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1

Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

Generoso, W.M.

1989-01-01

2

Human Embryology & Developmental Biology  

E-print Network

Biology is the modern synthesis of biological and medical sciences that looks at how the tissuesBSc (Hons) Human Embryology & Developmental Biology DEGREE PROGRAMME GUIDE 2013-2014 #12;BSc (Hons) Human Embryology & Developmental Biology Introduction Degree Aims and Outcomes General Enquiries

Levi, Ran

3

Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

2009-01-01

4

Human Evolution Developmental Change  

E-print Network

Human Evolution through Developmental Change Edited by Nancy Minugh-Purvis and Kenneth J. Mc (p. ) and index, ISB:" 0-8018-6732-0 (h'lrdeo\\'er) 1. Human evolution. 2, Heterochrony (Biolog:-l. 3 forms. More recently, it has been argued that, on the contrary, many aspects ofhominid evolution reflect

Lee, Dongwon

5

Developmental patterns of chimpanzee cerebral tissues provide important clues for understanding the remarkable enlargement of the human brain  

PubMed Central

Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement. PMID:23256194

Sakai, Tomoko; Matsui, Mie; Mikami, Akichika; Malkova, Ludise; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2013-01-01

6

Human encephalization and developmental timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human evolution is frequently analyzed in the light of changes in developmental timing. Encephalization in particular has been frequently linked to the slow pace of development in Homo sapiens. The “brain allometry extension” theory postulates that the progressive extension of a conserved primate brain allometry into postnatal life was the basis for brain enlargement in the human lineage. This study

Lucio Vinicius

2005-01-01

7

Many human accelerated regions are developmental enhancers  

PubMed Central

The genetic changes underlying the dramatic differences in form and function between humans and other primates are largely unknown, although it is clear that gene regulatory changes play an important role. To identify regulatory sequences with potentially human-specific functions, we and others used comparative genomics to find non-coding regions conserved across mammals that have acquired many sequence changes in humans since divergence from chimpanzees. These regions are good candidates for performing human-specific regulatory functions. Here, we analysed the DNA sequence, evolutionary history, histone modifications, chromatin state and transcription factor (TF) binding sites of a combined set of 2649 non-coding human accelerated regions (ncHARs) and predicted that at least 30% of them function as developmental enhancers. We prioritized the predicted ncHAR enhancers using analysis of TF binding site gain and loss, along with the functional annotations and expression patterns of nearby genes. We then tested both the human and chimpanzee sequence for 29 ncHARs in transgenic mice, and found 24 novel developmental enhancers active in both species, 17 of which had very consistent patterns of activity in specific embryonic tissues. Of these ncHAR enhancers, five drove expression patterns suggestive of different activity for the human and chimpanzee sequence at embryonic day 11.5. The changes to human non-coding DNA in these ncHAR enhancers may modify the complex patterns of gene expression necessary for proper development in a human-specific manner and are thus promising candidates for understanding the genetic basis of human-specific biology. PMID:24218637

Capra, John A.; Erwin, Genevieve D.; McKinsey, Gabriel; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

2013-01-01

8

Understanding non-work relationships in developmental networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the different contributions of work and non-work relationships that comprise individuals' developmental networks to career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multi-method approach provides a rich understanding of how work and non-work developmental relationships combine to support individuals' careers. Survey data were analyzed from 254 working adults who were also part-time MBA

Wendy Marcinkus Murphy; Kathy E. Kram

2010-01-01

9

Developmental divergence: neglected variable in understanding the evolution of reproductive  

E-print Network

Developmental divergence: neglected variable in understanding the evolution of reproductive skew Unequal reproduction is widespread in animal societies. Over the last decade, there have been several to be compared with the aim of identifying common causes underlying reproductive division of labor. Sherman et al

Danchin, Etienne

10

How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

Pennington, Bruce F.

2009-01-01

11

Assessment of Developmental Toxicants using Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have potential for use in evaluation of developmental toxicity because they are generated in large numbers and differentiate into three germ layers following formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). In earlier study, embryonic stem cell test (EST) was established for assessment of the embryotoxic potential of compounds. Using EBs indicating the onset of differentiation of mouse ES cells, many toxicologists have refined the developmental toxicity of a variety of compounds. However, due to some limitation of the EST method resulting from species-specific differences between humans and mouse, it is an incomplete approach. In this regard, we examined the effects of several developmental toxic chemicals on formation of EBs using human ES cells. Although human ES cells are fastidious in culture and differentiation, we concluded that the relevancy of our experimental method is more accurate than that of EST using mouse ES cells. These types of studies could extend our understanding of how human ES cells could be used for monitoring developmental toxicity and its relevance in relation to its differentiation progress. In addition, this concept will be used as a model system for screening for developmental toxicity of various chemicals. This article might update new information about the usage of embryonic stem cells in the context of their possible ability in the toxicological fields. PMID:24578791

Hong, Eui-Ju

2013-01-01

12

Evolutionary Developmental Biology and Human Language Evolution: Constraints on Adaptation.  

PubMed

A tension has long existed between those biologists who emphasize the importance of adaptation by natural selection and those who highlight the role of phylogenetic and developmental constraints on organismal form and function. This contrast has been particularly noticeable in recent debates concerning the evolution of human language. Darwin himself acknowledged the existence and importance of both of these, and a long line of biologists have followed him in seeing, in the concept of "descent with modification", a framework naturally able to incorporate both adaptation and constraint. Today, the integrated perspective of modern evolutionary developmental biology ("evo-devo") allows a more subtle and pluralistic approach to these traditional questions, and has provided several examples where the traditional notion of "constraint" can be cashed out in specific, mechanistic terms. This integrated viewpoint is particularly relevant to the evolution of the multiple mechanisms underlying human language, because of the short time available for novel aspects of these mechanisms to evolve and be optimized. Comparative data indicate that many cognitive aspects of human language predate humans, suggesting that pre-adaptation and exaptation have played important roles in language evolution. Thus, substantial components of what many linguists call "Universal Grammar" predate language itself. However, at least some of these older mechanisms have been combined in ways that generate true novelty. I suggest that we can insightfully exploit major steps forward in our understanding of evolution and development, to gain a richer understanding of the principles that underlie human language evolution. PMID:23226905

Fitch, W Tecumseh

2012-12-01

13

Developmental Plasticity in the Human Auditory Brainstem  

PubMed Central

Development of the human auditory brainstem is thought to be primarily complete by the age of ~2 years, such that subsequent sensory plasticity is confined primarily to the cortex. However, recent findings have revealed experience-dependent developmental plasticity in the mammalian auditory brainstem in an animal model. It is not known whether the human system demonstrates similar changes and whether experience with sounds composed of acoustic elements relevant to speech may alter brainstem response characteristics. We recorded brainstem responses evoked by both click and speech syllables in children between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Here, we report a neural response discrepancy in brainstem encoding of these two sounds, observed in 3- to 4-year-old children but not in school-age children. Whereas all children exhibited identical neural activity to a click, 3- to 4-year-old children displayed delayed and less synchronous onset and sustained neural response activity when elicited by speech compared with 5- to 12-year-olds. These results suggest that the human auditory system exhibits developmental plasticity, in both frequency and time domains, for sounds that are composed of acoustic elements relevant to speech. The findings are interpreted within the contexts of stimulus-related differences and experience-dependent plasticity. PMID:18400899

Johnson, Krista L.; Nicol, Trent; Zecker, Steven G.; Kraus, Nina

2009-01-01

14

Challenges of Human Behavior Understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent advances in pattern recognition has allowed computer scientists and psychologists to jointly address automatic analysis\\u000a of of human behavior via computers. The Workshop on Human Behavior Understanding at the International Conference on Pattern\\u000a Recognition explores a number of different aspects and open questions in this field, and demonstrates the multi-disciplinary\\u000a nature of this research area. In this brief summary,

Albert Ali Salah; Theo Gevers; Nicu Sebe; Alessandro Vinciarelli

2010-01-01

15

Developmental Issues in Understanding, Assessing, and Managing Pediatric Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infants, children, and adolescents presenting with pain differ dramatically in physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral,\\u000a and social characteristics. This chapter presents an overview of basic concepts that should be understood in the delivery\\u000a of developmentally appropriate care and addresses their relevance to pain assessment and management. The developmental issues\\u000a concern variations in maturation and growth in perception and central processing of

Kenneth D. Craig; Christine T. Korol

16

Towards Computer Understanding of Human Interactions  

E-print Network

Towards Computer Understanding of Human Interactions Iain McCowan, Daniel Gatica-Perez, Samy Bengio Introduction The domain of human-computer interaction aims to help humans interact more naturally or understand human interactions : putting computers in the human interaction loop [1]. Humans naturally

Wrigley, Stuart

17

Defining the Genetic Architecture of Human Developmental Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Language is a uniquely human trait, which poses limitations on animal models for discovering biological substrates and pathways. Despite this challenge, rapidly developing biotechnology in the field of genomics has made human genetics studies a viable alternative route for defining the molecular neuroscience of human language. This is accomplished by studying families that transmit both normal and disordered language across generations. The language disorder reviewed here is specific language impairment (SLI), a developmental deficiency in language acquisition despite adequate opportunity, normal intelligence, and without any apparent neurological etiology. Here, we describe disease gene discovery paradigms as applied to SLI families and review the progress this field has made. After review the evidence that genetic factors influence SLI, we discuss methods and findings from scans of the human chromosomes, including the main replicated regions on chromosomes 13, 16 and 19 and two identified genes, ATP2C2 and CMIP that appear to account for the language variation on chromosome 16. Additional work has been done on candidate genes, i.e., genes chosen a priori and not through a genome scanning studies, including several studies of CNTNAP2 and some recent work implicating BDNF as a gene × gene interaction partner of genetic variation on chromosome 13 that influences language. These recent developments may allow for better use of post-mortem human brain samples functional studies and animal models for circumscribed language subcomponents. In the future, the identification of genetic variation associated with language phenotypes will provide the molecular pathways to understanding human language. PMID:22365959

Li, Ning; Bartlett, Christopher W.

2012-01-01

18

Children's understanding of scientific concepts: A developmental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining theory-oriented inquiry and research that aims to improve instruction is a major goal of neo-Piagetian theory. Within this tradition, Case's (1992) developmental model enables educational researchers to conduct a detailed analysis of the structural and conceptual changes that occur in children's representation of knowledge in different domains at various points in their development. In so doing, it is now

Gillian Valerie Bickerton

2001-01-01

19

Workshop Reports Understanding Paleoclimate and Human Evolution  

E-print Network

Workshop Reports Understanding Paleoclimate and Human Evolution Through the Hominin Sites.10.2009 60 Scientific Drilling, No. 8, September 2009 Workshop Reports Understanding the evolution of humans, involving research in anthropology, archaeology, human genetics and genomics, and the earth sciences

Reiners, Peter W.

20

Developmental Changes in Children's Understanding of Future Likelihood and Uncertainty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two measures assessed 4-10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 201) understanding of future likelihood and uncertainty. In one task, participants sequenced sets of event pictures varying by one physical dimension according to increasing future likelihood. In a separate task, participants rated characters' thoughts about the likelihood of future events,…

Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Sayfan, Liat

2011-01-01

21

Understanding child sexual behavior problems: A developmental psychopathology framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching

Natasha Elkovitch; Robert D. Latzman; David J. Hansen; Mary Fran Flood

2009-01-01

22

Understanding human functioning using graphical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) on the one hand and recent developments in graphical modeling on the other hand might be combined and open the door to a more comprehensive understanding of human

Markus Kalisch; Bernd AG Fellinghauer; Eva Grill; Marloes H Maathuis; Ulrich Mansmann; Peter Bühlmann; Gerold Stucki

2010-01-01

23

The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity: A Tool for Understanding Principals' Cultural Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals' understanding and skills pertaining to diversity are important in leading diverse schools and preparing all students for a democratic and multicultural society. Although educational leadership scholars have theorized about exemplary leadership of and for diversity, a developmental perspective on principals' diversity or cultural…

Hernandez, Frank; Kose, Brad W.

2012-01-01

24

Evolvability in the face of climate change: understanding developmental effects on bone and its ecological consequences  

E-print Network

Evolvability in the face of climate change: understanding developmental effects on bone and its ecological consequences kevin.parsons@glasgow.ac.uk Kevin Parsons, Neil Metcalfe, Pat Monaghan (Institute, and genetic changes. While these studies focus on dietary differences, there are many environmental factors

Guo, Zaoyang

25

Characterizing Key Developmental Understandings and Pedagogically Powerful Ideas within a Statistical Knowledge for Teaching Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A hypothetical framework to characterize statistical knowledge for teaching (SKT) is described. Empirical grounding for the framework is provided by artifacts from an undergraduate course for prospective teachers that concentrated on the development of SKT. The theoretical notion of "key developmental understanding" (KDU) is used to identify…

Groth, Randall E.

2013-01-01

26

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-01-01

27

Studying dialects to understand human language  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the study of dialect variations as a way to understand how humans might process speech. It evaluates some of the important research in dialect identification and draws conclusions about how their ...

Nti, Akua Afriyie

2009-01-01

28

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives  

E-print Network

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives The purpose of this course human development. This includes: (1) understanding basic principles of scientific research, measurement, and experimental design; (2) understanding the special methodological challenges of developmental research; (3

Klahr, David

29

Developmental atlas of the early first trimester human embryo.  

PubMed

Rapid advances in medical imaging are facilitating the clinical assessment of first-trimester human embryos at increasingly earlier stages. To obtain data on early human development, we used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and episcopic fluorescence capture (EFIC) to acquire digital images of human embryos spanning the time of dynamic tissue remodeling and organogenesis (Carnegie stages 13 to 23). These imaging data sets are readily resectioned digitally in arbitrary planes, suitable for rapid high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) observation. Using these imaging datasets, a web-accessible digital Human Embryo Atlas (http://apps.devbio.pitt.edu/humanatlas/) was created containing serial 2D images of human embryos in three standard histological planes: sagittal, frontal, and transverse. In addition, annotations and 3D reconstructions were generated for visualizing different anatomical structures. Overall, this Human Embryo Atlas is a unique resource that provides morphologic data of human developmental anatomy that can accelerate basic research investigations into developmental mechanisms that underlie human congenital anomalies. PMID:20503356

Yamada, Shigehito; Samtani, Rajeev R; Lee, Elaine S; Lockett, Elizabeth; Uwabe, Chigako; Shiota, Kohei; Anderson, Stasia A; Lo, Cecilia W

2010-06-01

30

Understanding Movement in Humans and Robots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand how a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot moves using motors and wheels. Then students relate the concepts of decision-making actuation and motion in humans to their parallels in mechanized robots, and understand the common themes associated with movement.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center, College of Engineering,

31

Developmental origins of variation in human hand preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though right-handedness is a prominant characteristic within all human societies, a substantial and stable proportion of individuals\\u000a are left-handed. Any comprehensive approach to the origin of variation in handedness must account for substantial evidence\\u000a that left-handedness is associated with reduced fitness, neurodevelopmental disorders, and reduced neuroanatomical asymmetry.\\u000a In this paper we investigate the hypothesis that developmental instability in early fetal

Ronald A. Yeo; Steven W. Gangestad

1993-01-01

32

Ecological Human Brain and Young Children's "Naturalist Intelligence" from the Perspective of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice (DCAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that young children have a different intellectual culture from adults' in the way they know and understand nature, this paper explores ecological human brain development, children's intellectual culture of naturalist intelligence, and developmentally and culturally congruent curricula for young children. The paper discusses the…

Hyun, Eunsook

33

An Historical Approach to Human Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the nature of historical thinking, asserting that no intrinsic differences characterize how people understand ideas. Suggests history's role in the social studies is to inspire creative inquiry into past cultures and into oneself. Examines mythology's power to teach what is timeless and quintessentially human. Highlights Joseph Campbell's…

Leeuw, Gary de; Griffiths, Bryant

1990-01-01

34

Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…

Guiffrida, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

35

Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as children are exposed to relevant content and have opportunities to organize this information, their theories become more accurate and differentiated. According to this perspective, there are no broad structural constraints on developing concepts, as asserted by cognitive developmental theorists. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to provide support for both theoretical perspectives, while at the same time to explore children's conceptualizations of the immune system, which has not been done previously in the cognitive-developmental literature. One hundred ninety children ranging in age from 4 years old through 11 years old, and a group of adults, participated. Each participant was interviewed regarding health concepts and the body's function in maintaining health. Participants were also asked to report if they had certain experiences that would have led to relevant content exposure. Qualitative analyses were utilized to code the interviews with rubrics based on both theoretical perspectives. Quantitative analyses consisted of a series of univariate ANOVAs (and post hoc tests when appropriate) examining all three coding variables (accuracy, differentiation, and developmental level) across various age-group combinations and exposure groups. Results of these analyses provided support for both theoretical perspectives. When the data were analyzed for developmental level by all ages, a stage-like progression consistent with Piagetian stages emerged. When accuracy and differentiation were examined (intuitive theories perspective), discrete groups could not be formed. Instead, a gradual increase in accuracy and differentiation was observed. Additional support for this perspective was found when the responses of participants who had additional exposure provided responses that were more accurate, differentiated, and sophisticated than those of participants with no additional exposure. Theoretical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

Landry-Boozer, Kristine L.

36

The Hazards of Human Developmental Gene Modification BY STUART A. NEWMAN  

E-print Network

engineering. Genetic modification of human em- bryos or fetuses, referred to here as developmental. The hazards of genetic modifications to humans have usually been discussed in terms of somatic (body cellThe Hazards of Human Developmental Gene Modification BY STUART A. NEWMAN T he completion of one

Newman, Stuart A.

37

Developmental gene expression profiles of the human pathogen Schistosoma japonicum  

PubMed Central

Background The schistosome blood flukes are complex trematodes and cause a chronic parasitic disease of significant public health importance worldwide, schistosomiasis. Their life cycle is characterised by distinct parasitic and free-living phases involving mammalian and snail hosts and freshwater. Microarray analysis was used to profile developmental gene expression in the Asian species, Schistosoma japonicum. Total RNAs were isolated from the three distinct environmental phases of the lifecycle – aquatic/snail (eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae), juvenile (lung schistosomula and paired but pre-egg laying adults) and adult (paired, mature males and egg-producing females, both examined separately). Advanced analyses including ANOVA, principal component analysis, and hierarchal clustering provided a global synopsis of gene expression relationships among the different developmental stages of the schistosome parasite. Results Gene expression profiles were linked to the major environmental settings through which the developmental stages of the fluke have to adapt during the course of its life cycle. Gene ontologies of the differentially expressed genes revealed a wide range of functions and processes. In addition, stage-specific, differentially expressed genes were identified that were involved in numerous biological pathways and functions including calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism and parasite defence. Conclusion The findings provide a comprehensive database of gene expression in an important human pathogen, including transcriptional changes in genes involved in evasion of the host immune response, nutrient acquisition, energy production, calcium signalling, sphingolipid metabolism, egg production and tegumental function during development. This resource should help facilitate the identification and prioritization of new anti-schistosome drug and vaccine targets for the control of schistosomiasis. PMID:19320991

Gobert, Geoffrey N; Moertel, Luke; Brindley, Paul J; McManus, Donald P

2009-01-01

38

Towards a better understanding of human eye disease: insights from the zebrafish, Danio rerio  

PubMed Central

Visual impairment and blindness is widespread across the human population, and the development of therapies for ocular pathologies is of high priority. The zebrafish represents a valuable model organism for studying human ocular disease; it is utilized in eye research to understand underlying developmental processes, to identify potential causative genes for human disorders, and to develop therapies. Zebrafish eyes are similar in morphology, physiology, gene expression and function to human eyes. Furthermore, zebrafish are highly amenable to laboratory research. This review outlines the use of zebrafish as a model for human ocular diseases such as colobomas, glaucoma, cataracts, photoreceptor degeneration, as well as dystrophies of the cornea and retinal pigmented epithelium. PMID:21377629

Bibliowicz, Jonathan; Tittle, Rachel K.; Gross, Jeffrey M.

2011-01-01

39

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

40

Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

West, Paul R., E-mail: pwest@stemina.co [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, Gabriela G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Animal Sciences, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2010-08-15

41

Being Human: A Handbook in Human Growth and Development for the Developmentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook is intended to provide practitioners with information on establishing and organizing a Human Growth and Development program in agencies and facilities which provide training to developmentally disabled persons. The handbook discusses the legal foundation (Florida law) for establishing the program as well as specific methods for…

Fletcher, Donna; Ogle, Peggy

42

Chol understandings of suicide and human agency.  

PubMed

According to ethnographic material collected since 2003, the Chol Mayan indigenous people in southern Mexico have different causal explanations for suicide. It can be attributed to witchcraft that forces victims to take their lives against their own will, to excessive drinking, or to fate determined by God. However, it can also be conceived of as a conscious decision made by a person overwhelmed by daily problems. Drawing from the theoretical framework developed by Laura M. Ahearn, inspired by practice theory, the paper contends that these different explanations operate within two different logics or understandings of human agency. The first logic attributes responsibility to supernatural causes such as witchcraft or divine destiny, and reflects Chol notions of personhood. The second logic accepts personal responsibility for suicide, and is related to processes of social change such as the introduction of wage labor, education and a market economy. The contemporary Chol resort to both logics to make sense of the human drama of suicide. PMID:22382678

Imberton, Gracia

2012-06-01

43

The juvenile transition: A developmental switch point in human life history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the “juvenile transition” is a developmental switch point in the human life history, when

Marco Del Giudice; Romina Angeleri; Valeria Manera

2009-01-01

44

A REVIEW OF HUMAN STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many pesticides cxause reproductive or developmental toxicity at high doses in animal models, but effects in humans at environmental exposure levels are difficult to assess. Human data on reproductive and developmental outcomes for currently used pesticides may help to define ris...

45

Perception and human interaction for developmental learning of objects and affordances  

E-print Network

autonomously or with a minimal intervention from humans, adapting its behavior on the fly to experiencedPerception and human interaction for developmental learning of objects and affordances Serena with the evolving environment, different partners and a possibly wide variety of tools. Epigenetic or developmental

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Understanding human perception by human-made illusions  

PubMed Central

It may be fun to perceive illusions, but the understanding of how they work is even more stimulating and sustainable: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found—they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception. PMID:25132816

Carbon, Claus-Christian

2014-01-01

47

Understanding human perception by human-made illusions.  

PubMed

IT MAY BE FUN TO PERCEIVE ILLUSIONS, BUT THE UNDERSTANDING OF HOW THEY WORK IS EVEN MORE STIMULATING AND SUSTAINABLE: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found-they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception. PMID:25132816

Carbon, Claus-Christian

2014-01-01

48

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical 'toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

Kumar, Kevin K; Lowe, Edward W; Aboud, Asad A; Neely, M Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B

2014-01-01

49

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

2014-10-01

50

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical ‘toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Jr., Edward W.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

2014-01-01

51

A human integrin-?3 mutation confers major renal developmental defects.  

PubMed

The development of the mammalian kidney is a highly complex process dependent upon the interplay of various cell types, secreted morphogens, and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Although integrins are the most important receptors for ECM proteins and are ubiquitously expressed during kidney development, mice lacking expression of integrin ?3 (Itga3) do not demonstrate a reduced number of nephrons, but mostly a disorganized GBM (glomerular basement membrane) leading to proteinuria. Thus, ITGA3 is considered mostly a passive GBM stabilizer and not an active player in nephrogenesis. Recently, mutations in the human ITGA3 were shown to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa and interstitial lung disease, otherwise termed NEP syndrome (Nephrotic syndrome, Epidermolysis bullosa and Pulmonary disease). Herein, we performed histological and molecular analysis on the kidneys of a single patient from the initial cohort harboring an ITGA3 mutation, to illuminate the role of ITGA3 in human renal development. We show the patient to harbor a unique phenotype at birth, including severe unilateral renal hypodysplasia. Interrogation of global gene expression in the hypodysplastic kidney versus three controls (fetal, child and adult kidneys) revealed perturbed expression in several renal developmental pathways implicated in hypodysplasia, including the Wnt, BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and TGF (transforming growth factor) pathways. Moreover, the affected kidney showed upregulation of early embryonic genes (e.g. OCT4 and PAX8) concomitant with downregulated kidney differentiation markers, implying a defect in proper renal differentiation. In conclusion, we show for the first time that ITGA3 is not merely a passive anchor for renal ECM proteins, as predicted by mouse models. Instead, our results may suggest it plays a central role in the interplay of cells, morphogens and ECM, required for proper nephrogenesis, thus adding ITGA3 to the list of CAKUT (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract)-causing genes. PMID:24621570

Shukrun, Rachel; Vivante, Asaf; Pleniceanu, Oren; Vax, Einav; Anikster, Yair; Dekel, Benjamin; Lotan, Danny

2014-01-01

52

Mindful Portrayals: Using Fiction to Create Awareness, Understanding, and Support for People with Autism and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considering the arts model as a tool for promoting awareness, understanding, and support for people with autism and developmental disabilities, this paper discusses stories as a measure of societal thinking as well as a vehicle for societal change. The author's dual perspectives are shared as a researcher of books for children and young…

Brenna, Beverley

2013-01-01

53

Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental

Hughes, Claire

2011-01-01

54

HUMAN BIOLOGY Understanding normal and disordered human function both require a broad integration of human  

E-print Network

HUMAN BIOLOGY Understanding normal and disordered human function both require a broad integration sciences focus on the relevance of these areas to the human condition. Given the focus on human biology IN HUMAN BIOLOGY School Requirements: Biological Sciences 2A, 194S; Biological Sciences Core 93, 94, 97, 98

Rose, Michael R.

55

FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

56

Understanding human trafficking in the United States.  

PubMed

The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

2009-01-01

57

Rites of passage: understanding participation of children with developmental coordination disorder.  

PubMed

Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty participating in the typical activities of childhood and are known to have a more sedentary pattern of activities than their peers. Little research has been done to investigate the impact of these deficits on the lives of children with DCD and the importance of their participation in the typical activities of childhood. This qualitative study explored the impact of the disorder and the importance of participation for children with DCD from the perspective of the parent. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with parents of children with DCD who attended a university clinic specializing in using the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach, a cognitive-based intervention. Findings revealed that incompetence in everyday activities had serious negative effects for the children. Conversely, intervention that was focused on enablement at the activity and participation level had a significant positive impact on the children's quality of life. Emerging themes highlighted the notion that performance competency played an important role in being accepted by peers and being able "to be part of the group". As well, parents reported that successful participation built confidence in their children and allowed them to try other new activities. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health provides a unique framework for analyzing and understanding the impact of the physical disability on the lives of families with children with DCD. Results illustrate how intervention that focuses on enabling children to choose their own functional goals in the area of physical activity has important implications for enabling participation and building the social networks of children with DCD. PMID:14624835

Mandich, A D; Polatajko, H J; Rodger, S

2003-11-01

58

Global Environmental change: Understanding the Human Dimensions  

SciTech Connect

This book is from the National Research Council's Committee on the Human dimensions of Global Change. The object is to examine what is known about human dimensions of global environmental change, identify the major immediate needs for knowledge, and recommend a strategy over the next 5-10 years. Case studies are used in human causes of global change. issues related to theory, methods, and data are covered, as well as institutional needs for interdicipinary approaches.

Morrisette, P.M.

1993-01-01

59

Dental Approach to Craniofacial Syndromes: How Can Developmental Fields Show Us a New Way to Understand Pathogenesis?  

PubMed Central

The paper consists of three parts. Part 1: Definition of Syndromes. Focus is given to craniofacial syndromes in which abnormal traits in the dentition are associated symptoms. In the last decade, research has concentrated on phenotype, genotype, growth, development, function, and treatment. Part 2: Syndromes before Birth. How can the initial malformation sites in these syndromes be studied and what can we learn from it? In this section, deviations observed in syndromes prenatally will be highlighted and compared to the normal human embryological craniofacial development. Specific focus will be given to developmental fields studied on animal tissue and transferred to human cranial development. Part 3: Developmental Fields Affected in Two Craniofacial Syndromes. Analysis of primary and permanent dentitions can determine whether a syndrome affects a single craniofacial field or several fields. This distinction is essential for insight into craniofacial syndromes. The dentition, thus, becomes central in diagnostics and evaluation of the pathogenesis. Developmental fields can explore and advance the concept of dental approaches to craniofacial syndromes. Discussion. As deviations in teeth persist and do not reorganize during growth and development, the dentition is considered useful for distinguishing between syndrome pathogenesis manifested in a single developmental field and in several fields. PMID:23091490

Kjær, Inger

2012-01-01

60

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports the friendship estimation model we designed for social robots that understand human social relationships. Our interactive robot autonomously interacts with humans with its human-like body properties, and as a result, induces the humans' friendly group behavior upon direct interaction. Based on these features, as well as inspired by a survey in psychology research on friendship, we propose

Takayuki Kanda; Hiroshi Ishiguro

2004-01-01

61

Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

62

Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast Trade-Mark-Sign chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox Registered-Sign model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal development and pregnancy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arginine, proline, nicotinate, nicotinamide and glutathione pathways were affected.

Kleinstreuer, N.C., E-mail: kleinstreuer.nicole@epa.gov [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir-Hauptman, A.M. [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States)] [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States); Palmer, J.A. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J. [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States)] [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Donley, E.L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, G.G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States) [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2011-11-15

63

Human behavior understanding for video surveillance: Recent advance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the wide applications of video cameras in surveillance, video analysis technologies have attracted the attention from the researchers in computer vision field. In video analysis, human behavior recognition and understanding is an important research direction. By recognition and understanding the human behaviors, we can predict and recognize the happening of crimes and help to the police or other agencies

Xin Xu; Jinshan Tang; Xiaorning Liu; Xiaolong Zhang

2010-01-01

64

06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion -Understanding, Modeling,  

E-print Network

the seminar topics and goals in general. Keywords. Computer Vision, Computer Graphics, Biomechanics 06241- quences is a eld of research of increasing importance, with applications in sports sciences, medicine, biomechanics, animation (avatars), surveillance, and so forth. Progress in human motion analysis depends

65

A MODE-OF-ACTION-BASED QSAR APPROACH TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

QSAR models of developmental toxicity (devtox) have met with limited regulatory acceptance due to the use of ill-defined endpoints, lack of biological interpretability, and poor model performance. More generally, the lack of biological inference of many QSAR models is often due t...

66

Towards a Conceptual Basis for Understanding Developmental Guidance and Counselling Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comprehensive developmental guidance and counselling model is a 21st century school counselling intervention emphasizing school guidance curriculum, individual student planning, responsive counselling services and system support. The aims of this paper therefore, were to articulately define comprehensive guidance and counselling within the…

Aluede, Oyaziwo; Imonikhe, Justina; Afen-Akpaida, Justina

2007-01-01

67

Modeling Children's Understanding of Quantitative Relations in Texts: A Developmental Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested three models of children's mathematics word-problem solving based on developmental differences in quantitative conceptual structures: (1) quantitative relations represented as ordered array of mental objects; (2) numbers represented on two tentatively coordinated mental number lines; and (3) numerical operations represented as objects on…

Okamoto, Yukari

1996-01-01

68

Understanding Teachers' Perceptions of the Motor Difficulties of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are often identified by classroom teachers and the identification process relies heavily on teachers' perceptions. The literature would suggest that teachers' perceptions may be influenced by a child's gender, behaviour and the type of motor problem they demonstrate. To date, the…

Rivard, Lisa M.; Missiuna, Cheryl; Hanna, Steven; Wishart, Laurie

2007-01-01

69

Understanding African American Adolescents’ Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory

Aerika S. Brittian

2012-01-01

70

Understanding the human context in requirements elicitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human context within which a software system will operate is fundamental for its requirements. It may not appear to be\\u000a very much related to the system, but it is very relevant in achieving its successful adoption. However, requirements engineers\\u000a have usually a background in Software Engineering and are not trained to elicit this kind of information. This situation raises

Rubén Fuentes-Fernández; Jorge J. Gómez-Sanz; Juan Pavón

2010-01-01

71

Human Behavior Understanding for Robotics Albert Ali Salah1  

E-print Network

Human Behavior Understanding for Robotics Albert Ali Salah1 , Javier Ruiz-del-Solar2 , C¸etin Meri, France pierre-yves.oudeyer@inria.fr Abstract. Human behavior is complex, but structured along individual to correctly interpret, predict and respond to human behaviors. This paper discusses the scientific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

73

Developmental trends and gender differences in the relation between understanding of friendship and asociality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between understanding of friendship and asociality was examined in 91 girls and 104 boys ranging in age from 9 to 17 years. Consistent with previous research, older children had higher understanding of friendship scores than younger children, and girls had higher understanding of friendship scores than boys. The relation between understanding of friendship and asociality was significant only

Linda M. Walsh; Lawrence A. Kurdek

1984-01-01

74

A Retrospective Appraisal of the Ability of Animal Tests To Predict Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive and developmental toxicology areas have undergone numerous changes in the 30 years since the thalidomide tragedy. It would be comforting if such changes have resulted in a greatly decreased likelihood that human conceptuses will develop malformations. However, there is little evidence that such testing has better enabled us to identify human reproductive or developmental toxicants. Although there may

Thomas A. Marks

1991-01-01

75

Life history and development--a framework for understanding developmental plasticity in lower termites.  

PubMed

Termites (Isoptera) are the phylogenetically oldest social insects, but in scientific research they have always stood in the shadow of the social Hymenoptera. Both groups of social insects evolved complex societies independently and hence, their different ancestry provided them with different life-history preadaptations for social evolution. Termites, the 'social cockroaches', have a hemimetabolous mode of development and both sexes are diploid, while the social Hymenoptera belong to the holometabolous insects and have a haplodiploid mode of sex determination. Despite this apparent disparity it is interesting to ask whether termites and social Hymenoptera share common principles in their individual and social ontogenies and how these are related to the evolution of their respective social life histories. Such a comparison has, however, been much hampered by the developmental complexity of the termite caste system, as well as by an idiosyncratic terminology, which makes it difficult for non-termitologists to access the literature. Here, we provide a conceptual guide to termite terminology based on the highly flexible caste system of the "lower termites". We summarise what is known about ultimate causes and underlying proximate mechanisms in the evolution and maintenance of termite sociality, and we try to embed the results and their discussion into general evolutionary theory and developmental biology. Finally, we speculate about fundamental factors that might have facilitated the unique evolution of complex societies in a diploid hemimetabolous insect taxon. This review also aims at a better integration of termites into general discussions on evolutionary and developmental biology, and it shows that the ecology of termites and their astounding phenotypic plasticity have a large yet still little explored potential to provide insights into elementary evo-devo questions. PMID:18979593

Korb, Judith; Hartfelder, Klaus

2008-08-01

76

"Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2004-01-01

77

Triclosan Decreases Rat Thyroxine: Mode-of-Action, Developmental Susceptibility and Human Relevance  

EPA Science Inventory

Triclosan (TCS) decreases serum thyroxine (T4) in the rat. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used to address three uncertainties: by what mode-of-action (MOA) does TCS decrease T4; does TCS decrease T4 developmentally; and, are effects observed in rats relevant to humans? To t...

78

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

79

Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

Greenfield, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

80

The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

2009-01-01

81

Ambiguities in Spatial Language Understanding in Situated Human Robot Dialogue  

E-print Network

Ambiguities in Spatial Language Understanding in Situated Human Robot Dialogue Changsong Liu@msu.edu Jacob Walker Department of Computer Science and Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI University East Lansing, MI 48824 jchai@cse.msu.edu Abstract In human robot dialogue, identifying intended

82

A human pluripotent stem cell platform for assessing developmental neural toxicity screening  

PubMed Central

A lack of affordable and effective testing and screening procedures mean surprisingly little is known about the health hazards of many of the tens of thousands of chemicals in use in the world today. The recent rise in the number of children affected by neurological disorders such as autism has stirred valuable debate about the role chemicals play in our daily life, highlighting the need for improved methods of assessing chemicals for developmental neural toxicity. Current methods of testing chemicals for developmental neural toxicity include animal testing with rats or mice and in vitro testing using cultured primary cells or cell lines. Here, we review the current state of neural toxicity screening, analyze the limitations of these methods and, under the National Institutes of Health's new Microphysiological Systems initiative, describe a human pluripotent stem cell-based platform for developmental neural toxicity screens. PMID:24565336

2013-01-01

83

Developmental Regulation of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in Human Prefrontal Cortex  

PubMed Central

Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a membrane-bound cell recognition molecule that exerts important functions in normal neurodevelopment including cell migration, neurite outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and synaptic plasticity. Alternative splicing of NCAM mRNA generates three main protein isoforms: NCAM-180, -140, and -120. Ectodomain shedding of NCAM isoforms can produce an extracellular 105–115 kDa soluble NCAM fragment (NCAM-EC) and a smaller intracellular cytoplasmic fragment (NCAM-IC). NCAM also undergoes a unique post-translational modification in brain by the addition of polysialic acid (PSA)-NCAM. Interestingly, both PSA-NCAM and NCAM-EC have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The developmental expression patterns of the main NCAM isoforms and PSA-NCAM have been described in rodent brain, but no studies have examined NCAM expression across human cortical development. Western blotting was used to quantify NCAM in human postmortem prefrontal cortex in 42 individuals ranging in age from mid-gestation to early adulthood. Each NCAM isoform (NCAM-180, -140, and -120), post-translational modification (PSA-NCAM) and cleavage fragment (NCAM-EC and NCAM-IC) demonstrated developmental regulation in frontal cortex. NCAM-180, -140, and -120, as well as PSA-NCAM, and NCAM-IC all showed strong developmental regulation during fetal and early postnatal ages, consistent with their identified roles in axon growth and plasticity. NCAM-EC demonstrated a more gradual increase from the early postnatal period to reach a plateau by early adolescence, potentially implicating involvement in later developmental processes. In summary, this study implicates the major NCAM isoforms, PSA- NCAM and proteolytically cleaved NCAM in pre- and postnatal development of the human prefrontal cortex. These data provide new insights on human cortical development and also provide a basis for how altered NCAM signaling during specific developmental intervals could affect synaptic connectivity and circuit formation, and thereby contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:19393299

Cox, Elizabeth T.; Brennaman, Leann H.; Gable, Karissa L.; Hamer, Robert M.; Glantz, Leisa A.; LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Gilmore, John H.; Maness, Patricia F.; Jarskog, L. Fredrik

2009-01-01

84

The Developmental Niche: A Conceptualization at the Interface of Child and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropological approaches to human development have been oriented primarily to the socialized adult, at the expense of understanding developmental processes. Developmental psychology, in contrast, has traditionally been concerned with a decontextualized, 'universal' child. After a brief historical review, the 'developmental niche' is introduced as a framework for examining the cultural structuring of child development. The developmental niche has three components:

Charles M. Super; Sara Harkness

1986-01-01

85

Understanding Developmental Crime Trajectories at Places: Social Disorganization and Opportunity Perspectives at Micro Units of Geography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals and communities have traditionally been the focus of criminological research, but recently criminologists have begun to explore the importance of micro places in understanding and controlling crime. Research provides strong evidence that crime...

D. Weisburd, E. R. Groff, S. M. Yang

2011-01-01

86

Developmental Links between Cruelty to Animals and Human Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

eviews evidence for the significance of childhood cruelty to animals as a predictor of later violence toward humans. Moves are under- way in the United States (US) and Britain to encourage communication and cross-fertilisation between animal welfare and child protection and crime prevention services. Literature on healthy versus deviant child-pet interactions is reviewed, with particular regard to the prediction of

Mark R. Dadds; Cynthia M. Turner; John McAloon

2002-01-01

87

Brief communication: Methods of sequence heterochrony for describing modular developmental changes in human evolution.  

PubMed

Interest in the developmental changes leading to apomorphic features of human anatomy is longstanding. Although most research has focused on quantitative measures of size and shape, additional information may be available in the sequence of events in development, including aspects of phenotypic integration. I apply two recently proposed techniques for analyzing developmental sequences to literature data on human and chimpanzee age of limb element ossification center appearance in radiographs. The event-pair cracking method of Jeffery et al. (Syst Biol 51 [2002] 478-491) offers little additional insight on sequence differences in this data set than a simpler difference of ranks. Both reveal shifts in timing that are likely related to locomotor differences between the two species. Poe's (Evolution 58 [2004] 1852-1855) test for modularity in a sequence identifies the ankle, wrist, and hind limb as developmental modules, which may correspond to localized combinations of developmental genes. Ossification patterns of the rays of the hand and foot show little modularity. Integrating these and other methods of sequence analysis with traditional metrics of size and shape remains an underdeveloped area of inquiry. PMID:19003920

Blomquist, Gregory E

2009-02-01

88

Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect

Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

S.T. Rao

2006-09-15

89

Purification of human NK cell developmental intermediates from lymph nodes and tonsils.  

PubMed

Accumulating data indicate that human natural killer (NK) cells undergo terminal maturation in secondary lymphoid tissues (SLTs) including lymph nodes (LNs) and tonsils. In addition, recent studies have revealed that maturing NK cells progress through at least five functionally discrete stages of development within SLTs. These discoveries provide unique possibilities for researchers to investigate the natural processes governing human NK cell development, as they exist in vivo, through analysis of NK cell maturational intermediates found in situ. Herein we describe a detailed, yet simple, four-step protocol for the viable enrichment and purification of human NK cell developmental intermediates from LNs and tonsils. PMID:20033630

Freud, Aharon G; Caligiuri, Michael A

2010-01-01

90

The Developmental Progression of Understanding of Mind during a Hiding Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, 52 typically developing preschoolers engaged in a hiding game with their mothers when children were 42-, 54-, and 66-months old. Children's understanding of mind, positive affect, and engagement with the task were rated, and mothers' utterances were coded for role and content. Analyses confirmed that some facets of…

Nelson, P. Brooke; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger

2012-01-01

91

Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm  

SciTech Connect

The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)] [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Sun, Xiaofang, E-mail: xiaofangsun@hotmail.com [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)] [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

2009-04-24

92

Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on Human Migration  

E-print Network

Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on Human Migration The Contribution of Mathematical consequences for both migrants and receiving societies. These images have fuelled recent research on climate and migration; (ii) developing four conceptual models of the most important mechanisms linking climate change

Fischlin, Andreas

93

Improved Understanding of Human Anatomy through Self-guided  

E-print Network

Improved Understanding of Human Anatomy through Self-guided Radiological Anatomy Modules Andrew W: To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehen- sion was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course

94

Understanding the complexity of human gait dynamics Nicola Scafetta,1  

E-print Network

-way interaction between the neural networks in the central nervous system plus the intraspinal nervous system the muscles receive commands from the nervous system, they also send back sensory information that modifiesUnderstanding the complexity of human gait dynamics Nicola Scafetta,1 Damiano Marchi,2 and Bruce J

Scafetta, Nicola

95

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food for thought (hypotheses, not facts) about

Gilbert Gottlieb; Robert Lickliter

2004-01-01

96

Understanding human dendritic cell biology through gene profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells are potent antigen presenting cells whose function has been associated with a variety of immunological disorders. Because of their relevance to human disease, extensive efforts have been made to gain a better understanding of their biology. One aspect of these efforts has been in the identification of pertinent molecules expressed in these cells through gene profiling experiments and

Z. Tang; A. Saltzman

2004-01-01

97

Understanding human-battery interaction on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile phone users have to deal with limited battery lifetime through a reciprocal process we call human-battery interaction (HBI). We conducted three user studies in order to understand HBI and discover the problems in existing mobile phone designs. The studies include a large-scale international survey, a one- month field data collection including quantitative battery logging and qualitative inquiries from ten

Ahmad Rahmati; Angela Qian; Lin Zhong

2007-01-01

98

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

99

MBD2 contributes to developmental silencing of the human ?-globin gene  

PubMed Central

During erythroid development the embryonic ?-globin gene becomes silenced as erythropoiesis shifts from the yolk sac to the fetal liver where ?-globin gene expression predominates. Previous studies have shown that the ?-globin gene is autonomously silenced through promoter proximal cis-acting sequences in adult erythroid cells. We have shown a role for the methylcytosine binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the developmental silencing of the avian embryonic ?-globin and human fetal ?-globin genes. To determine the roles of MBD2 and DNA methylation in human ?-globin gene silencing, transgenic mice containing all sequences extending from the 5? hypersensitive site 5 (HS5) of the ?-globin locus LCR to the human ?-globin gene promoter were generated. These mice show correct developmental expression and autonomous silencing of the transgene. Either the absence of MBD2 or treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine increases ?-globin transgene expression by 15–20 fold in adult mice. Adult mice containing the entire human ?-globin locus also show an increase in expression of both the ?-globin gene transgene and endogenous ?Y and ?H1 genes in the absence of MBD2. These results indicate the human ?-globin gene is subject to multilayered silencing mediated in part by MBD2. PMID:21296012

Rupon, Jeremy W.; Wang, Shou Zhen; Gnanapragasam, Merlin; Labropoulos, Stefanos; Ginder, Gordon D.

2011-01-01

100

Positron emission tomography methods with potential for increased understanding of mental retardation and developmental disabilities.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a technique that enables imaging of the distribution of radiolabeled tracers designed to track biochemical and molecular processes in the body after intravenous injection or inhalation. New strategies for the use of radiolabeled tracers hold potential for imaging gene expression in the brain during development and following interventions. In addition, PET may be key in identifying the physiological consequences of gene mutations associated with mental retardation. The development of high spatial resolution microPET scanners for imaging of rodents provides a means for longitudinal study of transgenic mouse models of genetic disorders associated with mental retardation. In this review, we describe PET methodology, illustrate how PET can be used to delineate biochemical changes during brain development, and provide examples of how PET has been applied to study brain glucose metabolism in Rett syndrome, serotonin synthesis in autism, and GABAA receptors in Angelman's syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. Future application of PET scanning in the study of mental retardation might include measurements of brain protein synthesis in fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis complex, two common conditions associated with mental retardation in which cellular mechanisms involve dysregulation of protein synthesis. Mental retardation results in life-long disability, and application of new PET technologies holds promise for a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of mental retardation, with the potential to uncover new treatment options. PMID:16240413

Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Chugani, Diane C

2005-01-01

101

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

Change Task . 30 3 Nean Number of Items Correct for Human Actor and Animal Actor 30 4 Correlations Between Having a Sibling and Performance on False Belief Tasks . . . . . . . . 35 5 Correlations Between Number of Siblings and Performance on False... are designed to measure a child's understanding of how beliefs affect a person' s actions and conceptions about reality (Perner, Leekam, Wimmer, 1987; Wimmer a Perner, 1983). Frequently used are tasks that seek to measure a child' s knowledge...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

2012-06-07

102

Variation at Genes Influencing Facial Morphology Are Not Associated with Developmental Imprecision in Human Faces  

PubMed Central

Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex—but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape—was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries. PMID:24914781

Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

103

Proteome Analysis of Distinct Developmental Stages of Human Natural Killer (NK) Cells  

PubMed Central

The recent Natural Killer (NK) cell maturation model postulates that CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) first develop into CD56bright NK cells, then into CD56dimCD57? and finally into terminally maturated CD56dimCD57+. The molecular mechanisms of human NK cell differentiation and maturation however are incompletely characterized. Here we present a proteome analysis of distinct developmental stages of human primary NK cells, isolated from healthy human blood donors. Peptide sequencing was used to comparatively analyze CD56bright NK cells versus CD56dim NK cells and CD56dimCD57? NK cells versus CD56dimCD57+ NK cells and revealed distinct protein signatures for all of these subsets. Quantitative data for about 3400 proteins were obtained and support the current differentiation model. Furthermore, 11 donor-independently, but developmental stage specifically regulated proteins so far undescribed in NK cells were revealed, which may contribute to NK cell development and may elucidate a molecular source for NK cell effector functions. Among those proteins, S100A4 (Calvasculin) and S100A6 (Calcyclin) were selected to study their dynamic subcellular localization. Upon activation of human primary NK cells, both proteins are recruited into the immune synapse (NKIS), where they colocalize with myosin IIa. PMID:23315794

Scheiter, Maxi; Lau, Ulrike; van Ham, Marco; Bulitta, Bjorn; Grobe, Lothar; Garritsen, Henk; Klawonn, Frank; Konig, Sebastian; Jansch, Lothar

2013-01-01

104

The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The authors review the empirical developmental evidence within each of these components to show

Katherine Nelson; Robyn Fivush

2004-01-01

105

Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories  

PubMed Central

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin, with an estimated overall worldwide prevalence of 5–10% of the population. It is characterised by difficulties in reading, accuracy, fluency, spelling and decoding abilities. The majority of publications reviewed indicated that screening is performed at the preschool level. Screening can also be conducted at birth or the first year of life. Understanding human development theory, for example, Piaget’s human development theory, may help determine at which stage of childhood development dyslexia is more detectable, and therefore guide the management of this disability. The objective of this review is to provide a brief and updated overview of dyslexia and its management in children through human development issues. PMID:23269949

Al-Shidhani, Thuraya Ahmed; Arora, Vinita

2012-01-01

106

Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. I: behavioral effects.  

PubMed Central

Alterations in nervous system function after exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant may be identified and characterized using neurobehavioral methods. A number of methods can evaluate alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in laboratory animals exposed to toxicants during nervous system development. Fundamental issues underlying proper use and interpretation of these methods include a) consideration of the scientific goal in experimental design, b) selection of an appropriate animal model, c) expertise of the investigator, d) adequate statistical analysis, and e) proper data interpretation. Strengths and weaknesses of the assessment methods include sensitivity, selectivity, practicality, and variability. Research could improve current behavioral methods by providing a better understanding of the relationship between alterations in motor function and changes in the underlying structure of these systems. Research is also needed to develop simple and sensitive assays for use in screening assessments of sensory and cognitive function. Assessment methods are being developed to examine other nervous system functions, including social behavior, autonomic processes, and biologic rhythms. Social behaviors are modified by many classes of developmental neurotoxicants and hormonally active compounds that may act either through neuroendocrine mechanisms or by directly influencing brain morphology or neurochemistry. Autonomic and thermoregulatory functions have been the province of physiologists and neurobiologists rather than toxicologists, but this may change as developmental neurotoxicology progresses and toxicologists apply techniques developed by other disciplines to examine changes in function after toxicant exposure. PMID:11250808

Cory-Slechta, D A; Crofton, K M; Foran, J A; Ross, J F; Sheets, L P; Weiss, B; Mileson, B

2001-01-01

107

NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Propylene Glycol (PG).  

PubMed

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for propylene glycol (PG) to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. PG was selected for evaluation because of the potential for widespread human exposure through its use in food, tobacco, pharmaceutical products, cosmetics, various paints and coatings and as an antifreeze and de-icing solution. PG is a small, hydroxy-substituted hydrocarbon used as a chemical intermediate in the production of unsaturated polyester resins and in the production of plasticizers. The results of this evaluation on PG are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Propylene Glycol, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to PG on human development and reproduction. There is negligible concern for adverse developmental and reproductive effects in humans at current, proposed, or estimated exposure levels. There is no direct evidence that exposure of people to PG adversely affects reproduction or development. Studies in pregnant laboratory animals at oral doses of PG greater than 1,200 mg/kg body weight/ day and up to 10,400 mg/kg body weight/day in mice, did not produce developmental toxicity in offspring. In a continuous breeding study, no effects on fertility were observed in male or female mice at doses up to 10,100 mg/kg body weight/day in drinking water. The pharmacokinetics of PG indicates that the lack of adverse effects observed in laboratory animals is relevant to humans. The rate-limiting step in PG metabolism is conversion to the more toxic lactaldehyde product by alcohol dehydrogenase. Studies indicate that this enzyme saturates in humans at doses 8-10- fold lower than in rats and rabbits, thus affording less toxicity in humans. It is estimated that the average daily intake of PG from food products in the US is 34 mg/kg body weight/day for a 70 kg person, which is over 300 -fold lower than the highest dose tested in laboratory animals. NTP-CERHR monographs are transmitted to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and are available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD-ROM from the CERHR (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-32, Research Triangle Park, NC; fax: 919-316-4511). PMID:15995735

2004-03-01

108

Evaluation of a human neurite growth assay as specific screen for developmental neurotoxicants.  

PubMed

Organ-specific in vitro toxicity assays are often highly sensitive, but they lack specificity. We evaluated here examples of assay features that can affect test specificity, and some general procedures are suggested on how positive hits in complex biological assays may be defined. Differentiating human LUHMES cells were used as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Forty candidate toxicants were screened, and several hits were obtained and confirmed. Although the cells had a definitive neuronal phenotype, the use of a general cell death endpoint in these cultures did not allow specific identification of neurotoxicants. As alternative approach, neurite growth was measured as an organ-specific functional endpoint. We found that neurite extension of developing LUHMES was specifically inhibited by diverse compounds such as colchicine, vincristine, narciclasine, rotenone, cycloheximide, or diquat. These compounds reduced neurite growth at concentrations that did not compromise cell viability, and neurite growth was affected more potently than the integrity of developed neurites of mature neurons. A ratio of the EC50 values of neurite growth inhibition and cell death of >4 provided a robust classifier for compounds associated with a developmental neurotoxic hazard. Screening of unspecific toxicants in the test system always yielded ratios <4. The assay identified also compounds that accelerated neurite growth, such as the rho kinase pathway modifiers blebbistatin or thiazovivin. The negative effects of colchicine or rotenone were completely inhibited by a rho kinase inhibitor. In summary, we suggest that assays using functional endpoints (neurite growth) can specifically identify and characterize (developmental) neurotoxicants. PMID:23670202

Krug, Anne K; Balmer, Nina V; Matt, Florian; Schönenberger, Felix; Merhof, Dorit; Leist, Marcel

2013-12-01

109

Human Developmental Chondrogenesis as a Basis for Engineering Chondrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166low/negCD146low/negCD73+CD44lowBMPR1B+) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5–6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166low/negBMPR1B+ putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24371811

Wu, Ling; Bluguermann, Carolina; Kyupelyan, Levon; Latour, Brooke; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Shah, Saumya; Galic, Zoran; Ge, Sundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Nsair, Ali; Miriuka, Santiago G.; Li, Xinmin; Lyons, Karen M.; Crooks, Gay M.; McAllister, David R.; Van Handel, Ben; Adams, John S.; Evseenko, Denis

2013-01-01

110

Human Ntera2 cells as a predictive in vitro test system for developmental neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals is a serious threat to human health. Current DNT testing guidelines propose investigations in rodents, which require large numbers of animals. With regard to the "3Rs" (reduction, replacement, and refinement) of animal testing, alternative testing strategies are needed in order to refine and reduce animal experiments and allow faster and less expensive screening. The goal of this study was to establish components for a human cell-based test system to assess DNT potential of chemicals at an early stage of brain development. A human neural precursor cell line should be tested for suitability for semi-automated high-throughput DNT screening. We established assays suitable for detecting disturbances in two basic processes of brain development in 96-well scale: neuronal differentiation and migration using the human Ntera2 (NT2) cell line. We assessed the effects of four test compounds with well-established DNT potential in comparison with three compounds without specific DNT potential. We found that human NT2 cell cultures treated with the morphogen, retinoic acid, imitate neuronal differentiation, and migration in vitro. The developmental neurotoxicants methylmercury chloride, sodium arsenite, sodium valproate, and methylazoxymethanol significantly reduced the expression of the neuronal marker ?-tubulin type III and decreased the migration distance in developing NT2 cells. Both endpoints, differentiation and migration, can be read out directly in a standard fluorescence plate reader, enabling high-throughput screening. We conclude that NT2 cell tests are likely to become valuable components of a human cell-based modular in vitro DNT test systems. PMID:23917397

Stern, Michael; Gierse, Andrea; Tan, Saime; Bicker, Gerd

2014-01-01

111

Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)  

PubMed Central

The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens.

OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

2014-01-01

112

Global transcriptional profiling of neural and mesenchymal progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells reveals alternative developmental signaling pathways  

E-print Network

embryonic stem cells reveals alternative developmental signaling pathways Jérôme Alexandre Denis1 21 e-mail : gpietu@istem.fr Keys words : Human embryonic stem cells ; Neural precursors ; mesenchymal-reviewedandacceptedforpublication,buthasyettoundergocopyeditingandproofcorrection.Thefinalpublishedversionmaydifferfromthisproof. #12;2 Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated along different lineages, providing

Boyer, Edmond

113

Countermeasures for Human Seizures Pamela Lein, a developmental neurobiologist and neurotoxicologist in the Department of Molecular Biosciences,  

E-print Network

Countermeasures for Human Seizures Pamela Lein, a developmental neurobiologist seizures in humans. The project will develop tools and treatments so that emergency responders and medical to improve medical treatment for people with seizure disorders. Research emphasis­The research emphasis

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

114

Combinatorial assembly of developmental stage-specific enhancers controls gene expression programs during human erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Gene-distal enhancers are critical for tissue-specific gene expression, but their genomic determinants within a specific lineage at different stages of development are unknown. Here we profile chromatin state maps, transcription factor occupancy, and gene expression profiles during human erythroid development at fetal and adult stages. Comparative analyses of human erythropoiesis identify developmental stage-specific enhancers as primary determinants of stage-specific gene expression programs. We find that erythroid master regulators GATA1 and TAL1 act cooperatively within active enhancers but confer little predictive value for stage specificity. Instead, a set of stage-specific coregulators collaborates with master regulators and contributes to differential gene expression. We further identify and validate IRF2, IRF6, and MYB as effectors of an adult-stage expression program. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of lineage-specific master regulators and transcriptional coregulators within developmental stage-specific enhancers determines gene expression programs and temporal regulation of transcriptional networks in a mammalian genome. PMID:23041383

Xu, Jian; Shao, Zhen; Glass, Kimberly; Bauer, Daniel E; Pinello, Luca; Van Handel, Ben; Hou, Serena; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H

2012-10-16

115

Flavonoids as Antioxidants and Developmental Regulators: Relative Significance in Plants and Humans  

PubMed Central

Phenylpropanoids, particularly flavonoids have been recently suggested as playing primary antioxidant functions in the responses of plants to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Furthermore, flavonoids are effective endogenous regulators of auxin movement, thus behaving as developmental regulators. Flavonoids are capable of controlling the development of individual organs and the whole-plant; and, hence, to contribute to stress-induced morphogenic responses of plants. The significance of flavonoids as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in humans has been recently questioned, based on the observation that the flavonoid concentration in plasma and most tissues is too low to effectively reduce ROS. Instead, flavonoids may play key roles as signaling molecules in mammals, through their ability to interact with a wide range of protein kinases, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), that supersede key steps of cell growth and differentiation. Here we discuss about the relative significance of flavonoids as reducing agents and signaling molecules in plants and humans. We show that structural features conferring ROS-scavenger ability to flavonoids are also required to effectively control developmental processes in eukaryotic cells. PMID:23434657

Brunetti, Cecilia; Di Ferdinando, Martina; Fini, Alessio; Pollastri, Susanna; Tattini, Massimiliano

2013-01-01

116

Understanding physical activity and motivations for children with developmental coordination disorder: an investigation using the theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition, affecting approximately 5-6% of children. Previous research has consistently found children with DCD being less physically active compared to typically-developing (TD) children; however, the psychosocial factors associated with physical activity for children with DCD are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine how theory-based physical activity cognitions impacts physical activity behaviors for children with and without DCD. Participants included a sample of boys (N=61, Mage=13.25 ±.46) with DCD (n=19) and without DCD (n=42), drawn from a larger prospective cohort study. A questionnaire with psychosocial measures was first administered, and accelerometers were used to assess their physical activity behavior over the subsequent week. Findings indicate that DCD was significantly associated with lower physical activity (F(1,58)=6.51, p<.05), and poorer physical activity cognitions (F(4,56) Wilks Lambda=2.78, p<.05). Meditational analyses found attitudes (B=.23, p<.05) and subjective norms (B=.31, p<.05) partially mediating the relationship between DCD and physical activity. Overall, this study further confirms that the activity deficit that exists among boys with DCD, and that the relationship is partially mediated through some physical activity cognitions. Interventions should target the perceived approval of influential people, and the personal evaluations of physical activity for boys with motoric difficulties. These findings further emphasizes the discrepancy in physical activity that exist between boys with DCD and TD boys, and highlight the need to better understand the psychological factors related to physical activity for children with DCD. PMID:24013157

Kwan, Matthew Y W; Cairney, John; Hay, John A; Faught, Brent E

2013-11-01

117

Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?  

PubMed Central

Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID:25229452

Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

2014-01-01

118

Do domestic dogs understand human actions as goal-directed?  

PubMed

Understanding of other's actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other's actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual's actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID:25229452

Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

2014-01-01

119

Priming 3D cultures of human mesenchymal stromal cells toward cartilage formation via developmental pathways.  

PubMed

The field of regenerative medicine has increasingly recognized the importance to be inspired by developmental processes to identify signaling pathways crucial for 3D organogenesis and tissue regeneration. Here, we aimed at recapitulating the first events occurring during limb development (ie, cell condensation and expansion of an undifferentiated mesenchymal cell population) to prime 3D cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hBM-MSC) toward the chondrogenic route. Based on embryonic development studies, we hypothesized that Wnt3a and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induce hBM-MSC to proliferate in 3D culture as an undifferentiated pool of progenitors (defined by clonogenic capacity and expression of typical markers), retaining chondrogenic potential upon induction by suitable morphogens. hBM-MSC were responsive to Wnt signaling in 3D pellet culture, as assessed by significant upregulation of main target genes and increase of unphosphorylated ?-catenin levels. Wnt3a was able to induce a five-fold increase in the number of proliferating hBM-MSC (6.4% vs. 1.3% in the vehicle condition), although total DNA content of the 3D construct was decreasing over time. Preconditioning with Wnt3a improved transforming growth factor-?1 mediated chondrogenesis (30% more glycosaminoglycans/cell in average). In contrast to developmental and 2D MSC culture models, FGF2 antagonized the Wnt-mediated effects. Interestingly, the CD146? subpopulation was found to be more responsive to Wnt3a. The presented data indicate a possible strategy to prime 3D cultures of hBM-MSC by invoking a "developmental engineering" approach. The study also identifies some opportunities and challenges to cross-fertilize skeletal development models and 3D hBM-MSC culture systems. PMID:23777290

Centola, Matteo; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Schären, Stefan; Glaser, Nicolas; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

2013-11-01

120

Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

Zhao, Guoping

2012-01-01

121

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology  

E-print Network

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is concerned with both physical and psychological changes throughout life-- from conception until death. www.uwindsor.ca/psychology A Rigorous, Enriching Program Developmental Psychology is a specialized major within Psychology that focuses on child

122

Has Conflict Resolution Grown Up? Toward a Developmental Model of Decision Making and Conflict Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a nascent developmental model of conflict resolution and explores how such a model challenges theorists and practitioners in the field of conflict resolution to engage with the concept of unity. The developmental model states that the ways in which human beings understand, approach, and attempt to resolve conflicts can be analogized to the developmental stages of infancy,

Hossain B. Danesh; Roshan Danesh

123

Developmental trajectory of the endocannabinoid system in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex  

PubMed Central

Background Endocannabinoids provide control over cortical neurotransmission. We investigated the developmental expression of key genes in the endocannabinoid system across human postnatal life and determined whether they correspond to the development of markers for inhibitory interneurons, which shape cortical development. We used microarray with qPCR validation and in situ hybridisation to quantify mRNA for the central endocannabinoid receptor CB1R, endocannabinoid synthetic enzymes (DAGL? for 2-arachidonylglycerol [2-AG] and NAPE-PLD for anandamide), and inactivating enzymes (MGL and ABHD6 for 2-AG and FAAH for anandamide) in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (39?days - 49?years). Results CB1R mRNA decreases until adulthood, particularly in layer II, after peaking between neonates and toddlers. DAGL? mRNA expression is lowest in early life and adulthood, peaking between school age and young adulthood. MGL expression declines after peaking in infancy, while ABHD6 increases from neonatal age. NAPE-PLD and FAAH expression increase steadily after infancy, peaking in adulthood. Conclusions Stronger endocannabinoid regulation of presynaptic neurotransmission in both supragranular and infragranular cortical layers as indexed through higher CB1R mRNA may occur within the first few years of human life. After adolescence, higher mRNA levels of the anandamide synthetic and inactivating enzymes NAPE-PLD and FAAH suggest that a late developmental switch may occur where anandamide is more strongly regulated after adolescence than earlier in life. Thus, expression of key genes in the endocannabinoid system changes with maturation of cortical function. PMID:22827915

2012-01-01

124

Our Complex Universe: A Human Understanding through Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature, in all its aspects, provides us with a foundation for creating art in all its forms. Among the most inspirational of these aspects are those of the sky, from sunsets to stars to galaxies. But it works both ways. While we can strive to know the Universe through physics and mathematics, the unending complexity of the structures we examine overwhelms the senses and hinders our ability to appreciate the beauty and meaning of our surroundings. The arts provide avenues for understanding and interpreting the complexity of nature in human terms. In doing so, they reveal more of nature's aesthetics and thereby have the power to inspire scientists to look ever deeper into our Universe.

Kaler, J. B.

2013-04-01

125

Establishment and assessment of a new human embryonic stem cell-based biomarker assay for developmental toxicity screening.  

PubMed

A metabolic biomarker-based in vitro assay utilizing human embryonic stem (hES) cells was developed to identify the concentration of test compounds that perturbs cellular metabolism in a manner indicative of teratogenicity. This assay is designed to aid the early discovery-phase detection of potential human developmental toxicants. In this study, metabolomic data from hES cell culture media were used to assess potential biomarkers for development of a rapid in vitro teratogenicity assay. hES cells were treated with pharmaceuticals of known human teratogenicity at a concentration equivalent to their published human peak therapeutic plasma concentration. Two metabolite biomarkers (ornithine and cystine) were identified as indicators of developmental toxicity. A targeted exposure-based biomarker assay using these metabolites, along with a cytotoxicity endpoint, was then developed using a 9-point dose-response curve. The predictivity of the new assay was evaluated using a separate set of test compounds. To illustrate how the assay could be applied to compounds of unknown potential for developmental toxicity, an additional 10 compounds were evaluated that do not have data on human exposure during pregnancy, but have shown positive results in animal developmental toxicity studies. The new assay identified the potential developmental toxicants in the test set with 77% accuracy (57% sensitivity, 100% specificity). The assay had a high concordance (?75%) with existing in vivo models, demonstrating that the new assay can predict the developmental toxicity potential of new compounds as part of discovery phase testing and provide a signal as to the likely outcome of required in vivo tests. PMID:24123775

Palmer, Jessica A; Smith, Alan M; Egnash, Laura A; Conard, Kevin R; West, Paul R; Burrier, Robert E; Donley, Elizabeth L R; Kirchner, Fred R

2013-08-01

126

Cellular reprogramming for understanding and treating human disease  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades we have witnessed a paradigm shift in our understanding of cells so radical that it has rewritten the rules of biology. The study of cellular reprogramming has gone from little more than a hypothesis, to applied bioengineering, with the creation of a variety of important cell types. By way of metaphor, we can compare the discovery of reprogramming with the archeological discovery of the Rosetta stone. This stone slab made possible the initial decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics because it allowed us to see this language in a way that was previously impossible. We propose that cellular reprogramming will have an equally profound impact on understanding and curing human disease, because it allows us to perceive and study molecular biological processes such as differentiation, epigenetics, and chromatin in ways that were likewise previously impossible. Stem cells could be called “cellular Rosetta stones” because they allow also us to perceive the connections between development, disease, cancer, aging, and regeneration in novel ways. Here we present a comprehensive historical review of stem cells and cellular reprogramming, and illustrate the developing synergy between many previously unconnected fields. We show how stem cells can be used to create in vitro models of human disease and provide examples of how reprogramming is being used to study and treat such diverse diseases as cancer, aging, and accelerated aging syndromes, infectious diseases such as AIDS, and epigenetic diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. While the technology of reprogramming is being developed and refined there have also been significant ongoing developments in other complementary technologies such as gene editing, progenitor cell production, and tissue engineering. These technologies are the foundations of what is becoming a fully-functional field of regenerative medicine and are converging to a point that will allow us to treat almost any disease.

Kanherkar, Riya R.; Bhatia-Dey, Naina; Makarev, Evgeny; Csoka, Antonei B.

2014-01-01

127

Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

128

A Structural Biology Approach to Understand Human Lymphatic Filarial Infection  

PubMed Central

The presence of aspartic protease inhibitor in filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-Aspin) makes it interesting to study because of the fact that the filarial parasite never encounters the host digestive system. Here, the aspartic protease inhibition kinetics of Bm-Aspin and its NMR structural characteristics have been investigated. The overall aim of this study is to explain the inhibition and binding properties of Bm-Aspin from its structural point of view. UV-spectroscopy and multi-dimensional NMR are the experiments that have been performed to understand the kinetic and structural properties of Bm-Aspin respectively. The human aspartic proteases that are considered for this study are pepsin, renin, cathepsin-E and cathepsin-D. The results of this analysis performed with the specific substrate [Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe (4-NO2)-Phe-Val-Leu (4-pyridylmethyl) ester] against aspartic proteases suggest that Bm-Aspin inhibits the activities of all four human aspartic proteases. The kinetics studies indicate that Bm-Aspin follows a competitive mode of inhibition for pepsin and cathepsin-E, non-competitive for renin and mixed mode for cathepsin-D. The triple resonance NMR experiments on Bm-Aspin suggested the feasibility of carrying out NMR studies to obtain its solution structure. The NMR titration studies on the interactions of Bm-Aspin with the proteases indicate that it undergoes fast-exchange phenomena among themselves. In addition to this, the chemical shift perturbations for some of the residues of Bm-Aspin observed from 15N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of saturated amounts of aspartic proteases suggest the binding between Bm-Aspin and human aspartic proteases. They also provide information on the variations in the intensities and mode of binding between the proteases duly corroborating with the results from the protease inhibition assay method. PMID:24516678

Nagampalli, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Peters, Angela; Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan

2014-01-01

129

Developmental changes in the discrimination of dynamic human actions in infancy.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to assess 4-month-old and 10-month-old infants' discrimination of action based on featural, configural, and temporal sources of action information. Younger infants were able to discriminate changes to all three sources of information, but older infants were only able to reliably discriminate changes to featural information. These results highlight a previously unknown aspect of early action processing, and suggest that action perception may undergo a developmental process akin to perceptual narrowing. PMID:22251298

Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A

2012-01-01

130

Myosin Va is developmentally regulated and expressed in the human cerebellum from birth to old age  

PubMed Central

Myosin Va functions as a processive, actin-based motor molecule highly enriched in the nervous system, which transports and/or tethers organelles, vesicles, and mRNA and protein translation machinery. Mutation of myosin Va leads to Griscelli disease that is associated with severe neurological deficits and a short life span. Despite playing a critical role in development, the expression of myosin Va in the central nervous system throughout the human life span has not been reported. To address this issue, the cerebellar expression of myosin Va from newborns to elderly humans was studied by immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was expressed at all ages from the 10th postnatal day to the 98th year of life, in molecular, Purkinje and granular cerebellar layers. Cerebellar myosin Va expression did not differ essentially in localization or intensity from childhood to old age, except during the postnatal developmental period. Structures resembling granules and climbing fibers in Purkinje cells were deeply stained. In dentate neurons, long processes were deeply stained by anti-myosin Va, as were punctate nuclear structures. During the first postnatal year, myosin Va was differentially expressed in the external granular layer (EGL). In the EGL, proliferating prospective granule cells were not stained by anti-myosin Va antibody. In contrast, premigratory granule cells in the EGL stained moderately. Granule cells exhibiting a migratory profile in the molecular layer were also moderately stained. In conclusion, neuronal myosin Va is developmentally regulated, and appears to be required for cerebellar function from early postnatal life to senescence. PMID:23558932

Souza, C.C.R.; Dombroski, T.C.D.; Machado, H.R.; Oliveira, R.S.; Rocha, L.B.; Rodrigues, A.R.A.; Neder, L.; Chimelli, L.; Correa, V.M.A.; Larson, R.E.; Martins, A.R.

2013-01-01

131

Understanding the Diversity: A Taxonomy for Postsecondary Education Programs and Services for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of postsecondary education (PSE) programs for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been steadily growing over the last few decades. There has been little public information regarding these programs and schools. Consequently, students, families, and researchers alike lack details about the various…

McEathron, Mary A.; Beuhring, Trisha; Maynard, Amelia; Mavis, Ann

2013-01-01

132

Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals,

Jeffrey T. Laitman; Joy S. Reidenberg

1993-01-01

133

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

134

Understanding Human Movement Semantics: A Point of Interest Based Approach  

E-print Network

particles. But the mat- ter of fact is that, contrary to banknotes and subatomic particles, human mobility aspects of human movement [3], for example by relating to the move- ments of banknotes [1] or subatomic

Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

135

Experiments in socially guided machine learning: understanding how humans geach  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Socially Guided Machine Learning we explore the ways in which machine learning can more fully take advantage of natural human interaction. In this work we are studying the role real-time human interaction plays in training assistive robots to perform new tasks. We describe an experimental platform, Sophie's World, and present descriptive analysis of human teaching behavior found in a

Andrea Lockerd Thomaz; Guy Hoffman; Cynthia Breazeal

2006-01-01

136

Understanding face perception by means of human electrophysiology  

E-print Network

- videawealthofinformationaboutthetemporaldynamics and nature of face perception at a global level of brain organization. The time window between 100 of facial parts in the human brain. Introduction The human face is a complex multidimensional visual pat a wide variety of information about an individual (identity, sex, age, mood, etc.) and human adults

Rossion, Bruno

137

[Understanding and support for children with autism spectrum and developmental disorders--looking steadily at peaceful lives in adolescence].  

PubMed

For a long time autism spectrum and developmental disorders have not been well understood. Treatment and education for children with this disorders have been inappropriate in many ways. Although this fact was not obvious until many such children began to demonstrate secondary emotional disturbances including social withdrawal, social aggression, delinquency, domestic violence and momicide. This discourse describes advances in research and practice of clinical and psycho-neurological for autism spectrum in recent years. In addition, I suggest policies and measures for therapeutic education that will avoid secondary symptoms allowing these individuals to conduct their lives in socially independent directions. PMID:23858573

Sasaki, Masami

2010-05-01

138

Targeting developmental regulators of zebrafish exocrine pancreas as a therapeutic approach in human pancreatic cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary Histone deacetylases (HDACs) and RNA polymerase III (POLR3) play vital roles in fundamental cellular processes, and deregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in malignant transformation. Hdacs and Polr3 are required for exocrine pancreatic epithelial proliferation during morphogenesis in zebrafish. We aim to test the hypothesis that Hdacs and Polr3 cooperatively control exocrine pancreatic growth, and combined inhibition of HDACs and POLR3 produces enhanced growth suppression in pancreatic cancer. In zebrafish larvae, combination of a Hdac inhibitor (Trichostatin A) and an inhibitor of Polr3 (ML-60218) synergistically prohibited the expansion of exocrine pancreas. In human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, combination of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and ML-60218 produced augmented suppression of colony formation and proliferation, and induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. The enhanced cytotoxicity was associated with supra-additive upregulation of the pro-apoptotic regulator BAX and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21CDKN1A. tRNAs have been shown to have pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic roles, and SAHA-stimulated expression of tRNAs was reversed by ML-60218. These findings demonstrate that chemically targeting developmental regulators of exocrine pancreas can be translated into an approach with potential impact on therapeutic response in pancreatic cancer, and suggest that counteracting the pro-malignant side effect of HDAC inhibitors can enhance their anti-tumor activity. PMID:23213420

Yee, Nelson S.; Zhou, Weiqiang; Chun, Stephen G.; Liang, I-Chau; Yee, Rosemary K.

2012-01-01

139

Implications of the human genome for understanding human biology and medicine.  

PubMed

Clinical researchers, practicing physicians, patients, and the general public now live in a world in which the 2.9 billion nucleotide codes of the human genome are available as a resource for scientific discovery. Some of the findings from the sequencing of the human genome were expected, confirming knowledge presaged by many decades of research in both human and comparative genetics. Other findings are unexpected in their scientific and philosophical implications. In either case, the availability of the human genome is likely to have significant implications, first for clinical research and then for the practice of medicine. This article provides our reflections on what the new genomic knowledge might mean for the future of medicine and how the new knowledge relates to what we knew in the era before the availability of the genome sequence. In addition, practicing physicians in many communities are traditionally also ambassadors of science, called on to translate arcane data or the complex ramifications of biology into a language understood by the public at large. This article also may be useful for physicians who serve in this capacity in their communities. We address the following issues: the number of protein-coding genes in the human genome and certain classes of noncoding repeat elements in the genome; features of genome evolution, including large-scale duplications; an overview of the predicted protein set to highlight prominent differences between the human genome and other sequenced eukaryotic genomes; and DNA variation in the human genome. In addition, we show how this information lays the foundations for ongoing and future endeavors that will revolutionize biomedical research and our understanding of human health. PMID:11710896

Subramanian, G; Adams, M D; Venter, J C; Broder, S

2001-11-14

140

Recent advances in the molecular and genetic understanding of congenital gastrointestinal malformations.  

PubMed

Major developmental paradigms are highly conserved among vertebrates. The contribution of developmental biology to the understanding of human disease and regeneration has soared recently. We review advances in the molecular and genetic understanding of gastrointestinal development using evidence from both mammalian and nonmammalian models. When appropriate, we highlight relevance and applicability to human disease. PMID:23539045

Dauvé, Véronique; McLin, Valérie A

2013-07-01

141

Understanding the association between adolescent marijuana use and later serious drug use: gateway effect or developmental trajectory?  

PubMed

Because marijuana use often precedes the use of other psychoactive substances, it has been characterized as a gateway to these other substances. The present study used data from both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Youth (Add Health) to examine the "gateway effect" role of earlier marijuana on later hard drug use. Difference score analyses reveal that within-pair differences in earlier marijuana use, controlling for differences in earlier hard drug use, and peer marijuana use predicted later within-pair hard drug use differences for DZ twin pairs. In contrast, earlier differences in marijuana use among MZ twin pairs did not predict later hard drug use differences. Rather than supporting the interpretation that earlier marijuana use "triggers" later hard drug use, these results suggest that the longitudinal pattern of drug use that has been interpreted as the "gateway effect" might be better conceptualized as a genetically influenced developmental trajectory. PMID:18423097

Cleveland, H Harrington; Wiebe, Richard P

2008-01-01

142

The decline of cross-species intersensory perception in human infants: Underlying mechanisms and its developmental persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying the developmental decline in cross-species intersensory matching first reported by Lewkowicz and Ghazanfar [Lewkowicz, D.J., & Ghazanfar, A.A., (2006). The decline of cross-species intersensory perception in human infants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(17), 6771–6774] and whether the decline persists into later development. Experiment 1 investigated whether infants can match monkey

David J. Lewkowicz; Ryan Sowinski

2008-01-01

143

Understanding Users! Perception of Privacy in Human-Robot Interaction  

E-print Network

and attitudes toward privacy in human-robot interaction, based on interviews that we conducted about a workplace Design Keywords Privacy, human-robot interaction, social robot, workplace robot 1. INTRODUCTION Privacy, video surveillance is, more or less, acceptable in public spaces, but not in private places. In addition

Mankoff, Jennifer

144

Towards an understanding of British public attitudes concerning human cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of scientists to apply cloning technology to humans has provoked public discussion and media coverage. The present paper reports on a series of studies examining public attitudes to human cloning in the UK, bringing together a range of quantitative and qualitative methods to address this question. These included a nationally representative survey, an experimental vignette study, focus groups

Richard Shepherd; Julie Barnett; Helen Cooper; Adrian Coyle; Jo Moran-Ellis; Victoria Senior; Chris Walton

2007-01-01

145

Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

2012-01-01

146

Understanding Human Trafficking Origin: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist work on global human trafficking has highlighted the conceptual difficulty of differentiating between trafficking and migration. This contribution uses a cross-country United Nations Office on Crime and Drugs dataset on human trafficking from 2006 to empirically evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of high-trafficking origin countries and compare them with patterns that have emerged in the literature on migration. In particular,

Smriti Rao; Christina Presenti

2012-01-01

147

Zebrafish as a model for understanding the evolution of the vertebrate immune system and human primary immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Zebrafish is an important vertebrate model that provides the opportunity for the combination of genetic interrogation with advanced live imaging in the analysis of complex developmental and physiologic processes. Among the many advances that have been achieved using the zebrafish model, it has had a great impact on immunology. Here, I discuss recent work focusing on the genetic underpinnings of the development and function of lymphocytes in fish. Lymphocytes play critical roles in vertebrate-specific acquired immune systems of jawless and jawed fish. The unique opportunities afforded by the ability to carry out forward genetic screens and the rapidly evolving armamentarium of reverse genetics in fish usher in a new immunologic research that complements the traditional models of chicken and mouse. Recent work has greatly increased our understanding of the molecular components of the zebrafish immune system, identifying evolutionarily conserved and fish-specific functions of immune-related genes. Interestingly, some of the genes whose mutations underlie the phenotypes in immunodeficient zebrafish were also identified in immunodeficient human patients. In addition, because of the generally conserved structure and function of immune facilities, the zebrafish also provides a versatile model to examine the functional consequences of genetic variants in immune-relevant genes in the human population. Thus, I propose that genetic approaches using the zebrafish hold great potential for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of human primary immunodeficiencies and the evolution of vertebrate immune systems. PMID:24824573

Iwanami, Norimasa

2014-08-01

148

Non-invasive imaging of human embryos to predict developmental competence.  

PubMed

Although some aspects of human embryo development are conserved with those of other species, including the mouse, many aspects such as the timing of reprogramming and occurrence in the absence of transcription, duration of transcriptional silence and identity of genes with modulated expression in the oocyte to embryo transition, appear to be unique. Yet, frequently, the only data available for understanding the programs of early embryo development is that derived from model or agricultural species. We suggest that a specific understanding of basic aspects of human embryo development can affect a two-fold positive impact: 1) We can improve the health of a substantial subset of patients who seek assisted reproduction by improving diagnostics of viable embryo development in the clinic and, 2) we can use the information we gather to improve derivation and diagnosis of pluripotent stem cell lines (including reference or gold-standard human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and closely-related induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines) and their fates in novel basic and clinical applications. PMID:21802136

Reijo Pera, R A

2011-09-01

149

Understanding 3D human torso shape via manifold clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering the variations in human torso shape plays a key role in many design-oriented applications, such as suit designing. With recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies, people can obtain 3D human torso data that provide more information than traditional measurements. However, how to find different human shapes from 3D torso data is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose to use spectral clustering approach on torso manifold to address this problem. We first represent high-dimensional torso data in a low-dimensional space using manifold learning algorithm. Then the spectral clustering method is performed to get several disjoint clusters. Experimental results show that the clusters discovered by our approach can describe the discrepancies in both genders and human shapes, and our approach achieves better performance than the compared clustering method.

Li, Sheng; Li, Peng; Fu, Yun

2013-05-01

150

Developmental dynamics of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus during the first postnatal year  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, during the first postnatal year using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-NT. Ten human postmortem hypothalami obtained from control neonates and infants (aged from 2 h to 1 year of postnatal age) were used. The biochemical kinetics of the binding in all obtained in this study revealed that the binding affinity constants were of high affinity (in the nanomolar range) and did not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Furthermore, competition experiments show insensitivity to levocabastine and were in favor of the presence of the high affinity site of NT receptor. Autoradiographic distribution showed that NT binding sites were widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites was not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities were mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic area. High NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical, and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, low to very low densities could be observed in all the mammillary complex subdivisions, as well as the posterior hypothalamic area. Although this topographical distribution is almost identical during the postnatal period analyzed, age-related variations exist in discrete structures of the hypothalamus. The densities were higher in neonates/less aged infants than older infants in preoptic area (medial and lateral parts). The developmental profile is characterized by a progressive decrease from the neonate period to 1 year of postnatal age with a tendency to reach adult levels. On the other hand, the low levels of NT binding sites observed in posterior hypothalamus did not vary during the first postnatal year. They contrast in that with the very high levels we reported previously in adult. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high NT binding sites density in various structures in many regions in the human neonate/infant hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions.

Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

2014-01-01

151

Improving Understanding of Human Swimming Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a An evaluation of human swimming strokes is conducted using the computational fluid dynamics technique Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics\\u000a (SPH). This Lagrangian mesh-less approach handles the modeling challenges of the deforming swimmer geometry, multiple phases\\u000a and complex fluid free surface. Realistic human swimmer geometries are obtained from laser scans of athletes and video footage\\u000a is used as a reference for animating these

R. C. Z. Cohen; P. W. Cleary; B. Mason

152

High School Students’ Understanding of the Human Body System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive\\u000a the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - “The human body, emphasizing homeostasis”.\\u000a The students’ systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main

Orit Ben-Zvi Assaraf; Jeff Dodick; Jaklin Tripto

2011-01-01

153

Understanding Developmental Crime Trajectories at Places: Social Disorganization and Opportunity Perspectives at Micro Units of Geography. Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals and communities have traditionally been the focus of criminological research, but recently criminologists have begun to explore the importance of micro places in understanding and controlling crime. Research provides strong evidence that crime...

D. Weisburd, E. R. Groff, S. M. Yang

2011-01-01

154

Decoding the language of epigenetics during neural development is key for understanding development as well as developmental neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Neural development is a delicate process that can be disrupted by pollution that exerts detrimental impact on neural signaling. This commentary highlights recent discoveries in the arena of research at the interface of environmental toxicology and developmental neuroscience relating to toxicity mechanisms of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous chemical used in manufacturing of plastics and epoxy resins that is known to bind to and interfere with estrogen receptors, estrogen-receptor-related receptors and other receptors for gonadal steroids. It was recently observed that BPA disrupts the perinatal chloride shift, a key neurodevelopmental mechanism that brings down neuronal chloride from ~100 mM to ~20 mM within weeks. The chloride shift happens in all central nervous systems of vertebrates around parturition. High neuronal chloride supports neuron precursors' migrations, low neuronal chloride is the prerequisite for inhibitory action of neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, and thus an absolute requisite for normal functioning of the mature CNS. One critical contributor to the neuronal chloride shift is the concomitant upregulation of expression of the chloride-extruding transporter molecule, KCC2. We highlight recent findings including our discovery that BPA disrupts the chloride shift in a sex-specific manner by recruiting epigenetics mechanisms. These could be relevant for childhood neuropsychiatric disorders as well as for liability to develop chronic neuropsychiatric diseases later in life. PMID:24071811

Yeo, Michele; Patisaul, Heather; Liedtke, Wolfgang

2013-11-01

155

Understanding Human-Landscape Interactions in the "Anthropocene"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)—"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"—suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified—thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops—serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

Harden, Carol P.; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R.; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; McDowell, Patricia F.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A.; Solecki, William D.; Wohl, Ellen E.

2014-01-01

156

Understanding human-landscape interactions in the "Anthropocene".  

PubMed

This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)--"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"--suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified--thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops--serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science. PMID:23793544

Harden, Carol P; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A; Gerlak, Andrea K; McDowell, Patricia F; McNamara, Dylan E; Peterson, Jeffrey M; Poff, N LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A; Solecki, William D; Wohl, Ellen E

2014-01-01

157

Consumer Video Understanding: A Benchmark Database and An Evaluation of Human and Machine Performance  

E-print Network

Consumer Video Understanding: A Benchmark Database and An Evaluation of Human and Machine Performance Yu-Gang Jiang§ , Guangnan Ye§ , Shih-Fu Chang§ , Daniel Ellis§ , Alexander C. Loui § Columbia on MTurk. We also compared the abilities in understanding consumer video content by humans and ma- chines

Chang, Shih-Fu

158

Inborn errors of metabolism: Clues to understanding human behavioral disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed behavioral and biochemical investigation of patients with inborn errors of metabolism, especially those intrinsic to the nervous system, may provide many clues to the genetic predisposition underlying human behavioral traits. Relatives of such patients and other individuals with homologous enzymatic lesions due to alleles specifying intermediate activity need to be studied as well. Among the metabolic disorders discussed selectively

Gilbert S. Omenn

1976-01-01

159

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

160

Humanities in Dental Education: A Focus on Understanding the Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)

Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.

1999-01-01

161

Understanding heat facilitated drug transport across human epidermis.  

PubMed

The application of moderate heat is a safe and effective means to increase drug transport across human skin. However, the cascade of events that follows the exposure of a topical skin formulation to a heating source is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate how three potential rate limiting stages in the drug transport process; formulation release, drug partitioning and epidermal diffusion, responded to changes in local temperature using the model drug lidocaine. Release from the formulation measured using regenerated cellulose membrane was shown to be driven by drug diffusion in the vehicle; it responded linearly when the local temperature was changed (21.6 ?g/cm(2)/h for every 1 °C rise) and displayed no measurable partitioning of lidocaine into RCM. Once the drug was within the human epidermis, the structural changes of the barrier controlled its transport. The apparent lidocaine diffusion coefficient through silicone membrane increased from 6.52 to 8.43 × 10(-4) over the 32-45 °C temperature range, but it increased from 7.74 × 10(-5)cm(2)h(-1) to 4.8 × 10(-4)cm(2)h(-1) in the human epidermis. In the absence of large increases in drug partitioning, fluidisation of the lipids in the upper layers of the epidermis at 37-45 °C was shown to facilitate lidocaine diffusion which for human skin transport was the rate limiting process. PMID:22504388

Wood, D G; Brown, M B; Jones, S A

2012-08-01

162

The Sociometer: A Wearable Device for Understanding Human Networks  

E-print Network

Pentland Human Design Group 20 Ames Street, E15-384C Cambridge, MA02139 USA +1 617 253 0370 tanzeem@media structure of the network and also analyze the dynamics of individual and group interactions. We present and effectiveness of a work group or an organization as a whole. Can we identify the differences between people

163

Development and evolution of the insect mushroom bodies: towards the understanding of conserved developmental mechanisms in a  

E-print Network

Development and evolution of the insect mushroom bodies: towards the understanding of conserved Received 6 January 2003; accepted 10 March 2003 Abstract The insect mushroom bodies are prominent higher as centers for intelligence and other higher functions; at present, the mushroom bodies are regarded

Farris, Sarah M.

164

Understanding face perception by means of human electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological recordings on the human scalp provide a wealth of information about the temporal dynamics and nature of face perception at a global level of brain organization. The time window between 100 and 200 ms witnesses the transition between low-level and high-level vision, an N170 component correlating with conscious interpretation of a visual stimulus as a face. This face representation is rapidly refined as information accumulates during this time window, allowing the individualization of faces. To improve the sensitivity and objectivity of face perception measures, it is increasingly important to go beyond transient visual stimulation by recording electrophysiological responses at periodic frequency rates. This approach has recently provided face perception thresholds and the first objective signature of integration of facial parts in the human brain. PMID:24703600

Rossion, Bruno

2014-06-01

165

Putting the Mind in the Brain: Promoting an Appreciation of the Biological Basis to Understanding Human Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A surprising number of students in psychology, behavioral science, and related social science classes fail to appreciate the importance of biological mechanisms to understanding behavior. To help teachers promote this understanding, this paper outlines six sources of evidence. These are (a) phylogenetic, (b) genetic/developmental, (c) clinical,…

Neumann, David L.

2010-01-01

166

The Prevalence of Chromosomal Deletions Relating to Developmental Delay and/or Intellectual Disability in Human Euploid Blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34–149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision. PMID:24409323

He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

167

Human Trafficking and Technology: A framework for understanding the role of technology in the commercial  

E-print Network

1 Human Trafficking and Technology: A framework for understanding the role of technology a role in the practices and processes surrounding human trafficking: the illegal trade of people for commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and other forms of modern-day slavery. Human trafficking has

Chaudhuri, Surajit

168

Developmental Fate and Cellular Maturity Encoded in Human Regulatory DNA Landscapes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cellular-state information between generations of developing cells may be propagated via regulatory regions. We report consistent patterns of gain and loss of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) as cells progress from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to terminal fates. DHS patterns alone convey rich information about cell fate and lineage relationships distinct from information conveyed by gene expression. Developing cells share a proportion of their DHS landscapes with ESCs; that proportion decreases continuously in each cell type as differentiation progresses, providing a quantitative benchmark of developmental maturity. Developmentally stable DHSs densely encode binding sites for transcription factors involved in autoregulatory feedback circuits. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells extensively reactivate silenced ESC DHSs and those from developmental programs external to the cell lineage from which the malignancy derives. Our results point to changes in regulatory DNA landscapes as quantitative indicators of cell-fate transitions, lineage relationships, and dysfunction. PMID:23953118

Reynolds, Alex; Humbert, Richard; Miller, Brady; Paige, Sharon L.; Vernot, Benjamin; Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Thurman, Robert E.; Sandstrom, Richard; Haugen, Eric; Heimfeld, Shelly; Murry, Charles E.; Akey, Joshua M.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

2014-01-01

169

Developmental fate and cellular maturity encoded in human regulatory DNA landscapes.  

PubMed

Cellular-state information between generations of developing cells may be propagated via regulatory regions. We report consistent patterns of gain and loss of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) as cells progress from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to terminal fates. DHS patterns alone convey rich information about cell fate and lineage relationships distinct from information conveyed by gene expression. Developing cells share a proportion of their DHS landscapes with ESCs; that proportion decreases continuously in each cell type as differentiation progresses, providing a quantitative benchmark of developmental maturity. Developmentally stable DHSs densely encode binding sites for transcription factors involved in autoregulatory feedback circuits. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells extensively reactivate silenced ESC DHSs and those from developmental programs external to the cell lineage from which the malignancy derives. Our results point to changes in regulatory DNA landscapes as quantitative indicators of cell-fate transitions, lineage relationships, and dysfunction. PMID:23953118

Stergachis, Andrew B; Neph, Shane; Reynolds, Alex; Humbert, Richard; Miller, Brady; Paige, Sharon L; Vernot, Benjamin; Cheng, Jeffrey B; Thurman, Robert E; Sandstrom, Richard; Haugen, Eric; Heimfeld, Shelly; Murry, Charles E; Akey, Joshua M; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

2013-08-15

170

Understanding Human Glycosylation Disorders: Biochemistry Leads the Charge*  

PubMed Central

Nearly 70 inherited human glycosylation disorders span a breathtaking clinical spectrum, impacting nearly every organ system and launching a family-driven diagnostic odyssey. Advances in genetics, especially next generation sequencing, propelled discovery of many glycosylation disorders in single and multiple pathways. Interpretation of whole exome sequencing results, insights into pathological mechanisms, and possible therapies will hinge on biochemical analysis of patient-derived materials and animal models. Biochemical diagnostic markers and readouts offer a physiological context to confirm candidate genes. Recent discoveries suggest novel perspectives for textbook biochemistry and novel research opportunities. Basic science and patients are the immediate beneficiaries of this bidirectional collaboration. PMID:23329837

Freeze, Hudson H.

2013-01-01

171

Histone-modifying enzymes: regulators of developmental decisions and drivers of human disease  

PubMed Central

Precise transcriptional networks drive the orchestration and execution of complex developmental processes. Transcription factors possessing sequence-specific DNA binding properties activate or repress target genes in a step-wise manner to control most cell lineage decisions. This regulation often requires the interaction between transcription factors and subunits of massive protein complexes that bear enzymatic activities towards histones. The functional coupling of transcription proteins and histone modifiers underscores the importance of transcriptional regulation through chromatin modification in developmental cell fate decisions and in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22449188

Butler, Jill S; Koutelou, Evangelia; Schibler, Andria C; Dent, Sharon YR

2012-01-01

172

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle.  

PubMed

Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts-including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

2013-07-01

173

Towards Better Human Robot Interaction: Understand Human Computer Interaction in Social Gaming Using a Video-Enhanced Diary Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents findings from a descriptive research on social gaming. A video-enhanced diary method was used to understand the user experience in social gaming. From this experiment, we found that natural human behavior and gamer’s decision making process can be elicited and speculated during human computer interaction. These are new information that we should consider as they can help us build better human computer interfaces and human robotic interfaces in future.

See, Swee Lan; Tan, Mitchell; Looi, Qin En

174

EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Agents that may affect reproductive and developmental toxicity are of great concern to the general public. espite this, both the regulatory and public health arenas have been made somewhat haphazard use of the existing data when interpreting these health effects. ppropriate infor...

175

Intracellular chemical imaging of the developmental phases of human neuromelanin using synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

The microchemical environment of neuromelanin (NM) in whole neurons from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human substantia nigra sections were characterized using synchrotron chemical X-ray microscopy. Concentrations of NM-associated elements increased in the developing brain; the highest levels of most elements were found in the mature brain but the temporal pattern of the accumulation of different elements varied. High spatial resolution investigations, using a unique hard X-ray nanoprobe, revealed iron-rich microdomains colocalized with other elements within the pigment. These microdomains represent the first visualization of a structure regulating the metal-binding properties of NM and supporting a physiological role for NM in the regulation of functionally important elements in pigmented neurons. Our results demonstrate that the local chemical environment of iron in NM is similar to that found in ferritin and points to a possible role of iron in NM biosynthesis. Intracellular speciation of sulfur contained in NM revealed the presence of reduced sulfur compounds and various forms of oxidized sulfur compounds which have not previously been reported. Further, a significant increase in sulfonate in NM in the mature brain suggests that in vivo metabolism of the pigment via an as yet unidentified pathway occurs. The current data add to our understanding of the development and regulation of NM in the human brain. PMID:19007186

Bohic, Sylvain; Murphy, Karen; Paulus, Werner; Cloetens, Peter; Salomé, Murielle; Susini, Jean; Double, Kay

2008-12-15

176

Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures.  

PubMed Central

Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many even more complex interactions may occur if two chemicals act at different but related targets. In the extreme case there may be synergistic effects, in which case the effects of two substances together are greater than the sum of either effect alone. In reality, most persons are exposed to many chemicals, not just one or two, and therefore the effects of a chemical mixture are extremely complex and may differ for each mixture depending on the chemical composition. This complexity is a major reason why mixtures have not been well studied. In this review we attempt to illustrate some of the principles and approaches that can be used to study effects of mixtures. By the nature of the state of the science, this discussion is more a presentation of what we do not know than of what we do know about mixtures. We approach the study of mixtures at three levels, using specific examples. First, we discuss several human diseases in relation to a variety of environmental agents believed to influence the development and progression of the disease. We present results of selected cellular and animal studies in which simple mixtures have been investigated. Finally, we discuss some of the effects of mixtures at a molecular level. PMID:11834461

Carpenter, David O; Arcaro, Kathleen; Spink, David C

2002-01-01

177

Has our understanding of calcification in human coronary atherosclerosis progressed?  

PubMed

Coronary artery calcification is a well-established predictor of future cardiac events; however, it is not a predictor of unstable plaque. The intimal calcification of the atherosclerotic plaques may begin with smooth muscle cell apoptosis and release of matrix vesicles and is almost always seen microscopically in pathological intimal thickening, which appears as microcalcification (?0.5 ?m, typically <15 ?m in diameter). Calcification increases with macrophage infiltration into the lipid pool in early fibroatheroma where they undergo apoptosis and release matrix vesicles. The confluence of calcified areas involves extracellular matrix and the necrotic core, which can be identified by radiography as speckled (?2 mm) or fragmented (>2, <5 mm) calcification. The calcification in thin-cap fibroatheromas and plaque rupture is generally less than what is observed in stable plaques and is usually speckled or fragmented. Fragmented calcification spreads into the surrounding collagen-rich matrix forming calcified sheets, the hallmarks of fibrocalcific plaques. The calcified sheets may break into nodules with fibrin deposition, and when accompanied by luminal protrusion, it is associated with thrombosis. Calcification is highest in fibrocalcific plaques followed by healed plaque rupture and is the least in erosion and pathological intimal thickening. The extent of calcification is greater in men than in women especially in the premenopausal period and is also greater in whites compared with blacks. The mechanisms of intimal calcification remain poorly understood in humans. Calcification often occurs in the presence of apoptosis of smooth muscle cells and macrophages with matrix vesicles accompanied by expression of osteogenic markers within the vessel wall. PMID:24558104

Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Sakakura, Kenichi; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Joner, Michael; Virmani, Renu

2014-04-01

178

The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The…

Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

2004-01-01

179

Developmental processes in face perception  

PubMed Central

Understanding the developmental origins of face recognition has been the goal of many studies of various approaches. Contributions of experience-expectant mechanisms (early component), like perceptual narrowing, and lifetime experience (late component) to face processing remain elusive. By investigating captive chimpanzees of varying age, a rare case of a species with lifelong exposure to non-conspecific faces at distinctive levels of experience, we can disentangle developmental components in face recognition. We found an advantage in discriminating chimpanzee above human faces in young chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant contribution of an early component that drives the perceptual system towards the conspecific morphology, and an advantage for human above chimpanzee faces in old chimpanzees, reflecting a predominant late component that shapes the perceptual system along the critical dimensions of the face exposed to. We simulate the contribution of early and late components using computational modeling and mathematically describe the underlying functions. PMID:23304435

Dahl, Christoph D.; Rasch, Malte J.; Tomonaga, Masaki; Adachi, Ikuma

2013-01-01

180

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information,

Katrina R Prescott; Andrew O M Wilkie

2007-01-01

181

Let7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are ~22nt-long small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression in eukaryotic cells. Based upon their importance in regulating development and terminal differentiation in model systems, erythrocyte microRNA profiles were examined at birth and in adults to determine if changes in their abundance coincide with the developmental phenomenon of hemoglobin switching.

Seung-Jae Noh; Samuel H Miller; Y Terry Lee; Sung-Ho Goh; Francesco M Marincola; David F Stroncek; Christopher Reed; Ena Wang; Jeffery L Miller

2009-01-01

182

Conservation of CD4+ T cell-dependent developmental mechanisms in the blood fluke pathogens of humans  

PubMed Central

Schistosoma blood flukes are trematode parasites with a cosmopolitan distribution that infect over 200 million people globally. We previously showed that Schistosoma mansoni growth and development in the mammalian host is dependent on signals from host CD4+ T cells. To gain insight into the mechanisms that underlie this dependence, we sought to determine the evolutionary origins and limits of this aspect of the host-pathogen relationship. By infecting RAG-1?/? mice with a range of different schistosome species and strains, we tested several hypotheses concerning the time during Schistosoma evolution at which this dependence arose, and whether this dependence is specific to Schistosoma or is also found in other blood flukes. Our data indicate that the developmental dependence on CD4+ T cells previously described for S. mansoni is conserved in the evolutionarily basal species Schistosoma japonicum, suggesting this developmental adaptation arose early in Schistosoma evolution. We also demonstrate that the development of the more evolutionarily-derived species Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma intercalatum are dependent on adaptive immune signals. Together, these data suggest that the blood fluke parasites of humans utilize common mechanisms to infect their hosts and to co-opt immune signals in the coordination of parasite development. Thus, exploitation of host-schistosome interactions to impair or prevent parasite development may represent a novel approach to combating of all the schistosome pathogens of humans. PMID:17196594

Lamb, Erika W.; Crow, Emily T.; Lim, K.C.; Liang, Yung-san; Lewis, Fred A.; Davies, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

183

Developmental Toxicology##  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

184

Developmental validation of a novel lateral flow strip test for rapid identification of human blood (Rapid Stain Identification--Blood).  

PubMed

Human blood is the body fluid most commonly encountered at crime scenes, and blood detection may aid investigators in reconstructing what occurred during a crime. In addition, blood detection can help determine which items of evidence should be processed for DNA-STR testing. Unfortunately, many common substances can cause red-brown stains that resemble blood. Furthermore, many current human blood detection methods are presumptive and prone to false positive results. Here, the developmental validation of a new blood identification test, Rapid Stain Identification--Blood (RSID--Blood), is described. RSID--Blood utilizes two anti-glycophorin A (red blood cell membrane specific protein) monoclonal antibodies in a lateral flow strip test format to detect human blood. We present evidence demonstrating that this test is accurate, reproducible, easy to use, and highly specific for human blood. Importantly, RSID--Blood does not cross-react with ferret, skunk, or primate blood and exhibits no high-dose hook effect. Also, we describe studies on the sensitivity, body fluid specificity, and species specificity of RSID--Blood. In addition, we show that the test can detect blood from a variety of forensic exhibits prior to processing for DNA-STR analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that RSID--Blood is effective and useful for the detection of human blood on forensic exhibits, and offers improved blood detection when compared to other currently used methods. PMID:19083828

Schweers, Brett A; Old, Jennifer; Boonlayangoor, P W; Reich, Karl A

2008-06-01

185

Critical review of the developmental toxicity and teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Recent advances toward understanding the mechanism  

SciTech Connect

A specific teratogenic response is elicited in the mouse as a result of exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin). The characteristic spectrum of structural malformations induced in mice following exposure to TCDD and structurally-related congeners is highly reproducible and includes both hydronephrosis and cleft palate. In addition, prenatal exposure to TCDD has been shown to induce thymic hypoplasia. The three abnormalities occur at doses well below those producing maternal or embryo/fetal toxicity, and are among the most sensitive indicators of dioxin toxicity. In all other laboratory species tested, TCDD causes maternal and embryo/fetal toxicity, but does not induce a significant increase in the incidence of structural abnormalities even at toxic dose levels. Developmental toxicity occurs in a similar dose range across species, however, mice are particularly susceptible to development of TCDD-induced terata. Recent experiments using an organ culture were an attempt to address the issue of species and organ differences in sensitivity to TCDD. Human palatal shelves were examined in this in vitro system, and were found to approximate the rat in terms of sensitivity for induction of cleft palate.

Couture, L.A.; Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

1990-01-01

186

Understanding the linkages and feedbacks in human-water systems: development of an integrated systems framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last four centuries human activity in the northeastern United States, has significantly altered the hydrologic cycle through direct and indirect means. Successfully observing, understanding, modeling and predicting the dynamics of present day hydrologic systems requires integrating the cumulative consequences of, not only our current actions, but our historic ones. Over time, we have uncovered evidence of significant alteration to the biogeochemistry, geomorphology, and surface and groundwater hydrology of the Northeast region’s water cycle - with significant implications to human, ecological and hydrological systems. While hydrologists traditionally have placed humans external to our hydrology models, we are moving toward a better understanding of these interactions and feedbacks between natural and human systems. This necessitates understanding the particulars of the hydrologic cycle on one hand, the particulars of the human system on the other, as well as understanding the intermediary impacts on land-use and land cover. Here we present a preliminary framework and results of a series of systems models that attempt to capture, in a simple way, the relationships between the human, natural, and hydrologic systems in the northeastern United States. The model incorporates various historic hydrologic, biogeochemical, land use, economic and social science data, and is used to explore various scenarios and hypotheses. The quantification of historical and current dynamics between human adaptations and manipulations, hydrologic change and the associated feedbacks allows us to explore how human society and water evolved together over in the northeastern United States, namely - What are the key human change agents driving water system dynamics in the northeast US and how are natural systems, engineered systems and human objectives linked?

Hermans, C. M.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Arrigo, J. S.; Parolari, A.; Thomas, B.

2010-12-01

187

Implications of the Human Genome for Understanding Human Biology and Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical researchers, practicing physicians, patients, and the general public now live in a world in which the 2.9 billion nucleotide codes of the human genome are available as a resource for scientific discovery. Some of the find- ings from the sequencing of the human genome were expected, confirming knowledge presaged by many decades of research in both human and com-

G. Subramanian; Mark D. Adams; J. Craig Venter; Samuel Broder

2001-01-01

188

Big thoughts in small brains? Dogs as a model for understanding human social cognition.  

PubMed

In this review we argued that dogs can provide a good model for both the evolution of human social-cognitive abilities and studying the underlying neural and genetic structures of these behavioural features. The key difference between the present and other approaches for modelling human social evolution lies in the assumption that there is a large overlap between the human and dog behaviour complex because during their evolution in close contact with human groups dogs evolved functionally similar social skills. Thus the parallel investigation of the human and dog behaviour complex widens our possibility for understanding human social cognition because it allows the modelling of the interaction between various components in contrast to other models which are often restricted to modelling a single aspect of human social cognitive skills. PMID:17496805

Miklósi, Adám; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

2007-03-26

189

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of conditions sharing as their common features impairment in social reciprocity,\\u000a developmental disturbances affecting communication, and manifestation of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism is the\\u000a prototypical pervasive developmental disorder, and others include Asperger's Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative\\u000a Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Critical to understanding these conditions\\u000a is appreciation of

Kathleen Koenig; Katherine D. Tsatsanis

190

The Development of the Concept of Temperature When Assessed via Three Developmental Models. Tel-Aviv University Unit on Human Development and Education. Working Paper No. 46.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine how children at different ages understand the concept of temperature, examining particularly the logicomathematical aspects of the concept. In doing so, three developmental approaches were compared: (1) Piaget's structuralist approach; (2) Siegler's rule assessment approach; and (3) Anderson and…

Frenkel, Pnina; Strauss, Sidney

191

Infants understand the referential nature of human gaze but not robot gaze.  

PubMed

Infants can acquire much information by following the gaze direction of others. This type of social learning is underpinned by the ability to understand the relationship between gaze direction and a referent object (i.e., the referential nature of gaze). However, it is unknown whether human gaze is a privileged cue for information that infants use. Comparing human gaze with nonhuman (robot) gaze, we investigated whether infants' understanding of the referential nature of looking is restricted to human gaze. In the current study, we developed a novel task that measured by eye-tracking infants' anticipation of an object from observing an agent's gaze shift. Results revealed that although 10- and 12-month-olds followed the gaze direction of both a human and a robot, only 12-month-olds predicted the appearance of objects from referential gaze information when the agent was the human. Such a prediction for objects reflects an understanding of referential gaze. Our study demonstrates that by 12 months of age, infants hold referential expectations specifically from the gaze shift of humans. These specific expectations from human gaze may enable infants to acquire various information that others convey in social learning and social interaction. PMID:23660178

Okumura, Yuko; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Kanda, Takayuki; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Itakura, Shoji

2013-09-01

192

Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.  

EPA Science Inventory

The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

193

Developmental potential of human oocytes matured in vitro followed by vitrification and activation  

PubMed Central

Background Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and cryopreservation at the time of routine ovarian tissue freezing may be offered to cancer patients as an additional option for fertility preservation. This study aimed to investigate the developmental capacity of oocytes isolated from unstimulated ovaries. Methods Immature oocytes (n = 63) from seven consenting premenopausal patients were analysed. Oocytes were collected during routine laparoscopic examination with biopsy of an ovary (cystic adnexal mass, n = 3; cervical adenocarcinoma, n = 2) or oophorectomy (sex reassignment surgery, n = 2) without previous stimulation of the ovaries. The stage of the patient’s menstrual cycle was not considered. Oocytes in all visible antral follicles were aspirated from ovaries, cultured in IVM medium and vitrified at the MII stage before being kept in liquid nitrogen for at least one month. After warming, oocytes were subjected to parthenogenetic activation by chemical stimulus. Their further development was recorded at intervals of 24 hours for up to 6 days of culture. Results 61.9% of oocytes matured in vitro within 48 hours. The survival rate after vitrification and warming was 61.5%. A total of 75% of surviving oocytes were able to respond to artificial activation, 44.4% of the parthenotes developed to early embryonic stage. However, only 1 in 18 (5.6%) of the resulting embryos reached blastocyst stage. Conclusions Oocytes matured in vitro from unstimulated ovaries seem to have limited developmental potential after cryopreservation and artificial activation. Although the outcome of IVM for non-stimulated oocytes is poor, it is currently the only chance besides cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for women for whom ovarian stimulation is not possible due to life circumstances. Based on our preliminary results, we suggest that the use of cryopreserved ovaries for fertility preservation in women with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:23597104

2013-01-01

194

Deletion of Porcn in Mice Leads to Multiple Developmental Defects and Models Human Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (Goltz Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Background Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated. Results We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox) have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion. Conclusions These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures. PMID:22412863

Liu, Wei; Shaver, Timothy M.; Balasa, Alfred; Ljungberg, M. Cecilia; Wang, Xiaoling; Wen, Shu; Nguyen, Hoang; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

2012-01-01

195

The Relevance of Mouse Models to Understanding the Development and Progression of Human Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse modeling of human breast cancer has developed tremendously over the past ten years. Human breast cancer is characterized\\u000a by enormous biological diversity and, collectively, the new models have come much closer to encompassing this diversity. They\\u000a have provided a deeper understanding of the fundamental events that mediate the initiation, development, and progression of\\u000a breast cancer, and they offer new

D. Craig Allred; Daniel Medina

2008-01-01

196

Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite  

E-print Network

developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite John P. Mills1 , Lan Qie3 , Ming Dao1 , Kevin S that the malaria parasite Plasmodium (P.) falciparum could result in significant stiffening of infected human red, the deadliest of the four species of malaria, which results in two to three million deaths annually [1]. When

Dao, Ming

197

The Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, another member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is widely expressed in human tissues and is developmentally regulated in human liver.  

PubMed Central

Glycoproteins expressing the Lutheran blood group antigens were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes and from human fetal liver. Amino acid sequence analyses allowed the design of redundant oligonucleotides that were used to generate a 459-bp, sequence-specific probe by PCR. A cDNA clone of 2400 bp was isolated from a human placental lambda gt 11 library and sequenced, and the deduced amino acid sequence was studied. The predicted mature protein is a type I membrane protein of 597 amino acids with five potential N-glycosylation sites. There are five disulfide-bonded, extracellular, immunoglobulin superfamily domains (two variable-region set and three constant-region set), a single hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domain, and a cytoplasmic domain of 59 residues. The overall structure is similar to that of the human tumor marker MUC 18 and the chicken neural adhesion molecule SC1. The extracellular domains and cytoplasmic domain contain consensus motifs for the binding of integrin and Src homology 3 domains, respectively, suggesting possible receptor and signal-transduction function. Immunostaining of human tissues demonstrated a wide distribution and provided evidence that the glycoprotein is under developmental control in liver and may also be regulated during differentiation in other tissues. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7777537

Parsons, S F; Mallinson, G; Holmes, C H; Houlihan, J M; Simpson, K L; Mawby, W J; Spurr, N K; Warne, D; Barclay, A N; Anstee, D J

1995-01-01

198

Global developmental gene expression and pathway analysis of normal brain development and mouse models of human neuronal migration defects.  

PubMed

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3?), and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can be used to define novel candidates for related human diseases. PMID:21423666

Pramparo, Tiziano; Libiger, Ondrej; Jain, Sonia; Li, Hong; Youn, Yong Ha; Hirotsune, Shinji; Schork, Nicholas J; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

2011-03-01

199

Global Developmental Gene Expression and Pathway Analysis of Normal Brain Development and Mouse Models of Human Neuronal Migration Defects  

PubMed Central

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted gene mutations of Lis1, Dcx, Ywhae (coding for 14-3-3?), and Ndel1 lead to neuronal migration defects in mouse and provide models of human lissencephaly, as well as aid the study of related neuro-developmental diseases. Here we investigated the developing brain of these four mutants and wild-type mice using expression microarrays, bioinformatic analyses, and in vivo/in vitro experiments to address whether mutations in different members of the LIS1 neuronal migration complex lead to similar and/or distinct global gene expression alterations. Consistent with the overall successful development of the mutant brains, unsupervised clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that cell cycle and synaptogenesis genes are similarly expressed and co-regulated in WT and mutant brains in a time-dependent fashion. By contrast, focused co-expression analysis in the Lis1 and Ndel1 mutants uncovered substantial differences in the correlation among pathways. Differential expression analysis revealed that cell cycle, cell adhesion, and cytoskeleton organization pathways are commonly altered in all mutants, while synaptogenesis, cell morphology, and inflammation/immune response are specifically altered in one or more mutants. We found several commonly dysregulated genes located within pathogenic deletion/duplication regions, which represent novel candidates of human mental retardation and neurocognitive disabilities. Our analysis suggests that gene expression and pathway analysis in mouse models of a similar disorder or within a common pathway can be used to define novel candidates for related human diseases. PMID:21423666

Pramparo, Tiziano; Libiger, Ondrej; Jain, Sonia; Li, Hong; Youn, Yong Ha; Hirotsune, Shinji; Schork, Nicholas J.; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony

2011-01-01

200

Toward new understandings of human–animal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

201

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro  

E-print Network

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro ATR Intelligent Robotics Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Seikacho, Sorakugun Kyoto, 619-0288, JAPAN E-mail kanda@atr.jp Abstract This paper reports our friendship estimation model for social robots

Kanda, Takayuki

202

Understanding the linkages and feedbacks in human-water systems: development of an integrated systems framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last four centuries human activity in the northeastern United States, has significantly altered the hydrologic cycle through direct and indirect means. Successfully observing, understanding, modeling and predicting the dynamics of present day hydrologic systems requires integrating the cumulative consequences of, not only our current actions, but our historic ones. Over time, we have uncovered evidence of significant alteration

C. M. Hermans; C. J. Vorosmarty; J. S. Arrigo; A. Parolari; B. Thomas

2010-01-01

203

The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2003-01-01

204

Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

2002-01-01

205

The early origins of human charity: developmental changes in preschoolers' sharing with poor and wealthy individuals  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have provided evidence that young children already engage in sharing behavior. The underlying social-cognitive mechanisms, however, are still under debate. In particular, it is unclear whether or not young children’s sharing is motivated by an appreciation of others’ wealth. Manipulating the material needs of recipients in a sharing task (Experiment 1) and a resource allocation task (Experiment 2), we show that 5- but not 3-year-old children share more with poor than wealthy individuals. The 3-year-old children even showed a tendency to behave less selfishly towards the rich, yet not the poor recipient. This suggests that very early instances of sharing behavior are not motivated by a consideration of others’ material needs. Moreover, the results show that 5-year-old children were rather inclined to give more to the poor individual than distributing the resources equally, demonstrating that their wish to support the poor overruled the otherwise very prominent inclination to share resources equally. This indicates that charity has strong developmental roots in preschool children. PMID:25018735

Paulus, Markus

2014-01-01

206

Understanding the interactions between bacteria in the human gut through metabolic modeling  

PubMed Central

The human gut microbiome plays an influential role in maintaining human health, and it is a potential target for prevention and treatment of disease. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) can provide an increased understanding of the mechanisms behind the effects of diet, the genotype-phenotype relationship and microbial robustness. Here we reconstructed GEMs for three key species, (Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, Eubacterium rectale and Methanobrevibacter smithii) as relevant representatives of three main phyla in the human gut (Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Euryarchaeota). We simulated the interactions between these three bacteria in different combinations of gut ecosystems and compared the predictions with the experimental results obtained from colonization of germ free mice. Furthermore, we used our GEMs for analyzing the contribution of each species to the overall metabolism of the gut microbiota based on transcriptome data and demonstrated that these models can be used as a scaffold for understanding bacterial interactions in the gut. PMID:23982459

Shoaie, Saeed; Karlsson, Fredrik; Mardinoglu, Adil; Nookaew, Intawat; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens

2013-01-01

207

Developmentally regulated expression of the novel cancer anti-apoptosis gene survivin in human and mouse differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis) may regulate tissue differentiation and aberrantly promote cell survival in neoplasia. A novel apoptosis inhibitor of the IAP gene family, designated survivin, was recently found in all of the most common human cancers but not in normal, terminally differentiated adult tissues. The expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated strong expression of survivin in several apoptosis-regulated fetal tissues, including the stem cell layer of stratified epithelia, endocrine pancreas, and thymic medulla, with a pattern that did not overlap with that of another apoptosis inhibitor, bcl-2. A sequence-specific antibody to survivin immunoblotted a single approximately 16.5-kd survivin band in human fetal lung, liver, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In mouse embryo, prominent and nearly ubiquitous distribution of survivin was found at embryonic day (E)11.5, whereas at E15 to -21, survivin expression was restricted to the distal bronchiolar epithelium of the lung and neural-crest-derived cells, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, hypophysis, and the choroid plexus. These data suggest that expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development may contribute to tissue homeostasis and differentiation independently of bcl-2. Aberrations of this developmental pathway may result in prominent re-expression of survivin in neoplasia and abnormally prolonged cell viability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9422522

Adida, C.; Crotty, P. L.; McGrath, J.; Berrebi, D.; Diebold, J.; Altieri, D. C.

1998-01-01

208

Developmental Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of developmental time is proposed as a method for organizing family therapy interventions. Developmental time is the point in the family life cycle that a family expects to be occupying given the age and stage of its members. We promote alterations in the normative time frame by encouraging family members to relive previous developmental transitions or enact anticipated

Stephen A. Anderson; William M. Boylin

2000-01-01

209

The Ecological and Developmental Role of Recovery High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recovery high schools are secondary schools designed specifically for students recovering from substance use or co-occurring disorders. Studies have affirmed the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the developmental value of social supports for adolescents. As part of understanding human growth and development, training programs for…

Finch, Andrew J.; Frieden, Gina

2014-01-01

210

Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives on Humans' Sense of the Times of Past and Future Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental time travel in human adults includes a sense of when past events occurred and future events are expected to occur. Studies with adults and children reveal that a number of distinct psychological processes contribute to a temporally differentiated sense of the past and future. Adults possess representations of multiple time patterns, and…

Friedman, W.J.

2005-01-01

211

Developmental Changes in the Discrimination of Dynamic Human Actions in Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent evidence suggests that adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to assess…

Loucks, Jeff; Sommerville, Jessica A.

2012-01-01

212

Apoptosis in developmental and repair-related human tooth remodeling: A view from the inside  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apoptosis is a key phenomenon in the regulation of the life span of odontoblasts, which are responsible for dentin matrix production of the teeth. The mechanism controlling odontoblasts loss in developing, normal, and injured human teeth is largely unknown. A possible correlation between apoptosis and dental pulp volume reduction was examined. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on intact 10 to 14 year-old

Thimios A. Mitsiadis; Cosimo De Bari

2008-01-01

213

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Regulate the Developmental Program of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The identification of molecules that regulate human hematopoietic stem cells has focused mainly on cytokines, of which very few are known to act directly on stem cells. Recent studies in lower organisms and the mouse have suggested that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) may play a critical role in the specification of hematopoietic tissue from the mesodermal germ layer. Here

Mickie Bhatia; Dominique Bonnet; Dongmei Wu; Barbara Murdoch; Jeff Wrana; Lisa Gallacher; John E. Dick

2010-01-01

214

Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait  

SciTech Connect

The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Saltman, D.L. (Genelabs, Inc., Redwood City, CA (United States))

1991-12-01

215

Developmental Changes of BOLD Signal Correlations with Global Human EEG Power and Synchronization during Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans, theta band (5–7 Hz) power typically increases when performing cognitively demanding working memory (WM) tasks, and simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings have revealed an inverse relationship between theta power and the BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) signal in the default mode network during WM. However, synchronization also plays a fundamental role in cognitive processing, and the level of theta and

Lars Michels; Rafael Lüchinger; Thomas Koenig; Ernst Martin; Daniel Brandeis

2012-01-01

216

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

PubMed Central

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely that the mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and evidence from humans makes a strong case against the position. PMID:19199415

Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

217

A Literature-Circles Approach to Understanding Science as a Human Endeavor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unfortunately, the reading of science-related, historical nonfiction alone does not necessarily lead students to make personal connections to science or understand science as a human endeavor interdependent with culture, society, and history. Teachers must structure students' reading to ensure that they consider specific aspects of science while reading and discussing books. One way for teachers to focus their students' attention on components of the nature of science is through the use of literature circles.

Straits, William

2007-10-01

218

A comparative analysis of animals' understanding of the human pointing gesture.  

PubMed

We review studies demonstrating the ability of some animals to understand the human pointing gesture. We present a 3-step analysis of the topic. (1) We compare and evaluate current experimental methods (2) We compare available experimental results on performance of different species and investigate the interaction of species differences and other independent variables (3) We evaluate how our present understanding of pointing comprehension answers questions about function, evolution and mechanisms. Recently, a number of different hypotheses have been put forward to account for the presence of this ability in some species and for the lack of such comprehension in others. In our view, there is no convincing evidence for the assumption that the competitive lifestyles of apes would inhibit the utilization of this human gesture. Similarly, domestication as a special evolutionary factor in the case of some species falls short in explaining high levels of pointing comprehension in some non-domestic species. We also disagree with the simplistic view of describing the phenomenon as a simple form of conditioning. We suggest that a more systematic comparative research is needed to understand the emerging communicative representational abilities in animals that provide the background for comprehending the human pointing gesture. PMID:16235075

Miklósi, Adam; Soproni, Krisztina

2006-04-01

219

Supervising Evaluation Practicum and Intern Students: A Developmental Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several professional areas, such as counseling and psychotherapy, have found a developmental perspective useful in understanding student professional and training needs. A developmental perspective on supervising evaluation practicum students suggests that students go through developmental stages as they enhance their evaluation skills. A three-stage model adapted from counseling training theory developmental perspective is illustrated for eight developmental tasks: competence, emotional

Robert D Brown

1985-01-01

220

Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans  

SciTech Connect

Large numbers and large quantities of endoncrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, trangenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistent of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans.

Colborn, T. (W. Alton Jones Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC (United States)); vom Saal, F.S. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)); Soto, A.M. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

1993-10-01

221

Developmental Pattern of Perineuronal Nets in the Human Prefrontal Cortex and their Deficit in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are extracellular matrix structures that enwrap many neurons in the brain. They regulate the postnatal experience-dependent maturation of brain circuits and maintain their functional integrity in the mature brain by stabilizing their synaptic architecture. Methods Eighty-six postmortem human brains were included in this study. We used Wisteria Floribunda agglutinin histochemistry to visualize PNNs to investigate whether the densities of PNNs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and primary visual cortex were altered in subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In addition, we quantified the normal postnatal development of PNNs in the human PFC. Results Compared to the normal control subjects, the densities of PNNs were decreased by 70–76% in layers 3 and 5 of the PFC in schizophrenia but not in bipolar disorder. This finding was replicated in a separate group of schizophrenia and normal control subjects. In addition, PNN densities in the primary visual cortex were unaltered in either condition. Finally, the number of PNNs in the PFC increased during postnatal development through the peripubertal period until late adolescence and early adulthood. Conclusions These findings suggest that PNN deficit contributes to PFC dysfunction in schizophrenia. The fact that the timing of PNN development overlaps with the period when schizophrenia symptomatology gradually emerges raises the possibility that aberrant PNN formation may contribute to the onset of illness. Thus, characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying PNN deficit may have important implications for the conceptualization of novel strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, early intervention and prevention of schizophrenia. PMID:23790226

Mauney, Sarah A.; Athanas, Katina M.; Pantazopoulos, Harry; Shaskan, Noel; Passeri, Eleonora; Berretta, Sabina; Woo, Tsung-Ung W.

2013-01-01

222

Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue. PMID:24567733

Popov, Lauren; Kovalski, Joanna; Grandi, Guido; Bagnoli, Fabio; Amieva, Manuel R.

2014-01-01

223

Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue. PMID:24567733

Popov, Lauren; Kovalski, Joanna; Grandi, Guido; Bagnoli, Fabio; Amieva, Manuel R

2014-01-01

224

The Extended Nutrigenomics - Understanding the Interplay between the Genomes of Food, Gut Microbes, and Human Host  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive investigation of nutritional health effects at the molecular level requires the understanding of the interplay between three genomes, the food, the gut microbial, and the human host genome. Food genomes are researched for discovery and exploitation of macro- and micronutrients as well as specific bioactives, with those genes coding for bioactive proteins and peptides being of central interest. The human gut microbiota encompasses a complex ecosystem in the intestine with profound impact on host metabolism. It is being studied at genomic and, more recently, also at proteomic and metabonomic level. Humans are being characterized at the level of genetic pre-disposition and inter-individual variability in terms of (i) response to nutritional interventions and direction of health trajectories; (ii) epigenetic, metabolic programming at certain life stages with health consequences later in life and even for subsequent generations; and (iii) acute genomic expression as a holistic response to diet, monitored at gene transcript, protein and metabolite level. Modern nutrition science explores health-related aspects of bioactive food components, thereby promoting health, preventing, or delaying the onset of disease, optimizing performance and assessing benefits and risks in individuals and subpopulations. Personalized nutrition means adapting food to individual needs, depending on the human host’s life stage, -style, and -situation. Traditionally, nutrigenomics and nutri(epi)genetics are seen as the key sciences to understand human variability in preferences and requirements for diet as well as responses to nutrition. This article puts the three nutrition and health-relevant genomes into perspective, namely the food, the gut microbial and the human host’s genome, and calls for an “extended nutrigenomics” approach in order to build the future tools for personalized nutrition, health maintenance, and disease prevention. We discuss examples of these genomes, proteomes, transcriptomes, and metabolomes under the definition of genomics as the overarching term covering essentially all Omics rather than the sole study of DNA and RNA. PMID:22303317

Kussmann, Martin; Van Bladeren, Peter J.

2011-01-01

225

Developmental dyscalculia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of arithmetic skills in an otherwise-normal child. Although poor teaching, environmental deprivation, and low intelligence have been implicated in the etiology of developmental dyscalculia, current data indicate that this learning disability is a brain-based disorder with a familial-genetic predisposition. The neurologic substrate of developmental dyscalculia is thought to involve both

Ruth S Shalev; Varda Gross-Tsur

2001-01-01

226

Early developmental emergence of human amygdala-prefrontal connectivity after maternal deprivation  

PubMed Central

Under typical conditions, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connections with the amygdala are immature during childhood and become adult-like during adolescence. Rodent models show that maternal deprivation accelerates this development, prompting examination of human amygdala–mPFC phenotypes following maternal deprivation. Previously institutionalized youths, who experienced early maternal deprivation, exhibited atypical amygdala–mPFC connectivity. Specifically, unlike the immature connectivity (positive amygdala–mPFC coupling) of comparison children, children with a history of early adversity evidenced mature connectivity (negative amygdala–mPFC coupling) and thus, resembled the adolescent phenotype. This connectivity pattern was mediated by the hormone cortisol, suggesting that stress-induced modifications of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis shape amygdala–mPFC circuitry. Despite being age-atypical, negative amygdala–mPFC coupling conferred some degree of reduced anxiety, although anxiety was still significantly higher in the previously institutionalized group. These findings suggest that accelerated amygdala–mPFC development is an ontogenetic adaptation in response to early adversity. PMID:24019460

Gee, Dylan G.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel J.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

2013-01-01

227

Developmentally stable chromatin structure in the human. beta. -globin gene cluster  

SciTech Connect

The DNase I-hypersensitive sites in the human embryonic ..beta..-globin gene region have been mapped in erythroid-enriched fractions of disaggregated fetal livers, in adult nucleated red blood cells, and in fetal brain tissue. The analysis of a region extending 11 kilobases (kb) 5' of the epsilion-globin gene reveals many minor nuclease-hypersensitive sites and one major site located 6.1 kb upstream of the epsilon-globin gene. All of these hypersensitive sites are erythroid-specific, and the major site is stable throughout erythroid development. As assayed by nuclear runoff transcription, little or no epsilon-globin gene expression is detectable in fetal or adult erythroid cells. Thus, the presence of the major hypersensitive site 5' of the epsilon-globin gene in both fetal and adult erythroid cells demonstrates that this site is not specifically correlated with transcription of the gene or with a particular stage of development. Rather, this site may reflect an early event in erythroid differentiation. In addition, DNase I has been used to probe the overall sensitivity of epsilon-globin chromatin in fetal erythroid cells. The findings indicate that the epsilon-globin gene as well as the other genes in the ..beta..-globin cluster reside within the chomatin domain that is more DNase I-sensitive than bulk chromatin.

Forrester, W.C.; Thompson, C.; Elder, J.T.; Groudine, M.

1986-03-01

228

METROPOLITAN ATLANTA DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM (MADDSP)  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the problem of developmental disabilities among children, CDC, the former Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, which was funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the Georgia Department of Human Resources, initiate...

229

What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both developmental and neurophysiological research suggest a common coding between perceived and generated actions. This shared representational network is innately wired in humans. We review psycho- logical evidence concerning the imitative behaviour of newborn human infants. We suggest that the mech- anisms involved in infant imitation provide the foundation for understanding that others are ' like me' and underlie the

Andrew N. Meltzoff; Jean Decety

2003-01-01

230

Developmental Disabilities and Child Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph addresses common misconceptions about developmental disabilities, describes the conditions that child welfare workers are most likely to see, provides examples of effective interventions, and stresses the importance of early intervention to promote healthy development. Specific chapters include: (1) "Understanding Developmental

Rycus, Judith S.; Hughes, Ronald C.

231

Developmental psychopathology: Concepts and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defining features of developmental psychopathology concepts include attention to the understanding of causal processes, appreciation of the role of developmental mechanisms, and consideration of continuities and discontinuities between normality and psychopathology. Accomplishments with respect to these issues are reviewed in relation to attachment disorders, antisocial behavior, autism, depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and intellectual development. Major research challenges remain in relation

MICHAEL RUTTER; L. ALAN SROUFE

2000-01-01

232

Published in the Human Behavior Understanding workshop, IROS, October 2012 Recognizing the Visual Focus of Attention for  

E-print Network

modelling in Human-Robot interactions involving multiple persons. In absence of high definition images, wePublished in the Human Behavior Understanding workshop, IROS, October 2012 Recognizing the Visual Focus of Attention for Human Robot Interaction Samira Sheikhi1,2 , Vasil Khalidov1 , and Jean

Odobez, Jean-Marc

233

An essay concerning human understanding: how the cerebri anatome of Thomas Willis influenced John Locke.  

PubMed

Neurosurgeons are familiar with the anatomic investigations of Thomas Willis, but his intellectual legacy actually extends into the arena of philosophy. John Locke was a student of Willis while at Oxford, and this essay explores how some of Willis's anatomic discoveries might have influenced the ideas Locke expressed in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. It also includes historical information about 17th century England and the group of men (including Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle) who worked with Willis and founded the Oxford Experimental Philosophy Club, which became the Royal Society. PMID:16528199

Lega, Bradley C

2006-03-01

234

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions. PMID:17585097

Prescott, Katrina R; Wilkie, Andrew O M

2007-01-01

235

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-08-01

236

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-03-01

237

Male-mediated developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

2014-01-01

238

Male-mediated developmental toxicity  

PubMed Central

Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

2014-01-01

239

The expanding role of mouse genetics for understanding human biology and disease  

PubMed Central

It has taken about 100 years since the mouse first captured our imagination as an intriguing animal for it to become the premier genetic model organism. An expanding repertoire of genetic technology, together with sequencing of the genome and biological conservation, place the mouse at the foremost position as a model to decipher mechanisms underlying biological and disease processes. The combined approaches of embryonic stem cell-based technologies, chemical and insertional mutagenesis have enabled the systematic interrogation of the mouse genome with the aim of creating, for the first time, a library of mutants in which every gene is disrupted. The hope is that phenotyping the mutants will reveal novel and interesting phenotypes that correlate with genes, to define the first functional map of a mammalian genome. This new milestone will have a great impact on our understanding of mammalian biology, and could significantly change the future of medical diagnosis and therapeutic development, where databases can be queried in silico for potential drug targets or underlying genetic causes of illnesses. Emerging innovative genetic strategies, such as somatic genetics, modifier screens and humanized mice, in combination with whole-genome mutagenesis will dramatically broaden the utility of the mouse. More significantly, allowing genome-wide genetic interrogations in the laboratory, will liberate the creativity of individual investigators and transform the mouse as a model for making original discoveries and establishing novel paradigms for understanding human biology and disease. PMID:19048054

Nguyen, Duc; Xu, Tian

2008-01-01

240

The expanding role of mouse genetics for understanding human biology and disease.  

PubMed

It has taken about 100 years since the mouse first captured our imagination as an intriguing animal for it to become the premier genetic model organism. An expanding repertoire of genetic technology, together with sequencing of the genome and biological conservation, place the mouse at the foremost position as a model to decipher mechanisms underlying biological and disease processes. The combined approaches of embryonic stem cell-based technologies, chemical and insertional mutagenesis have enabled the systematic interrogation of the mouse genome with the aim of creating, for the first time, a library of mutants in which every gene is disrupted. The hope is that phenotyping the mutants will reveal novel and interesting phenotypes that correlate with genes, to define the first functional map of a mammalian genome. This new milestone will have a great impact on our understanding of mammalian biology, and could significantly change the future of medical diagnosis and therapeutic development, where databases can be queried in silico for potential drug targets or underlying genetic causes of illnesses. Emerging innovative genetic strategies, such as somatic genetics, modifier screens and humanized mice, in combination with whole-genome mutagenesis will dramatically broaden the utility of the mouse. More significantly, allowing genome-wide genetic interrogations in the laboratory, will liberate the creativity of individual investigators and transform the mouse as a model for making original discoveries and establishing novel paradigms for understanding human biology and disease. PMID:19048054

Nguyen, Duc; Xu, Tian

2008-01-01

241

DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL AND VOCATIONAL INTERESTS (SVIB).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF IMPLEMENTING A VOCATIONAL ROLE IN LATE ADOLESCENCE WERE UNRELATED TO A DEVELOPMENTAL SCALE (DS) FOR COLLEGE FRESHMENT (N=107 MALES). THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS CORRELATED SIGNIFICANTLY WITH SOME JACKSON PERSONALITY RESEARCH FORM NEEDS (PRF)--(1) INTEREST PATTERNING CORRELATED WITH UNDERSTANDING (.31) AND AFFILIATION (-.22),…

SAGE, ELLIS H.

242

The Developmental Origins of Conversion Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attachment theory offers a novel developmental framework for understanding conversion reactions as having phylogenetic roots in two different innate animal defense behaviours: The `freeze response' and `appeasement defense behaviours'. From this perspective, conversion symptoms reflect two distinct, threat-elicited emotional responses, which are primed in context-dependent developmental experiences (pathways) and underpinned by different neurobiological mechanisms. The first of these two developmental

Kasia Kozlowska

2007-01-01

243

A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental psychopathology offers an integrative framework for conceptualizing the course of development during adolescence, with particular relevance for understanding continuity and the emergence of psychopathology during this and subsequent developmental periods. In this article, the utility of a developmental psychopathology perspective for informing the design of research, prevention, and intervention is highlighted. Interdisciplinary, organizational models of development, emphasizing the dynamic

Dante Cicchetti; Fred A. Rogosch

2002-01-01

244

Developmental Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web portal offered through the University of North Texas aims to "promote a sense of identity and connectivity among interested scientists and students active in the burgeoning field of developmental physiology." Users will find a wide array of useful features and services, including developmental physiology news, career and funding information, regularly updated links to related publications, a searchable database of developmental physiology researchers worldwide, op-ed pieces, hundreds of related links, and more. A helpful intra-site search engine has been recently added.

245

Neurology of developmental dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia was until recently considered to belong solely in the domain of educational psychology. With the advent of better theories on language and reading, and better methods for assessing the structure and function of living human brains and for determining genetic transmission, dyslexia is now poised to become a focal concern of cognitive neuroscience, neurology, and genetic research. Still

Albert M. Galaburda

1993-01-01

246

Developmental Immunotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

247

Vitamin D signaling in the bovine immune system: a model for understanding human vitamin D requirements.  

PubMed

The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance. PMID:22666545

Nelson, Corwin D; Reinhardt, Timothy A; Lippolis, John D; Sacco, Randy E; Nonnecke, Brian J

2012-03-01

248

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students…

Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2001-01-01

249

Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

2008-01-01

250

The significance of human–animal relationships as modulators of trauma effects in children: a developmental neurobiological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid, or cortisol leading to an ongoing over?arousal of the anatomic nervous system. Kindling

Jan Yorke

2010-01-01

251

Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease  

PubMed Central

The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing, high-throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterization of oral microbiota and analyzing the changes of the microbiome in the states of health or disease. Deep understanding the knowledge of microbiota will pave the way for more effective prevent dentistry and contribute to the development of personalized dental medicine. PMID:25352835

Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

2014-01-01

252

Understanding melatonin receptor pharmacology: latest insights from mouse models, and their relevance to human disease.  

PubMed

Melatonin, the neuro-hormone synthesized during the night, has recently seen an unexpected extension of its functional implications toward type 2 diabetes development, visual functions, sleep disturbances, and depression. Transgenic mouse models were instrumental for the establishment of the link between melatonin and these major human diseases. Most of the actions of melatonin are mediated by two types of G protein-coupled receptors, named MT1 and MT2 , which are expressed in many different organs and tissues. Understanding the pharmacology and function of mouse MT1 and MT2 receptors, including MT1 /MT2 heteromers, will be of crucial importance to evaluate the relevance of these mouse models for future therapeutic developments. This review will critically discuss these aspects, and give some perspectives including the generation of new mouse models. PMID:24903552

Tosini, Gianluca; Owino, Sharon; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

2014-08-01

253

Advanced simulation technology used to reduce accident rates through a better understanding of human behaviors and human perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human beings and technology have attained a mutually dependent and symbiotic relationship. It is easy to recognize how each depends on the other for survival. It is also easy to see how technology advances due to human activities. However, the role technology plays in advancing humankind is seldom examined. This presentation examines two research areas where the role of advanced visual simulation systems play an integral and essential role in understanding human perception and behavior. The ultimate goal of this research is the betterment of humankind through reduced accident and death rates in transportation environments. The first research area examined involved the estimation of time-to-contact. A high-fidelity wrap-around simulator (RAS) was used to examine people's ability to estimate time-to- contact. The ability of people to estimate the amount of time before an oncoming vehicle will collide with them is a necessary skill for avoiding collisions. A vehicle approached participants at one of three velocities, and while en route to the participant, the vehicle disappeared. The participants' task was to respond when they felt the accuracy of time-to-contact estimates and the practical applications of the result. The second area of research investigates the effects of various visual stimuli on underground transportation tunnel walls for the perception of vehicle speed. A RAS is paramount in creating visual patterns in peripheral vision. Flat-screen or front-screen simulators do not have this ability. Results are discussed in terms of speed perception and the application of these results to real world environments.

Manser, Michael P.; Hancock, Peter A.

1996-06-01

254

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms.  

E-print Network

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms. Alone among the social sciences, Anthropology studies human experience in every media. The openness of the field of anthropology to new ideas, values, attitudes and directions

Seldin, Jonathan P.

255

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms.Alone  

E-print Network

The Department of Anthropology Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible terms.Alone among the social sciences,Anthropology studies human experience in every part of the world, from tiny traditional communities to modern metropoles.The openness of the field of anthropology

Seldin, Jonathan P.

256

Understanding and Evaluating Human Thermal Comfort at Tertiary Level Using a Computer-Based Laboratory Teaching Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase changes in water are experienced in everyday life but students often struggle to understand mechanisms that regulate them. Human thermal comfort is closely related to humidity, evaporative heat loss and heat transfer. The purpose of the present study is to assist students in the evaluation of human thermal comfort. Such a goal is achievable…

Pellegrini, Marco

2014-01-01

257

Cryptosporidium species in humans and animals: current understanding and research needs.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Cryptosporidium is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of moderate to severe diarrhoea in developing countries. With treatment options limited, control relies on knowledge of the biology and transmission of the members of the genus responsible for disease. Currently, 26 species are recognized as valid on the basis of morphological, biological and molecular data. Of the nearly 20 Cryptosporidium species and genotypes that have been reported in humans, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are responsible for the majority of infections. Livestock, particularly cattle, are one of the most important reservoirs of zoonotic infections. Domesticated and wild animals can each be infected with several Cryptosporidium species or genotypes that have only a narrow host range and therefore have no major public health significance. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing techniques will significantly improve our understanding of the taxonomy and transmission of Cryptosporidium species, and the investigation of outbreaks and monitoring of emerging and virulent subtypes. Important research gaps remain including a lack of subtyping tools for many Cryptosporidium species of public and veterinary health importance, and poor understanding of the genetic determinants of host specificity of Cryptosporidium species and impact of climate change on the transmission of Cryptosporidium. PMID:25111501

Ryan, Una; Fayer, Ronald; Xiao, Lihua

2014-11-01

258

Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy  

PubMed Central

The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure and gene content. By extension, such knowledge may help us understand the underlying genetic components involved in the initiation and progression of these cancers. We describe the development of a genome-wide map of human bladder cancer that tracks its progression from in situ precursor conditions to invasive disease. Testing for allelic losses using a genome-wide panel of 787 microsatellite markers was performed on multiple DNA samples, extracted from the entire mucosal surface of the bladder and corresponding to normal urothelium, in situ preneoplastic lesions, and invasive carcinoma. Using this approach, we matched the clonal allelic losses in distinct chromosomal regions to specific phases of bladder neoplasia and produced a detailed genetic map of bladder cancer development. These analyses revealed three major waves of genetic changes associated with growth advantages of successive clones and reflecting a stepwise conversion of normal urothelial cells into cancer cells. The genetic changes map to six regions at 3q22–q24, 5q22–q31, 9q21–q22, 10q26, 13q14, and 17p13, which may represent critical hits driving the development of bladder cancer. Finally, we performed high-resolution mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism markers within one region on chromosome 13q14, containing the model tumor suppressor gene RB1, and defined a minimal deleted region associated with clonal expansion of in situ neoplasia. These analyses provided new insights on the involvement of several non-coding sequences mapping to the region and identified novel target genes, termed forerunner (FR) genes, involved in early phases of cancer development. PMID:18458673

Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sangkyou; Jeong, Joon; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kram, Andrzej; Kim, Mi-Sook; Tuziak, Tomasz; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Lee, Sooyong; Park, Weon-Seo; Tang, Kuang S; Chung, Woonbok; Shen, Lanlan; Ahmed, Saira S; Johnston, Dennis A; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P; Zhou, Jain-Hua; Harris, R Alan; Snyder, Carrie; Filipek, Slawomir; Narod, Steven A; Watson, Patrice; Lynch, Henry T; Gazdar, Adi; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Wu, Xifeng F; McConkey, David J; Baggerly, Keith; Issa, Jean-Pierre; Benedict, William F; Scherer, Steven E; Czerniak, Bogdan

2009-01-01

259

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR in Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, the Learning Sciences, Human Development. The Department of Psychology at Portland State University has a  

E-print Network

; and contributing to service in the department, university and profession. Portland State University values, Human Development. The Department of Psychology at Portland State University has a tenure-track opening specialization, there is a common interest in understanding schools as primary cultural contexts of human

260

Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial

1995-01-01

261

[Morphological factors of productive and persistent developmental cycles of Chlamydia pneumoniae in human coronary and aortic endothelium].  

PubMed

Among 46 patients 39 died of cardial cause and 7--noncardial one. Chlamydia pneumonia (Ch-p) was founded out in aortal endothelium of 26 studied patients. Only 3 patients (11%) had the typical form of inclusions, 23 cases (89% of infected patients) had persistent form of inclusions in aortal endothelium. 7 patients had persistent form of inclusions in coronary epithelium. An acute myocardial infarction was accompanied by Ch-p (9 cases from 11). The productive form of Ch-p developmental cycle was accompanied by three types of inclusions: 1) typical (TI), 2) dystrophic (DI), 3) mixed. The persistent Ch-p developmental cycle was characterized by atypical inclusions (AI) with large reticular bodies, AI with small solitary bodies and mixed inclusions (MI). MI is simultaneous presence of TI and AI in cytoplasm of endothelium. MI could be evidence of Ch-p activation and transition from persistent to productive developmental cycle of infection. The main feature of Ch-p was its reproduction by constriction and budding of inclusions. The damaging effect of persistent Ch-p could be higher than productive form of Ch-p, because of large quantity of inclusion and increase of its membrane area, what crucial for intensive metabolism. PMID:22712301

2012-01-01

262

New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors: a Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors  

PubMed Central

Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt to clarify causation, roles and responsibility as well as to elaborate various preventative and curative countermeasures blending state of the art biomedical, technological advances and psychophysiological training strategies. In-flight related statistics have not been shown significantly changed and a significant number of issues remain not yet resolved. Fine Postural System and its corollary, Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS), both defined in the 1980's, are respectively neurophysiological and medical diagnostic models that reflect central neural sensory-motor and cognitive controls regulatory status. They are successfully used in complex neurotraumatology and related rehabilitation for over two decades. Analysis of clinical data taken over a ten-year period from acute and chronic post-traumatic PDS patients shows a strong correlation between symptoms commonly exhibited before, along side, or even after error, and sensory-motor or PDS related symptoms. Examples are given on how PDS related central sensory-motor control dysfunction can be correctly identified and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system. The data presented provides strong evidence that a specific biomedical assessment methodology can lead to a better understanding of in-flight adaptive neurophysiological, cognitive and perceptual dysfunctional status that could induce in flight-errors. How relevant human factors can be identified and leveraged to maintain optimal performance will be addressed. PMID:19048097

Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

2008-01-01

263

Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.  

PubMed

Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined. PMID:15468538

Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

2004-07-01

264

The Dangerous and the Good? Developmentalism, Progress, and Public Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether developmentalism has been a dangerous way to think about human life. Traces the emergence of different types of developmental discourse, explains the dominance of developmentalism in education, and examines the conjuncture of developmentalism and progressivism in shaping educational discourse since the late 19th century. (SLD)

Baker, Bernadette

1999-01-01

265

Understanding in distributed social-administrative network systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding is crucial for smart man-machine communication and therefore in the future of a well balanced information society. A pragmatic definition is given, valid for machines and humans. The solutions follow the developmental course in the history of philosophy and realize them based on the pattern concept of information science and the intelligent methods of frames, scripts, semantic nets and

Tibor Vamos; Mihaly Heder

2011-01-01

266

Ad cerebrum per scientia: Ira Hirsh, psychoacoustics, and new approaches to understanding the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Research Director of CID, Ira emphasized the importance of combining information from biology with rigorous studies of behavior, such as psychophysics, to better understand how the brain and body accomplish the goals of everyday life. In line with this philosophy, my doctoral dissertation sought to explain brain functional asymmetries (studied with dichotic listening) in terms of the physical dimensions of a library of test sounds designed to represent a speech-music continuum. Results highlighted individual differences plus similarities in terms of patterns of relative ear advantages, suggesting an organizational basis for brain asymmetries depending on physical dimensions of stimulus and gesture with analogs in auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor systems. My subsequent work has employed a number of noninvasive methods (OAEs, EPs, qEEG, PET, MRI) to explore the neurobiological bases of individual differences in general and functional asymmetries in particular. This research has led to (1) the AXS test battery for assessing the neurobiology of human sensory-motor function; (2) the handshaking model of brain function, describing dynamic relations along all three body/brain axes; (3) the four-domain EPIC model of functional asymmetries; and (4) the trimodal brain, a new model of individual differences based on psychoimmunoneuroendocrinology.

Lauter, Judith

2002-05-01

267

Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

2009-06-01

268

Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?  

PubMed

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

2009-06-01

269

TITLE OF ABSTRACT: MECHANISMS UNDERLYING SYNERGISTIC DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO)  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the molecular pathways of synergistic developmental toxicity of PAHs will lead to benefits for human as well as wildlife health. As additive models of toxicity are currently used to estimate the hazard of complex mixtures, implementation of synergistic models wh...

270

IDM Supervision: An Integrated Developmental Model for Supervising Counselors and Therapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding change over time in one's ability to function as a professional is fundamental in the practice of clinical supervision. Drawing on developmental models of human behavior, a model of the development over time of therapy practice is presented. Specific domains of clinical practice and overriding structures that provide markers in…

Stoltenberg, Cal D.; McNeill, Brian; Delworth, Ursula

271

Cognitive developmental robotics as a new paradigm for the design of humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes cognitive developmental roboticsas a new principle for the design of humanoid robots. This principle may provide ways of understanding human beings that go beyond the current level of explanation found in the natural and social sciences. Furthermore, a methodological emphasis on humanoid robots in the design of artificial creatures holds promise because they have many degrees of

Minoru Asada; Karl F. Macdorman; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Yasuo Kuniyoshi

2001-01-01

272

Human chromosome 21 orthologous region on mouse chromosome 17 is a major determinant of Down syndrome-related developmental cognitive deficits.  

PubMed

Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome, DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental cognitive deficits, and the so-called Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) has been proposed as a major determinant of this phenotype. The regions on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) are syntenically conserved on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. DSCR is conserved between the Cbr1 and Fam3b genes on Mmu16. Ts65Dn mice carry three copies of ?100 Hsa21 gene orthologs on Mmu16 and exhibited impairments in the Morris water maze and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Converting the Cbr1-Fam3b region back to two copies in Ts65Dn mice rescued these phenotypes. In this study, we performed similar conversion of the Cbr1-Fam3b region in Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice that is triplicated for all ?115 Hsa21 gene orthologs on Mmu16, which also resulted in the restoration of the wild-type phenotypes in the Morris water maze and hippocampal LTP. However, converting the Cbr1-Fam3b region back to two copies in a complete model, Dp(10)1Yey/+;Dp(16)1Yey/+;Dp(17)1Yey/+, failed to yield the similar phenotypic restorations. But, surprisingly, converting both the Cbr1-Fam3b region and the Hsa21 orthologous region on Mmu17 back to two copies in the complete model did completely restore these phenotypes to the wild-type levels. Our results demonstrated that the Hsa21 orthologous region on Mmu17 is a major determinant of DS-related developmental cognitive deficits. Therefore, the inclusion of the three copies of this Hsa21 orthologous region in mouse models is necessary for unraveling the mechanism underlying DS-associated developmental cognitive deficits and for developing effective interventions for this clinical manifestation. PMID:24041763

Zhang, Li; Meng, Kai; Jiang, Xiaoling; Liu, Chunhong; Pao, Annie; Belichenko, Pavel V; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Josselyn, Sheena; Liang, Ping; Ye, Ping; Mobley, William C; Yu, Y Eugene

2014-02-01

273

Reinforcement Learning with Human Teachers: Understanding How People Want to Teach Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

While reinforcement learning (RL) is not traditionally designed for interactive supervisory input from a human teacher, several works in both robot and software agents have adapted it for human input by letting a human trainer control the reward signal. In this work, we experimentally examine the assumption underlying these works, namely that the human-given reward is compatible with the traditional

Andrea L. Thomaz; Guy Hoffman; Cynthia Breazeal

2006-01-01

274

Developmental toxicology: status of the field and contribution of the National Toxicology Program.  

PubMed Central

The NTP has conducted developmental toxicity studies on more than 50 chemicals, often in multiple species. Several chemicals caused developmental toxicity in the absence of any toxicity to the mother. Although hazard to humans is determined by the level of exposure to the chemical and its inherent toxicity, those agents that selectively disturb the development of the conceptus are of particular concern because other manifestations of toxicity would not warn the mother of overexposure. Whether the LOAEL (lowest-observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity was high or low did not correlate with the potential of chemicals to cause developmental toxicity. The form of developmental toxicity that determined the LOAEL most frequently was decreased body weight in mice and rats, but not rabbits, where the LOAEL was determined more often by an increase in resorptions. Several in vitro and short-term tests appear promising as screens to predict the outcome of developmental toxicity studies in mammals. However, the only screens that have undergone formal validation studies are those evaluated by the NTP. Improvements in our ability to predict risk to humans have been limited by our knowledge of the mechanisms by which agents cause developmental toxicity. Thus, future growth is dependent on a better understanding of the biological processes that regulate normal development, therein providing the necessary framework for understanding mechanisms of abnormal development. PMID:8354175

Schwetz, B A; Harris, M W

1993-01-01

275

Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

SciTech Connect

Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen] [University of Copenhagen

2012-03-21

276

Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge materials from uncertain experimental data  

E-print Network

Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge and imprecise information. Ã? 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Helicopter rotors are more susceptible to icing than fixed-wing vehicles. Rotors impact more super-cooled water particles per sec- ond

Granada, Universidad de

277

Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

ScienceCinema

Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen

2013-01-15

278

Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies  

PubMed Central

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. PMID:22957800

Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

2012-01-01

279

An eye-tracking investigation of developmental changes in infants' exploration of upright and inverted human faces  

PubMed Central

We used eye-tracking to examine 4.5- to 12.5-month-old infants’ (N = 92) eye-movements during 3-s presentations of upright and inverted faces. Scanning of inverted faces was statistically indistinguishable at 4.5, 6.5, 8, and 12.5 months of age; at each of these ages infants disproportionately scanned the region containing the eyes. Scanning of upright faces changed over this age range. When viewing upright faces, 4.5-month-old and 6.5-month-old infants focused disproportionately on the region containing the eyes, whereas 12.5-month-old and 8-month-old infants distributed looking more broadly, scanning more of the internal area of the faces. These results are consistent with other observed developmental differences in face processing, and provide insight into how moment-to-moment face processing changes during infancy. PMID:23525142

Oakes, Lisa M.; Ellis, Ann E.

2011-01-01

280

Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

Moore, J.A.

1995-03-01

281

A biopsychosocial perspective on parenting and developmental psychopathology.  

PubMed

Although considerable research has examined the relations between parental behavior and a range of child developmental outcomes, much of this work has been conducted at a very broad level of behavioral analysis. A developmental psychopathology framework and recent research conducted within this framework point to the need for models of parenting and child psychopathology that offer greater specificity regarding processes that may be implicated in the effects of these relationships. In addition, recent animal work and some human work has focused more on the proximal biological and social mechanisms through which parenting affects child outcomes. Our conceptualization of parenting effects acknowledges that family and child factors are embedded in a dynamic biological and social context that is key to understanding developmental trajectories of child adjustment. In this paper, we review two areas of research that are illuminating the biological processes underlying links between parenting and child psychopathology: molecular genetics and psychophysiology. We adopt a biopsychosocial perspective on developmental psychopathology that implies that a set of hierarchically organized, but reciprocally interacting, processes, from the genetic to the environmental, provide the essential elements of both normative and nonnormative development (Gottlieb, 2007). New directions stimulated by this general approach are discussed, with an emphasis on the contextual and developmental issues and applications implied by such a perspective. PMID:24342847

Calkins, Susan D; Propper, Cathi; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

2013-11-01

282

Understanding our genetic inheritance: The US Human Genome Project, The first five years FY 1991--1995  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the 21st century and will by of immense benefit to the field of medicine. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than 4000 genetic diseases that affect mankind, as well as the many multifactorial diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role. A centrally coordinated project focused on specific objectives is believed to be the most efficient and least expensive way of obtaining this information. The basic data produced will be collected in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible on convenient form to all who need it. This report describes the plans for the U.S. human genome project and updates those originally prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National Research Council (NRC) in 1988. In the intervening two years, improvements in technology for almost every aspect of genomics research have taken place. As a result, more specific goals can now be set for the project.

none,

1990-04-01

283

Advanced simulation technology used to reduce accident rates through a better understanding of human behaviors and human perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings and technology have attained a mutually dependent and symbiotic relationship. It is easy to recognize how each depends on the other for survival. It is also easy to see how technology advances due to human activities. However, the role technology plays in advancing humankind is seldom examined. This presentation examines two research areas where the role of advanced

Michael P. Manser; Peter A. Hancock

1996-01-01

284

Developmental Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since their inception over forty years ago, L-systems have proven to be a useful conceptual and programming framework for modeling the development of plants at different levels of abstraction and different spatial scales. Formally, L-systems offer a means of defining cell complexes with changing topology and geometry. Associated with these complexes are self-configuring systems of equations that represent functional aspects of the models. The close coupling of topology, geometry and computation constitutes a computing paradigm inspired by nature, termed developmental computing. We analyze distinctive features of this paradigm within and outside the realm of biological models.

Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

285

Mitigating Human-Black Bear Conflicts by Understanding Spatial Patterns and Associated Site  

E-print Network

-carnivore conflict in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. Key words: conflict, scale, black bear, Ursus americanus, carnivore conservation, generalized least squares, resource utilization function, spatial

286

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework  

PubMed Central

This article examines the utility of a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of substance use among young people. It provides operational definitions of “youth” and “substances,” a review of current international and national efforts to address substance use among youths, and an introduction to human rights and the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful substance use is introduced and contemporary international and national responses are discussed. When governments uphold their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, vulnerability to harmful substance use and its consequences can be reduced. PMID:11726374

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

287

Evolutionary conservation of the oocyte transcriptome among vertebrates and its implications for understanding human reproductive function.  

PubMed

Cross-phylum and cross-species comparative transcriptomic analyses provide an evolutionary perspective on how specific tissues use genomic information. A significant mRNA subset present in the oocytes of most vertebrates is stabilized or stored for post-LH surge use. Since transcription is arrested in the oocyte before ovulation, this RNA is important for completing maturation and sustaining embryo development until zygotic genome activation. We compared the human oocyte transcriptome with an oocyte-enriched subset of mouse, bovine and frog (Xenopus laevis) genes in order to evaluate similarities between species. Graded temperature stringency hybridization on a multi-species oocyte cDNA array was used to measure the similarity of preferentially expressed sequences to the human oocyte library. Identity analysis of 679 human orthologs compared with each identified official gene symbol found in the subtractive (somatic-oocyte) libraries comprising our array revealed that bovine/human similarity was greater than mouse/human or frog/human similarity. However, based on protein sequence, mouse/human similarity was greater than bovine/human similarity. Among the genes over-expressed in oocytes relative to somatic tissue in Xenopus, Mus and Bos, a high level of conservation was found relative to humans, especially for genes involved in early embryonic development. PMID:23340479

Sylvestre, Eve-Lyne; Robert, Claude; Pennetier, Sophie; Labrecque, Rémi; Gilbert, Isabelle; Dufort, Isabelle; Léveillé, Marie-Claude; Sirard, Marc-André

2013-06-01

288

Towards an understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens of PCBs using CoZMoMAN.  

PubMed

Different factors affect how organic contaminants released into the environment over time distribute and accumulate, enter various food-chains, and potentially cause toxic effects in wildlife and humans. A sound chemical risk assessment thus requires the determination of the quantitative relationship between emissions and human exposure. This study aimed to assess the extent of the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the western part of the Baltic Sea drainage basin and to identify any remaining knowledge gaps. An integrated, non-steady state model calculating human body burden from environmental emissions (CoZMoMAN) was created by linking the multi-compartment environmental fate model CoZMo-POP 2 with the human food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN. CoZMoMAN predicted concentrations of seven PCB congeners in 11 key model compartments to typically within a factor of 2 to 4 of measured values, although larger discrepancies are noted for soils and humans. We conclude that whereas the most important processes which link emissions of PCBs to human body burdens are quite well understood in this region, some critical knowledge gaps related to the time trend of historical emissions remain to be addressed. PMID:19913301

Breivik, Knut; Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S; Wania, Frank

2010-01-01

289

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. ...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and developmental services....

2011-10-01

290

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. ...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and developmental services....

2013-10-01

291

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. ...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child health and developmental services....

2012-10-01

292

Interactivity in human–computer interaction: a study of credibility, understanding, and influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in computer technology have allowed the development of human-appearing and -behaving virtual agents. This study examined if increased richness and anthropomorphism in interface design lead to computers being more influential during a decision-making task with a human partner. In addition, user experiences of the communication format, communication process, and the task partner were evaluated for their association with various

J. K. Burgoon; J. A. Bonito; B. Bengtsson; C. Cederberg; M. Lundeberg; L. Allspach

2000-01-01

293

Understanding the development of human bladder cancer by using a whole-organ genomic mapping strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for the genomic sequences involved in human cancers can be greatly facilitated by maps of genomic imbalances identifying the involved chromosomal regions, particularly those that participate in the development of occult preneoplastic conditions that progress to clinically aggressive invasive cancer. The integration of such regions with human genome sequence variation may provide valuable clues about their overall structure

Tadeusz Majewski; Sangkyou Lee; Joon Jeong; Dong-Sup Yoon; Andrzej Kram; Mi-Sook Kim; Tomasz Tuziak; Jolanta Bondaruk; Sooyong Lee; Weon-Seo Park; Kuang S Tang; Woonbok Chung; Lanlan Shen; Saira S Ahmed; Dennis A Johnston; H Barton Grossman; Colin P Dinney; Jain-Hua Zhou; R Alan Harris; Carrie Snyder; Slawomir Filipek; Steven A Narod; Patrice Watson; Henry T Lynch; Adi Gazdar; Menashe Bar-Eli; Xifeng F Wu; David J McConkey; Keith Baggerly; Jean-Pierre Issa; William F Benedict; Steven E Scherer; Bogdan Czerniak

2008-01-01

294

A new approach to understanding the impact of circadian disruption on human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Light and dark patterns are the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour solar day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with a variety of maladies. Ecological studies of human exposures to light are virtually nonexistent, however, making it difficult to determine if, in fact, light-induced circadian disruption directly affects human health. METHODS: A newly developed field

Mark S Rea; Andrew Bierman; Mariana G Figueiro; John D Bullough

2008-01-01

295

Toward an understanding of the differences in the responses of humans and other animals to density  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. L. Freedman claimed (a) that there is little basis for believing that high density generally has harmful effects on humans and other animals and (b) that it is not necessary to postulate different mechanisms that mediate the responses of humans and of other animals to density (the continuity position). These interpretations are challenged on the basis of a more

Reuben M. Baron; Stephen P. Needel

1980-01-01

296

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful…

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

297

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of the literature in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as it may apply specifically to educational environments. The origin of HCI and its relation- ship to other areas of study such as human factors, usability, and computer interface design are examined. Additionally, the notion of computers as a medium was investigated in or-

GARY A. BERG

2000-01-01

298

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

Berg, Gary A.

2000-01-01

299

How has the study of the human placenta aided our understanding of partially methylated genes?  

PubMed Central

While the human genome sequence is relatively uniform between the cells of an individual, the DNA methylation of the genome (methylome) has unique features in different cells, tissues and stages of development. Recent genome-wide sequencing of the methylome has revealed large partially methylated domains (PMDs) in the human placenta. Unlike CpG islands and Polycomb-regulated regions, which can also have low levels of methylation, placental PMDs cover approximately 37% of the human genome and are associated with inaccessible chromatin and the repression of tissue-specific genes. Here, we summarize the interesting biological questions that have arisen as a result of finding PMDs in the human placenta, including how PMDs form, what they do, how they evolved and how they might be relevant to human disease. PMID:24283879

Schroeder, Diane I; LaSalle, Janine M

2014-01-01

300

Understanding the Link between Urban Activity Destinations and Human Travel Pattern  

E-print Network

In the urban transportation field, planners and engineers have explored the relationship between urban destinations and travel behavior for more than half a century. However, we still have only a preliminary understanding ...

Jiang, Shan

301

Global Developmental Gene Expression and Pathway Analysis of Normal Brain Development and Mouse Models of Human Neuronal Migration Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted

Tiziano Pramparo; Ondrej Libiger; Sonia Jain; Hong Li; Yong Ha Youn; Shinji Hirotsune; Nicholas J. Schork; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris

2011-01-01

302

BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to aquatic species. PMID:21951712

McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

2011-01-01

303

The `Juggling Act' of Entrepreneurship: developmental  

E-print Network

), this paper draws on theories of adult development to build a richer understanding of how entrepreneurs evolveThe `Juggling Act' of Entrepreneurship: developmental entrepreneurial learning and the concept `juggling act' of entrepreneurship: Developmental entrepreneurial learning and the concept of focal

Mottram, Nigel

304

Developmentally Appropriate Gardening for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the recent interest in gardening with young children has resulted in a variety of programs but little support to teachers or horticulturists on how to understand the developmental needs of children and how to adapt gardening activities to those needs, this paper presents principles and goals of developmentally appropriate gardening.…

Stoecklin, Vicki L.

305

C2H2-171: a novel human cDNA representing a developmentally regulated POZ domain/zinc finger protein preferentially expressed in brain.  

PubMed

We describe a novel human zinc finger cNDA. C2H2-171. This cDNA represents an mRNA which encodes a protein of 484 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 54 kD. Four zinc finger-like domains are found in the C-terminal end of the protein. At the N-terminus, C2H2-171 contains a POZ/tramtrack-like domain similar to that found in the tumor associated zinc finger proteins LAZ-3/BCL-6 and PLZ-F, as well as in non-zinc finger proteins. C2H2-171 RNA is preferentially expressed in the brain, and increases during the course of murine development, with maximal expression in the adult. C2H2-171 RNA is differentially expressed in brain regions, with the highest level of expression in the cerebellum. C2H2-171 RNA was expressed at high levels in primary cerebellar granule cell neurons compared to astrocytes. The gene encoding C2H2-171 is highly conserved in vertebrates, and maps to the terminus of human chromosome 1 (1q44-ter). This chromosomal location is associated with a number of cytogenetic aberrations including those involving brain developmental anomalies and tumorigenesis. These data suggest that C2H2-171 may play an important role in vertebrate brain development and function. PMID:9568537

Becker, K G; Lee, I J; Nagle, J W; Canning, R D; Gado, A M; Torres, R; Polymeropoulos, M H; Massa, P T; Biddison, W E; Drew, P D

1997-11-01

306

Understanding human-space suit interaction to prevent injury during extravehicular activity  

E-print Network

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a critical component of human spaceflight. Working in gas-pressurized space suits, however, causes fatigue, unnecessary energy expenditure, and injury. The problem of injury is particularly ...

Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

2014-01-01

307

The application of ecological theory towards an understanding of the human microbiome  

PubMed Central

The human microbial ecosystem plays a diversity of roles in human health and disease. Each individual can be viewed as an island-like “patch” of habitat occupied by microbial assemblages formed by the fundamental processes of community ecology, i.e., dispersal, local diversification, environmental selection, and ecological drift. In this review, we consider how community assembly theory, and as an example, metacommunity theory, could be used to help explain the dynamics of the human microbiome, and in particular, compositional variability within and between hosts. We explore three core scenarios of human microbiome assembly: development in infants, representing assembly in previously unoccupied habitat; recovery from antibiotics, representing assembly after disturbance; and invasion by pathogens, representing assembly in the context of invasive species. Judicious application of ecological theory may lead to improved strategies for maintaining and restoring the microbiota, and the crucial health-associated ecosystem services that it provides. PMID:22674335

Costello, Elizabeth K.; Stagaman, Keaton; Dethlefsen, Les; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Relman, David A.

2014-01-01

308

Interbeing and Mindfulness: A Bridge to Understanding Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains and compares Thich Naht Hanh's concept of interbeing and mindfulness and Jean Watson's theory of human caring. Describes the application of mindful practices to holistic nursing and nursing education. (Contains 12 references.) (SK)

Sitzman, Kathleen L.

2002-01-01

309

Understanding human mobility patterns through mobile phone records : a cross-cultural study  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present a cross-cultural study on human's trip length distribution and how it might be influenced by regional socio-economic factors, such as population density, income and unemployment rate. Mobile phone ...

Ji, Yan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

310

Structured Like A Monster: Understanding Human Difference Through A Legal Category  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will argue that the legal idea of the monster offers to inform contemporary thinking in relation to outsiders.\\u000a Drawing on the work of Foucault it will be contended that the process, whereby at least some human beings are positioned as\\u000a outsiders, is structured like a monster. That is to say, at least some constructions or representations of human

Andrew N. Sharpe

2007-01-01

311

A human factors approach to understanding patient safety during pediatric cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric cardiac surgery–a highly complex, low-error-tolerant field with patients who are normally sick and require complex corrections at a very early age–has long recognized the need to study human factors and their relationship to medical outcomes. The current study uses a multidisciplinary pediatric cardiac team at a high-volume institution (>300 cases per year) to study patient safety practices using human

Cynthia Galvan; Emile A. Bacha; Julie Mohr; Paul Barach

2005-01-01

312

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Formaldehyde: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Formaldehyde, the recently classified carcinogen and ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has long been suspected of causing adverse reproductive and developmental effects, but previous reviews were inconclusive, due in part, to limitations in the design of many of the human population studies. In the current review, we systematically evaluated evidence of an association between formaldehyde exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in human populations and in vivo animal studies, in the peer-reviewed literature. The mostly retrospective human studies provided evidence of an association of maternal exposure with adverse reproductive and developmental effects. Further assessment of this association by meta-analysis revealed an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (1.76, 95% CI 1.20–2.59, p=0.002) and of all adverse pregnancy outcomes combined (1.54, 95% CI 1.27–1.88, p<0.001), in formaldehyde-exposed women, although differential recall, selection bias, or confounding cannot be ruled out. Evaluation of the animal studies including all routes of exposure, doses and dosing regimens studied, suggested positive associations between formaldehyde exposure and reproductive toxicity, mostly in males. Potential mechanisms underlying formaldehyde-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities, including chromosome and DNA damage (genotoxicity), oxidative stress, altered level and/or function of enzymes, hormones and proteins, apoptosis, toxicogenomic and epigenomic effects (such as DNA methylation), were identified. To clarify these associations, well-designed molecular epidemiologic studies, that include quantitative exposure assessment and diminish confounding factors, should examine both reproductive and developmental outcomes associated with exposure in males and females. Together with mechanistic and animal studies, this will allow us to better understand the systemic effect of formaldehyde exposure. PMID:21787879

Duong, Anh; Steinmaus, Craig; McHale, Cliona M.; Vaughan, Charles P.; Zhang, Luoping

2011-01-01

313

Man Bites Mosquito: Understanding the Contribution of Human Movement to Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics  

PubMed Central

In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it. PMID:19707544

Adams, Ben; Kapan, Durrell D.

2009-01-01

314

A Developmental Robot Vision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a robot vision system that is able to develop its vision gradually in its environment, from motion detection, to analysis of static features of objects, to object individuation, to identifying object unity, to tracking objects and finally to understanding some fundamental object relations. Through a developmental approach, our robot vision system is adaptive to environmental changes and

Xing Zhang; M. H. Lee

2006-01-01

315

DEHP, bis(2)-ethylhexyl phthalate, alters gene expression in human cells: possible correlation with initiation of fetal developmental abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is a widely distributed phthalate, to which humans are exposed to due to its variety of commercial and manufacturing uses. As a plasticiser, it is found in a wide number of products, and metabolites of DEHP have been detected in urine samples from a high percentage ofthe peoplescreened for phthalates. We utilised DNA microarray analysis to evaluate DEHP

R Hokanson; W Hanneman; M Hennessey; K C Donnelly; T McDonald; R Chowdhary; D L Busbee

2006-01-01

316

HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1984, the U.S. EPA published proposed Guidelines for the Health Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. The assessment of data from studies on developmental effects of chemical exposure and the estimation of risk for humans is a difficult process. Although structure/act...

317

Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent Food and Drug Administration legislation enables the mandating of product performance standards for cigarette smoke and the evaluation of manufacturers’ health claims for modified tobacco products. Laboratory studies used for these evaluations, and also to understand tobacco smoke toxicology, use machines to generate smoke. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate methods to assess human smoking behavior and replicate this in the laboratory. Methods Smoking behavior and smoking machine studies were identified using PubMed and publically available databases for internal tobacco company documents. Results The smoking machine was developed to generate smoke to allow for comparing cigarette tar and nicotine yields. The intent was to infer relative human disease risk, but this concept was flawed because humans tailor their smoking to the product and chemical yields and toxicological effects change with different smoking profiles. While smoking machines also allow for mechanistic assessments of smoking-related diseases, the interpretations also are limited. However, available methods to assess how humans puff could be used to provide better laboratory assessments, but these need to be validated. Separately, the contribution of smoke mouth-holding and inhalation to dose need to be assessed, because these parts of smoking are not captured by the smoking machine. Better comparisons of cigarettes might be done by tailoring human puff profiles to the product based on human studies and comparing results across regimens. Conclusions There are major research gaps that limit the use of smoking machine studies for informing tobacco control regulation and mechanistic studies. PMID:19959678

Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard J.; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

2009-01-01

318

TOWARD UNDERSTANDING HOMOSEXUALITY: AN AGENDA FOR ADULT CHRISTIAN EDUCATION'S CONTRIBUTION TO HUMAN WHOLENESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One task facing adult religious education is to become more intentional in understanding homosexuality and homosexual persons, to the end that these persons might find religious groups to be more open and accepting and that religious persons of good will might become more articulate allies of homosexual persons in the larger society. The paper proposes a curricular design built upon

J. Cy Rowell

1996-01-01

319

That which surpasses all understanding Mathematical insights on the limitations of human thought  

E-print Network

utter it: the eye is not satisfied with seeing, nor the ear filled with hearing. Ecclesiastes 1:4-8 I central role in God's plan, but neither dwells much on the inadequacy of understanding that inspired the feeling in the first place. The Moses story does contain some interesting references to it, such as God

Nielsen, Mark J.

320

An overview of leber congenital amaurosis: a model to understand human retinal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leber congenital amaurosis is a congenital retinal dystrophy described almost 150 years ago. Today, Leber congenital amaurosis is proving instrumental in our understanding of the molecular events that determine normal and aberrant retinal development. Six genes have been shown to be mutated in Leber congenital amaurosis, and they participate in a wide variety of retinal pathways: retinoid metabolism (RPE65), phototransduction

Robert K Koenekoop

2004-01-01

321

Transcending the individual human mind—creating shared understanding through collaborative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex design problems require more knowledge than any single person possesses because the knowledge relevant to a problem is usually distributed among stakeholders. Bringing different and often controversial points of view together to create a shared understanding among these stakeholders can lead to new insights, new ideas, and new artifacts. New media that allow owners of problems to contribute to

Ernesto Arias; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer; Andrew Gorman; Eric Scharff

2000-01-01

322

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor\\/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely, that mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and

Gregory Hickok

2008-01-01

323

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor\\/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely, that mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and

Gregory Hickok

2009-01-01

324

Reproductive and developmental hazards and employment policies.  

PubMed Central

The task of informing workers of hazards in the workplace is seldom more difficult than with the subject of reproductive and developmental hazards. Occupational health staff and physicians are faced with a paucity of relevant medical information. Workers, kept aware of the thalidomide spectre with every media report of the latest descriptive epidemiology study, are anxious to know more. Employers, knowing that few agents are regulated on the basis of reproductive hazards, are encouraged to lessen workplace exposure to all agents but need guidance from government and scientists in setting priorities. Understandable ethical and scientific limitations on human studies require researchers to study animals and cells. The difficulties of extrapolating the results of this research to humans are well known. The scientific, medical, and workplace difficulties in dealing with reproductive and developmental hazards are mirrored in the regulatory positions found in North America. Some regard fetal protection policies as sex discrimination whereas others consider such policies as reasonable. Guidelines are provided to allow employers and medical practitioners to consider this difficult problem. PMID:1536824

Johnston, J D; Jamieson, G G; Wright, S

1992-01-01

325

A Developmental Perspective on Underage Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

Underage alcohol use can be viewed as a developmental phenomenon because many kinds of developmental changes and expectations appear to influence this behavior and also because it has consequences for development. Data on alcohol use, abuse, and dependence show clear age-related patterns. Moreover, many of the effects that alcohol use has on the drinker, in both the short and long term, depend on the developmental timing of alcohol use or exposure. Finally, many developmental connections have been observed in the risk and protective factors that predict the likelihood of problem alcohol use in young people. Therefore, efforts to understand and address underage drinking would benefit from a developmental perspective, and the general principles of developmental psychopathology offer a useful conceptual framework for research and prevention concerned with underage drinking. PMID:23104443

Masten, Ann S.; Faden, Vivian B.; Zucker, Robert A.; Spear, Linda P.

2009-01-01

326

The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing students to take informed positions on complex problems through critical evaluation is a primary goal of university education. Socioscientific issues (SSI) have been established as effective contexts for students to develop this competency, as well as reasoning skills and content knowledge. This mixed-methods study investigates the effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program focused on the development of evidence-based reasoning to form personal commitments on SSI. Specifically, the study investigates how human biology majors differ from traditional biology majors in their reasoning with SSI, their perceptions of experiences with SSI, their understanding of scientific inquiry, their levels and perceptions of science content knowledge, and their general program perceptions. These outcomes were assessed through open-ended questionnaires on SSI and scientific inquiry and a basic biology concept test administered to 95 participants representing both programs and 16 semi-structured student interviews. Although the two groups did not differ significantly in their decisions or factors influencing their decisions in SSI, human biology majors showed higher levels of socioscientific reasoning, suggesting that learning contextualized in SSI helped them understand and reason with similar issues. While biology majors reported few experiences with socioscientific reasoning, human biology majors felt well equipped to reason with SSI and more likely to consider alternative perspectives in their decision making. Human biology majors also were more likely to view social science research as a form of inquiry and less likely to view scientific inquiry as purely experimental. No difference was found between groups in basic biology content knowledge, although human biology majors felt they were exposed to less detailed biology content. This exploratory study illustrates a novel approach to interdisciplinary, SSI-based science education at the college level.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.

327

Students' Participation in an Interdisciplinary, Socioscientific Issues Based Undergraduate Human Biology Major and Their Understanding of Scientific Inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine whether Socioscientific Issues (SSI) based learning environments affect university students' epistemological understanding of scientific inquiry differently from traditional science educational contexts. We identify and compare conceptions of scientific inquiry of students participating in an interdisciplinary, SSI-focused undergraduate human biology major (SSI) and those participating in a traditional biology major (BIO). Forty-five SSI students and 50 BIO students completed an open-ended questionnaire examining their understanding of scientific inquiry. Eight general themes including approximately 60 subthemes emerged from questionnaire responses, and the numbers of students including each subtheme in their responses were statistically compared between groups. A subset of students participated in interviews, which were used to validate and triangulate questionnaire data and probe students' understanding of scientific inquiry in relation to their majors. We found that both groups provided very similar responses, differing significantly in only five subthemes. Results indicated that both groups held generally adequate understandings of inquiry, but also a number of misconceptions. Small differences between groups supported by both questionnaires and interviews suggest that the SSI context contributed to nuanced understandings, such as a more interdisciplinary and problem-centered conception of scientific inquiry. Implications for teaching and research are discussed.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Sherwood, Robert D.; Schlegel, Whitney M.

2013-06-01

328

Dental needs of persons with developmental disabilities in orange county  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because developmentally disabled individuals, in general, have poorer dental health than other populations and because developmentally disabled individuals face more situations which contribute to dental pathology, it is important to understand their special dental needs. A dental program developed for persons with developmental disabilities in rural Northern California has proven to be modestly successful to date. The present study was

Walter E. Clevenger; Tim Wigal; Nick Salvati; Rhys Burchill; Francis M. Crinella

1993-01-01

329

Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

2009-01-01

330

What molars contribute to an emerging understanding of lateral enamel formation in Neandertals vs. modern humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hypotheses, based on previous work on Neandertal anterior and premolar teeth, are investigated here: (1) that estimated molar lateral enamel formation times in Neandertals are likely to fall within the range of modern human population variation, and (2) that perikymata (lateral enamel growth increments) are distributed across cervical and occlusal halves of the crown differently in Neandertals than they

Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg; Donald J. Reid

2008-01-01

331

Understanding the Dorsal and Ventral Systems of the Human Cerebral Cortex: Beyond Dichotomies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, characterizations of the macrolevel functional organization of the human cerebral cortex have focused on the left and right cerebral hemispheres. However, the idea of left brain versus right brain functions has been shown to be an oversimplification. We argue here that a top-bottom divide, rather than a left-right divide, is a more…

Borst, Gregoire; Thompson, William L.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2011-01-01

332

Robots at home: Understanding long-term human-robot interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-robot interaction (HRI) is now well enough understood to allow us to build useful systems that can function outside of the laboratory. We are studying long- term interaction in natural user environments and describe the implementation of a robot designed to help individuals effect behavior change while dieting. Our robotic weight loss coach is compared to a standalone computer and

Cory D. Kidd; Cynthia Breazeal

2008-01-01

333

New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors - A Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%.1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt

Andrew P. Blaber

334

Students' Understanding of Connections between Human Engineered and Natural Environmental Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research draws on developments in educational research where "learning progressions" are emerging as a strategy for synthesizing research on science learning and applying that research to policy and practice, and advances in the natural sciences, where "interdisciplinary research on coupled human and natural systems" has become increasingly…

Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Anderson, Charles W.

2010-01-01

335

Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

Rennie, Scott

2008-01-01

336

Coevolutionary networks: a novel approach to understanding the relationships of humans with the infectious agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human organism is interpenetrated by the world of microorganisms, from the conception until the death. This interpenetration involves different levels of interactions between the partners including trophic exchanges, bi-directional cell signaling and gene activation, besides genetic and epigenetic phenom- ena, and tends towards mutual adaptation and coevolution. Since these processes are critical for the survival of individuals and species, they

Carlos Eduardo Tosta

2001-01-01

337

Robust Speech Understanding for Multi-Modal Human-Robot Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to model complex human robot interaction researchers not only have to consider different tasks but also to handle the complex interplay of different modules of one single robot system. In our context we constructed a robot assistant integrated in a home or office environment. We allow for a fairly natural communication style, which means that the users communicate

Sonja Huwel; Britta Wrede; Gerhard Sagerer

2006-01-01

338

Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

Lee, Yeung Chung

2011-01-01

339

Understanding the role of representations of human-leopard conflict in Mumbai through media-content analysis.  

PubMed

Attempts to minimize the effects of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) on conservation goals require an understanding of the mechanisms by which such conflicts are caused and sustained. This necessitates looking beyond the natural sciences to the human dimensions of wildlife management. Public dissemination of information regarding HWC occurs largely through the mass media. We conducted a content analysis of print media articles on human-leopard conflict in Mumbai, India. We sought to understand the framing of HWC and the changes in media coverage over a 10-year period (2001-2011) during which a large number of attacks on people prior to 2005 were followed by a program of trapping and relocation. After 2005, when there was a decrease in the level of conflict, the tone of English-language media reports changed. The perpetrator framing was over 5 times more likely before 2005, whereas a neutral framing was twice as likely after 2005. English-language and non-English-language print media differed significantly in their framing of HWC and in the kinds of solutions advocated. Our results also suggest the print mass media in Mumbai could be an influential conduit for content that diminishes HWC. These media outlets seem attentive to human-leopard conflict, capable of correcting erroneous perceptions and facilitating mitigation and effective management. We believe better contact and mutual understanding between conservation professionals and the mass media could be an important component of managing HWC. We further suggest that in such interactions conservation professionals need to be aware of cultural and linguistic differences in reporting within the country. PMID:23530914

Bhatia, Saloni; Athreya, Vidya; Grenyer, Richard; MacDonald, David W

2013-06-01

340

Understanding Causal Relationships in the Metabolic Syndrome: Recent Insights from Extreme Human Phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Insulin resistance is often associated with metabolic dyslipidaemia, fatty liver, hypertension and a number of other metabolic\\u000a disorders clustered under the name “metabolic syndrome.” The associations are robust but our understanding of how they are\\u000a linked at a molecular level remains incomplete. Patients with monogenic defects in insulin action provide unique opportunities\\u000a to dissect out the molecular pathways underpinning these

David B. Savage

341

Understanding and Augmenting Human Morality: An Introduction to the ACTWith Model of Conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent developments, both in the cognitive sciences and in world events, bring special emphasis to the study of morality.\\u000a The cognitive sciences, spanning neurology, psychology, and computational intelligence, offer substantial advances in understanding\\u000a the origins and purposes of morality. Meanwhile, world events urge the timely synthesis of these insights with traditional\\u000a accounts that can be easily assimilated and practically employed

Jeffrey White

342

The Role of Intuitive Ontologies in Scientific Understanding – the Case of Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological evidence suggests that laypeople understand the world around them in terms of intuitive ontologies which describe\\u000a broad categories of objects in the world, such as ‘person’, ‘artefact’ and ‘animal’. However, because intuitive ontologies\\u000a are the result of natural selection, they only need to be adaptive; this does not guarantee that the knowledge they provide\\u000a is a genuine reflection of

Helen De Cruz; Johan De Smedt

2007-01-01

343

Developmental Disabilities Act of 1984. Report from the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, 98th Congress, 2d Session, to Accompany S. 2573.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet presents the text of the Developmental Disabilities Act of 1984, which retains most provisions of, amends some provisions of, and reorganizes the parts of, the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. Following brief background information, a section-by-section summary of the Act's revisions is offered. A…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

344

Understanding and learning from the success of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines.  

PubMed

An estimated 5% of human cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, and most of these cancers are of the cervix. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines that target the two most oncogenic virus types, HPV16 and HPV18, are now commercially available. In controlled clinical trials, the vaccines proved to be effective at preventing incident anogenital infection and the associated neoplastic disease that is induced by these virus types. Here, we highlight the specific aspects of HPV biology and vaccine composition that are likely to contribute to the efficacy of these vaccines, and we discuss how these particular features might or might not be relevant for the development of effective vaccines against other sexually transmitted viruses such as HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV). PMID:22961341

Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R

2012-10-01

345

Human Adaptations for Mating: Frameworks for Understanding Patterns of Family Formation and Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reproductive and mating systems vary substantially across modern and traditional human societies. A variety of conceptual\\u000a tools may be required to explain this variation. This chapter discusses an explanatory framework based on the notion of evoked\\u000a culture. Evoked cultural differences emerge when behavioral expression of an adaptation is contingent on environmental conditions,\\u000a such that the behavior of groups exposed to

Steven W. Gangestad

346

An integrative framework for understanding cross-national human resource management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, debate in the area of cross-national human resource management (HRM) suggests that both “culture-bound” and “culture-free” factors and variables are important determinants of HRM policies and practices. HRM is presented as being context-specific and it is argued that with the growth of new markets world-wide, and increased levels of competition and globalization of business, there is a strong need

Pawan S Budhwar; Paul R Sparrow

2002-01-01

347

Developmental cues for the maturation of metabolic, electrophysiological and calcium handling properties of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, are abundant sources of cardiomyocytes (CMs) for cell replacement therapy and other applications such as disease modeling, drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screening. However, hPSC-derived CMs display immature structural, electrophysiological, calcium-handling and metabolic properties. Here, we review various biological as well as physical and topographical cues that are known to associate with the development of native CMs in vivo to gain insights into the development of strategies for facilitated maturation of hPSC-CMs. PMID:24467782

2014-01-01

348

A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

Shen, Song-Hua (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Chang, James Y. H. (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Boring,Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Whaley, April M. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H. (Vattenfall Ringhals AB, Varobacka, Sweden); Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Mosleh, Ali (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

2010-03-01

349

The inducible tissue-specific expression of the human IL-3/GM-CSF locus is controlled by a complex array of developmentally regulated enhancers  

PubMed Central

The closely linked human IL-3 and GM-CSF genes are tightly regulated and are expressed in activated T cells and mast cells. Here we used transgenic mice to study the developmental regulation of this locus and to identify DNA elements required for its correct activity in vivo. Because these two genes are separated by a CTCF-dependent insulator, and the GM-CSF gene is regulated primarily by its own upstream enhancer, the main aim was to identify regions of the locus required for correct IL-3 gene expression. We initially found that the previously identified proximal upstream IL-3 enhancers were insufficient to account for the in vivo activity of the IL-3 gene. However, an extended analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) spanning the entire upstream IL-3 intergenic region revealed the existence of a complex cluster of both constitutive and inducible DHSs spanning the ?34 to ?40 kb region. The tissue specificity of these DHSs mirrored the activity of the IL-3 gene, and included a highly inducible CyclosporinA-sensitive enhancer at ?37 kb which increased IL-3 promoter activity 40 fold. Significantly, inclusion of this region enabled correct in vivo regulation of IL-3 gene expression in T cells, mast cells and myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:23024272

Baxter, Euan W.; Mirabella, Fabio; Bowers, Sarion R.; James, Sally R.; Bonavita, Aude-Marine; Bertrand, Elisabeth; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Hawwari, Abbas; Bert, Andrew G.; de Arce, Andrea Gonzalez; West, Adam G.; Bonifer, Constanze; Cockerill, Peter N.

2012-01-01

350

Developmental validation of RSID™-Semen: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of human semen.  

PubMed

Tests for the identification of semen commonly involve the microscopic visualization of spermatozoa or assays for the presence of seminal markers such as acid phosphatase (AP) or prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Here, we describe the rapid stain identification kit for the identification of semen (RSID™-Semen), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antihuman semenogelin monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of semenogelin. The RSID™-Semen strip is specific for human semen, detecting <2.5 nL of semen, and does not cross-react with other human or nonhuman tissues tested. RSID™-Semen is more sensitive with certain forensic evidence samples containing mixtures of vaginal secretions and semen than either of the commercially available PSA-based forensic semen detection tests or tests that measure AP activity that were tested in parallel. The RSID™-Semen kit also allows sampling a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority of the sample for further processing through short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:22211796

Old, Jennifer; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Fischer, Brian; Miller, Kevin W P; Reich, Karl

2012-03-01

351

Human health care and selection effects. Understanding labor supply in the market for nursing.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to study (adverse) selection in a labor supply model where potential applicants are characterized by different vocational levels and skills. We look at how the composition of the pool of active workers changes as the wage rate increases. Contrary to what would expect, average productivity does not necessarily increase monotonically in the wage rate. We identify conditions in which a wage increase reduces the average productivity and/or average vocation of active workers. Our results help understand the potential impact of wage increases as a policy designed to resolving shortages in the labor market for nurses. PMID:22383254

Barigozzi, Francesca; Turati, Gilberto

2012-04-01

352

Evidence for new non-steroidal human aromatase inhibitors and comparison with equine aromatase inhibition for an understanding of the mammalian active site  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a new comparative model in order to better understand the structure-function relationships of the active site in human aromatase. Thus, we undertook the comparative inhibition of human and equine aromatases with new compounds. In fact, equine aromatase represents the only easy and available mammalian membrane-bound enzyme model, besides the human one, which is biochemically purified, well characterized and

Pierrick Auvray; Safa Moslemi; Pascal Sourdaine; Sébastien Galopin; Gilles-Eric Séralini; Cécile Enguehard; Patrick Dallemagne; Ronan Bureau; Pascal Sonnet; Sylvain Rault

1998-01-01

353

PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

354

Population Physiology: Leveraging Electronic Health Record Data to Understand Human Endocrine Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Studying physiology and pathophysiology over a broad population for long periods of time is difficult primarily because collecting human physiologic data can be intrusive, dangerous, and expensive. One solution is to use data that have been collected for a different purpose. Electronic health record (EHR) data promise to support the development and testing of mechanistic physiologic models on diverse populations and allow correlation with clinical outcomes, but limitations in the data have thus far thwarted such use. For example, using uncontrolled population-scale EHR data to verify the outcome of time dependent behavior of mechanistic, constructive models can be difficult because: (i) aggregation of the population can obscure or generate a signal, (ii) there is often no control population with a well understood health state, and (iii) diversity in how the population is measured can make the data difficult to fit into conventional analysis techniques. This paper shows that it is possible to use EHR data to test a physiological model for a population and over long time scales. Specifically, a methodology is developed and demonstrated for testing a mechanistic, time-dependent, physiological model of serum glucose dynamics with uncontrolled, population-scale, physiological patient data extracted from an EHR repository. It is shown that there is no observable daily variation the normalized mean glucose for any EHR subpopulations. In contrast, a derived value, daily variation in nonlinear correlation quantified by the time-delayed mutual information (TDMI), did reveal the intuitively expected diurnal variation in glucose levels amongst a random population of humans. Moreover, in a population of continuously (tube) fed patients, there was no observable TDMI-based diurnal signal. These TDMI-based signals, via a glucose insulin model, were then connected with human feeding patterns. In particular, a constructive physiological model was shown to correctly predict the difference between the general uncontrolled population and a subpopulation whose feeding was controlled. PMID:23272040

Albers, D. J.; Hripcsak, George; Schmidt, Michael

2012-01-01

355

Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Summary We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term ‘T. gondii–rat manipulation–schizophrenia model’ and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

Webster, Joanne P.; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C.; McConkey, Glenn A.

2013-01-01

356

A developmental examination of the conceptual structure of animal, artifact, and human social categories across two cultural contexts  

PubMed Central

Previous research indicates that the ontological status that adults attribute to categories varies systematically by domain. For example, adults view distinctions between different animal species as natural and objective, but view distinctions between different kinds of furniture as more conventionalized and subjective. The present work (N = 435; ages 5-18) examined the effects of domain, age, and cultural context on beliefs about the naturalness vs. conventionality of categories. Results demonstrate that young children, like adults, view animal categories as natural kinds, but artifact categories as more conventionalized. For human social categories (gender and race), beliefs about naturalness and conventionality were predicted by interactions between cultural context and age. Implications for the origins of social categories and theories of conceptual development will be discussed. PMID:19524886

Rhodes, Marjorie; Gelman, Susan A.

2009-01-01

357

Developmental Pharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

van den Anker, Johannes N.

2010-01-01

358

Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

Iidaka, Tetsuya

359

Diamond Blackfan anemia: a model for the translational approach to understanding human disease.  

PubMed

Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. As with the other rare inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, the study of these disorders provides important insights into basic biology and, in the case of DBA, ribosome biology; the disruption of which characterizes the disorder. Thus DBA serves as a paradigm for translational medicine in which the efforts of clinicians to manage DBA have informed laboratory scientists who, in turn, have stimulated clinical researchers to utilize scientific discovery to provide improved care. In this review we describe the clinical syndrome Diamond Blackfan anemia and, in particular, we demonstrate how the study of DBA has allowed scientific inquiry to create opportunities for progress in its understanding and treatment. PMID:24665981

Vlachos, Adrianna; Blanc, Lionel; Lipton, Jeffrey M

2014-06-01

360

Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and workflows developed for connecting the IDW modeling tools: ABM, Data-Driven Modeling, and SWAT.

Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

2011-12-01

361

Developmental Systems Science: Exploring the Application of Systems Science Methods to Developmental Science Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science theorists fully acknowledge the wide array of complex interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that together give rise to development. However, despite this conceptual understanding of development as a system, developmental science has not fully applied analytic methods commensurate with this systems perspective. This article provides a brief introduction to systems science, an approach to problem solving that

Jennifer Brown Urban; Nathaniel D. Osgood; Patricia L. Mabry

2011-01-01

362

CLINICAL-DEVELOPMENTAL INTERFACE: IMPLICATIONS OF DEVELOPMENTAL RESEARCH FOR ADOLESCENT PSYCHOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implications of developmental psychology for psychotherapeutic interventions with adolescents are discussed. It is suggested that therapists who work with adolescents would benefit greatly from information on typical adolescent development. An empirically based Framework for Understanding Adolescent Development is presented, detailing the normative changes of the adolescent developmental period. Treatment implications of each component of the framework are discussed. The importance

GRAYSON N. HOLMBECK; ANNE L. UPDEGROVE

1995-01-01

363

Health assessment of exposure to developmental toxicants  

SciTech Connect

In 1984, the U.S. EPA published proposed Guidelines for the Health Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. The assessment of data from studies on developmental effects of chemical exposure and the estimation of risk for humans is a difficult process. Although structure/activity relationships and data from short-term tests are often used in the risk-assessment process for assessing carcinogens, these are not useful as the first step in developmental toxicity risk assessment. Human epidemiological data are used, if available, but often the only available evidence is from animal studies. Therefore, the guidelines focus on the evaluation of data from routine animal testing studies.

Kimmel, C.A.

1987-07-01

364

Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: clinical implications for physicians and surgeons.  

PubMed

Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

2012-07-01

365

Human glucocorticoid receptor isoform beta: recent understanding of its potential implications in physiology and pathophysiology.  

PubMed

The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expresses two splicing isoforms alpha and beta through alternative use of specific exons 9alpha and 9beta. In contrast to the classic receptor GRalpha, which mediates most of the known actions of glucocorticoids, the functions of GRbeta have been largely unexplored. Owing to newly developed methods, for example microarrays and the jellyfish fluorescence proteins, we and others have recently revealed novel functions of GRbeta. Indeed, this enigmatic GR isoform influences positively and negatively the transcriptional activity of large subsets of genes, most of which are not responsive to glucocorticoids, in addition to its well-known dominant negative effect against GRalpha-mediated transcriptional activity. A recent report suggested that the "ligand-binding domain" of GRbeta is active, forming a functional ligand-binding pocket associated with the synthetic compound RU 486. In this review, we discuss the functions of GRbeta, its mechanisms of action, and its pathologic implications. PMID:19633971

Kino, Tomoshige; Su, Yan A; Chrousos, George P

2009-11-01

366

Understanding Alcoholism Through microRNA Signatures in Brains of Human Alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting toward the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:22514554

Nunez, Yury O.; Mayfield, R. Dayne

2012-01-01

367

Towards the Understanding of the Neurogenesis of Social Cognition: Evidence from Impaired Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One accepted and straightforward approach to understand the genesis of social cogni- tion - as of any particular human neoformation - is to look for specific developmental disorders in the hope to find clear double dissociations. In this regard, contrasting subjects with autistic spec- trum disorders on the one hand and subjects with Williams syndrome on the other has gained

Miklós Gy?ri; Ágnes Lukács; Csaba Pléh

2004-01-01

368

Genetic defects of GDF6 in the zebrafish out of sight mutant and in human eye developmental anomalies  

PubMed Central

Background The size of the vertebrate eye and the retina is likely to be controlled at several stages of embryogenesis by mechanisms that affect cell cycle length as well as cell survival. A mutation in the zebrafish out of sight (out) locus results in a particularly severe reduction of eye size. The goal of this study is to characterize the outm233 mutant, and to determine whether mutations in the out gene cause microphthalmia in humans. Results In this study, we show that the severe reduction of eye size in the outm233 mutant is caused by a mutation in the zebrafish gdf6a gene. Despite the small eye size, the overall retinal architecture appears largely intact, and immunohistochemical studies confirm that all major cell types are present in outm233 retinae. Subtle cell fate and patterning changes are present predominantly in amacrine interneurons. Acridine orange and TUNEL staining reveal that the levels of apoptosis are abnormally high in outm233 mutant eyes during early neurogenesis. Mutation analysis of the GDF6 gene in 200 patients with microphthalmia revealed amino acid substitutions in four of them. In two patients additional skeletal defects were observed. Conclusions This study confirms the essential role of GDF6 in the regulation of vertebrate eye size. The reduced eye size in the zebrafish outm233 mutant is likely to be caused by a transient wave of apoptosis at the onset of neurogenesis. Amino acid substitutions in GDF6 were detected in 4 (2%) of 200 patients with microphthalmia. In two patients different skeletal defects were also observed, suggesting pleitrophic effects of GDF6 variants. Parents carrying these variants are asymptomatic, suggesting that GDF6 sequence alterations are likely to contribute to the phenotype, but are not the sole cause of the disease. Variable expressivity and penetrance suggest a complex non-Mendelian inheritance pattern where other genetic factors may influence the outcome of the phenotype. PMID:21070663

2010-01-01

369

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-10-01

370

Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

Lach, Denise

2014-01-01

371

Understanding the tissue effects of tribo-corrosion: Uptake, distribution, and speciation of cobalt and chromium in human bone cells.  

PubMed

Cobalt and chromium species are released in the local tissues as a result of tribo-corrosion, and affect bone cell survival and function. However we have little understanding of the mechanisms of cellular entry, intracellular distribution, and speciation of the metals that result in impaired bone health. Here we used synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and fluorescent-probing approaches of candidate receptors P2X7R and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), to better understand the entry, intra-cellular distribution and speciation of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) in human osteoblasts and primary human osteoclasts. We found that both Co and Cr were most highly localized at nuclear and perinuclear sites in osteoblasts, suggesting uptake through cell membrane transporters, and supported by a finding that P2X7 receptor blockade reduced cellular entry of Co. In contrast, metal species were present at discrete sites corresponding to the basolateral membrane in osteoclasts, suggesting cell entry by endocytosis and trafficking through a functional secretory domain. An intracellular reduction of Cr(6+) to Cr(3+) was the only redox change observed in cells treated with Co(2+) , Cr(3+) , and Cr(6+) . Our data suggest that the cellular uptake and processing of Co and Cr differs between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 33:114-121, 2015. PMID:25251692

Shah, Karan M; Quinn, Paul D; Gartland, Alison; Wilkinson, J Mark

2015-01-01

372

Effects of Children's Understanding of Time Concepts on Historical Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the relationship between how children learn clock, calendar, and historical time skills and concepts. An alternative view of how temporal and historical understandings affect the teaching of history called the developmental-historical time view is proposed. (BSR)

Thornton, Stephen J.; Vukelich, Ronald

1988-01-01

373

Understanding genital warts: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and burden of disease of human papillomavirus.  

PubMed

As the most commonly sexually transmitted disease worldwide, human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. HPV infections most commonly affect young adults, women under 25 in particular. The most common risk factor for HPV infection in both sexes is a high number of lifetime sexual partners, whereas leading protective factors include circumcision, consistent condom use, and abstinence. Over 100 HPV types have been identified to date and are classified according to their level of oncogenic potential. HPV types 6 and 11 are responsible for approximately 90% of genital warts; HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for 70% of invasive cervical cancers. External genital warts (EGWs) are the most common clinical manifestation of nononcogenic HPV infection. Coinfection with multiple HPV types is possible and may combine both low- and high-risk types, even in cases of genital warts. HPV infections are DNA viruses transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, invading the basal epithelial cells via microtears and evading the host immune response. Although non-life threatening, even low-risk HPV-type infections such as EGW carry a substantial psychosocial and economic burden. Stressors include the shame and embarrassment related to diagnosis, as well as the inconvenience and discomfort of treatment and the fear of recurrence, transmission, and the possible threat of cancer. Costs relate to routine screening for cervical cancer, treatment of genital warts, and the management and follow-up of malignancies. PMID:24388558

Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc

2013-12-01

374

Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

2002-11-01

375

Understanding effector selectivity in human posterior parietal cortex by combining information patterns and activation measures.  

PubMed

The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has traditionally been viewed as containing separate regions for the planning of eye and limb movements, but recent neurophysiological and neuroimaging observations show that the degree of effector specificity is limited. This has led to the hypothesis that effector specificity in PPC is part of a more efficient than strictly modular organization, characterized by both distinct and common activations for different effectors. It is unclear, however, what differentiates the distinctions and commonalities in effector representations. Here, we used fMRI in humans to study the cortical representations involved in the planning of eye, hand, and foot movements. We used a novel combination of fMRI measures to assess the effector-related representational content of the PPC: a multivariate information measure, reflecting whether representations were distinct or common across effectors and a univariate activation measure, indicating which representations were actively involved in movement preparation. Active distinct representations were evident in areas previously reported to be effector specific: eye specificity in the posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), hand tuning in anterior IPS, and a foot bias in the anterior precuneus. Crucially, PPC regions responding to a particular effector also contained an active representation common across the other two effectors. We infer that rostral PPC areas do not code single effectors, but rather dichotomies of effectors. Such combinations of representations could be well suited for active effector selection, efficiently coding both a selected effector and its alternatives. PMID:24849346

Leoné, Frank T M; Heed, Tobias; Toni, Ivan; Medendorp, W Pieter

2014-05-21

376

Understanding protein synthesis: a role-play approach in large undergraduate human anatomy and physiology classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section presented with a traditional lecture served as the control group. A pretest/posttest assessment and a survey were administered to both sections and used in data analysis. In addition, overall test scores and item analysis were examined. The analysis revealed that participants in both groups improved significantly from pretest to posttest, but there were no significant differences between the groups in posttest scores. Neither group showed a significant change from posttest to the exam. However, there was a moderate positive effect on engagement and satisfaction survey questions from being in the study group (based on 255 total surveys returned by both groups). The role-play activity was at least as effective as the lecture in terms of student performance on the above-mentioned assessments. In addition, it proved successful in engaging students in the learning process and increasing their satisfaction.

Diana Sturges (Georgia Southern University)

2009-06-01

377

Linking soil forming processes, geomorphological dynamics and human activity to understand past and future patterns of landscape change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between soil formation, slope processes, human activities and changing climate are important in shaping landscapes. However, these aspects of landscape development have not often been combined in integrated quantitative analysis. This means that we cannot yet make accurate assessments of the sustainability of our land-based activities under changing climate and management conditions. In particular, important questions about the effects of human activity on soil formation and of erosion on soil formation remain unanswered. Models that can serve as a framework for the calculation of such interactions have recently become available, offering methods to rapidly and significantly increase our knowledge of the behaviour of the combined human-soil-landscape system under climatic influence. If quantitative data about interactions become available, these models can simulate landscape development and provide testable predictions. Recent exploratory work in this direction is promising. With diminishing computational limitations and increasing attention for parsimony in model building, Landscape Evolutin Models (LEMs) now allow quantitative incorporation of soil formation processes (e.g. LAPSUS) and recent soil formation models allow calculation of the evolution of soil properties in ways that are suited for such incorporation (e.g. SoilGen2). A major step forward is possible whereby landscape evolution and soil formation will be integrated through quantitative modelling, with possibilities to include dynamic feedback mechanisms between soil and landscape. Such a model will allow us to study the coupled human-environmental system and is a significant contribution to landscape change management. Our objective is to propose a model framework and platform for others to join or to be inspired. Altogether with the common goal to increase our understanding of the quantitative interaction between slope processes, soil formation and human activity through measurements and modelling.

Schoorl, J. M.; Finke, P. A.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Sonneveld, M. P. W.

2012-04-01

378

What Happened, and Why: Toward an Understanding of Human Error Based on Automated Analyses of Incident Reports. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) project of NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program was to develop technologies that will enable proactive management of safety risk, which entails identifying the precursor events and conditions that foreshadow most accidents. This presents a particular challenge in the aviation system where people are key components and human error is frequently cited as a major contributing factor or cause of incidents and accidents. In the aviation "world", information about what happened can be extracted from quantitative data sources, but the experiential account of the incident reporter is the best available source of information about why an incident happened. This report describes a conceptual model and an approach to automated analyses of textual data sources for the subjective perspective of the reporter of the incident to aid in understanding why an incident occurred. It explores a first-generation process for routinely searching large databases of textual reports of aviation incident or accidents, and reliably analyzing them for causal factors of human behavior (the why of an incident). We have defined a generic structure of information that is postulated to be a sound basis for defining similarities between aviation incidents. Based on this structure, we have introduced the simplifying structure, which we call the Scenario as a pragmatic guide for identifying similarities of what happened based on the objective parameters that define the Context and the Outcome of a Scenario. We believe that it will be possible to design an automated analysis process guided by the structure of the Scenario that will aid aviation-safety experts to understand the systemic issues that are conducive to human error.

Maille, Nicolas P.; Statler, Irving C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Rosenthal, Loren; Shafto, Michael G.; Statler, Irving C.

2006-01-01

379

Understanding the correlations between wealth, poverty and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To investigate the relationships between the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and underlying structural factors of poverty and wealth in several African countries. Methods A retrospective ecological comparison and trend analysis was conducted by reviewing data from demographic and health surveys, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) indicator surveys and national sero-behavioural surveys in 12 sub-Saharan African countries with different estimated national incomes. Published survey reports were included in the analysis if they contained HIV testing data and wealth quintile rankings. Trends in the relation between gender-specific HIV prevalence and household wealth quintile were determined with the ?2 test and compared across the 12 countries, and also within one country (the United Republic of Tanzania) at two points in time. Findings The relationship between the prevalence of HIV infection and household wealth quintile did not show consistent trends in all countries. In particular, rates of HIV infection in higher-income countries did not increase with wealth. Tanzanian data further illustrate that the relationship between wealth and HIV infection can change over time in a given setting, with declining prevalence in wealthy groups occurring simultaneously with increasing prevalence in poorer women. Conclusion Both wealth and poverty can lead to potentially risky or protective behaviours. To develop better-targeted HIV prevention interventions, the HIV community must recognize the multiple ways in which underlying structural factors can manifest themselves as risk in different settings and at different times. Context-specific risks should be the targets of HIV prevention initiatives tailored to local factors. PMID:20616971

2010-01-01

380

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1  

PubMed Central

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

2011-01-01

381

Culture for genetic manipulation of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genomes of the major human helminth parasites, and indeed many others of agricultural significance, are now the research focus of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. A draft genome sequence of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi was reported in 2007 and draft genomes of two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni reported in 2009. These genome data provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in schistosome nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion and invertebrate evolution. In addition, new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets will likely be predicted. However, testing these predictions is often not straightforward with schistosomes because of the difficulty and expense in maintenance of the developmental cycle. To facilitate this goal, several developmental stages can be maintained in vitro for shorter or longer intervals of time, and these are amenable to manipulation. Our research interests focus on experimental studies of schistosome gene functions, and more recently have focused on development of transgenesis and RNA interference with the longer term aim of heritable gene manipulation. Here we review methods to isolate and culture developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni, including eggs, sporocysts, schistosomules and adults, in particular as these procedures relate to approaches for gene manipulation. We also discuss recent advances in genetic manipulation of schistosomes including the deployment of square wave electroporation to introduce reporter genes into cultured schistosomes. PMID:19765348

MANN, VICTORIA H.; MORALES, MARIA E.; RINALDI, GABRIEL; BRINDLEY, PAUL J.

2010-01-01

382

Structural analysis on mutation residues and interfacial water molecules for human TIM disease understanding  

PubMed Central

Background Human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM) deficiency is a genetic disease caused often by the pathogenic mutation E104D. This mutation, located at the side of an abnormally large cluster of water in the inter-subunit interface, reduces the thermostability of the enzyme. Why and how these water molecules are directly related to the excessive thermolability of the mutant have not been investigated in structural biology. Results This work compares the structure of the E104D mutant with its wild type counterparts. It is found that the water topology in the dimer interface of HsTIM is atypical, having a "wet-core-dry-rim" distribution with 16 water molecules tightly packed in a small deep region surrounded by 22 residues including GLU104. These water molecules are co-conserved with their surrounding residues in non-archaeal TIMs (dimers) but not conserved across archaeal TIMs (tetramers), indicating their importance in preserving the overall quaternary structure. As the structural permutation induced by the mutation is not significant, we hypothesize that the excessive thermolability of the E104D mutant is attributed to the easy propagation of atoms' flexibility from the surface into the core via the large cluster of water. It is indeed found that the B factor increment in the wet region is higher than other regions, and, more importantly, the B factor increment in the wet region is maintained in the deeply buried core. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that for the mutant structure at normal temperature, a clear increase of the root-mean-square deviation is observed for the wet region contacting with the large cluster of interfacial water. Such increase is not observed for other interfacial regions or the whole protein. This clearly suggests that, in the E104D mutant, the large water cluster is responsible for the subunit interface flexibility and overall thermolability, and it ultimately leads to the deficiency of this enzyme. Conclusions Our study reveals that a large cluster of water buried in protein interfaces is fragile and high-maintenance, closely related to the structure, function and evolution of the whole protein. PMID:24564410

2013-01-01

383

Adolescent Narrative Thought: Developmental and Neurological Evidence in Support of a Central Social Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we discuss how young adolescents gradually develop the capacity to interpret human intentions and, in so doing,\\u000a develop a deeper understanding of the social world, as evidenced in their stories and interpretations of events in their lives.\\u000a Robbie Case’s theory is utilized to explain how and why developmental change occurs in the domain of narrative thought. More

Anne McKeough; Stephanie Griffiths

384

Effects of in vitro maturation of monkey oocytes on their developmental capacity  

PubMed Central

The study of in vitro maturation (IVM) of rhesus monkey oocytes has important implications for biomedical research and human infertility treatment. In vitro-matured rhesus monkey oocytes show much less developmental potential than IVM oocytes of other species. Since about 1980 when rhesus monkey IVM, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vitro embryo culture (IVC) systems were established, numerous efforts have been made to improve the developmental competence of oocytes and to understand the mechanisms regulating oocyte maturation. This review describes recent progress in this area, particularly the effects of factors such as steroid hormones, energy substrates, amino acids, ovarian follicle status, maternal age and breeding season on the developmental competence, gene expression patterns and genome integrity of rhesus IVM oocytes. PMID:17081707

Zheng, P.

2007-01-01

385

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Contemporary developmental toxicity testing focuses on the evaluation of a variety of adverse developmental effects which include structural malformations, intrauterine death, growth retardation, and deficits in postnatal function. n the extrapolation of information from animal s...

386

Psychology 333 Developmental Psychopathology  

E-print Network

disorders, anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorders (including autism), mental retardation, theoretical formulations, research evidence, and current approaches to intervention and prevention for a wide findings on various types of developmental psychopathology; 5) current approaches to intervention

Gallo, Linda C.

387

The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

1984-01-01

388

Progress in Application of the Neurosciences to an Understanding of Human Learning: The Challenge of Finding a Middle-Ground Neuroeducational Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Modern neuroscientific research has substantially enhanced our understanding of the human brain. However, many challenges remain in developing a strong, brain-based theory of human learning, especially in complex environments such as educational settings. Some of the current issues and challenges in our progress toward developing comprehensive…

Anderson, O. Roger

2014-01-01

389

Developmental plasticity and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants and animals are capable of developing in a variety of ways, forming characteristics that are well adapted to the environments in which they are likely to live. In adverse circumstances, for example, small size and slow metabolism can facilitate survival, whereas larger size and more rapid metabolism have advantages for reproductive success when resources are more abundant. Often

Patrick Bateson; David Barker; Timothy Clutton-Brock; Debal Deb; Bruno D'Udine; Robert A. Foley; Peter Gluckman; Keith Godfrey; Tom Kirkwood; Marta Mirazón Lahr; John McNamara; Neil B. Metcalfe; Patricia Monaghan; Hamish G. Spencer; Sonia E. Sultan

2004-01-01

390

Precolombian settlements in French Guiana : geoarchaeological approach toward a new understanding of the human impact on landscape.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent archaeological research in French Guiana conducted by INRAP (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives), specifically in the Couac Program (Cirad, Inra, Inrap) revealed precolombian settlements on different geomorphic contexts like coastal and fluvial areas, as is seen in Brazil, but also what seems to be quite a dense occupation on higher grounds (mounds). Most of the times, the excavation shows cultural remains like pottery, archaeological pits and ditches, as well as sediments that are described by the archaeologists as "thick and dark-coloured layers". In Brazil, dark layers found in archaeological sites are called Terra Preta do Indio or Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), and their study is thought necessary to explain and understand ancient human settlement. In Brazil, geoarchaeological methods as well as chemical analyses, pedology and micromorphology helped to describe ADE and understand their archaeological potential and characteristics. In order to better understand the French Guiana dark layers, we studied two sites from the estuarine zone of the lower Maroni River (Surinam border) (Chemin Saint Louis and Balaté at Saint Laurent du Maroni), and two ring-ditched hilltop sites, on ferralsols, in the interfluvial forest area ("Montagnes Couronnées" in French) (MC 87 et 88, near Regina). Regarding Brazilians research on ADE, we described for the first time the archaeological stratigraphy of French Guiana ancient settlement using a geoarchaeological approach combining biogeochemistry, pedology in correlation with micromorphological analyses. Our first results show that dark layers from archaeological sites studied are very different from natural soils underneath in the estuarine zone. Although, the pH is quite low, micromorphological analyses show clay coatings in the alluvial terrace before human settlement. These analyses also show more organic matter and charcoals in the archaeological layers than beneath, and very large amounts of phytolithes, that give to botanists a new way of research. Due to either the acid context and / or to the ancient lifestyle, very few bones were found. We also found geochemical and micromorphological differences between the sites in the estuarine zone or in forest area. First geoarchaeological results give information about the nature of the sites, and suggest that French Guiana dark layers have original properties. We therefore suggest, in accordance with the archaeologist team, to call them Guianan Dark Earth (GDE). If we compare the GDE of this study with data from bibliographic review on ADE, micromorphological analyses show that GDE presents less anthropogenic components than ADE. Chemical analyses also show differences between GDE and ADE, like pH and available nutrients, lower in estuarine GDE. These differences suggested that GDE can have different properties than those of ADE, but are nonetheless part of the archaeological soils of the Amazonian basin.

Brancier, J.; Cammas, C.; Todisco, D.; Fouache, E.

2012-04-01

391

Developmental decisions in Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed Central

A few hours after the onset of starvation, amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum start to form multicellular aggregates by chemotaxis to centers that emit periodic cyclic AMP signals. There are two major developmental decisions: first, the aggregates either construct fruiting bodies directly, in a process known as culmination, or they migrate for a period as "slugs." Second, the amoebae differentiate into either prestalk or prespore cells. These are at first randomly distributed within aggregates and then sort out from each other to form polarized structures with the prestalk cells at the apex, before eventually maturing into the stalk cells and spores of fruiting bodies. Developmental gene expression seems to be driven primarily by cyclic AMP signaling between cells, and this review summarizes what is known of the cyclic AMP-based signaling mechanism and of the signal transduction pathways leading from cell surface cyclic AMP receptors to gene expression. Current understanding of the factors controlling the two major developmental choices is emphasized. The weak base ammonia appears to play a key role in preventing culmination by inhibiting activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, whereas the prestalk cell-inducing factor DIF-1 is central to the choice of cell differentiation pathway. The mode of action of DIF-1 and of ammonia in the developmental choices is discussed. Images PMID:7968918

Gross, J D

1994-01-01

392

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

2010-10-01

393

The Need for Comparative Research in Developmental Textbooks: A Review and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that current animal research enables students to understand basic developmental principles. Presents results from a study that evaluated the content of 24 developmental textbooks published between 1995 and 2000, demonstrating that older studies are typically used. (CMK)

Eaton, Rebecca F.; Sleigh, Merry J.

2002-01-01

394

Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context  

PubMed Central

With the anticipated publication of the DSM-5 in May 2013, much reflection and work has been done on reviewing existing psychiatric nomenclature including, but not limited to the field of traumatic exposure. Traditionally, understanding of the psychiatric and psychological effects of trauma have been developed from studies with adults and then applied to trauma-exposed children with some modifications. While this is an important step to understanding the sequelae of trauma in children and adolescents, the adverse developmental effects of traumatic exposures on the rapidly evolving neurological, physical, social and psychological capacities of children calls for a developmentally sensitive framework for understanding, assessing and treating trauma-exposed children. The importance of early attachment relationships in infancy and childhood means that severely disrupted early caregiving relationships may have far-reaching and lifelong developmental consequences and can therefore be considered traumatic. Given the high rates of violence and trauma exposure of South African children and adolescents, the need for a developmentally based understanding of the effects of trauma on child and adolescent mental health becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we draw on theoretical perspectives to provide a practical, clinically driven approach to the management of developmental trauma. PMID:25104963

Gregorowski, Claire; Seedat, Soraya

2013-01-01

395

Examining student understanding of the science of a societal issue in Botswana: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human skin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science has had such an impact on our way of life that it has been at the centre of discussion for all issues of health, education, development, and the safe stewardship of the Earth's resources. Science has advanced so quickly in the last 50 years that the amount of knowledge generated by scientists is overwhelming. Science teachers who have persistently introduced children to science from a very young age, have been charged with a daunting task of presenting science knowledge to students in ways that not only make it easy to understand, but also make it relevant to them. The methods of how best they should go about this task have been debated from time immemorial. Due to the many concerns and demands placed on science teachers and science education programs in general, there have been a number of efforts to reform and redefine the science curriculum. Science education reform efforts in the US and elsewhere have examined all possible nucleotides in the building up of the reform DNA molecule. Many studies have measured people's level of understanding on given issues that affect their communities, but little attention has been given to conceptions and level of scientific literacy among students in developing countries. This study assessed Botswana school children's knowledge about ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and its effects on human health using a scientific literacy lens. Results show that students do not know as much as one would expect them to know, from public school through the first year in college. Exploratory factor analysis identified four indicators of knowledge about UVR. These are: (a) diseases related to UVR, (b) items that can be used for protections against UVR, (c) misconceptions held about UVR, and (d) general issues surrounding UVR. MANOVA analysis showed that whereas there are no differences in general based on school location, certain groups of students performed differently depending on the school type, type of science pursued at school and or the gender of the student.

Suping, Shanah Mompoloki

396

Analysis of the role of human leukocyte antigen class-I genes to understand the etiopathology of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background: Schizophrenia is the paradigmatic illness of psychiatry. The involvement of immunological and immunopathological mechanisms in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia has been a matter of research, with recently increasing effort. Aims: In this study, we investigated the incidence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I antigens to understand the role of HLA genes in schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: India born schizophrenic patients in and around Siliguri who attended outpatient department (OPD) of Department of Psychiatry, North Bengal Medical College and Hospital were considered for the present study. After the longitudinal follow up, 50 patients were enrolled for the study. The same number of age, sex and ethnically matched healthy subjects were considered as control. Low resolution polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method was applied for typing the HLA antigens. Statistics: The phenotype frequencies were calculated by direct count. ?2 test was done to compare the frequency of each antigen among the patients and control group and it was followed by Fisher's exact test. Relative risk was estimated by using Haldane's method. Results: The result showed that some of the HLA antigens are associated with the schizophrenia and significant increase were observed for HLA A*03 antigen along with the significant decrease for HLA A*25, A*31 and HLA B*51. Conclusions: The study provides the evidence for the possible existence of susceptibility locus for schizophrenia within the HLA region. This preliminary observation may help to understand the etiological basis of this disorder and the study may further strengthen the HLA antigens as the marker for schizophrenia. PMID:19742184

Singh, Bisu; Banerjee, Sikta; Bera, Nirmal K.; Nayak, Chitta R.; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.

2008-01-01

397

Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity  

PubMed Central

What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology.

Stotz, Karola

2014-01-01

398

Geoarchaeological approaches to understanding human-environment interactions in Australia's tropical north: the Weipa shell mounds revisited.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Cape York Peninsula, particularly the Weipa region, has seen sustained archaeological investigation since the 1960s. These studies primarily concentrated on the shell mounds associated with coastal environments first observed at the beginning of the 20th century. Despite claims that the shell mounds were of natural origin, archaeological investigations convincingly demonstrated that they are primarily cultural deposits. Geomorphological studies indicate that chenier (beach ridge) formation occurred after sea-level stabilisation in the mid- to late Holocene, and is connected to the formation of estuaries at the mouths of the Mission, Pine, Hey and Embley Rivers. Anadara shell bed formation is in turn connected with the evolution of the estuaries. However, the relationship between shell mound age and location relative to the coastline at Weipa is neither well defined, nor tested at multiple locations. Given that the coast is susceptible to the effects of sea-level fluctuations and environmental change, and the Anadara beds can become depleted as a result of environmental shifts, the shell mounds provide a datable record of human reaction to coastal landscape and environmental change. Here, we report preliminary results of a new investigation of the shell mounds of the Weipa region. Radiocarbon and OSL-based age determinations from samples of shell, charcoal and sediment collected from trenches excavated into shell mounds on the northern shore of the Embley River indicate a relationship between the time of initial accumulation of shell and the age of the landform features upon which they were built, which in turn are a result of coastline evolution during the mid to late Holocene. These mounds are the oldest yet recorded for the Weipa region, with accumulation in one case commencing around 3500 cal BP. Accumulation appears to be more or less continuous, and abruptly ceases after 400-650 yrs. We discuss implications for understanding human-environment interactions in the past, and our strategy for further research.

Fanning, P. C.; Holdaway, S. J.; Shiner, J.; Petchey, F.

2012-04-01

399

Coping with complexity: developmental systems and multilevel analyses in developmental psychopathology.  

PubMed

Developmental psychopathology is not characterized by adherence to one specific theory but instead serves as an organizational framework in which research is driven by a number of key assumptions. In the developmental psychopathology approach, two primary assumptions emphasize the importance of systems thinking and the utility of multilevel analyses. As will be illustrated here, these emphases are inextricably linked: a systems approach necessitates a multilevel approach, such that a level of organization must bring coherence to a level of mechanisms. Given this assumption, coming to an integrative understanding of the relation between levels is of central importance. One broad framework for this endeavor is relational developmental systems, which has been proposed by certain theorists as a new paradigm for developmental science. The implications of embracing this framework include the potential to connect developmental psychopathology with other approaches that emphasize systems thinking and that take an integrative perspective on the problem of levels of analysis. PMID:24342842

Marshall, Peter J

2013-11-01

400

Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

Nygren, Thomas E.

1992-01-01

401

Animal models of intestinal fibrosis: new tools for the understanding of pathogenesis and therapy of human disease  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a serious condition complicating chronic inflammatory processes affecting the intestinal tract. Advances in this field that rely on human studies have been slow and seriously restricted by practical and logistic reasons. As a consequence, well-characterized animal models of intestinal fibrosis have emerged as logical and essential systems to better define and understand the pathophysiology of fibrosis. In point of fact, animal models allow the execution of mechanistic studies as well as the implementation of clinical trials with novel, pathophysiology-based therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the currently available animal models of intestinal fibrosis, taking into consideration the methods of induction, key characteristics of each model, and underlying mechanisms. Currently available models will be classified into seven categories: spontaneous, gene-targeted, chemical-, immune-, bacteria-, and radiation-induced as well as postoperative fibrosis. Each model will be discussed in regard to its potential to create research opportunities to gain insights into the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis and stricture formation and assist in the development of effective and specific antifibrotic therapies. PMID:22878121

Rieder, Florian; Kessler, Sean; Sans, Miquel

2012-01-01

402

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

403

Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.  

PubMed

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n?=?55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n?=?55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n?=?55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

2013-05-01

404

Developmental genes and the origin and evolution of Metazoa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author discusses the role of developmental genes in evolution of life and the use of molecular approaches to confirm morphologic homology, to aid in understanding developmental mechanisms of evolution of novel structures, and to investigate some aspects of the evolution of life. Topics examined include developmental genes and homology; the role of co-optation and divergence, homeosis, and heterochrony as mechanisms of evolution; and life history evolution and model organisms.

Jacobs, D. K.

1994-01-01

405

Change in Gene Expression in Zebrafish as an Endpoint for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals that adversely affect the developing nervous system may have long-term consequences on human health. Little information exists on a large number of environmental chemicals to guide the risk assessments for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). As traditional developmental ...

406

UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS  

E-print Network

UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS #12;UNDERSTANDING BELIEFS Nils J. Nilsson Stanford University nilsson@cs.stanford.edu http://ai.stanford.edu/nilsson August 21, 2013 #12;[Belief] ...that upon which a man is prepared to act. H. Auden2 So as not to distract the general reader unnecessarily, numbered notes containing

Pratt, Vaughan

407

Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic\\u000a age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers.\\u000a Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate\\u000a forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly

P. W. Thevissen; S. Fieuws; G. Willems

2010-01-01

408

The Robot in the Crib: A Developmental Analysis of Imitation Skills in Infants and Robots  

PubMed Central

Interesting systems, whether biological or artificial, develop. Starting from some initial conditions, they respond to environmental changes, and continuously improve their capabilities. Developmental psychologists have dedicated significant effort to studying the developmental progression of infant imitation skills, because imitation underlies the infant’s ability to understand and learn from his or her social environment. In a converging intellectual endeavour, roboticists have been equipping robots with the ability to observe and imitate human actions because such abilities can lead to rapid teaching of robots to perform tasks. We provide here a comparative analysis between studies of infants imitating and learning from human demonstrators, and computational experiments aimed at equipping a robot with such abilities. We will compare the research across the following two dimensions: (a) initial conditions—what is innate in infants, and what functionality is initially given to robots, and (b) developmental mechanisms—how does the performance of infants improve over time, and what mechanisms are given to robots to achieve equivalent behaviour. Both developmental science and robotics are critically concerned with: (a) how their systems can and do go ‘beyond the stimulus’ given during the demonstration, and (b) how the internal models used in this process are acquired during the lifetime of the system. PMID:18458795

Demiris, Yiannis; Meltzoff, Andrew

2008-01-01

409

Gaps in college biology students' understanding of photosynthesis: Implications for human constructivist learning theory and college classroom practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main research question of this study was: What gaps in biochemical understanding are revealed by a range of university introductory biology students as they work through a critically acclaimed multimedia program on photosynthesis, and what are the corresponding implications for elaboration of the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin Learning Theory (ANG, now Human Constructivism)? Twelve students, mixed for ability, gender and ethnicity, were recruited from two sections of "Bio 101." Before and after instruction in photosynthesis, in-depth clinical interviews were conducted during which participants completed a range of cognitive tasks such as sorting, concept mapping, explaining and predicting. Some tasks involved interacting with a computer simulation of photosynthesis. This study primarily employed qualitative case study and verbal analysis methods. Verbal analysis of the clinical interviews revealed numerous gaps that were categorized into typologies. The two major categories were propositional gaps and processing gaps. Propositional gaps were evident in development of participants' concepts, links and constructs. Significant among these were conceptual distance gaps and continuity of matter gaps. Gaps such as convention gaps and relative significance gaps seem to be due to naivete in the discipline. Processing gaps included gaps in graphic decoding skills and relevant cognitive habits such as self-monitoring and consulting prior knowledge. Although the gaps were easier to detect and isolate with the above-average participants, all participants showed evidence of at least some of these gaps. Since some gaps are not unexpected at all but the highest literacy levels, not all the gaps identified are to be considered deficiencies. The gaps identified support the attention given by ANG theorists to the role of prior knowledge and metacognition as well as the value of graphic organizers in knowledge construction. In addition, this study revealed numerous gaps in graphic decoding, indicating that both direct experience and explicit instruction are needed if students are to "learn how to learn with graphics," especially those graphics central to understanding a computer simulation's representations of structures, inputs, processes and outputs. It is hypothesized that gaps similar to those revealed in this study may be at the root of some alternative conceptions documented in the literature.

Griffard, Phyllis Baudoin

1999-11-01

410

Practical Aspects of Running Developmental Studies in the MEG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental neuroimaging studies offer a unique opportunity to gain insight into the underpinnings of various cognitive\\u000a functions by examining age-related changes in brain structure and function. There is an increasing body of neuroimaging literature\\u000a discussing issues related to testing children in developmental studies (Crone et al. Human Brain Mapping 31:835–837, 2010). These deal with fMRI developmental studies and discuss methods

Elizabeth W. Pang

411

Developmental toxicity testing of biopharmaceuticals in nonhuman primates: previous experience and future directions.  

PubMed

Developmental toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing are designed to evaluate potential adverse effects of drug treatment on pregnancy and on the developing embryo/fetus. Biopharmaceuticals present specific challenges for developmental toxicity testing because the pharmacology of these molecules, which are frequently human-specific proteins, is often restricted to humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). For those species-restricted molecules, the only option for the evaluation of potential effects on development of the human biopharmaceutical is to use NHPs. This article reviews each of the stages of development in cynomolgus macaques (the most frequently used NHP) and the potential exposure of the embryo, fetus, and infant following administration of a biopharmaceutical during pregnancy and lactation. Because the purpose of the NHP developmental studies is to identify potential human risks, a comparison between macaque and human development and potential exposure has been made when possible. Understanding the potential exposure of the conceptus relative to critical periods in development is essential to designing a scientifically based study that adequately addresses human risks. Some options for NHP study designs, including the option of combining end points into a single study, and the pros and cons of each of the study options have been reviewed. Developmental studies for biopharmaceuticals in NHPs need to be optimally designed on a case-by-case basis taking into consideration the pharmacology of the molecule, the type of molecule (antibody or non-antibody), the potential exposure relative to the development of potential target organs, the clinical use, and the ethical considerations associated with the use of NHPs. PMID:20926830

Martin, Pauline L; Weinbauer, Gerhard F

2010-12-01

412

Adaptation to a Myocardial Infarction from a Developmental Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored the interactional effect between victims' (N=30) adult developmental stage and their coping and emotional reactions following a myocardial infarction (MI). The findings point to the usefulness of adult developmental psychology in understanding the divergent emotional and coping reactions of MI patients across the life-cycle. (Author/JAC)

Meyer, Robert

1983-01-01

413

Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor

1988-01-01

414

The Need for Developmental Models in Supervising School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental models, like Stoltenberg, McNeil, and Delworth's integrated developmental model (IDM) for supervision (1998), provide supervisors with an important resource in understanding and managing the counseling student's development and experience. The current status of school counseling supervision is discussed as well as the…

Gallo, Laura L.

2013-01-01

415

Workshops and Conferences Winter Workshop on Cell & Developmental Biology 2008  

E-print Network

of growth and development, stem cell biology, understanding disease mechanism and therapy. In this courseWorkshops and Conferences Winter Workshop on Cell & Developmental Biology 2008 XII Annual students of Indian Universities. The workshop focused on cell and developmental biology. These are dynamic

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

416

Developmental Science and the Media: Early Brain Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media coverage of early brain development not only has focused public attention on early childhood but also has contributed to misunderstanding of developmental neuroscience research. This article critically summarizes current research in developmental neuroscience that is pertinent to the central claims of media accounts of early brain development, including (a) scientific understanding of formative early experiences, (b) whether critical periods

Ross A. Thompson; Charles A. Nelson

2001-01-01

417

From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging etiological model for developmental disorders, like dyslexia, is probabilistic and multifactorial while the prevailing cognitive model has been deterministic and often focused on a single cognitive cause, such as a phonological deficit as the cause of dyslexia. So there is a potential contradiction in our explanatory frameworks for understanding developmental disorders. This paper attempts to resolve this contradiction

Bruce F. Pennington

2006-01-01

418

Genetics and Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

419

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip  

MedlinePLUS

Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Bones & Muscles > Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Print A A A Text ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caring for Your Child Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a deformity of ...

420

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS  

PubMed Central

The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

2011-01-01

421

The Importance of Ecology-Based Nature Education Project in Terms of Nature Integration and Understanding the Human-Ecosystem Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this project is to define the importance of 12-day ecology-based education training upon integration with nature and understanding the human-ecosystem relationship. In accordance with this purpose, there has been collected some survey data interviewing with the participants of "Lake Beysehir National Park and Ecology-based Nature…

Meydan, Ali

2011-01-01

422

Stable isotope analysis of humans from Xiaojingshan site: implications for understanding the origin of millet agriculture in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millet agriculture originated in Northern China in the early Neolithic period (ca. 8000 BP), however, the actual importance of millet in human diets is still not clear. To determine the relative contribution of millet in human diets in this period we undertook stable isotope analysis of humans from Xiaojingshan site and fauna from Yuezhuang site, both of which are attributed

Yaowu Hu; Shougong Wang; Fengshi Luan; Changsui Wang; Michael P. Richards

2008-01-01

423

The Developmental Dimensions of Recognizing Racist Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on understanding the developmental process that occurs when racist ideas are recognized as a part of college students' thought processes. Longitudinal data were collected from 29 Latino/a college students in order to illustrate how these students made meaning of racist thoughts when they began to recognize it. The framework of…

Torres, Vasti

2009-01-01

424

NCT and Developmental Psychology: A Welcome Rapprochement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over 50 years, developmental psychologists have conducted research around the world to understand the relation between culture and cognition. In fact, psychologists have been interested in this topic for over a century. In the late 1800s, Wundt introduced "Elements of Folk Psychology," the study of how culture becomes part of higher…

Gauvain, Mary

2013-01-01

425

Developmental Issues in Child Health Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to illustrate the importance of a developmental perspective in child health psychology. Research is reviewed relating motor, cognitive, and psychosocial development to exposure to health hazards, to an understanding of behavior-health relationships, to the assumption of personal responsibility for health, and to behavioral and emotional responses to illness and injury. In presenting this model of integration between

James E. Maddux; Michael C. Roberts; Elizabeth A. Sledden; Logan Wright

1986-01-01

426

Developmental Dyslexia: A Review of Biological Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers cerebral dominance and brain asymmetry, the development of the cerebral cortex and examples of aberrancy, and diseases of the immune system, all of which relate to recent anatomical and epidemiological findings in developmental dyslexia. These discoveries have led to testable hypotheses which may enhance current understandings

Galaburda, Albert M.

1985-01-01

427

Developmental Implications of Children's Virtual Worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

As virtual worlds for children increase in popularity, it is important to examine their developmental implications. Given the limited research on this question, we use extant social science research on youth and digital media to understand how children 's participation in virtual worlds might mediate their development. We identify four different pathways by which new media can potentially mediate development.

Kaveri Subrahmanyam

2009-01-01

428

Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward  

EPA Science Inventory

Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

429

Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

2005-01-01

430

Developmental, Crosslinguistic Perspectives on Visual Word Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we argue that a complete understanding of language processing, in this case word-recognition processes, requires consideration both of multiple languages and of developmental processes. To illustrate these goals, we will summarize a 10-year research program exploring word-recognition processes in Korean adults and children. We…

Simpson, Greg B.; Kang, Hyewon

2006-01-01

431

How sleep affects the developmental learning of bird song  

E-print Network

How sleep affects the developmental learning of bird song Se´bastien Dere´gnaucourt1 , Partha P ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Sleep affects learning and development in humans and other animals, but the role of sleep in developmental learning has never been examined. Here we show the effects of night-sleep on song development

432

Developmental effects of dioxins and related endocrine disrupting chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alteration of hormones has long been known to affect development. TCDD and related PHAHs modulate the levels of many hormonal systems. Dioxins cause a spectrum of morphological and functional developmental deficits. Fetotoxicity, thymic atrophy, and structural malformations are often noted. Delayed genitourinary tract effects have been observed, and recent studies reported behavioral effects. Highly exposed human offspring have exhibited developmental

Linda S Birnbaum

1995-01-01

433

developmental stages of the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis  

E-print Network

Background: DNA methylation plays an essential role in regulating gene expression under a variety of conditions and it has therefore been hypothesized to underlie the transitions between life cycle stages in parasitic nematodes. So far, however, 5’-cytosine methylation has not been detected during any developmental stage of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Given the new availability of high-resolution methylation detection methods, an investigation of life cycle methylation in a parasitic nematode can now be carried out. Results: Here, using MethylC-seq, we present the first study to confirm the existence of DNA methylation in the parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis, and we characterize the methylomes of the three life-cycle stages of this food-borne infectious human pathogen. We observe a drastic increase in DNA methylation during the transition from the new born to mature stage, and we further identify parasitism-related genes that show changes in DNA methylation status between life cycle stages. Conclusions: Our data contribute to the understanding of the developmental changes that occur in an important human parasite, and raises the possibility that targeting DNA methylation processes may be a useful strategy in developing therapeutics to impede infection. In addition, our conclusion that DNA methylation is a mechanism for life cycle transition in T. spiralis prompts the question of whether this may also be the case in any other metazoans. Finally, our work constitutes the first report, to our knowledge, of DNA methylation in a nematode,

Fei Gao; Xiaolei Liu; Xiu-ping Wu; Xue-lin Wang; Desheng Gong; Hanlin Lu; Yudong Xia; Yanxia Song; Junwen Wang; Jing Du; Siyang Liu; Xu Han; Yizhi Tang; Huanming Yang; Qi Jin; Xiuqing Zhang; Mingyuan Liu

434

MRI in mouse developmental biology  

PubMed Central

Mice are used in many studies to determine the role of genetic and molecular factors in mammalian development and human congenital diseases. MRI has emerged as a major method for analyzing mutant and transgenic phenotypes in developing mice, at both embryonic and neonatal stages. Progress in this area is reviewed, with emphasis on the use of MRI to analyze cardiovascular and neural development in mice. Comparisons are made with other imaging technologies, including optical and ultrasound imaging, discussing the potential strengths and weaknesses of MRI and identifying the future challenges for MRI in mouse developmental biology. PMID:17451170

Turnbull, Daniel H.; Mori, Susumu

2009-01-01

435

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

436

Deletion of human GP1BB and SEPT5 is associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, platelet secretion defect, polymicrogyria, and developmental delay.  

PubMed

The bleeding disorder Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is caused by mutations in the genes coding for the platelet glycoprotein GPIb/IX receptor. The septin SEPT5 is important for active membrane movement such as vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in non-dividing cells (i.e. platelets, neurons). We report on a four-year-old boy with a homozygous deletion comprising not only glycoprotein Ib? (GP1BB) but also the SEPT5 gene, located 5' to GP1BB. He presented with BSS, cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. The homozygous deletion of GP1BB and SEPT5, which had been identified by PCR analyses, was confirmed by Southern analyses and denaturing HPLC (DHPLC). The parents were heterozygous for this deletion. Absence of GPIb? and SEPT5 proteins in the patient's platelets was illustrated using transmission electron microscopy. Besides decreased GPIb/IX expression, flow cytometry analyses revealed impaired platelet granule secretion. Because the bleeding disorder was extremely severe, the boy received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a HLA-identical unrelated donor. After successful engraftment of BMT, he had no more bleeding episodes. Interestingly, also his mental development improved strikingly after BMT. This report describes for the first time a patient with SEPT5 deficiency presenting with cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. PMID:21800012

Bartsch, Ingrid; Sandrock, Kirstin; Lanza, Francois; Nurden, Paquita; Hainmann, Ina; Pavlova, Anna; Greinacher, Andreas; Tacke, Uta; Barth, Michael; Busse, Anja; Oldenburg, Johannes; Bommer, Martin; Strahm, Brigitte; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Zieger, Barbara

2011-09-01

437

Nursing Perspectives on Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health care disparities have been documented in cancer screenings of adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities nurses were surveyed to better understand and improve this deficiency. Two thirds of respondents believed that adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities received fewer cancer…

Tyler, Carl V.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.; Panaite, Vanessa; Council, Linda

2010-01-01

438

Waiting for Instructions on Developmental English, or the Way We Do It in Manassas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental writing program at Northern Virginia Community College, Manassas Campus, deals with three concerns common to developmental writing teachers at two-year colleges. First, since most developmental writing teachers are unable to empathize with, or understand, their students, the Manassas program begins with exercises which acquaint…

Bizzaro, Patrick

439

Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

Irvine, Angela

2005-01-01

440

Patenting humans: Clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater\\u000a understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to\\u000a patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current\\u000a conflict over the

William B. Hurlbut

2005-01-01

441

Violation of Dollo's law: evidence of muscle reversions in primate phylogeny and their implications for the understanding of the ontogeny, evolution, and anatomical variations of modern humans.  

PubMed

According to Dollo's law, once a complex structure is lost it is unlikely to be reacquired. In this article, we report new data obtained from our myology-based cladistic analyses of primate phylogeny, which provide evidence of anatomical reversions violating Dollo's law: of the 220 character state changes unambiguously optimized in the most parsimonious primate tree, 28 (13%) are evolutionary reversions, and of these 28 reversions six (21%) occurred in the nodes that lead to the origin of modern humans; nine (32%) violate Dollo's law. In some of these nine cases, the structures that were lost in adults of the last common ancestor and are absent in adults of most subgroups of a clade are actually present in early ontogenetic stages of karyotypically normal individuals as well as in later ontogenetic stages of karyotypically abnormal members of those subgroups. Violations of Dollo's law may thus result from the maintenance of ancestral developmental pathways during long periods of trait absence preceding the reacquisition of the trait through paedomorphic events. For instance, the presence of contrahentes and intermetacarpales in adult chimpanzees is likely due to a prolonged/delayed development of the hand musculature, that is, in this case chimpanzees are more neotenic than modern humans. PMID:23025614

Diogo, Rui; Wood, Bernard

2012-10-01

442

The Developmental Perspective in Vocational Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If vocational psychology is to realize its potential as a developmental science, it must speak authoritatively on substantive questions of vocational development and integrate research findings with those of other fields. This will contribute to the larger framework of life-span human development. (Contains 36 references.) (Author/SK)

Vondracek, Fred W.

2001-01-01

443

The Psychiatrically Disturbed Developmentally Disabled Adult  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developmentally disabled adult with a concomitant psychiatric disorder presents special challenges to the medical and human service professions. When these patients are hospitalized for psychiatric reasons, they are likely to be admitted for short-term stays in general hospitals. With this information as a foundation, an inpatient behavioral treatment program, implemented by the authors, is presented. This program has been

H. Russell Searight; Jonathan J. Noce

1991-01-01

444

Pediatric HIV Infection and Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of the developmental disabilities associated with pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and examines efficacious practices for assessment and intervention programming. The focus population is early childhood into school age. The paper describes the complex array of challenges presented by these…

Seidel, John F.

445

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY: RISK ASSESSMENT AND THE FUTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This book is an outgrowth of the Guidelines for the Health' Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. n that document, several general areas of esearch were identified that were needed to fill data gaps or to reduce uncertainties associated with estimating risks for human de...

446