimazole causes similar developmental anomalies to human methimazole embryopathy.  

PubMed

While methimazole (MMI) is widely used in the therapy for hyperthyroidism, several groups have reported that maternal exposure to MMI results in a variety of congenital anomalies, including choanal and esophageal atresia, iridic and retinal coloboma, and delayed neurodevelopment. Thus, adverse effects of maternal exposure to MMI on fetal development have long been suggested; however, direct evidence for the teratogenicity of MMI has not been presented. Therefore, we studied the effects of MMI on early development by using zebrafish as a model organism. The fertilized eggs of zebrafish were collected immediately after spawning and grown in egg culture water containing MMI at various concentrations. External observation of the embryos revealed that exposure to high concentrations of MMI resulted in loss of pigmentation, hypoplastic hindbrain, turbid tissue in the forebrain, swelling of the notochord, and curly trunk. Furthermore, these effects occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Precise observation of the serial cross-sections of MMI-exposed embryos elucidated delayed development and hypoplasia of the whole brain and spinal cord, narrowing of the pharynx and esophagus, severe disruption of the retina, and aberrant structure of the notochord. These neuronal, pharyngeal, esophageal, and retinal anomalous morphologies have a direct analogy to the congenital anomalies observed in children exposed to MMI in utero. Here, we show the teratogenic effects of MMI on the development of zebrafish and provide the first experimental evidence for the connection between exposure to MMI and human MMI embryopathy. PMID:23630110

Komoike, Yuta; Matsuoka, Masato; Kosaki, Kenjiro

2013-04-29

443

Palate structure in human holoprosencephaly correlates with the facial malformation and demonstrates a new palatal developmental field.  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed palate structure in holoprosencephaly and correlated it with the facial malformations. Eleven human holoprosencephalic fetuses (three cyclopic, two ethmocephalic, one cebocephalic, four with median cleft lip, and one with short philtrum) at 17-23 weeks of gestation and three children (age 2 1/2, 6 and 7 years) with a single central incisor were studied. Photographic and radiographic methods were used. We found that in holoprosencephaly palate structure is abnormal. The severity of this malformation decreases with decreasing severity of facial malformation. Thus, the study shows a close relationship between the facial and the palatal malformation. In all phenotypes the premaxillary area is malformed. From this region, a fan-shaped field along the midpalatal suture is involved in all facial phenotypes, the fan being broadest in cyclopia and narrowest in the short philtrum malformation. A similar fan-shaped field can be discerned in the face, where the broadest fan also indicates the greatest severity with cyclopia, and the narrowest fan the least severe median lip malformation. In the palate field, the anteroposterior furrows seemingly demarcate the field. The findings may be of importance for the future evaluation of palatal malformations in children. PMID:9415463

Kjaer, I; Keeling, J; Russell, B; Daugaard-Jensen, J; Fischer Hansen, B

1997-12-31

444

Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety  

PubMed Central

Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological systems theory provides a useful framework for organizing and synthesizing findings related to the development of the perception of hunger, thirst and satiety, or alimentary interoception. It is argued that neither developmental psychology nor the psychology of eating and drinking have adequately dealt with the ontogeny of alimentary interoception and that a more serious consideration of the species-typical developmental system of food and fluid intake and the many modifications that have been made therein is likely necessary for a full understanding of both alimentary and emotional development.

Harshaw, Christopher

2008-01-01

445

Genetic defects of GDF6 in the zebrafish out of sight mutant and in human eye developmental anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background The size of the vertebrate eye and the retina is likely to be controlled at several stages of embryogenesis by mechanisms that affect cell cycle length as well as cell survival. A mutation in the zebrafish out of sight (out) locus results in a particularly severe reduction of eye size. The goal of this study is to characterize the outm233 mutant, and to determine whether mutat