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1

Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

Generoso, W.M.

1989-01-01

2

The new dysmorphology: application of insights from basic developmental biology to the understanding of human birth defects.  

PubMed Central

Information obtained from studies of developmental and cellular processes in lower organisms is beginning to make significant contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human birth defects, and it is now becoming possible to treat birth defects as inborn errors of development. Mutations in genes for transcription factors, receptors, cell adhesion molecules, intercellular junctions, molecules involved in signal transduction, growth factors, structural proteins, enzymes, and transporters have been identified in genetically caused human malformations and dysplasias. The identification of these mutations and the analysis of their developmental effects have been greatly facilitated by the existence of natural or engineered models in the mouse and even of related mutations in Drosophila, and in some instances a remarkable conservation of function in development has been observed, even between widely separated species. PMID:7567976

Epstein, C J

1995-01-01

3

Developmental Approaches to Understanding and Treating Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade our understanding of early social communication development in young children with autism has undergone a remarkable change. We now know something about how young children with autism process the social world in a very different way from typical children. This has led to truly developmental models of autism. In turn, these have had profound impacts on

Tony Charman

2010-01-01

4

NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

5

The use of constructive-developmental theory to advance the understanding of leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructive-developmental theory is a stage theory of adult development that focuses on the growth and elaboration of a person's ways of understanding the self and the world. In this article we review how the constructive-developmental frameworks of Kegan [Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problem and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press], Torbert [Torbert, W. R. (1987).

Cynthia D. McCauley; Wilfred H. Drath; Charles J. Palus; Patricia M. G. O'Connor; Becca A. Baker

2006-01-01

6

Understanding the Human Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction to Molecular Medicine (pp. 153168). New York NY: Scientific American Inc.Understanding the Human GenomeDouglas L. Brutlag, Ph.D.There are many compelling reasons to determine the complete genetic information of thehuman organism. The genome contains the history of human evolution and specifies themechanism of human development; all humanity's physical capabilities and deficienciesare encoded in the genome. It is no wonder that

Douglas L. Brutlag

1994-01-01

7

Many human accelerated regions are developmental enhancers  

PubMed Central

The genetic changes underlying the dramatic differences in form and function between humans and other primates are largely unknown, although it is clear that gene regulatory changes play an important role. To identify regulatory sequences with potentially human-specific functions, we and others used comparative genomics to find non-coding regions conserved across mammals that have acquired many sequence changes in humans since divergence from chimpanzees. These regions are good candidates for performing human-specific regulatory functions. Here, we analysed the DNA sequence, evolutionary history, histone modifications, chromatin state and transcription factor (TF) binding sites of a combined set of 2649 non-coding human accelerated regions (ncHARs) and predicted that at least 30% of them function as developmental enhancers. We prioritized the predicted ncHAR enhancers using analysis of TF binding site gain and loss, along with the functional annotations and expression patterns of nearby genes. We then tested both the human and chimpanzee sequence for 29 ncHARs in transgenic mice, and found 24 novel developmental enhancers active in both species, 17 of which had very consistent patterns of activity in specific embryonic tissues. Of these ncHAR enhancers, five drove expression patterns suggestive of different activity for the human and chimpanzee sequence at embryonic day 11.5. The changes to human non-coding DNA in these ncHAR enhancers may modify the complex patterns of gene expression necessary for proper development in a human-specific manner and are thus promising candidates for understanding the genetic basis of human-specific biology. PMID:24218637

Capra, John A.; Erwin, Genevieve D.; McKinsey, Gabriel; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

2013-01-01

8

Understanding non-work relationships in developmental networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore the different contributions of work and non-work relationships that comprise individuals' developmental networks to career success. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multi-method approach provides a rich understanding of how work and non-work developmental relationships combine to support individuals' careers. Survey data were analyzed from 254 working adults who were also part-time MBA

Wendy Marcinkus Murphy; Kathy E. Kram

2010-01-01

9

How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

Pennington, Bruce F.

2009-01-01

10

Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a crosssectional design. Results indicated that the…

Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

2013-01-01

11

Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders' fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross-sectional design. Results indicated that the…

Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

2013-01-01

12

DEVELOPMENTAL IMMUNOTOXICITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To compile literature information for web-based dissemination. The report will be on our current understanding of the science of development of the immune system, to provide examples of perturbations that can be brought about by environmental agents and that could produce effects...

13

Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz  

E-print Network

, security and surveillance, and data collection for the social sciences. I believe that understanding human in AI, in areas such as story understanding and commonsense reasoning, tried to tackle the problem head, without first solving AI-complete problems of vision or language understanding; and third, there were

Kautz, Henry

14

Stacking of blocks by chimpanzees: developmental processes and physical understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stacking-block task has been used to assess cognitive development in both humans and chimpanzees. The present study reports\\u000a three aspects of stacking behavior in chimpanzees: spontaneous development, acquisition process following training, and physical\\u000a understanding assessed through a cylindrical-block task. Over 3 years of longitudinal observation of block manipulation, one\\u000a of three infant chimpanzees spontaneously started to stack up cubic

Misato Hayashi

2007-01-01

15

Developmental and Individual Differences in Understanding of Fractions  

PubMed Central

We examined developmental and individual differences in 6th and 8th graders’ fraction arithmetic and overall mathematics achievement and related them to differences in understanding of fraction magnitudes, whole number division, executive functioning, and metacognitive judgments within a cross sectional design. Results indicated that the difference between low achieving and higher achieving children’s fraction arithmetic knowledge, already substantial in 6th grade, was much greater in 8th grade. The fraction arithmetic knowledge of low achieving children was similar in the two grades, whereas higher achieving children showed much greater knowledge in 8th than 6th grade, despite both groups having been in the same classrooms, using the same textbooks, and having the same teachers and classmates. Individual differences in both fraction arithmetic and mathematics achievement test scores were predicted by differences in fraction magnitude knowledge and whole number division, even after the contributions of reading achievement and executive functioning were statistically controlled. Instructional implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:23244401

Siegler, Robert S.; Pyke, Aryn A.

2014-01-01

16

Modeling anesthetic developmental neurotoxicity using human stem cells  

PubMed Central

Mounting pre-clinical evidence in rodents and non-human primates has demonstrated that prolonged exposure of developing animals to general anesthetics can induce widespread neuronal cell death followed by long-term memory and learning disabilities. In vitro experimental evidence from cultured neonatal animal neurons confirmed the in vivo findings. However, there is no direct clinical evidence of the detrimental effects of anesthetics in human fetuses, infants, or children. Development of an in vitro neurogenesis system using human stem cells has opened up avenues of research for advancing our understanding of human brain development and the issues relevant to anesthetic-induced developmental toxicity in human neuronal lineages. Recent studies from our group, as well as other groups, showed that isoflurane influences human neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis, while ketamine induces neuroapoptosis. Application of this high throughput in vitro stem cell neurogenesis approach is a major stride toward assuring the safety of anesthetic agents in young children. This in vitro human model allows us to (1) screen the toxic effects of various anesthetics under controlled conditions during intense neuronal growth, (2) find the trigger for the anesthetic-induced catastrophic chain of toxic events, and (3) develop prevention strategies to avoid this toxic effect. In this paper, we reviewed the current findings in anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity studies, specifically focusing on the in vitro human stem cell model. PMID:23859832

Bai, Xiaowen; Twaroski, Danielle; Bosnjak, Zeljko J.

2013-01-01

17

Understanding empathy: Integrating counseling, developmental, and social psychology perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the literature of social and developmental psychology on empathy theory and research. These 2 subdisciplines differ in their definitions and measures from each other, as well as from the counseling\\/psychotherapy area. At the same time, all 3 disciplines identify 2 major types of empathy: (a) affective empathy, or feeling the same way as another person, and (b) cognitive or

Gerald A. Gladstein

1983-01-01

18

Understanding Peace and War: A Review of Developmental Psychology Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies of children's and adolescents' understanding of peace and war. Maintains that findings are influenced by measurement procedures and design and by a number of variables. Notes that recent studies suggest a relationship between understanding of interpersonal relationships and understanding of peace. Other variables such as social…

Hakvoort, Ilse; Oppenheimer, Louis

1998-01-01

19

Development itself is the key to understanding developmental disorders.  

PubMed

It is a truism that development involves contributions from both genes and environment, but theories differ with respect to the roles they attribute to each, which deeply affects the ways in which developmental disorders are researched. The strict nativist approach to abnormal phenotypes, inspired by adult neuropsychology and evolutionary psychology, seeks to identify impairments to domain-specific cognitive modules and studies the purported juxtaposition of impaired and intact abilities. The neuroconstructivist approach differs in several respects: (i) it seeks more indirect, lower-level causes of abnormality than impaired cognitive modules; (ii)modules are thought to emerge from a developmental process of modularization; (iii) unlike empiricism, neuroconstructivism accepts some form of innately specified starting points, but unlike nativism, these are considered to be initially `domain-relevant', only becoming domain-specific with the process of development and specific environmental interactions; and (iv) different cognitive disorders are considered to lie on a continuum rather than to be truly specific. These alternative theoretical positions are briefly considered as they apply to Specific Language Impairment, and followed by a more detailed case study of a well-defined neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams syndrome. It is argued that development itself plays a crucial role in phenotypical outcomes. PMID:21227254

Karmiloff-Smith, A

1998-10-01

20

Non-Human Primates: Model Animals for Developmental Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-human primates have been used to model psychiatric disease for several decades. The success of this paradigm has issued from comparable cognitive skills, brain morphology, and social complexity in adult monkeys and humans. Recently, interest in biological psychiatry has focused on similar brain, social, and emotional developmental processes in monkeys. In part, this is related to evidence that early postnatal

Eric E Nelson; James T Winslow

2009-01-01

21

Transcriptional profiling of the developmentally important signalling pathways in human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) maintain their 'stemness' by self-renewal. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain to be elucidated. In this study, expression profiles of the molecules of developmentally important signalling pathways were investigated to better understand the relationships of the signalling pathways for self-renewal in hESC. METHODS: Two human ESC lines were

Jeung-Yon Rho; Kweon Yu; Jee-Soo Han; Jung-Il Chae; Deog-Bon Koo; Hyun-Soo Yoon; Shin-Yong Moon; Kyung-Kwang Lee; Yong-Mahn Han

22

Understanding adverse events: human factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods

J. Reason

1995-01-01

23

Understanding Peace and War: A Review of Developmental Psychology Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades the number of studies dealing with the developing understanding of peace and war among children and adolescents has considerably increased. No coherent overview is available despite this increase. The purpose of this review is to address this absence and to offer a systematic discussion of early and contemporary studies. Besides the absence of a coherent review,

Ilse Hakvoort; Louis Oppenheimer

1998-01-01

24

Developmental Aspects of the Ability to Understand Semantic Ambiguity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesized ability of adult native speakers to understand linguistic ambiguity was tested. An approach developed to determine linguistic competence tested the ability of 90 participants in individual interviews to interpret sentences having the potential for multiple interpretations. The hypothesis was not supported by the data. A hierarchy…

Brause, Rita S.

25

Evolutionary and developmental foundations of human knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook souffl?s, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this

Marc D. Hauser; Elizabeth Spelke

26

Developmental scenario analysis of Smalltalk programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand long-term learning and the acquisition of expertise, human-computer interaction needs to take a developmental turn. Adopting a developmental approach means using longitudinal research methods, building developmental sequence models of the acquisition of expertise, and analyzing tasks as scenarios specific to developmental levels. The psychology of programming seems particularly amenable to a developmental approach because of the

Robert L. Campbell

1990-01-01

27

Development and developmental disorders of the human cerebellum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human cerebellum develops over a long time, extending from the early embryonic period until the first postnatal years. This protracted development makes the cerebellum vulnerable to a broad spectrum of developmental disorders. The development of the cerebellum occurs in four basic steps: 1) characterization of the cerebellar territory at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary; 2) formation of two compartments for cell

H. J. ten Donkelaar; M. Lammens; P. Wesseling; H. O. Thijssen; W. O. Renier

2003-01-01

28

Understanding Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Reply to Ghetti (2008) and Howe (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

S. Ghetti (2008) and M. L. Howe (2008) presented probative ideas for future research that will deepen scientific understanding of developmental reversals on false memory and establish boundary conditions for these counterintuitive patterns. Ghetti extended the purview of current theoretical principles by formulating hypotheses about how…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Ceci, S. J.; Holliday, R. E.

2008-01-01

29

Theory of Mind "Beliefs", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of development of ToM belief abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM belief abilities were examined. EDEI-R [Perron-Borelli M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

30

Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

31

Evolvability in the face of climate change: understanding developmental effects on bone and its ecological consequences  

E-print Network

Evolvability in the face of climate change: understanding developmental effects on bone and its on ossification? 4) Do changes in ossification and bone shape in relation to temperature have adaptive functional of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences, University

Guo, Zaoyang

32

Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV\\/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as

Kristine L. Landry-Boozer

2003-01-01

33

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-06-01

34

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-01-01

35

Understanding complexity in the human brain  

E-print Network

Understanding complexity in the human brain Danielle S. Bassett1 and Michael S. Gazzaniga2 1 the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its work- ings of mind­brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neu- roscientific studies are coupled

Gazzaniga, Michael

36

Understanding Movement in Humans and Robots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand how a LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robot moves using motors and wheels. Then students relate the concepts of decision-making actuation and motion in humans to their parallels in mechanized robots, and understand the common themes associated with movement.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center, College of Engineering,

37

Developmental covariation of human vault and base throughout postnatal ontogeny.  

PubMed

In the present study, we analyzed postnatal ontogenetic integration among morphological traits of the human neurocranium. Particularly, the covariation between the vault and the base during postnatal life was assessed. Since the association between these regions may depend on the generalized change produced by allometry, we tested its effect on their covariation. On a sample of adults and subadults ranging from 0 to 31 years, 3D coordinates of neurocranial landmarks and semilandmarks were digitized and geometric morphometric technics were applied. Main aspects of shape variation were examined using Principal Components analysis. Covariation between the vault and the base was examined by Partial Least Squares analysis. According to our results, the vault and the base covary strongly during postnatal ontogeny and their relation depends largely on allometry. Two size variables were studied: centroid size, which was obtained from the recorded morphometric points, and endocranial volume, taken as an estimation of brain size. Although growing brain was found to be a developmental process that contributes to covariation among neurocranial traits, there would be other factors that exert their influence during ontogeny. These results lead to reconsider cranial morphological evolution taking into account the developmental constraints given by ontogenetic patterns of integration and reinforcing the idea that in human evolution a suite of relevant characters may be fuelled by few developmental processes. PMID:25458178

Barbeito-Andrés, Jimena; Ventrice, Fernando; Anzelmo, Marisol; Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Sardi, Marina L

2015-01-01

38

Understanding human management of automation errors  

PubMed Central

Automation has the potential to aid humans with a diverse set of tasks and support overall system performance. Automated systems are not always reliable, and when automation errs, humans must engage in error management, which is the process of detecting, understanding, and correcting errors. However, this process of error management in the context of human-automation interaction is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the variables that contribute to error management. We examined relevant research in human-automation interaction and human error to identify critical automation, person, task, and emergent variables. We propose a framework for management of automation errors to incorporate and build upon previous models. Further, our analysis highlights variables that may be addressed through design and training to positively influence error management. Additional efforts to understand the error management process will contribute to automation designed and implemented to support safe and effective system performance. PMID:25383042

McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

2013-01-01

39

Ecological Human Brain and Young Children's "Naturalist Intelligence" from the Perspective of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice (DCAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that young children have a different intellectual culture from adults' in the way they know and understand nature, this paper explores ecological human brain development, children's intellectual culture of naturalist intelligence, and developmentally and culturally congruent curricula for young children. The paper discusses the…

Hyun, Eunsook

40

The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging Students' Understanding of Evolutionary Developmental Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011 report "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" encourages the teaching of developmental biology as an important part of teaching evolution. Recently, however, we found that biology majors often lack the developmental knowledge needed to understand evolutionary…

Perez, Kathryn E.; Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K.; Trujillo, Caleb; French, Donald P.; Terry, Mark; Price, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

41

If you could turn back time: understanding transgenerational latent effects of developmental exposure to contaminants.  

PubMed

Latent effects result from embryonic experiences but manifest in later stages of ontogeny. Our objective was to better understand how developmental exposure to contaminants influence life history traits and tolerance to novel stress in the freshwater gastropod, Physa pomilia. Ten egg masses were exposed to each of three initial treatments including control, 2.5 ?g/L cadmium (Cd), and 10 ?g/L Cd; there was no effect of this initial treatment on hatching success. At hatching, snails were transferred to cadmium-free water. Three weeks later, snails were divided among four secondary treatments including control, 50 ?g/L Cd, 150 ?g/L Cd, and 35 °C. Developmental Cd exposure plus secondary temperature stress caused the most adverse effects. Surprisingly, developmental Cd exposure alone was enough to cause significant decreases in reproductive success a generation later. That effects can manifest as transgenerational decrements in reproductive success suggests that latent effects are important and have longer lasting consequences than previously considered. PMID:24121266

Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J

2014-01-01

42

Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as children are exposed to relevant content and have opportunities to organize this information, their theories become more accurate and differentiated. According to this perspective, there are no broad structural constraints on developing concepts, as asserted by cognitive developmental theorists. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to provide support for both theoretical perspectives, while at the same time to explore children's conceptualizations of the immune system, which has not been done previously in the cognitive-developmental literature. One hundred ninety children ranging in age from 4 years old through 11 years old, and a group of adults, participated. Each participant was interviewed regarding health concepts and the body's function in maintaining health. Participants were also asked to report if they had certain experiences that would have led to relevant content exposure. Qualitative analyses were utilized to code the interviews with rubrics based on both theoretical perspectives. Quantitative analyses consisted of a series of univariate ANOVAs (and post hoc tests when appropriate) examining all three coding variables (accuracy, differentiation, and developmental level) across various age-group combinations and exposure groups. Results of these analyses provided support for both theoretical perspectives. When the data were analyzed for developmental level by all ages, a stage-like progression consistent with Piagetian stages emerged. When accuracy and differentiation were examined (intuitive theories perspective), discrete groups could not be formed. Instead, a gradual increase in accuracy and differentiation was observed. Additional support for this perspective was found when the responses of participants who had additional exposure provided responses that were more accurate, differentiated, and sophisticated than those of participants with no additional exposure. Theoretical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

Landry-Boozer, Kristine L.

43

Evaluation of developmental toxicity using undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

An embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been developed to evaluate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals with an in vitro system. In the present study, novel methods to screen toxic chemicals during the developmental process were evaluated using undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells. By using surface marker antigens (SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), we confirmed undifferentiated conditions of the used hES cells by immunocytochemistry. We assessed the developmental toxicity of embryotoxic chemicals, 5-fluorouracil, indomethacin and non-embryotoxic penicillin G in different concentrations for up to 7 days. While expressions of the surface markers were not significantly affected, the embryotoxic chemicals influenced their response to pluripotent ES cell markers, such as OCT-4, NANOG, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB), secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2), teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 (TDGF1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Most of the pluripotent ES cell markers were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with embryotoxic chemicals. After treatment with 5-fluorouracil, indomethacin and penicillin G, we observed a remarkable convergence in the degree of up-regulation of development, cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes by gene expression profiles using an Affymetrix GeneChips. Taken together, these results suggest that embryotoxic chemicals have cytotoxic effects, and modulate the expression of ES cell markers as well as development-, cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes that have pivotal roles in undifferentiated hES cells. Therefore, we suggest that hES cells may be useful for testing the toxic effects of chemicals that could impact the embryonic developmental stage. PMID:24737281

Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Yeo-ul; Kang, Hong-Seok; Yang, Hyun; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Yang, Jun-young; Choi, Ki Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2015-02-01

44

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

45

The juvenile transition: A developmental switch point in human life history  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the “juvenile transition” is a developmental switch point in the human life history, when

Marco Del Giudice; Romina Angeleri; Valeria Manera

2009-01-01

46

A REVIEW OF HUMAN STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many pesticides cxause reproductive or developmental toxicity at high doses in animal models, but effects in humans at environmental exposure levels are difficult to assess. Human data on reproductive and developmental outcomes for currently used pesticides may help to define ris...

47

Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

West, Paul R., E-mail: pwest@stemina.co [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, Gabriela G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Animal Sciences, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2010-08-15

48

Being Human: A Handbook in Human Growth and Development for the Developmentally Disabled.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook is intended to provide practitioners with information on establishing and organizing a Human Growth and Development program in agencies and facilities which provide training to developmentally disabled persons. The handbook discusses the legal foundation (Florida law) for establishing the program as well as specific methods for…

Fletcher, Donna; Ogle, Peggy

49

Developmental differences in methylation of human Alu repeats.  

PubMed Central

Alu repeats are especially rich in CpG dinucleotides, the principal target sites for DNA methylation in eukaryotes. The methylation state of Alus in different human tissues is investigated by simple, direct genomic blot analysis exploiting recent theoretical and practical advances concerning Alu sequence evolution. Whereas Alus are almost completely methylated in somatic tissues such as spleen, they are hypomethylated in the male germ line and tissues which depend on the differential expression of the paternal genome complement for development. In particular, we have identified a subset enriched in young Alus whose CpGs appear to be almost completely unmethylated in sperm DNA. The existence of this subset potentially explains the conservation of CpG dinucleotides in active Alu source genes. These profound, sequence-specific developmental changes in the methylation state of Alu repeats suggest a function for Alu sequences at the DNA level, such as a role in genomic imprinting. Images PMID:8336699

Hellmann-Blumberg, U; Hintz, M F; Gatewood, J M; Schmid, C W

1993-01-01

50

Chol understandings of suicide and human agency.  

PubMed

According to ethnographic material collected since 2003, the Chol Mayan indigenous people in southern Mexico have different causal explanations for suicide. It can be attributed to witchcraft that forces victims to take their lives against their own will, to excessive drinking, or to fate determined by God. However, it can also be conceived of as a conscious decision made by a person overwhelmed by daily problems. Drawing from the theoretical framework developed by Laura M. Ahearn, inspired by practice theory, the paper contends that these different explanations operate within two different logics or understandings of human agency. The first logic attributes responsibility to supernatural causes such as witchcraft or divine destiny, and reflects Chol notions of personhood. The second logic accepts personal responsibility for suicide, and is related to processes of social change such as the introduction of wage labor, education and a market economy. The contemporary Chol resort to both logics to make sense of the human drama of suicide. PMID:22382678

Imberton, Gracia

2012-06-01

51

Understanding the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms: a developmental examination.  

PubMed

Self-discrepancy theory (SDT) is one framework for understanding how goal failure is associated with depressive symptoms. The present studies sought to examine the variance in depressive symptoms explained by actual:ideal discrepancies, beyond what is accounted for by actual-self ratings. Additionally, gender and grade were examined as potential moderators in the relationship. In Study 1 (N = 228), discrepancies accounted for additional variance in the level of depressive symptoms beyond what was explained by actual-self ratings in a college sample. In Study 2 (N = 192), while similar global patterns were found, gender and grade differences emerged. For boys, the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms was due to actual-self ratings. For girls, a developmental pattern suggested that actual:ideal discrepancies become more important to the prediction of depressive symptoms among older girls. Implications for the emergence of the discrepancy-depression association are discussed. PMID:24931564

Stevens, Erin N; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

2014-07-01

52

Bisphenol A and congenital developmental defects in humans.  

PubMed

Over 50% of the causes of fetal malformations in humans are still unknown. Recent evidence suggests the relationship between environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors and fetal malformations. Our study aims to establish the role of Bisphenol A (BPA), if any, in altering human reproduction. We enrolled 151 pregnant women who were divided into two groups: case group (CS, n=101), women with established diagnosis of developmental defect, and control group (CL, n=50), pregnant women with normally developed fetus. Total, free and conjugated BPA were measured in their blood using GC-MS with isotopic dilution. The results show a correlation between environmental exposure to BPA and the genesis of fetal malformations. Conjugated BPA, which was higher in the CL, casts light on the hypothesis that a reduced ability to metabolize the chemical in the mother can concur to the occurrence of malformation. In a more detailed manner, in case of chromosomal malformations, the average value of free BPA appears to be nearly three times greater than that of the controls. Similarly, in case of central and peripheral nervous system non-chromosomal malformations, the value of free BPA is nearly two times greater than that of the controls. PMID:25796969

Guida, Maurizio; Troisi, Jacopo; Ciccone, Carla; Granozio, Giovanni; Cosimato, Cosimo; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Ferrara, Cinzia; Guida, Marco; Nappi, Carmine; Zullo, Fulvio; Di Carlo, Costantino

2015-04-01

53

Understanding the Human Genome 1 Brutlag, D. L. (1994). Understanding the Human Genome. In Leder, P., Clayton, D. A. and  

E-print Network

Understanding the Human Genome 1 Brutlag, D. L. (1994). Understanding the Human Genome. In Leder, P- 168). New York NY: Scientific American Inc. Understanding the Human Genome Douglas L. Brutlag, Ph.D. There are many compelling reasons to determine the complete genetic information of the human organism. The genome

Brutlag, Doug

54

Understanding Immigrant College Students: Applying a Developmental Ecology Framework to the Practice of Academic Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigrant college student populations continue to grow, but the complexity of their unique needs and issues remain relatively unknown. To gain a better understanding of the multiple contextual factors impacting immigrant students from a systems-based approach, I applied Bronfenbrenner's (1977) human ecology framework to the study. Students…

Stebleton, Michael J.

2011-01-01

55

Understanding human perception by human-made illusions  

PubMed Central

It may be fun to perceive illusions, but the understanding of how they work is even more stimulating and sustainable: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found—they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception. PMID:25132816

Carbon, Claus-Christian

2014-01-01

56

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical ‘toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Jr., Edward W.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

2014-01-01

57

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

2014-10-01

58

Middle Pleistocene human facial morphology in an evolutionary and developmental context.  

PubMed

Neanderthals and modern humans exhibit distinct facial architectures. The patterning of facial morphology of their predecessors, the Middle Pleistocene humans, is more mosaic showing a mix of archaic and modern morphologies. Significant changes in facial size and robusticity occurred throughout Pleistocene human evolution, resulting in temporal trends in both facial reduction and enlargement. However, the allometric patterning in facial morphology in archaic humans is not well understood. This study explores temporal trends in facial morphology in order to gain a clearer understanding of the polarity of features, and describes the allometric patterning of facial shape. The modern human sample comprises cross-sectional growth series of four morphologically distinct human populations. The fossil sample covers specimens from the Middle Pleistocene to the Upper Paleolithic. We digitized landmarks and semilandmarks on surface and computed tomography scans and analyzed the Procrustes shape coordinates. Principal component analyses were performed, and Procrustes distances were used to identify phenetic similarities between fossil hominins. In order to explore the influence of size on facial features, allometric trajectories were calculated for fossil and modern human groups, and developmental simulations were performed. We show that facial features can be used to separate Pleistocene humans into temporal clusters. The distinctly modern human pattern of facial morphology is already present around 170 ka. Species- and population-specific facial features develop before two years of age, and several of the large-scale facial differences between Neanderthals and Middle Pleistocene humans are due to scaling along a shared allometric trajectory. These features include aspects of the frontal bone, browridge morphology, nasal aperture size and facial prognathism. Infraorbital surface topography and orientation of the midface in the European Middle Pleistocene hominins is intermediate between the African Middle Pleistocene and Neanderthal condition. This could suggest that the European Middle Pleistocene hominins display incipient Neanderthal features. PMID:22981042

Freidline, Sarah E; Gunz, Philipp; Harvati, Katerina; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2012-11-01

59

A Human Integrin-?3 Mutation Confers Major Renal Developmental Defects  

PubMed Central

The development of the mammalian kidney is a highly complex process dependent upon the interplay of various cell types, secreted morphogens, and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Although integrins are the most important receptors for ECM proteins and are ubiquitously expressed during kidney development, mice lacking expression of integrin ?3 (Itga3) do not demonstrate a reduced number of nephrons, but mostly a disorganized GBM (glomerular basement membrane) leading to proteinuria. Thus, ITGA3 is considered mostly a passive GBM stabilizer and not an active player in nephrogenesis. Recently, mutations in the human ITGA3 were shown to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa and interstitial lung disease, otherwise termed NEP syndrome (Nephrotic syndrome, Epidermolysis bullosa and Pulmonary disease). Herein, we performed histological and molecular analysis on the kidneys of a single patient from the initial cohort harboring an ITGA3 mutation, to illuminate the role of ITGA3 in human renal development. We show the patient to harbor a unique phenotype at birth, including severe unilateral renal hypodysplasia. Interrogation of global gene expression in the hypodysplastic kidney versus three controls (fetal, child and adult kidneys) revealed perturbed expression in several renal developmental pathways implicated in hypodysplasia, including the Wnt, BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and TGF (transforming growth factor) pathways. Moreover, the affected kidney showed upregulation of early embryonic genes (e.g. OCT4 and PAX8) concomitant with downregulated kidney differentiation markers, implying a defect in proper renal differentiation. In conclusion, we show for the first time that ITGA3 is not merely a passive anchor for renal ECM proteins, as predicted by mouse models. Instead, our results may suggest it plays a central role in the interplay of cells, morphogens and ECM, required for proper nephrogenesis, thus adding ITGA3 to the list of CAKUT (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract)-causing genes. PMID:24621570

Pleniceanu, Oren; Vax, Einav; Anikster, Yair

2014-01-01

60

Social Understanding and Social Lives: From Toddlerhood through to the Transition to School. Essays in Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past thirty years, researchers have documented a remarkable growth in children's social understanding between toddlerhood and the early school years. However, it is still unclear why some children's awareness of others' thoughts and feelings lags so far behind that of their peers. Based on research that spans an extended developmental

Hughes, Claire

2011-01-01

61

FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

62

The Role of Mathematical Models in Understanding Pattern Formation in Developmental Biology.  

PubMed

In a Wall Street Journal article published on April 5, 2013, E. O. Wilson attempted to make the case that biologists do not really need to learn any mathematics-whenever they run into difficulty with numerical issues, they can find a technician (aka mathematician) to help them out of their difficulty. He formalizes this in Wilsons Principle No. 1: "It is far easier for scientists to acquire needed collaboration from mathematicians and statisticians than it is for mathematicians and statisticians to find scientists able to make use of their equations." This reflects a complete misunderstanding of the role of mathematics in all sciences throughout history. To Wilson, mathematics is mere number crunching, but as Galileo said long ago, "The laws of Nature are written in the language of mathematics[Formula: see text] the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word." Mathematics has moved beyond the geometry-based model of Galileo's time, and in a rebuttal to Wilson, E. Frenkel has pointed out the role of mathematics in synthesizing the general principles in science (Both point and counter-point are available in Wilson and Frenkel in Notices Am Math Soc 60(7):837-838, 2013). We will take this a step further and show how mathematics has been used to make new and experimentally verified discoveries in developmental biology and how mathematics is essential for understanding a problem that has puzzled experimentalists for decades-that of how organisms can scale in size. Mathematical analysis alone cannot "solve" these problems since the validation lies at the molecular level, but conversely, a growing number of questions in biology cannot be solved without mathematical analysis and modeling. Herein, we discuss a few examples of the productive intercourse between mathematics and biology. PMID:25280665

Umulis, David M; Othmer, Hans G

2014-10-01

63

Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast Trade-Mark-Sign chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox Registered-Sign model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal development and pregnancy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arginine, proline, nicotinate, nicotinamide and glutathione pathways were affected.

Kleinstreuer, N.C., E-mail: kleinstreuer.nicole@epa.gov [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir-Hauptman, A.M. [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States)] [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States); Palmer, J.A. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J. [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States)] [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Donley, E.L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, G.G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States) [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2011-11-15

64

Machine Understanding of Human Behavior Maja Pantic1,3  

E-print Network

Machine Understanding of Human Behavior Maja Pantic1,3 , Alex Pentland2 , Anton Nijholt3 and Thomas, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and pro- jecting the human user computing, should be about anticipatory user interfaces that should be human-centered, built for humans

Nijholt, Anton

65

Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

66

Ecological Approaches to Understanding Human Crowding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics of the ecological approach to perception are presented. The affordance concept and its relevance is emphasized. Human crowding is discussed in affordance terms. There is a comparison given between present affordance analysis and ecological analysis. (Author/SA)

Baron, Reuben M.

1979-01-01

67

Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

68

Understanding Developmental Systems in Adolescence: Implications for Methodological Strategies, Data Analytic Approaches, and Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses contemporary theories of adolescence, stressing developmental systems models that integrate individual and contextual levels of analysis. Maintains that adolescence should be studied with multivariate-longitudinal designs, change-sensitive measures, and data analytic strategies capitalizing on triangulation across quantitative and…

Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; De Stefanis, Imma; Apfel, Alison

2001-01-01

69

A MODE-OF-ACTION-BASED QSAR APPROACH TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

QSAR models of developmental toxicity (devtox) have met with limited regulatory acceptance due to the use of ill-defined endpoints, lack of biological interpretability, and poor model performance. More generally, the lack of biological inference of many QSAR models is often due t...

70

Friendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships  

E-print Network

, a robot system can estimate a human's subjective evaluation of the robot by observing his/her body-attention mechanism [7]. In these systems, the robots identify humans' intentions from their behaviors. FurthermoreFriendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships Takayuki Kanda 1 , Rumi Sato

Kanda, Takayuki

71

Human Behavior Understanding for Robotics Albert Ali Salah1  

E-print Network

Human Behavior Understanding for Robotics Albert Ali Salah1 , Javier Ruiz-del-Solar2 , C¸etin Meri, France pierre-yves.oudeyer@inria.fr Abstract. Human behavior is complex, but structured along individual to correctly interpret, predict and respond to human behaviors. This paper discusses the scientific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

A Retrospective Appraisal of the Ability of Animal Tests To Predict Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive and developmental toxicology areas have undergone numerous changes in the 30 years since the thalidomide tragedy. It would be comforting if such changes have resulted in a greatly decreased likelihood that human conceptuses will develop malformations. However, there is little evidence that such testing has better enabled us to identify human reproductive or developmental toxicants. Although there may

Thomas A. Marks

1991-01-01

73

Understanding African American Adolescents’ Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

74

Understanding human-induced climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many difficulties in communicating the urgency of human-induced climate change. In this paper we focus on two. The assumption of no climate change is pervasive in scientific circles and elsewhere, unless proven otherwise, in spite of global studies to the contrary. This exceedingly conservative approach produces Type II errors: a false negative. It wrongly concludes there is no human influence, when there is. This kind of error is very common! And it is perpetrated by climate scientists. It is exacerbated by shortcomings in datasets (length, inhomogeneities) and models (inability to replicate the phenomenon of interest (hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms, monsoons, blocking) owing to grid sizes and numerical constraints, and model errors.) The result is a gross understatement of the human influence on climate. The second issue is distinguishing weather versus climate. We ask "even if there is a well determined climate change, say 2°C increase in global mean temperature 50 years from now, how would the weather be different?" In fact much of the time the weather would be familiar - except perhaps occurring at different times of the year. The 2012 "June temperatures in March" in the United States is a case in point. Hence the main impacts occur when records are broken in summer, when conditions go well outside of any previously experienced, as has happened in the United States in 2011 and 2012, and Russia in 2010. The resulting widespread droughts, heat waves and wildfires have been devastating. Breaking records at other times of the year can leave a mark (warmer winters, more bugs etc) but seem more benign although not to ecosystems.

Trenberth, K. E.

2012-12-01

75

A developmental social psychology of identity: understanding the person-in-context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay focuses on the socialization of identity formation. It provides a theory about the developmental social psychology of identity. A set of propositions are derived from the authors'reading, research, cultural observations and clinical experience regarding adolescent identity formation. The essay covers the socialization process, nature of the self, processes of growth and development, person-in-context, and a statement on the

GERALD R. ADAMS; SHEILA K. MARSHALL

1996-01-01

76

Toward An Understanding of Developmental Coordination Disorder: Terminological and Diagnostic Issues  

PubMed Central

Awareness of children who experience unexpected difficulty in the acquisition of motor skills has increased dramatically over the last twenty years. Although the positing of a distinct syndrome has proven seminal in provoking further questions, several basic terminological problems remain unresolved. In this paper, we conduct a component analysis of the three, principal competing labels for this disorder, two of them being elements derived from systematic diagnostic frameworks. Our preference for the DSM IV term Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is stated find justified. Problems in diagnosis are discussed, especially in relation to the etiology-dominated medical model. We argue that an attempt should be made to identify (pathological) positive signs that can reliably be detected rather than relying entirely on normative evidence of a lack of skills exhibited by other children of the same age. The high degree of overlap between DCD and other developmental disorders suggests that DCD might not constitute a distinct syndrome. In this context, we emphasize the need to determine whether incoordination takes a different form when it occurs alone or whether it is combined with general developmental delay or with other specific disorders in children of normal intelligence. PMID:14640303

Henderson, Sheila E.; Henderson, Leslie

2003-01-01

77

Understanding complexity in the human brain  

PubMed Central

Although the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its workings relate to the mind, the majority of current efforts are largely focused on small questions using increasingly detailed data. However, it might be possible to successfully address the larger question of mind–brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neuroscientific studies are coupled with complementary approaches from physics and philosophy. The brain, we argue, can be understood as a complex system or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. Achieving further conceptual progress will crucially depend on broad-scale discussions regarding the properties of cognition and the tools that are currently available or must be developed in order to study mind–brain mechanisms. PMID:21497128

Bassett, Danielle S.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

2011-01-01

78

Commentary: Developmental connectomics to advance our understanding of typical and atypical brain development - a commentary on Vértes and Bullmore ().  

PubMed

Vértes and Bullmore's article lays a framework for applying connectomics, the study of brain function from the perspective of underlying network organization, to advance understanding of healthy and maladaptive brain development. They elucidate the power of connectomics for bridging both different levels of analysis (e.g. from synapses to brain regions) and multiple academic fields. In this commentary, we highlight important themes and remaining questions stemming from Vértes and Bullmore's work, including: (a) the application of connectomics in the context of integrating analyses across multiple spatial and temporal dimensions, (b) the extent to which connectomics might be applied in translational and clinical studies of development, (c) growth connectomics and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and (d) the importance and complexity of sound methodological practices in applying connectomics to developmental and clinical science. Ongoing work in these areas will be important for fulfilling the promise of connectomics as a bridge between neuroscience, developmental science, and translational and clinical research. PMID:25714740

Graham, Alice M; Fair, Damien A

2015-03-01

79

Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

2004-01-01

80

Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and low-technology environments to urban residence, formal schooling, commerce, and high-technology environments. The former ecology is summarized

Patricia M. Greenfield

2009-01-01

81

The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

2009-01-01

82

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

83

The Hazards of Human Developmental Gene Modification BY STUART A. NEWMAN  

E-print Network

The Hazards of Human Developmental Gene Modification BY STUART A. NEWMAN T he completion of one DNA sequences-is certain to give new impetus to propos- als to utilize genetics to refashion hu- man, pre-implantation DNA analysis, im- proved techniques for gene transfer, insertion, or conversion

Newman, Stuart A.

84

Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

Greenfield, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

85

Triclosan Decreases Rat Thyroxine: Mode-of-Action, Developmental Susceptibility and Human Relevance  

EPA Science Inventory

Triclosan (TCS) decreases serum thyroxine (T4) in the rat. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used to address three uncertainties: by what mode-of-action (MOA) does TCS decrease T4; does TCS decrease T4 developmentally; and, are effects observed in rats relevant to humans? To t...

86

Characterization of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Models for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening  

EPA Science Inventory

Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating two different human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) models for their utility in screens for...

87

"Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2004-01-01

88

The Sociometer: A Wearable Device for Understanding Human Networks  

E-print Network

The Sociometer: A Wearable Device for Understanding Human Networks Tanzeem Choudhury and Alex of human communication networks. Knowledge of how people interact is important in many disciplines, e.g. organizational behavior, social network analysis and knowledge management applications such as expert finding

89

Absence of Developmental and Unconventional Myosin Heavy Chain in Human Suprahyoid Muscles  

PubMed Central

Introduction Contradictory reports of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of adult human suprahyoid muscles leave unresolved the extent to which these muscles express developmental and unconventional MHC. Methods By immunohistochemistry, separation SDS-PAGE-Coomassie, separation SDS-PAGE-Western blot, and mRNA PCR, we tested for conventional MHCI, MHCIIA, MHCIIX, developmental MHC embryonic and MHC neonatal, and unconventional MHC alpha-cardiac, MHC extraocular, and MHC slow tonic in adult human anterior digastric (AD), geniohyoid (GH) and mylohyoid (MH) muscles. Results By separation SDS-PAGE-Coomassie and Western blot only conventional MHC are present. By immunohistochemistry all muscle fibers are positive for MHCI, MHCIIA, or MHCIIX, and fewer than 4 fibers/mm2 are positive for developmental or unconventional MHC. By PCR, mRNA of MHCI and MHCIIA dominate, with sporadically detectable MHC alpha-cardiac and without detectable mRNA of other developmental and unconventional MHC. Discussion We conclude that human suprahyoid muscles AD, GH and MH are composed almost exclusively of conventional MHC isoforms. PMID:23835800

Luo, Qingwei; Douglas, Megan; Burkholder, Thomas; Sokoloff, Alan J.

2014-01-01

90

Inferring Developmental Stage Composition from Gene Expression in Human Malaria  

PubMed Central

In the current era of malaria eradication, reducing transmission is critical. Assessment of transmissibility requires tools that can accurately identify the various developmental stages of the malaria parasite, particularly those required for transmission (sexual stages). Here, we present a method for estimating relative amounts of Plasmodium falciparum asexual and sexual stages from gene expression measurements. These are modeled using constrained linear regression to characterize stage-specific expression profiles within mixed-stage populations. The resulting profiles were analyzed functionally by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), confirming differentially active pathways such as increased mitochondrial activity and lipid metabolism during sexual development. We validated model predictions both from microarrays and from quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) measurements, based on the expression of a small set of key transcriptional markers. This sufficient marker set was identified by backward selection from the whole genome as available from expression arrays, targeting one sentinel marker per stage. The model as learned can be applied to any new microarray or qRT-PCR transcriptional measurement. We illustrate its use in vitro in inferring changes in stage distribution following stress and drug treatment and in vivo in identifying immature and mature sexual stage carriers within patient cohorts. We believe this approach will be a valuable resource for staging lab and field samples alike and will have wide applicability in epidemiological studies of malaria transmission. PMID:24348235

Montgomery, Jacqui; Sidhu, Amar Bir; Oh, Keunyoung; Meyer, Evan; Pierre-Louis, Willythssa; Seydel, Karl; Milner, Danny; Williamson, Kim; Wiegand, Roger; Ndiaye, Daouda; Daily, Johanna; Wirth, Dyann; Taylor, Terrie; Huttenhower, Curtis; Marti, Matthias

2013-01-01

91

Perchlorate and Radioiodide Kinetics Across Life Stages in the Human: Using PBPK Models to Predict Dosimetry and Thyroid Inhibition and Sensitive Subpopulations Based on Developmental Stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate (ClO4 ?) is a drinking-water contaminant, known to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats. This effect has only been seen in humans at high doses, yet the potential for long term effects from developmental endocrine disruption emphasizes the need for improved understanding of perchlorate’s effect during the perinatal period. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic\\/dynamic (PBPK\\/PD) models for ClO4 and its effect

Rebecca A. Clewell; Elaine A. Merrill; Jeffery M. Gearhart; Peter J. Robinson; Teresa R. Sterner; David R. Mattie; Harvey J. Clewell III

2007-01-01

92

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives  

E-print Network

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology Course Objectives The purpose of this course" psychological research. The course is organized around two intertwined strands. One strand consists of classroom human development. This includes: (1) understanding basic principles of scientific research, measurement

Klahr, David

93

Mitochondria in human oogenesis and preimplantation embryogenesis: engines of metabolism, ionic regulation and developmental competence.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are the most abundant organelles in the mammalian oocyte and early embryo. While their role in ATP production has long been known, only recently has their contribution to oocyte and embryo competence been investigated in the human. This review considers whether such factors as mitochondrial complement size, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and defects, levels of respiration, and stage-specific spatial distribution, influence the developmental normality and viability of human oocytes and preimplantation-stage embryos. The finding that mitochondrial polarity can differ within and between oocytes and embryos and that these organelles may participate in the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+)homeostasis are discussed in the context of how focal domains of differential respiration and intracellular-free Ca(2+)regulation may arise in early development and what functional implications this may have for preimplantation embryogenesis and developmental competence after implantation. PMID:15333778

Van Blerkom, Jonathan

2004-09-01

94

Developmental regulation of human cortex transcription and its clinical relevance at single base resolution.  

PubMed

Transcriptome analysis of human brain provides fundamental insight into development and disease, but it largely relies on existing annotation. We sequenced transcriptomes of 72 prefrontal cortex samples across six life stages and identified 50,650 differentially expression regions (DERs) associated with developmental and aging, agnostic of annotation. While many DERs annotated to non-exonic sequence (41.1%), most were similarly regulated in cytosolic mRNA extracted from independent samples. The DERs were developmentally conserved across 16 brain regions and in the developing mouse cortex, and were expressed in diverse cell and tissue types. The DERs were further enriched for active chromatin marks and clinical risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. Lastly, we demonstrate quantitatively that these DERs associate with a changing neuronal phenotype related to differentiation and maturation. These data show conserved molecular signatures of transcriptional dynamics across brain development, have potential clinical relevance and highlight the incomplete annotation of the human brain transcriptome. PMID:25501035

Jaffe, Andrew E; Shin, Jooheon; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Leek, Jeffrey T; Tao, Ran; Li, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Jia, Yankai; Maher, Brady J; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R

2015-01-01

95

Developmental potential of human oocytes reconstructed by transferring somatic cell nuclei into polyspermic zygote cytoplasm  

SciTech Connect

The generation of patient-specific nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells holds huge promise in modern regenerative medicine and cell-based drug discovery. Since human in vivo matured oocytes are not readily available, human therapeutic cloning is developing slowly. Here, we investigated for the first time whether human polyspermic zygotes could support preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Our results showed that polyspermic zygotes could be used as recipients for human somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The preimplantation developmental potential of SCNT embryos from polyspermic zygotes was limited to the 8-cell stage. Since ES cell lines can be derived from single blastomeres, these results may have important significance for human ES cells derived by SCNT. In addition, confocal images demonstrated that all of the SCNT embryos that failed to cleave showed abnormal microtubule organization. The results of the present study suggest that polyspermic human zygotes could be used as a potential source of recipient cytoplasm for SCNT.

Fan, Yong; Chen, Xinjie; Luo, Yumei; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Shaoying; Huang, Yulin [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)] [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Sun, Xiaofang, E-mail: xiaofangsun@hotmail.com [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)] [Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, Duobao Road 63, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

2009-04-24

96

British and Pakistani children's understanding of death: Cultural and developmental influences.  

PubMed

This study explored British and Pakistani 4- to 7-year-olds' (N = 188) understanding of death. The aim was to examine possible influences on the acquisition of the subcomponents of the death concept by investigating how they are understood by children of different ages and cultural and religious backgrounds. Three groups of children were compared: White British and British Muslim living in London, and Pakistani Muslim living in rural Pakistan. In line with previous research (Slaughter, 2005, Aust. Psychol., 40(3), 179), irreversibility of death was one of the first subcomponents to be acquired, while causality was the last. The two groups of British children shared many similarities in their understanding of inevitability, applicability, irreversibility, and cessation. Pakistani Muslim children understood irreversibility earlier than did children in both British groups. In all three cultural groups, children's responses demonstrated very limited understanding of causality. Our findings support the view that aspects of a mature understanding of death develop between the ages of 4 and 7 years and that the process of understanding death as a biological event is, to a great extent, universal. They also suggest that aspects of children's reasoning are influenced by culturally specific experiences, particularly those arising from living in rural versus urban settings. PMID:25262770

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Ashraf, Aisha; Aubby, Herjit

2015-03-01

97

Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect

Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

S.T. Rao

2006-09-15

98

NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of amphetamines.  

PubMed

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for amphetamines to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. Amphetamines evaluated were D- and D,L-amphetamine and methamphetamine. Amphetamine is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in persons over 3 years of age and narcolepsy; methamphetamine is approved for the treatment of ADHD in persons 6 years of age and older and for short-term treatment of obesity. Amphetamines were selected for evaluation because of 1) widespread usage in children, 2) availability of developmental studies in children and experimental animals, and 3) public concern about the effect of this stimulant on child development. The results of this evaluation on amphetamines are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Methylphenidate, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to methylphenidate on human development and reproduction. First, there is some concern for developmental effects, specifically for potential neurobehavioral alterations, from prenatal amphetamine exposure in humans both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. After prenatal exposure to therapeutic doses of amphetamine, rat pups demonstrated neurobehavioral alterations. Data from human and animal studies were judged insufficient for an evaluation of the effect of amphetamine exposure on growth and other related developmental effects. Second, there is concern for methamphetamine-induced adverse developmental effects, specifically on growth and neurobehavioral development, in therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. This conclusion is based on evidence from studies in experimental animals that prenatal and postnatal exposures to methamphetamine produce neurobehavioral alterations, small litter size, and low birth weight. Results from studies in humans suggest that methamphetamine may cause low birth weight and shortened gestation, but study confounders such as possible multiple drug usage prevent a definite conclusion. NTP-CERHR monographs are transmitted to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and are available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD-ROM from the CERHR (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-32, Research Triangle Park, NC; fax: 919-316-4511). PMID:16130031

2005-07-01

99

Understanding the Identities of Mixed-Race College Students through a Developmental Ecology Lens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an ecology model of human development, frames the exploration of racial identities of 38 college students with multiple racial heritages. Maps the influence of interactions within and between specific environments on students' decisions to identify in one or more of five patterns of mixed race identity found in a previous study. (Contains 43…

Renn, Kristen A.

2003-01-01

100

Mental retardation genes in drosophila: New approaches to understanding and treating developmental brain disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron resolu- tion, are helping to reveal the cellular bases of

Linda L. Restifo

2005-01-01

101

Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

Restifo, Linda L.

2005-01-01

102

Improved Understanding of Human Anatomy through Self-guided  

E-print Network

Improved Understanding of Human Anatomy through Self-guided Radiological Anatomy Modules Andrew W: To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehen- sion was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course

103

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

104

To Err is Human: To Understand Error is  

E-print Network

To Err is Human: To Understand Error is Divine - Part II Peter DeBlieux, MD LSUHSC Department admitted for emergent appendectomy was wheeled to the med- surg floor following recovery. The nurse had-drug interactions · Timing and dating orders · Access to common data and medical records #12;Orders

105

Understanding the Human Genome Project: a biographical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes a number of recently published autobiographies by leading participants in the Human Genome Project (HGP), in order to determine to what extent they may further our understanding of the history, scientific significance and societal impact of this major research endeavor. Notably, I will focus on three publications that fall under this heading, namely The common thread by

H. A. E. Zwart

2008-01-01

106

Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by the growing availability of global space-borne data to track the dynamics of floodplains as human-water systems. In particular, we can nowadays carry out global observations of floodplain topography and inundation patterns as well as human population dynamics. It is expected that these innovative observations will help understand the dynamics of floodplain systems across scales, different hydro-climatic conditions and along gradients of human impacts. Such an advanced understanding might then allow better predictions of future trajectories and therefore contribute to the reduction of flood risk.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

2012-12-01

107

The Emergence of Autobiographical Memory: A Social Cultural Developmental Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The authors review the empirical developmental evidence within each of these components to show

Katherine Nelson; Robyn Fivush

2004-01-01

108

MBD2 contributes to developmental silencing of the human ?-globin gene  

PubMed Central

During erythroid development the embryonic ?-globin gene becomes silenced as erythropoiesis shifts from the yolk sac to the fetal liver where ?-globin gene expression predominates. Previous studies have shown that the ?-globin gene is autonomously silenced through promoter proximal cis-acting sequences in adult erythroid cells. We have shown a role for the methylcytosine binding domain protein 2 (MBD2) in the developmental silencing of the avian embryonic ?-globin and human fetal ?-globin genes. To determine the roles of MBD2 and DNA methylation in human ?-globin gene silencing, transgenic mice containing all sequences extending from the 5? hypersensitive site 5 (HS5) of the ?-globin locus LCR to the human ?-globin gene promoter were generated. These mice show correct developmental expression and autonomous silencing of the transgene. Either the absence of MBD2 or treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine increases ?-globin transgene expression by 15–20 fold in adult mice. Adult mice containing the entire human ?-globin locus also show an increase in expression of both the ?-globin gene transgene and endogenous ?Y and ?H1 genes in the absence of MBD2. These results indicate the human ?-globin gene is subject to multilayered silencing mediated in part by MBD2. PMID:21296012

Rupon, Jeremy W.; Wang, Shou Zhen; Gnanapragasam, Merlin; Labropoulos, Stefanos; Ginder, Gordon D.

2011-01-01

109

A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

2013-01-01

110

Functional understanding facilitates learning about tools in human children.  

PubMed

Human children benefit from a possibly unique set of adaptations facilitating the acquisition of knowledge about material culture. They represent artifacts (human-made objects) as tools with specific functions and seek for functional information about novel objects. Even young infants pay attention to functionally relevant features of objects, and learn tool use and infer tool functions from others' goal-directed actions and demonstrations. Children tend to imitate causally irrelevant elements of tool use demonstrations, which helps them to acquire means actions even before they fully understand their causal role in bringing about the desired goal. Although non-human animals use and make tools, and recognize causally relevant features of objects in a given task, they - unlike human children - do not appear to form enduring functional representations of tools as being for achieving particular goals when they are not in use. PMID:19477630

Hernik, Mikolaj; Csibra, Gergely

2009-02-01

111

Variation at Genes Influencing Facial Morphology Are Not Associated with Developmental Imprecision in Human Faces  

PubMed Central

Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex—but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape—was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries. PMID:24914781

Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

112

Proteome Analysis of Distinct Developmental Stages of Human Natural Killer (NK) Cells  

PubMed Central

The recent Natural Killer (NK) cell maturation model postulates that CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) first develop into CD56bright NK cells, then into CD56dimCD57? and finally into terminally maturated CD56dimCD57+. The molecular mechanisms of human NK cell differentiation and maturation however are incompletely characterized. Here we present a proteome analysis of distinct developmental stages of human primary NK cells, isolated from healthy human blood donors. Peptide sequencing was used to comparatively analyze CD56bright NK cells versus CD56dim NK cells and CD56dimCD57? NK cells versus CD56dimCD57+ NK cells and revealed distinct protein signatures for all of these subsets. Quantitative data for about 3400 proteins were obtained and support the current differentiation model. Furthermore, 11 donor-independently, but developmental stage specifically regulated proteins so far undescribed in NK cells were revealed, which may contribute to NK cell development and may elucidate a molecular source for NK cell effector functions. Among those proteins, S100A4 (Calvasculin) and S100A6 (Calcyclin) were selected to study their dynamic subcellular localization. Upon activation of human primary NK cells, both proteins are recruited into the immune synapse (NKIS), where they colocalize with myosin IIa. PMID:23315794

Scheiter, Maxi; Lau, Ulrike; van Ham, Marco; Bulitta, Björn; Gröbe, Lothar; Garritsen, Henk; Klawonn, Frank; König, Sebastian; Jänsch, Lothar

2013-01-01

113

Variation at genes influencing facial morphology are not associated with developmental imprecision in human faces.  

PubMed

Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex--but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape--was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries. PMID:24914781

Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

114

"Unwilling" versus "Unable": Capuchin Monkeys' ("Cebus Apella") Understanding of Human Intentional Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the…

Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L.; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R.

2009-01-01

115

Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. I: behavioral effects.  

PubMed Central

Alterations in nervous system function after exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant may be identified and characterized using neurobehavioral methods. A number of methods can evaluate alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in laboratory animals exposed to toxicants during nervous system development. Fundamental issues underlying proper use and interpretation of these methods include a) consideration of the scientific goal in experimental design, b) selection of an appropriate animal model, c) expertise of the investigator, d) adequate statistical analysis, and e) proper data interpretation. Strengths and weaknesses of the assessment methods include sensitivity, selectivity, practicality, and variability. Research could improve current behavioral methods by providing a better understanding of the relationship between alterations in motor function and changes in the underlying structure of these systems. Research is also needed to develop simple and sensitive assays for use in screening assessments of sensory and cognitive function. Assessment methods are being developed to examine other nervous system functions, including social behavior, autonomic processes, and biologic rhythms. Social behaviors are modified by many classes of developmental neurotoxicants and hormonally active compounds that may act either through neuroendocrine mechanisms or by directly influencing brain morphology or neurochemistry. Autonomic and thermoregulatory functions have been the province of physiologists and neurobiologists rather than toxicologists, but this may change as developmental neurotoxicology progresses and toxicologists apply techniques developed by other disciplines to examine changes in function after toxicant exposure. PMID:11250808

Cory-Slechta, D A; Crofton, K M; Foran, J A; Ross, J F; Sheets, L P; Weiss, B; Mileson, B

2001-01-01

116

Evaluation of a human neurite growth assay as specific screen for developmental neurotoxicants.  

PubMed

Organ-specific in vitro toxicity assays are often highly sensitive, but they lack specificity. We evaluated here examples of assay features that can affect test specificity, and some general procedures are suggested on how positive hits in complex biological assays may be defined. Differentiating human LUHMES cells were used as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Forty candidate toxicants were screened, and several hits were obtained and confirmed. Although the cells had a definitive neuronal phenotype, the use of a general cell death endpoint in these cultures did not allow specific identification of neurotoxicants. As alternative approach, neurite growth was measured as an organ-specific functional endpoint. We found that neurite extension of developing LUHMES was specifically inhibited by diverse compounds such as colchicine, vincristine, narciclasine, rotenone, cycloheximide, or diquat. These compounds reduced neurite growth at concentrations that did not compromise cell viability, and neurite growth was affected more potently than the integrity of developed neurites of mature neurons. A ratio of the EC50 values of neurite growth inhibition and cell death of >4 provided a robust classifier for compounds associated with a developmental neurotoxic hazard. Screening of unspecific toxicants in the test system always yielded ratios <4. The assay identified also compounds that accelerated neurite growth, such as the rho kinase pathway modifiers blebbistatin or thiazovivin. The negative effects of colchicine or rotenone were completely inhibited by a rho kinase inhibitor. In summary, we suggest that assays using functional endpoints (neurite growth) can specifically identify and characterize (developmental) neurotoxicants. PMID:23670202

Krug, Anne K; Balmer, Nina V; Matt, Florian; Schönenberger, Felix; Merhof, Dorit; Leist, Marcel

2013-12-01

117

Human Inspired Self-developmental Model of Neural Network (HIM): Introducing Content/Form Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents cross-disciplinary research between medical/psychological evidence on human abilities and informatics needs to update current models in computer science to support alternative methods for computation and communication. In [10] we have already proposed hypothesis introducing concept of human information model (HIM) as cooperative system. Here we continue on HIM design in detail. In our design, first we introduce Content/Form computing system which is new principle of present methods in evolutionary computing (genetic algorithms, genetic programming). Then we apply this system on HIM (type of artificial neural network) model as basic network self-developmental paradigm. Main inspiration of our natural/human design comes from well known concept of artificial neural networks, medical/psychological evidence and Sheldrake theory of "Nature as Alive" [22].

Krají?ek, Ji?í

118

Can we understand modern humans without considering pathogens?  

PubMed Central

Throughout our evolutionary history, humankind has always lived in contact with large numbers of pathogens. Some cultural traits, such as sedentarization and animal domestication, have considerably increased new parasitic contacts and epidemic transitions. Here, we review the various phenotypic traits that have been proposed to be affected by the highly parasitic human environment, including fertility, birth weight, fluctuating asymmetry, body odours, food recipes, sexual behaviour, pregnancy sickness, language, religion and intellectual quotient. We also discuss how such knowledge is important to understanding several aspects of the current problems faced by humanity in our changing world and to predicting the long-term consequences of parasite eradication policies on our health and well-being. The study of the evolutionary interactions between humans and parasites is a burgeoning and most promising field, as demonstrated by the recent increasing popularity of Darwinian medicine. PMID:25568057

Thomas, Frédéric; Daoust, Simon P; Raymond, Michel

2012-01-01

119

Human Ntera2 cells as a predictive in vitro test system for developmental neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals is a serious threat to human health. Current DNT testing guidelines propose investigations in rodents, which require large numbers of animals. With regard to the "3Rs" (reduction, replacement, and refinement) of animal testing, alternative testing strategies are needed in order to refine and reduce animal experiments and allow faster and less expensive screening. The goal of this study was to establish components for a human cell-based test system to assess DNT potential of chemicals at an early stage of brain development. A human neural precursor cell line should be tested for suitability for semi-automated high-throughput DNT screening. We established assays suitable for detecting disturbances in two basic processes of brain development in 96-well scale: neuronal differentiation and migration using the human Ntera2 (NT2) cell line. We assessed the effects of four test compounds with well-established DNT potential in comparison with three compounds without specific DNT potential. We found that human NT2 cell cultures treated with the morphogen, retinoic acid, imitate neuronal differentiation, and migration in vitro. The developmental neurotoxicants methylmercury chloride, sodium arsenite, sodium valproate, and methylazoxymethanol significantly reduced the expression of the neuronal marker ?-tubulin type III and decreased the migration distance in developing NT2 cells. Both endpoints, differentiation and migration, can be read out directly in a standard fluorescence plate reader, enabling high-throughput screening. We conclude that NT2 cell tests are likely to become valuable components of a human cell-based modular in vitro DNT test systems. PMID:23917397

Stern, Michael; Gierse, Andrea; Tan, Saime; Bicker, Gerd

2014-01-01

120

Model organisms inform the search for the genes and developmental pathology underlying malformations of the human hindbrain  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations the human hindbrain, including the cerebellum, are poorly understood largely because their recognition is a relatively recent advance for imaging diagnostics. Cerebellar malformations are the most obvious and best characterized hindbrain malformations due to their relative ease to view by MRI and the recent identification of several causative genes1. Malformations of the pons and medulla have also been described both in isolation and in association with cerebellar malformations2. Although little is understood regarding the specific developmental pathologies underlying hindbrain malformations in humans, much is known regarding the mechanisms and genes driving hindbrain development in vertebrate model organisms. Thus, studies in vertebrate models provide a developmental framework in which to categorize human hindbrain malformations and serve to inform our thinking regarding disrupted developmental processes and candidate genes. Here we survey the basic principles of vertebrate hindbrain development and integrate our current knowledge of human hindbrain malformations into this framework. PMID:19778712

Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Elsen, Gina E.; Prince, Victoria E.; Millen, Kathleen J.

2009-01-01

121

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Induce Developmental Neurotoxicity in a Human in Vitro Model: Evidence for Endocrine Disruption  

PubMed Central

Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent and bioaccumulative flame retardants, which are found in rising concentrations in human tissues. They are of concern for human health because animal studies have shown that they possess the potential to be developmentally neurotoxic. Objective Because there is little knowledge of the effects of PBDEs on human brain cells, we investigated their toxic potential for human neural development in vitro. Moreover, we studied the involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) disruption in the effects caused by PBDEs. Methods We used the two PBDE congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99 (0.1–10 ?M), which are most prominent in human tissues. As a model of neural development, we employed primary fetal human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), which are cultured as neurospheres and mimic basic processes of brain development in vitro: proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Results PBDEs do not disturb hNPC proliferation but decrease migration distance of hNPCs. Moreover, they cause a reduction of differentiation into neurons and oligodendrocytes. Simultaneous exposure with the TH receptor (THR) agonist triiodothyronine rescues these effects on migration and differentiation, whereas the THR antagonist NH-3 does not exert an additive effect. Conclusion PBDEs disturb development of hNPCs in vitro via endocrine disruption of cellular TH signaling at concentrations that might be of relevance for human exposure. PMID:20368126

Schreiber, Timm; Gassmann, Kathrin; Götz, Christine; Hübenthal, Ulrike; Moors, Michaela; Krause, Guido; Merk, Hans F.; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Abel, Josef; Rose, Christine R.; Fritsche, Ellen

2010-01-01

122

Global transcriptional profiling of neural and mesenchymal progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells reveals alternative developmental signaling pathways  

E-print Network

embryonic stem cells reveals alternative developmental signaling pathways Jérôme Alexandre Denis1 21 e-mail : gpietu@istem.fr Keys words : Human embryonic stem cells ; Neural precursors ; mesenchymal-reviewedandacceptedforpublication,buthasyettoundergocopyeditingandproofcorrection.Thefinalpublishedversionmaydifferfromthisproof. #12;2 Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated along different lineages, providing

Boyer, Edmond

123

Human-vehicle interaction by hand sign understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactive ability of intelligent electric vehicle with human has the capital importance of convincing public to accept the existence and usage of intelligent electric vehicle, it can greatly enhance the safety of intelligent electric vehicle in public service. In this paper, an interactive model based on hand gesture understanding is represented, it offers more compact and intuitive meanings than other interactive models in an outdoor environment. The Typical hand gestures are defined to guide the motion of vehicle by considering gesture differentiation and human tendency in the model, they are classified as motion-oriented and direction-oriented gestures for different interactive intentions. The color distribution of human skin is analyzed in different color spaces, it reveals that human skin colors cluster in a specific region with the irregular appearance, they have more differences in intensity than colors among the people. A color model of human skin is built for hand gesture segmentation by using the training procedure of RCE neural network, it has the ability of delineating the pattern class with arbitrary appearance in feature space. The quality of hand gesture segmentation is further improved by the procedure of hand-forearm separation. A hand tracking mechanism is proposed to locate the hand by camera pan-tilt and zooming. The gesture recognition is implemented by template matching of multiple features.

Dong, Guo; Ming, Xie; Yin, Xiaoming

1999-07-01

124

Combinatorial Assembly of Developmental Stage-Specific Enhancers Controls Gene Expression Programs during Human Erythropoiesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Gene-distal enhancers are critical for tissue-specific gene expression, but their genomic determinants within a specific lineage at different stages of development are unknown. Here we profile chromatin state maps, transcription factor occupancy, and gene expression profiles during human erythroid development at fetal and adult stages. Comparative analyses of human erythropoiesis identify developmental stage-specific enhancers as primary determinants of stage-specific gene expression programs. We find that erythroid master regulators GATA1 and TAL1 act cooperatively within active enhancers but confer little predictive value for stage specificity. Instead, a set of stage-specific co-regulators collaborates with master regulators and contributes to differential gene expression. We further identify and validate IRF2, IRF6, and MYB as effectors of an adult-stage expression program. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of lineage-specific master regulators and transcriptional co-regulators within developmental stage-specific enhancers determines gene expression programs and temporal regulation of transcriptional networks in a mammalian genome. PMID:23041383

Xu, Jian; Shao, Zhen; Glass, Kimberly; Bauer, Daniel E.; Pinello, Luca; Van Handel, Ben; Hou, Serena; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H.

2012-01-01

125

Histone acetylation at the human ?-globin locus changes with developmental age  

PubMed Central

To delineate the relationship between epigenetic modifications and hemoglobin switching, we compared the pattern of histone acetylation and pol II binding across the ?-globin locus at fetal and adult stages of human development. To make this comparison possible, we introduced an external control into experimental samples in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Using this common standard, we found that the locus control region (LCR) was acetylated to the same level at all stages, whereas acetylation levels at the individual gene regions correlated with the state of transcription. In the active genes, the promoters were less acetylated compared with the coding regions. Furthermore, all globin promoters were acetylated to a similar level irrespective of the state of transcription. However, after correction for the loss of nucleosomes, the level of acetylation per histone at the active ? and ? promoters was 5- to 7-fold greater than that at the inactive ? promoter. Although the histone acetylation level within the LCR was developmentally stable, pol II binding in fetal erythroblasts was 2- to 3-fold greater than that in adult erythroblasts. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in histone acetylation and pol II take place as the human ?-globin gene region undergoes its developmental switches. PMID:17881636

Yin, Wenxuan; Barkess, Gráinne; Fang, Xiangdong; Xiang, Ping; Cao, Hua; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

2007-01-01

126

Combinatorial assembly of developmental stage-specific enhancers controls gene expression programs during human erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

Gene-distal enhancers are critical for tissue-specific gene expression, but their genomic determinants within a specific lineage at different stages of development are unknown. Here we profile chromatin state maps, transcription factor occupancy, and gene expression profiles during human erythroid development at fetal and adult stages. Comparative analyses of human erythropoiesis identify developmental stage-specific enhancers as primary determinants of stage-specific gene expression programs. We find that erythroid master regulators GATA1 and TAL1 act cooperatively within active enhancers but confer little predictive value for stage specificity. Instead, a set of stage-specific coregulators collaborates with master regulators and contributes to differential gene expression. We further identify and validate IRF2, IRF6, and MYB as effectors of an adult-stage expression program. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of lineage-specific master regulators and transcriptional coregulators within developmental stage-specific enhancers determines gene expression programs and temporal regulation of transcriptional networks in a mammalian genome. PMID:23041383

Xu, Jian; Shao, Zhen; Glass, Kimberly; Bauer, Daniel E; Pinello, Luca; Van Handel, Ben; Hou, Serena; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Mikkola, Hanna K A; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H

2012-10-16

127

Developmental changes in the spatial organization of neurons in the neocortex of humans and common chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

In adult humans, the prefrontal cortex possesses wider minicolumns and more neuropil space than other cortical regions. These aspects of prefrontal cortex architecture, furthermore, are increased in comparison to chimpanzees and other great apes. In order to determine the developmental appearance of this human cortical specialization, we examined the spatial organization of neurons in four cortical regions (frontal pole [Brodmann’s area 10], primary motor [area 4], primary somatosensory [area 3b], and prestriate visual cortex [area 18]) in chimpanzees and humans from birth to approximately the time of adolescence (11 years of age). Horizontal spacing distance (HSD) and gray level ratio (GLR) of layer III neurons were measured in Nissl-stained sections. In both human and chimpanzee area 10, HSD was significantly higher in the post-weaning specimens compared to the pre-weaning ones. No significant age-related differences were seen in the other regions in either species. In concert with other recent studies, the current findings suggest that there is a relatively slower maturation of area 10 in both humans and chimpanzees as compared to other cortical regions, and that further refinement of the spatial organization of neurons within this prefrontal area in humans takes place after the post-weaning periods included here. PMID:23839595

Teffer, Kate; Buxhoeveden, Daniel P.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Fobbs, Archibald J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Hopkins, William D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Semendeferi, Katerina

2013-01-01

128

Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans--an overview focusing on developmental toxicology.  

PubMed

Despite being relatively well studied from a botanical, chemical, and (acute) pharmacological perspective, little is known about the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca (an hallucinogenic brew used for magico-ritual purposes) in pregnant women and in their children, and the potential toxicity of long-term ayahuasca consumption. It is the main objective of the present text to do an overview of the risks and possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in humans, reviewing studies on the acute ayahuasca administration to humans, on the possible risks associated with long-term consumption by adults and adolescents, and on the possible toxic effects on pregnant animals and in their offspring. Acute ayahuasca administration, as well as long-term consumption of this beverage, does not seem to be seriously toxic to humans. Although some nonhuman developmental studies suggested possible toxic effects of ayahuasca or of some of its alkaloids, the limited human literature on adolescents exposed to ayahuasca as early as in the uterus reports no serious toxic effects of the ritual consumption of the brew. Researchers must take caution when extrapolating nonhuman data to humans and more data are needed in basic and human research before a definite opinion can be made regarding the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in pregnant women and in their children. PMID:23662333

dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

2013-01-01

129

Chromodomain Helicase DNA-Binding Proteins in Stem Cells and Human Developmental Diseases.  

PubMed

Dynamic regulation of gene expression is vital for proper cellular development and maintenance of differentiated states. Over the past 20 years, chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications of histones have emerged as key controllers of rapid reversible changes in gene expression. Mutations in genes encoding enzymes that modify chromatin have also been identified in a variety of human neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from isolated intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder to multiple congenital anomaly conditions that affect major organ systems and cause severe morbidity and mortality. In this study, we review recent evidence that chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) proteins regulate stem cell proliferation, fate, and differentiation in a wide variety of tissues and organs. We also highlight known roles of CHD proteins in human developmental diseases and present current unanswered questions about the pleiotropic effects of CHD protein complexes, their genetic targets, nucleosome sliding functions, and enzymatic effects in cells and tissues. PMID:25567374

Micucci, Joseph A; Sperry, Ethan D; Martin, Donna M

2015-04-15

130

Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)  

PubMed Central

The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens. PMID:25279171

OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

2014-01-01

131

The relevance of human fetal subplate zone for developmental neuropathology of neuronal migration disorders and cortical dysplasia.  

PubMed

The human fetal cerebral cortex develops through a series of partially overlapping histogenetic events which occur in transient cellular compartments, such as the subplate zone. The subplate serves as waiting compartment for cortical afferent fibers, the major site of early synaptogenesis and neuronal differentiation and the hub of the transient fetal cortical circuitry. Thus, the subplate has an important but hitherto neglected role in the human fetal cortical connectome. The subplate is also an important compartment for radial and tangential migration of future cortical neurons. We review the diversity of subplate neuronal phenotypes and their involvement in cortical circuitry and discuss the complexity of late neuronal migration through the subplate as well as its potential relevance for pathogenesis of migration disorders and cortical dysplasia. While migratory neurons may become misplaced within the subplate, they can easily survive by being involved in early subplate circuitry; this can enhance their subsequent survival even if they have immature or abnormal physiological activity and misrouted connections and thus survive into adulthood. Thus, better understanding of subplate developmental history and various subsets of its neurons may help to elucidate certain types of neuronal disorders, including those accompanied by epilepsy. PMID:25312583

Kostovi?, Ivica; Sedmak, Goran; Vukši?, Mario; Judaš, Miloš

2015-02-01

132

Understanding the Human Genome Project — A Fact Sheet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Understanding the Human Genome Project — A Fact Sheet Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... human body. This concerted, public effort was the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project's goal was to provide ...

133

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology  

E-print Network

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is concerned with both physical and psychological changes throughout life-- from conception until death. www.uwindsor.ca/psychology A Rigorous, Enriching Program Developmental Psychology is a specialized major within Psychology that focuses on child

134

Pleiotropic roles of Notch signaling in normal, malignant, and developmental hematopoiesis in the human.  

PubMed

The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved across species and plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. It has been implicated in several different hematopoietic processes including early hematopoietic development as well as adult hematological malignancies in humans. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the role of Notch signaling in the human hematopoietic system with an emphasis on hematopoietic initiation from human pluripotent stem cells and regulation within the bone marrow. Based on recent insights, we summarize potential strategies for treatment of human hematological malignancies toward the concept of targeting Notch signaling for fate regulation. PMID:25252682

Kushwah, Rahul; Guezguez, Borhane; Lee, Jung Bok; Hopkins, Claudia I; Bhatia, Mickie

2014-11-01

135

Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?  

PubMed Central

Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID:25229452

Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

2014-01-01

136

How evolutionary principles improve the understanding of human health and disease  

PubMed Central

An appreciation of the fundamental principles of evolutionary biology provides new insights into major diseases and enables an integrated understanding of human biology and medicine. However, there is a lack of awareness of their importance amongst physicians, medical researchers, and educators, all of whom tend to focus on the mechanistic (proximate) basis for disease, excluding consideration of evolutionary (ultimate) reasons. The key principles of evolutionary medicine are that selection acts on fitness, not health or longevity; that our evolutionary history does not cause disease, but rather impacts on our risk of disease in particular environments; and that we are now living in novel environments compared to those in which we evolved. We consider these evolutionary principles in conjunction with population genetics and describe several pathways by which evolutionary processes can affect disease risk. These perspectives provide a more cohesive framework for gaining insights into the determinants of health and disease. Coupled with complementary insights offered by advances in genomic, epigenetic, and developmental biology research, evolutionary perspectives offer an important addition to understanding disease. Further, there are a number of aspects of evolutionary medicine that can add considerably to studies in other domains of contemporary evolutionary studies. PMID:25567971

Gluckman, Peter D; Low, Felicia M; Buklijas, Tatjana; Hanson, Mark A; Beedle, Alan S

2011-01-01

137

Developmental Changes in GABAergic Mechanisms in Human Visual Cortex Across the Lifespan  

PubMed Central

Functional maturation of visual cortex is linked with dynamic changes in synaptic expression of GABAergic mechanisms. These include setting the excitation–inhibition balance required for experience-dependent plasticity, as well as, intracortical inhibition underlying development and aging of receptive field properties. Animal studies have shown that there is developmental regulation of GABAergic mechanisms in visual cortex. In this study, we show for the first time how these mechanisms develop in the human visual cortex across the lifespan. We used Western blot analysis of postmortem tissue from human primary visual cortex (n = 30, range: 20 days to 80 years) to quantify expression of eight pre- and post-synaptic GABAergic markers. We quantified the inhibitory modulating cannabinoid receptor (CB1), GABA vesicular transporter (VGAT), GABA synthesizing enzymes (GAD65/GAD67), GABAA receptor anchoring protein (Gephyrin), and GABAA receptor subunits (GABAA?1, GABAA?2, GABAA?3). We found a complex pattern of different developmental trajectories, many of which were prolonged and continued well into the teen, young adult, and even older adult years. These included a monotonic increase or decrease (GABAA?1, GABAA?2), a biphasic increase then decrease (GAD65, Gephyrin), or multiple increases and decreases (VGAT, CB1) across the lifespan. Comparing the balances between the pre- and post-synaptic markers we found three main transition stages (early childhood, early teen years, aging) when there were rapid switches in the composition of the GABAergic signaling system, indicating that functioning of the GABAergic system must change as the visual cortex develops and ages. Furthermore, these results provide key information for translating therapies developed in animal models into effective treatments for amblyopia in humans. PMID:20592950

Pinto, Joshua G.A.; Hornby, Kyle R.; Jones, David G.; Murphy, Kathryn M.

2010-01-01

138

Understanding and managing human threats to the coastal marine environment.  

PubMed

Coastal marine habitats at the interface of land and sea are subject to threats from human activities in both realms. Researchers have attempted to quantify how these various threats impact different coastal ecosystems, and more recently have focused on understanding the cumulative impact from multiple threats. Here, the top threats to coastal marine ecosystems and recent efforts to understand their relative importance, ecosystem-level impacts, cumulative effects, and how they can best be managed and mitigated, are briefly reviewed. Results of threat analysis and rankings will differ depending on the conservation target (e.g., vulnerable species, pristine ecosystems, mitigatable threats), scale of interest (local, regional, or global), whether externalities are considered, and the types of management tools available (e.g., marine-protected areas versus ecosystem-based management). Considering the cumulative effect of multiple threats has only just begun and depends on spatial analysis to predict overlapping threats and a better understanding of multiple-stressor effects and interactions. Emerging conservation practices that hold substantial promise for protecting coastal marine systems include multisector approaches, such as ecosystem-based management (EBM), that account for ecosystem service valuation; comprehensive spatial management, such as ocean zoning; and regulatory mechanisms that encourage or require cross-sector goal setting and evaluation. In all cases, these efforts require a combination of public and private initiatives for success. The state of our ecological understanding, public awareness, and policy initiatives make the time ripe for advancing coastal marine management and improving our stewardship of coastal and marine ecosystems. PMID:19432644

Crain, Caitlin M; Halpern, Benjamin S; Beck, Mike W; Kappel, Carrie V

2009-04-01

139

Combined small molecule inhibition accelerates developmental timing and converts human pluripotent stem cells into nociceptors  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable progress in identifying signaling pathways directing the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specialized cell types including neurons. However, extrinsic factor-based differentiation of hPSCs is a slow, step-wise process mimicking the protracted timing of normal human development. Using a small molecule screen we identified a combination of five small molecule pathway inhibitors sufficient to yield hPSC-derived neurons at >75% efficiency within 10 days of differentiation. The resulting neurons express canonical markers and functional properties of human nociceptors including TTX-resistant, SCN10A-dependent sodium currents and response to nociceptive stimuli including ATP and capsaicin. Neuronal fate acquisition occurs three-fold faster than during in vivo1 development suggesting that use of small molecule pathway inhibitors could develop into a general strategy for accelerating developmental timing in vitro. The quick and high efficiency derivation of nociceptors offers unprecedented access to this medically relevant cell type for studies of human pain. PMID:22750882

Chambers, Stuart M.; Qi, Yuchen; Mica, Yvonne; Lee, Gabsang; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Niu, Lei; Bilsland, James; Cao, Lishuang; Stevens, Edward; Whiting, Paul; Shi, Song-Hai; Studer, Lorenz

2012-01-01

140

Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxitants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA?s program for the screening and prioritization of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) necessitates the generation of a list of chemicals that are known mammalian developmental neurotoxicants. This chemical list will be used to evaluate the sensitivity, reliability...

141

Our Complex Universe: A Human Understanding through Art  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature, in all its aspects, provides us with a foundation for creating art in all its forms. Among the most inspirational of these aspects are those of the sky, from sunsets to stars to galaxies. But it works both ways. While we can strive to know the Universe through physics and mathematics, the unending complexity of the structures we examine overwhelms the senses and hinders our ability to appreciate the beauty and meaning of our surroundings. The arts provide avenues for understanding and interpreting the complexity of nature in human terms. In doing so, they reveal more of nature's aesthetics and thereby have the power to inspire scientists to look ever deeper into our Universe.

Kaler, J. B.

2013-04-01

142

Developmental patterns of DR6 in normal human hippocampus and in Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Death receptor 6 (DR6) is highly expressed in the human brain: it has been shown to induce axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases and to mediate axonal degeneration through binding to N-terminal ? amyloid precursor protein (N-APP). Methods We investigated the expression of DR6 during prenatal and postnatal development in human hippocampus and temporal cortex by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis (118 normal human brain specimens; 9 to 41 gestational weeks; 1 day to 7 months postnatally; 3 to 91 years). To investigate the role of N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway in the development of hippocampal Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated pathology, we examined DR6 immunoreactivity (IR) in the developing hippocampus from patients with Down syndrome (DS; 48 brain specimens; 14 to 41 gestational weeks; 7 days to 8 months postnatally; 15 to 64 years) and in adults with DS and AD. Results DR6 was highly expressed in human adult hippocampus and temporal cortex: we observed consistent similar temporal and spatial expression in both control and DS brain. Western blot analysis of total homogenates of temporal cortex and hippocampus showed developmental regulation of DR6. In the hippocampus, DR6 IR was first apparent in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare at 16 weeks of gestation, followed by stratum oriens, radiatum, pyramidale (CA1 to CA4) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus between 21 and 23 gestational weeks, reaching a pattern similar to adult hippocampus around birth. Increased DR6 expression in dystrophic neurites was detected focally in a 15-year-old DS patient. Abnormal DR6 expression pattern, with increased expression within dystrophic neurites in and around amyloid plaques was observed in adult DS patients with widespread AD-associated neurodegeneration and was similar to the pattern observed in AD hippocampus. Double-labeling experiments demonstrated the colocalization, in dystrophic neurites, of DR6 with APP. We also observed colocalization with hyper-phosphorylated Tau and with caspase 6 (increased in hippocampus with AD pathology) in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites and within the white matter. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a developmental regulation of DR6 in human hippocampus and suggest an abnormal activation of the N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway, which can contribute to initiation or progression of hippocampal AD-associated pathology. PMID:23618225

2013-01-01

143

Cellular reprogramming for understanding and treating human disease  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades we have witnessed a paradigm shift in our understanding of cells so radical that it has rewritten the rules of biology. The study of cellular reprogramming has gone from little more than a hypothesis, to applied bioengineering, with the creation of a variety of important cell types. By way of metaphor, we can compare the discovery of reprogramming with the archeological discovery of the Rosetta stone. This stone slab made possible the initial decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics because it allowed us to see this language in a way that was previously impossible. We propose that cellular reprogramming will have an equally profound impact on understanding and curing human disease, because it allows us to perceive and study molecular biological processes such as differentiation, epigenetics, and chromatin in ways that were likewise previously impossible. Stem cells could be called “cellular Rosetta stones” because they allow also us to perceive the connections between development, disease, cancer, aging, and regeneration in novel ways. Here we present a comprehensive historical review of stem cells and cellular reprogramming, and illustrate the developing synergy between many previously unconnected fields. We show how stem cells can be used to create in vitro models of human disease and provide examples of how reprogramming is being used to study and treat such diverse diseases as cancer, aging, and accelerated aging syndromes, infectious diseases such as AIDS, and epigenetic diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. While the technology of reprogramming is being developed and refined there have also been significant ongoing developments in other complementary technologies such as gene editing, progenitor cell production, and tissue engineering. These technologies are the foundations of what is becoming a fully-functional field of regenerative medicine and are converging to a point that will allow us to treat almost any disease. PMID:25429365

Kanherkar, Riya R.; Bhatia-Dey, Naina; Makarev, Evgeny; Csoka, Antonei B.

2014-01-01

144

Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals,

Jeffrey T. Laitman; Joy S. Reidenberg

1993-01-01

145

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

146

Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

147

Impairments in Monkey and Human Face Recognition in 2-Year-Old Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in…

Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

2007-01-01

148

EVALUATION OF HUMAN NEURAL PROGENITOR CELLS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY SCREENING: TIME COURSE OF EFFECTS ON CELL PROLIFERATION AND VIABILITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a screen for DNT. ReNcell CX (ReN CX) cells are a...

149

1992 Oxford University Press Human Molecular Genetics, Vol. 1, No. 2 77--82 Identification and developmental expression of the  

E-print Network

and developmental expression of the Xenopus laevis cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene Stephen homologue of the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene has been isolated Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population

Tucker, Stephen J.

150

Developmental trajectories during adolescence in males and females: a cross-species understanding of underlying brain changes  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood that encompasses vast changes within brain systems that parallel some, but not all, behavioral changes. Elevations in emotional reactivity and reward processing follow an inverted U shape in terms of onset and remission, with the peak occurring during adolescence. However, cognitive processing follows a more linear course of development. This review will focus on changes within key structures and will highlight the relationships between brain changes and behavior, with evidence spanning from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to molecular studies of receptor and signaling factors in animals. Adolescent changes in neuronal substrates will be used to understand how typical and atypical behaviors arise during adolescence. We draw upon clinical and preclinical studies to provide a neural framework for defining adolescence and its role in the transition to adulthood. PMID:21600919

Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

2011-01-01

151

Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

152

A Structural Biology Approach to Understand Human Lymphatic Filarial Infection  

PubMed Central

The presence of aspartic protease inhibitor in filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-Aspin) makes it interesting to study because of the fact that the filarial parasite never encounters the host digestive system. Here, the aspartic protease inhibition kinetics of Bm-Aspin and its NMR structural characteristics have been investigated. The overall aim of this study is to explain the inhibition and binding properties of Bm-Aspin from its structural point of view. UV-spectroscopy and multi-dimensional NMR are the experiments that have been performed to understand the kinetic and structural properties of Bm-Aspin respectively. The human aspartic proteases that are considered for this study are pepsin, renin, cathepsin-E and cathepsin-D. The results of this analysis performed with the specific substrate [Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe (4-NO2)-Phe-Val-Leu (4-pyridylmethyl) ester] against aspartic proteases suggest that Bm-Aspin inhibits the activities of all four human aspartic proteases. The kinetics studies indicate that Bm-Aspin follows a competitive mode of inhibition for pepsin and cathepsin-E, non-competitive for renin and mixed mode for cathepsin-D. The triple resonance NMR experiments on Bm-Aspin suggested the feasibility of carrying out NMR studies to obtain its solution structure. The NMR titration studies on the interactions of Bm-Aspin with the proteases indicate that it undergoes fast-exchange phenomena among themselves. In addition to this, the chemical shift perturbations for some of the residues of Bm-Aspin observed from 15N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of saturated amounts of aspartic proteases suggest the binding between Bm-Aspin and human aspartic proteases. They also provide information on the variations in the intensities and mode of binding between the proteases duly corroborating with the results from the protease inhibition assay method. PMID:24516678

Nagampalli, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Peters, Angela; Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan

2014-01-01

153

Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

154

A structural biology approach to understand human lymphatic filarial infection.  

PubMed

The presence of aspartic protease inhibitor in filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-Aspin) makes it interesting to study because of the fact that the filarial parasite never encounters the host digestive system. Here, the aspartic protease inhibition kinetics of Bm-Aspin and its NMR structural characteristics have been investigated. The overall aim of this study is to explain the inhibition and binding properties of Bm-Aspin from its structural point of view. UV-spectroscopy and multi-dimensional NMR are the experiments that have been performed to understand the kinetic and structural properties of Bm-Aspin respectively. The human aspartic proteases that are considered for this study are pepsin, renin, cathepsin-E and cathepsin-D. The results of this analysis performed with the specific substrate [Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe (4-NO2)-Phe-Val-Leu (4-pyridylmethyl) ester] against aspartic proteases suggest that Bm-Aspin inhibits the activities of all four human aspartic proteases. The kinetics studies indicate that Bm-Aspin follows a competitive mode of inhibition for pepsin and cathepsin-E, non-competitive for renin and mixed mode for cathepsin-D. The triple resonance NMR experiments on Bm-Aspin suggested the feasibility of carrying out NMR studies to obtain its solution structure. The NMR titration studies on the interactions of Bm-Aspin with the proteases indicate that it undergoes fast-exchange phenomena among themselves. In addition to this, the chemical shift perturbations for some of the residues of Bm-Aspin observed from (15)N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of saturated amounts of aspartic proteases suggest the binding between Bm-Aspin and human aspartic proteases. They also provide information on the variations in the intensities and mode of binding between the proteases duly corroborating with the results from the protease inhibition assay method. PMID:24516678

Nagampalli, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Peters, Angela; Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan

2014-02-01

155

Understanding the Diversity: A Taxonomy for Postsecondary Education Programs and Services for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of postsecondary education (PSE) programs for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been steadily growing over the last few decades. There has been little public information regarding these programs and schools. Consequently, students, families, and researchers alike lack details about the various…

McEathron, Mary A.; Beuhring, Trisha; Maynard, Amelia; Mavis, Ann

2013-01-01

156

The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

2005-01-01

157

Drosophila: an important model organism for understanding basic biological and human disease mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the most classical model organisms, Drosophila melanogaster has been instrumental for the establishment of the chromosome theory of genetics. After 1970s, investigators take the unique advantages of Drosophila to make many new finds in developmental biology, neuroscience and human disease research. Drosophila is a very powerful model for neurodegenerative diseases. It may be anticipated that Drosophila will

WAN Yong-Qi; XIE Wei

2006-01-01

158

Developmental expression and function of DKKL1/Dkkl1 in humans and mice  

PubMed Central

Background Experiments were designed to identify the developmental expression and function of the Dickkopf-Like1 (DKKL1/Dkkl1) gene in humans and mice. Methods Mouse testes cDNA samples were collected at multiple postnatal times (days 4, 9, 18, 35, and 54, as well as at 6?months) and hybridized to Affymetrix mouse whole genome Genechips. To further characterize the homologous gene DKKL1 in human beings, the expression profiles between human adult testis and foetal testis were compared using Affymetrix human Genechips. The characteristics of DKKL1/Dkkl1 were analysed using various cellular and molecular biotechnologies. Results The expression of Dkkl1 was not detected in mouse testes on days 4 or 9, but was present on days 18, 35, and 54, as well as at 6?months, which was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blot results. Examination of the tissue distribution of Dkkl1 demonstrated that while Dkkl1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in testes, little to no expression of Dkkl1 was observed in the epididymis or other tissues. In an in vitro fertilization assay, a Dkkl1 antibody was found to significantly reduce fertilization. Human Genechips results showed that the hybridization signal intensity of DKKL1 was 405.56-fold higher in adult testis than in foetal testis. RT-PCR analysis of multiple human tissues indicated that DKKL1 mRNA was exclusively expressed in the testis. Western blot analysis also demonstrated that DKKL1 was mainly expressed in human testis with a molecular weight of approximately 34?kDa. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining showed that the DKKL1 protein was predominantly located in spermatocytes and round spermatids in human testes. An examination of the expression levels of DKKL1 in infertile male patients revealed that while no DKKL1 appeared in the testes of patients with Sertoli cell only syndrome (SCOS) or cryptorchidism, DKKL1 was observed with variable expression in patients with spermatogenic arrest. Conclusions These results, together with previous studies, suggest that DKKL1/Dkkl1 may play an important role in testicular development and spermatogenesis and may be an important factor in male infertility. PMID:22817830

2012-01-01

159

Medical Geography's contribution to understanding human-animal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health. Infectious agents shared between humans and animals (or zoonotic pathogens) are estimated to cause 75% of emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans (Bengis, 2004). For example, respiratory diseases like avian influenza that are transmitted from animals to humans have resulted in substantial bird and human deaths. Fatal blood-borne diseases

Sarah Beth Paige

160

Developmental-Like Bone Regeneration by Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Cells  

PubMed Central

The in vivo osteogenesis potential of mesenchymal-like cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC-MCs) was evaluated in vivo by implantation on collagen/hydroxyapatite scaffolds into calvarial defects in immunodeficient mice. This study is novel because no osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation protocols were applied to the cells prior to implantation. After 6 weeks, X-ray, microCT, and histological analysis showed that the hESC-MCs had consistently formed a highly vascularized new bone that bridged the bone defect and seamlessly integrated with host bone. The implanted hESC-MCs differentiated in situ to functional hypertrophic chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and osteocytes forming new bone tissue via an endochondral ossification pathway. Evidence for the direct participation of the human cells in bone morphogenesis was verified by two separate assays: with Alu and by human mitochondrial antigen positive staining in conjunction with co-localized expression of human bone sialoprotein in histologically verified regions of new bone. The large volume of new bone in a calvarial defect and the direct participation of the hESC-MCs far exceeds that of previous studies and that of the control adult hMSCs. This study represents a key step forward for bone tissue engineering because of the large volume, vascularity, and reproducibility of new bone formation and the discovery that it is advantageous to not over-commit these progenitor cells to a particular lineage prior to implantation. The hESC-MCs were able to recapitulate the mesenchymal developmental pathway and were able to repair the bone defect semi-autonomously without preimplantation differentiation to osteo- or chondroprogenitors. PMID:23952622

Liu, Yongxing; Boyd, Nolan L.; Dennis, James E.; Jiang, Xi; Xin, Xiaonan; Charles, Lyndon F.; Wang, Liping; Aguila, H. Leonardo; Rowe, David W.; Lichtler, Alexander C.; Goldberg, A. Jon

2014-01-01

161

Human developmental neurotoxicity of methylmercury: impact of variables and risk modifiers.  

PubMed

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental and food toxicant which has long been known to affect neurodevelopment in both humans and experimental animals. Risk assessment for MeHg is mainly based on human data coming from the massive episodes of poisoning in Japan and Iraq, as well as from large scale epidemiological studies concerning childhood development and neurotoxicity in relation to in utero exposure in various fish eating communities around the world. Despite the extensive literature and research, the threshold dose for MeHg neurotoxic effects is still unclear, in particular when it comes to subtle effects on neurobehaviour. In this article clinical and epidemiological findings concerning the neurodevelopmental toxicity of MeHg are reviewed. Much attention is focussed on the potential impact of factors, such as diet and nutrition, gender, pattern of exposure and co-exposure to other neurotoxic pollutants, which may modulate MeHg toxic effects. These factors, together with the notion that some symptoms may ensue or exacerbate with aging, contribute to the difficulties in the definition of safe levels for developmental exposure. PMID:18367301

Castoldi, Anna F; Johansson, Carolina; Onishchenko, Natalia; Coccini, Teresa; Roda, Elisa; Vahter, Marie; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Manzo, Luigi

2008-07-01

162

Optical techniques to understand biofunctional adaptation in human dentine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human tooth structure in the oral environment is subjected to mechanical forces and thermal fluctuations. Dentine, the major component of the tooth structure, is a bio-composite, mainly composed of a highly mineralized phase and a collagenous phase. When subjected to changes in load and/or temperature, dentine will experience stresses and strains distribution within their structure. Though such effects are found to cause deleterious effects on artificial dental restorations, biological structures such as dentine seem to posses an inherent ability to adapt to functional thermo-mechanical loads. Optical techniques enable visualization and quantification of deformation, strain and stress on dental structures and provide a better understanding on their thermo-mechanical response. In this study 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional digital photoelasticity, digital moiré interferometry and Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) are all shown to be quite promising in this application. This paper will highlight these techniques and the corresponding applications. These experiments will aid in designing and development of better dental restorations and implants in clinical practice.

Kishen, Anil; Asundi, Anand K.

2004-08-01

163

Annual research review: A developmental psychopathology approach to understanding callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents with serious conduct problems.  

PubMed

Recent research has suggested that the presence of significant levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates a clinically important and etiologically distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with serious conduct problems. Based on this research, CU traits have been included in the most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013)--as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. In this review, we attempt to understand CU traits within a developmental psychopathological framework. Specifically, we summarize research on the normal development of the prosocial emotions of empathy and guilt (i.e., conscience) and we illustrate how the development of CU traits can be viewed as the normal development of conscience gone awry. Furthermore, we review research on the stability of CU traits across different developmental periods and highlight factors that can influence this stability. Finally, we highlight the implications of this developmental psychopathological framework for future etiological research, for assessment and diagnostic classification, and for treatment of children with serious conduct problems. PMID:24117854

Frick, Paul J; Ray, James V; Thornton, Laura C; Kahn, Rachel E

2014-06-01

164

Understanding face perception by means of human electrophysiology  

E-print Network

of facial parts in the human brain. Introduction The human face is a complex multidimensional visual pat and the processes underlying perceptual integration of component parts into a meaningful whole. A human face conveys ­ an internal image of a face ­ in the human brain (see Glossary), is a process generally accomplished by 200 ms

Rossion, Bruno

165

Understanding complex fragmented assemblages of human and animal remains: a fully integrated approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmented, co-mingled assemblages of human and animal bones are not uncommon in archaeological deposits, particularly in prehistoric contexts. It is suggested, firstly, that standard approaches to studying the human material do not lend themselves to the complete understanding of such contexts, secondly, that the application of some techniques more common to zooarchaeology are of particular value in understanding such human

Alan K. Outram; Christopher J. Knüsel; Stephanie Knight; Anthony F. Harding

2005-01-01

166

Developmental neurotoxicity following prenatal exposures to methylmercury and PCBs in humans from epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Adverse health effects following prenatal exposures to methylmercury (MeHg) have been apparent from several prospective cohort studies conducted in a fish-eating population. A prospective study in a Faroese birth cohort documented subtle deficits of several functional domains at prenatal MeHg exposure levels previously thought to be safe. Recent additional studies also showed neurobehavioral deficits associated with exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with concomitant MeHg poisoning. In contrast, a prospective study in the Seychelles did not detect a similar association between MeHg exposure and neurodevelopmental deficits; children of the highest MeHg exposure group showed better scores in some developmental tests than those of the lower exposure groups for both prenatal and postnatal MeHg exposures. This paradoxical difference between both studies is summarized herein. The primary source of human exposure to MeHg is fish. Since a considerable number of pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides, are also present in fish, and since some organochemical substances including PCBs are also well documented to be neurotoxic to the developing brain from epidemiological studies, the combined effects of these pollutants should be considered in discussing the neurotoxicity of MeHg. In this article, therefore, major prospective cohort studies focusing on the exposures to PCBs were reviewed. PMID:12498320

Nakai, Kunihiko; Satoh, Hiroshi

2002-02-01

167

The decline of cross-species intersensory perception in human infants: Underlying mechanisms and its developmental persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated the mechanisms underlying the developmental decline in cross-species intersensory matching first reported by Lewkowicz and Ghazanfar [Lewkowicz, D.J., & Ghazanfar, A.A., (2006). The decline of cross-species intersensory perception in human infants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103(17), 6771–6774] and whether the decline persists into later development. Experiment 1 investigated whether infants can match monkey

David J. Lewkowicz; Ryan Sowinski

2008-01-01

168

Targeted loss of Arx results in a developmental epilepsy mouse model and recapitulates the human phenotype in heterozygous females  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the X-linked aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) have been linked to structural brain anomalies as well as multiple neurocognitive deficits. The generation of Arx-deficient mice revealed several morphological anomalies, resembling those observed in patients and an interneuron migration defect but perinatal lethality precluded analyses of later phenotypes. Interestingly, many of the neurological phenotypes observed in patients with various ARX mutations can be attributed, in part, to interneuron dysfunction. To directly test this possibility, mice carrying a floxed Arx allele were generated and crossed to Dlx5/6CRE-IRES-GFP(Dlx5/6CIG) mice, conditionally deleting Arx from ganglionic eminence derived neurons including cortical interneurons. We now report that Arx?/y;Dlx5/6CIG (male) mice exhibit a variety of seizure types beginning in early-life, including seizures that behaviourally and electroencephalographically resembles infantile spasms, and show evolution through development. Thus, this represents a new genetic model of a malignant form of paediatric epilepsy, with some characteristics resembling infantile spasms, caused by mutations in a known infantile spasms gene. Unexpectedly, approximately half of the female mice carrying a single mutant Arx allele (Arx?/+;Dlx5/6CIG) also developed seizures. We also found that a subset of human female carriers have seizures and neurocognitive deficits. In summary, we have identified a previously unrecognized patient population with neurological deficits attributed to ARX mutations that are recapitulated in our mouse model. Furthermore, we show that perturbation of interneuron subpopulations is an important mechanism underling the pathogenesis of developmental epilepsy in both hemizygous males and carrier females. Given the frequency of ARX mutations in patients with infantile spasms and related disorders, our data unveil a new model for further understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:19439424

Fulp, Carl; Gomez, Ernest; Nasrallah, Ilya; Minarcik, Jeremy; Sudi, Jyotsna; Christian, Susan L.; Mancini, Grazia; Labosky, Patricia; Dobyns, William; Brooks-Kayal, Amy

2009-01-01

169

Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

2001-01-01

170

The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the essential properties of human intelligence, currently unparalleled in its power relative to other biological forms and relative to artificial forms of intelligence? We suggest that answering this question depends critically on understanding developmental process. This paper considers three principles potentially essential to building…

Smith, Linda B.; Breazeal, Cynthia

2007-01-01

171

Developmental dynamics of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus during the first postnatal year  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, during the first postnatal year using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-NT. Ten human postmortem hypothalami obtained from control neonates and infants (aged from 2 h to 1 year of postnatal age) were used. The biochemical kinetics of the binding in all obtained in this study revealed that the binding affinity constants were of high affinity (in the nanomolar range) and did not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Furthermore, competition experiments show insensitivity to levocabastine and were in favor of the presence of the high affinity site of NT receptor. Autoradiographic distribution showed that NT binding sites were widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites was not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities were mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic area. High NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical, and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, low to very low densities could be observed in all the mammillary complex subdivisions, as well as the posterior hypothalamic area. Although this topographical distribution is almost identical during the postnatal period analyzed, age-related variations exist in discrete structures of the hypothalamus. The densities were higher in neonates/less aged infants than older infants in preoptic area (medial and lateral parts). The developmental profile is characterized by a progressive decrease from the neonate period to 1 year of postnatal age with a tendency to reach adult levels. On the other hand, the low levels of NT binding sites observed in posterior hypothalamus did not vary during the first postnatal year. They contrast in that with the very high levels we reported previously in adult. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high NT binding sites density in various structures in many regions in the human neonate/infant hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions. PMID:25309316

Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

2014-01-01

172

SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

173

Understanding Human Trafficking Origin: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist work on global human trafficking has highlighted the conceptual difficulty of differentiating between trafficking and migration. This contribution uses a cross-country United Nations Office on Crime and Drugs dataset on human trafficking from 2006 to empirically evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of high-trafficking origin countries and compare them with patterns that have emerged in the literature on migration. In particular,

Smriti Rao; Christina Presenti

2012-01-01

174

High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

2013-01-01

175

Increasing our Understanding of Human Cognition Through the Study of Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by reductions in the expression level or function of a single protein, the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a translational regulator which binds to approximately 4% of brain messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence suggests that FXS is a complex disorder of cognition, involving interactions between genetic and environmental influences, leading to difficulties in acquiring key life skills including motor skills, language, and proper social behaviors. Since many FXS patients also present with one or more features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), insights gained from studying the monogenic basis of FXS could pave the way to a greater understanding of underlying features of multigenic ASDs. Here we present an overview of the FXS and FMRP field with the goal of demonstrating how loss of a single protein involved in translational control affects multiple stages of brain development and leads to debilitating consequences on human cognition. We also focus on studies which have rescued or improved FXS symptoms in mice using genetic or therapeutic approaches to reduce protein expression. We end with a brief description of how deficits in translational control are implicated in FXS and certain cases of ASDs, with many recent studies demonstrating that ASDs are likely caused by increases or decreases in the levels of certain key synaptic proteins. The study of FXS and its underlying single genetic cause offers an invaluable opportunity to study how a single gene influences brain development and behavior. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 74: 147–177, 2014 PMID:23723176

Denise, Cook; Erin, Nuro; Keith, K. Murai

2014-01-01

176

Differentiating human NT2/D1 neurospheres as a versatile in vitro 3D model system for developmental neurotoxicity testing.  

PubMed

Developmental neurotoxicity is a major issue in human health and may have lasting neurological implications. In this preliminary study we exposed differentiating Ntera2/clone D1 (NT2/D1) cell neurospheres to known human teratogens classed as non-embryotoxic (acrylamide), weakly embryotoxic (lithium, valproic acid) and strongly embryotoxic (hydroxyurea) as listed by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and examined endpoints of cell viability and neuronal protein marker expression specific to the central nervous system, to identify developmental neurotoxins. Following induction of neuronal differentiation, valproic acid had the most significant effect on neurogenesis, in terms of reduced viability and decreased neuronal markers. Lithium had least effect on viability and did not significantly alter the expression of neuronal markers. Hydroxyurea significantly reduced cell viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Acrylamide reduced neurosphere viability but did not affect neuronal protein marker expression. Overall, this NT2/D1-based neurosphere model of neurogenesis, may provide the basis for a model of developmental neurotoxicity in vitro. PMID:18599177

Hill, E J; Woehrling, E K; Prince, M; Coleman, M D

2008-07-30

177

Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brain and Tissue Bank at the University of Maryland at Baltimore is established to advance the research of developmental disorders and is in contract to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. The objective of this human tissue repository is to systematically collect, store, and distribute brain and other tissue for research dedicated to the improved understanding, care and treatment of individuals with developmental disorders. A listing of disorders, tissues and request information is available, in addition to registry information for potential donors.

178

Developmentally regulated and erythroid-specific expression of the human embryonic beta-globin gene in transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

Transgenic mice have proven to be an effective expression system for studying developmental control of the human fetal and adult beta-globin genes. In the current work we are interested in developing the transgenic mouse system for the study of the human embryonic beta-globin gene, epsilon. An epsilon-globin gene construction (HSII,I epsilon) containing the human epsilon-globin gene with 0.2 kb of 3' flanking sequence and 13.7 kb of extended 5' flanking region including the erythroid-specific DNase I super-hypersensitive sites HSI and HSII was made. This construction was injected into fertilized mouse ova, and its expression was analyzed in peripheral blood, brain, and liver samples of 13.5 day transgenic fetuses. Fetuses carrying intact copies of the transgene expressed human epsilon-globin mRNA in their peripheral blood. Levels of expression of human epsilon-globin mRNA in these transgenic mice ranged from 2% to 26% per gene copy of the endogenous mouse embryonic epsilon y-globin mRNA level. Furthermore, the human epsilon-globin transgene was expressed specifically in peripheral blood but not in brain or in liver which is an adult erythroid tissue at this stage. Thus, the HSII,I, epsilon transgene was expressed in an erythroid-specific and embryonic stage-specific manner in the transgenic mice. A human epsilon-globin gene construction that did not contain the distal upstream flanking region which includes the HSI and HSII sites, was not expressed in the embryos of transgenic mice. These data indicate that the human epsilon-globin gene with 5' flanking region extending to include DNase I super-hypersensitive sites HSI and HSII is sufficient for the developmentally specific activation of the human epsilon-globin gene in erythroid tissue of transgenic mice. Images PMID:2216720

Shih, D M; Wall, R J; Shapiro, S G

1990-01-01

179

Understanding 3D human torso shape via manifold clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering the variations in human torso shape plays a key role in many design-oriented applications, such as suit designing. With recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies, people can obtain 3D human torso data that provide more information than traditional measurements. However, how to find different human shapes from 3D torso data is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose to use spectral clustering approach on torso manifold to address this problem. We first represent high-dimensional torso data in a low-dimensional space using manifold learning algorithm. Then the spectral clustering method is performed to get several disjoint clusters. Experimental results show that the clusters discovered by our approach can describe the discrepancies in both genders and human shapes, and our approach achieves better performance than the compared clustering method.

Li, Sheng; Li, Peng; Fu, Yun

2013-05-01

180

High School Students’ Understanding of the Human Body System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive\\u000a the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - “The human body, emphasizing homeostasis”.\\u000a The students’ systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main

Orit Ben-Zvi Assaraf; Jeff Dodick; Jaklin Tripto

2011-01-01

181

Simplified ontologies allowing comparison of developmental mammalian gene expression  

PubMed Central

Model organisms represent an important resource for understanding the fundamental aspects of mammalian biology. Mapping of biological phenomena between model organisms is complex and if it is to be meaningful, a simplified representation can be a powerful means for comparison. The Developmental eVOC ontologies presented here are simplified orthogonal ontologies describing the temporal and spatial distribution of developmental human and mouse anatomy. We demonstrate the ontologies by identifying genes showing a bias for developmental brain expression in human and mouse. PMID:17961239

Kruger, Adele; Hofmann, Oliver; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hide, Winston

2007-01-01

182

Supernumerary ribs in developmental toxicity bioassays and in human populations: incidence and biological significance.  

PubMed

Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LR) or cervical (CR), are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some debate. In rodents, the spontaneous incidence of SNR is species and strain related and ranges from <1% to >30%. Compound-induced LR are induced by a wide variety of chemical and physical agents when pregnant animals are exposed during specific gestational periods. A significant portion of the agent-induced LR may be due to maternal factors, as it has been shown that stress alone will induce LR in rodents. SNR are not isolated phenomena and signify basic alterations in the architecture of the axial skeleton. LR are associated with longer ribs, increased numbers of vertebrosternal ribs, and the presence of extra presacral vertebrae ("anteriorization"). CR are associated with reduced numbers of vertebrosternal ribs (posteriorization). It is evident that SNR are not a single anomaly, but consist of two unrelated structures: an extra rib that has a cartilaginous segment at the distal end, and an ossification site that lacks cartilage. These have a bimodal size distribution, with the population of extra ribs being significantly longer than the ossification sites, and 0.6 mm can be used as an approximate length for distinguishing the two populations in mice. Extra ribs are permanent structures in contrast to ossification sites that disappear postnatally, probably becoming part of the lateral transverse vertebral processes. SNR are also found in humans although, in contrast to laboratory species, CR are more commonly noted. SNR are associated with adverse heath effects, and CR with inducing thoracic outlet disease characterized by diminished blood flow and altered position of the ganglia and nerve roots in the area of the C7-T1 vertebrae. LR are associated with lower back pain and L4-5 degeneration. The incidence of CR is greatly reduced in adult humans as compared to fetuses, and it has been hypothesized that fetal "SNR" may be largely composed of ossification sites that disappear postnatally. The mechanisms involved in the formation of extra ribs are not understood at this time, although the fact that the early sensitive periods for their initiation during embryogenesis is coupled with the associated changes in the axial skeleton argues for their induction being due to fundamental changes in gene expression. The sum of the experimental evidence supports the idea of SNR being composed of two different structures: extra ribs that are permanent dysmorphological structures that may be induced by xenobiotics and/or maternal stress, and ossification sites that may be transient variations in the formation of the lateral processes of the vertebrae. PMID:15586878

Chernoff, Neil; Rogers, John M

2004-01-01

183

Developmental robustness.  

PubMed

Developmental robustness, the capacity to stay "on track" despite the myriad vicissitudes that inevitably plague a developing organism, is, I argue, a prerequisite for natural selection and key to our understanding of the evolution of developmental processes. But how is such robustness achieved? And how can we reconcile this property with the delicate precision that seems to characterize so many developmental mechanisms, with what Michael Behe calls "irreducible complexity"? By looking at context, I argue. Developmental mechanisms must be robust with respect to the kinds of insults they are most likely to face, but with respect to less likely vicissitudes, they can be fragile. More specifically, I examine the relative absence of reaction-diffusion mechanisms in development and suggest that such mechanisms, theoretically attractive though they may be, have been judged by evolution to be ill suited for providing protection against the kinds of vicissitudes developing organisms are most likely to face, and have been supplanted by more intricate mechanisms that are protected from insult by structural design. PMID:12547680

Keller, Evelyn Fox

2002-12-01

184

The Prevalence of Chromosomal Deletions Relating to Developmental Delay and/or Intellectual Disability in Human Euploid Blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34–149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision. PMID:24409323

He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

185

Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: understanding the human parameter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research being undertaken seeks to achieve a better understanding of the richness of microclimatic characteristics in outdoor urban spaces, and the comfort implications for the people using them. The underlying hypothesis is that these conditions influence people’s behaviour and usage of outdoor spaces. The initial results demonstrate that a purely physiological approach is inadequate in characterising comfort conditions outdoors,

Marialena Nikolopoulou; Nick Baker; Koen Steemers

2001-01-01

186

Which Aesthetic has the Greatest Effect on Human Understanding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the creation of graph drawing algorithms and systems, designers claim that by producing layouts that optimise certain aesthetic qualities, the graphs are easier to understand. Such aesthetics include maximise symmetry, minimise edge crosses and minimise bends. A previous study aimed to validate these claims with respect to three aesthetics, using paper-based experiments (11). The study reported here is superior

Helen C. Purchase

1997-01-01

187

Pyrosequencing as a tool for better understanding of human microbiomes  

PubMed Central

Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the analysis of microbial communities in diverse environments, including the human body. This article reviews several aspects of one of these technologies, the pyrosequencing technique, including its principles, applications, and significant contribution to the study of the human microbiome, with especial emphasis on the oral microbiome. The results brought about by pyrosequencing studies have significantly contributed to refining and augmenting the knowledge of the community membership and structure in and on the human body in healthy and diseased conditions. Because most oral infectious diseases are currently regarded as biofilm-related polymicrobial infections, high-throughput sequencing technologies have the potential to disclose specific patterns related to health or disease. Further advances in technology hold the perspective to have important implications in terms of accurate diagnosis and more effective preventive and therapeutic measures for common oral diseases. PMID:22279602

Siqueira, José F.; Fouad, Ashraf F.; Rôças, Isabela N.

2012-01-01

188

Understanding Human-Landscape Interactions in the "Anthropocene"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)—"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"—suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified—thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops—serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

Harden, Carol P.; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R.; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; McDowell, Patricia F.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A.; Solecki, William D.; Wohl, Ellen E.

2014-01-01

189

Out of Sight Is Not out of Mind: Developmental Changes in Infants' Understanding of Visual Perception during the Second Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated 14-, 18-, and 24- month-old infants' understanding of visual perception. Infants viewed films in which a protagonist was either able to view the location of a hidden object (Visual Access condition) or was blindfolded when the object location was revealed (No Visual Access condition). When requested to find the…

Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Sodian, Beate; Metz, Ulrike; Tilden, Joanne; Schoeppner, Barbara

2007-01-01

190

Learning Communities — Understanding Information Flow in Human Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Human Dynamics research group is developing methods to automatically map the flow of information within groups and communities using audio collected from wearable sensors such as mobile phones or PDAs. Computational models of group interaction dynamics are then derived from this data, allowing us to answer questions such as: Who influences whom? How much? How can we modify group

A Pentland

2004-01-01

191

Understanding the Human Volcano: What Teens Can Do about Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anger and violence among children has moved from the streets to the schools, with tragic, and well-documented, results. This book addresses anger and violence among children and is, in essence, an anger-management course for teens, written at about an eighth-grade level. Part 1, "The Problems of Violence in Our World," explores human violence. It…

Hipp, Earl

192

Humanities in Dental Education: A Focus on Understanding the Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a seminar program at the University of Maryland Dental School, which uses books, short stories, and films that integrate human values into dental education, specifically in pediatric dentistry, for residents, clerks, and faculty. Results of initial evaluation and changes in the program over time are detailed. (DB)

Balis, Sophia A.; Rule, James T.

1999-01-01

193

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

194

Comparative genomics: the key to understanding the human genome project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The sequencing of the human genome is well underway. Technology has ad- vanced, such that the total genomic sequence is possible, along with an extensive catalogue of genes via comprehensive cDNA libraries. With the recent completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sequencing project and the imminent comple- tion of that of Caenorhabditis elegans, the most frequently asked question is how

M. S. Clark

1999-01-01

195

Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled…

Gwon, Misook

2012-01-01

196

Use of a mouse in vitro fertilization model to understand the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.  

PubMed

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis holds that alterations to homeostasis during critical periods of development can predispose individuals to adult-onset chronic diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It remains controversial whether preimplantation embryo manipulation, clinically used to treat patients with infertility, disturbs homeostasis and affects long-term growth and metabolism. To address this controversy, we have assessed the effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on postnatal physiology in mice. We demonstrate that IVF and embryo culture, even under conditions considered optimal for mouse embryo culture, alter postnatal growth trajectory, fat accumulation, and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Unbiased metabolic profiling in serum and microarray analysis of pancreatic islets and insulin sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue) revealed broad changes in metabolic homeostasis, characterized by systemic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Adopting a candidate approach, we identify thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a key molecule involved in integrating cellular nutritional and oxidative states with metabolic response, as a marker for preimplantation stress and demonstrate tissue-specific epigenetic and transcriptional TXNIP misregulation in selected adult tissues. Importantly, dysregulation of TXNIP expression is associated with enrichment for H4 acetylation at the Txnip promoter that persists from the blastocyst stage through adulthood in adipose tissue. Our data support the vulnerability of preimplantation embryos to environmental disturbance and demonstrate that conception by IVF can reprogram metabolic homeostasis through metabolic, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms with lasting effects for adult growth and fitness. This study has wide clinical relevance and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of IVF-conceived offspring. PMID:24684304

Feuer, Sky K; Liu, Xiaowei; Donjacour, Annemarie; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel K; Giritharan, Gnanaratnam; Piane, Luisa Delle; Kolahi, Kevin; Ameri, Kurosh; Maltepe, Emin; Rinaudo, Paolo F

2014-05-01

197

Understanding what determines the frequency and pattern of human germline mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surprising findings about human germline mutation have come from applying new technologies to detect rare mutations in germline DNA, from analysing DNA sequence divergence between humans and closely related species, and from investigating human polymorphic variation. In this Review we discuss how these approaches affect our current understanding of the roles of sex, age, mutation hot spots, germline selection and

Norman Arnheim; Peter Calabrese

2009-01-01

198

Understanding ‘interpersonal trust’ from a human factors perspective: insights from situation awareness and the lens model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trust has become a hot topic in the academic world in the past few decades. Authors from a variety of fields, especially human factors, have developed field-specific approaches to understanding trust. However, in the field of human factors, researchers usually take the approach of modelling how trust is formed between humans and automation. There is still a gap in the

Plinio Pelegrini Morita; Catherine Marie Burns

2012-01-01

199

Lifeasweknowit To understand the human genome, researchers must spread their wings to all branches of life.  

E-print Network

and a worm to its ENCODE project, which aims to catalogue all the functional parts of the human genome is moving more forcefully into purely human genomics. The biggest new projects recently announcedLifeasweknowit To understand the human genome, researchers must spread their wings to all branches

Pratt, Vaughan

200

Mitigating Human-Black Bear Conflicts by Understanding Spatial Patterns and Associated Site  

E-print Network

Mitigating Human-Black Bear Conflicts by Understanding Spatial Patterns and Associated Site Name: Mary von der Porten Degree: Master of Resource Management Title of Thesis: Mitigating Human University Date Defended/Approved: #12;iii ABSTRACT Conflict with humans poses a serious risk

201

Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding.  

PubMed

How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective-the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)-have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN-the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS-were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method-NEIL ("Never-Ending-Image-Learner"), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes-showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network. PMID:25698964

Aminoff, Elissa M; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J

2015-01-01

202

Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding  

PubMed Central

How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective—the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)—have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN—the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS—were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method—NEIL (“Never-Ending-Image-Learner”), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes—showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network. PMID:25698964

Aminoff, Elissa M.; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J.

2015-01-01

203

Histone-modifying enzymes: regulators of developmental decisions and drivers of human disease  

PubMed Central

Precise transcriptional networks drive the orchestration and execution of complex developmental processes. Transcription factors possessing sequence-specific DNA binding properties activate or repress target genes in a step-wise manner to control most cell lineage decisions. This regulation often requires the interaction between transcription factors and subunits of massive protein complexes that bear enzymatic activities towards histones. The functional coupling of transcription proteins and histone modifiers underscores the importance of transcriptional regulation through chromatin modification in developmental cell fate decisions and in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22449188

Butler, Jill S; Koutelou, Evangelia; Schibler, Andria C; Dent, Sharon YR

2012-01-01

204

Using action understanding to understand the left inferior parietal cortex in the human brain.  

PubMed

Humans have a sophisticated knowledge of the actions that can be performed with objects. In an fMRI study we tried to establish whether this depends on areas that are homologous with the inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in macaque monkeys. Cells have been described in area PFG that discharge differentially depending upon whether the observer sees an object being brought to the mouth or put in a container. In our study the observers saw videos in which the use of different objects was demonstrated in pantomime; and after viewing the videos, the subject had to pick the object that was appropriate to the pantomime. We found a cluster of activated voxels in parietal areas PFop and PFt and this cluster was greater in the left hemisphere than in the right. We suggest a mechanism that could account for this asymmetry, relate our results to handedness and suggest that they shed light on the human syndrome of apraxia. Finally, we suggest that during the evolution of the hominids, this same pantomime mechanism could have been used to 'name' or request objects. PMID:25086203

Passingham, R E; Chung, A; Goparaju, B; Cowey, A; Vaina, L M

2014-09-25

205

Understanding face perception by means of human electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological recordings on the human scalp provide a wealth of information about the temporal dynamics and nature of face perception at a global level of brain organization. The time window between 100 and 200 ms witnesses the transition between low-level and high-level vision, an N170 component correlating with conscious interpretation of a visual stimulus as a face. This face representation is rapidly refined as information accumulates during this time window, allowing the individualization of faces. To improve the sensitivity and objectivity of face perception measures, it is increasingly important to go beyond transient visual stimulation by recording electrophysiological responses at periodic frequency rates. This approach has recently provided face perception thresholds and the first objective signature of integration of facial parts in the human brain. PMID:24703600

Rossion, Bruno

2014-06-01

206

The Sociometer: A Wearable Device for Understanding Human Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the use of the sociometer, a wearable sensor package, for measuring face-to-face interactions between people. We develop methods for learning the structure and dynamics of human communication networks. Knowledge of how people interact is important in many disciplines, e.g. organizational behavior, social network analysis and knowledge management applications such as expert finding. At present researchers

Tanzeem Choudhury; Alex Pentland

2002-01-01

207

Anogenital human papillomavirus infection. Changes in understanding and management.  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the natural history and clinical management of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is changing rapidly. Consequently, it is important for family physicians to keep current. This article updates the epidemiology, detection, and treatment of HPV-related disease and discusses commonly confused conditions and answers to patients' questions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 p96-a Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8312760

Sellors, J. W.; Law, C.

1994-01-01

208

Systematically labeling developmental stage-specific genes for the study of pancreatic ?-cell differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

The applications of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived cells in regenerative medicine has encountered a long-standing challenge: how can we efficiently obtain mature cell types from hPSCs? Attempts to address this problem are hindered by the complexity of controlling cell fate commitment and the lack of sufficient developmental knowledge for guiding hPSC differentiation. Here, we developed a systematic strategy to study hPSC differentiation by labeling sequential developmental genes to encompass the major developmental stages, using the directed differentiation of pancreatic ? cells from hPSCs as a model. We therefore generated a large panel of pancreas-specific mono- and dual-reporter cell lines. With this unique platform, we visualized the kinetics of the entire differentiation process in real time for the first time by monitoring the expression dynamics of the reporter genes, identified desired cell populations at each differentiation stage and demonstrated the ability to isolate these cell populations for further characterization. We further revealed the expression profiles of isolated NGN3-eGFP(+) cells by RNA sequencing and identified sushi domain-containing 2 (SUSD2) as a novel surface protein that enriches for pancreatic endocrine progenitors and early endocrine cells both in human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived pancreatic cells and in the developing human pancreas. Moreover, we captured a series of cell fate transition events in real time, identified multiple cell subpopulations and unveiled their distinct gene expression profiles, among heterogeneous progenitors for the first time using our dual reporter hESC lines. The exploration of this platform and our new findings will pave the way to obtain mature ? cells in vitro. PMID:25190258

Liu, Haisong; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Dicong; Sui, Xin; Li, Juan; Liang, Zhen; Xu, Lei; Chen, Zeyu; Yao, Anzhi; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Xi; Yi, Xing; Liu, Meng; Xu, Shiqing; Zhang, Wenjian; Lin, Hua; Xie, Lan; Lou, Jinning; Zhang, Yong; Xi, Jianzhong; Deng, Hongkui

2014-10-01

209

High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - "The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main levels that are arranged "pyramid" style, in an ascending order of difficulty: 1. Analysis of system components—the ability to identify the components and processes existing in the human body system; 2. Synthesis of system components—ability to identify dynamic relations within the system; 3. Implementation—ability to generalize and identify patterns in the system, and to identify its hidden dimensions. The students in this study proved largely incapable of achieving systems thinking beyond the primary STH level of identifying components. An overwhelming majority if their responses corresponded to this level of the STH model, further indicating a pronounced favoring of structure over process, and of larger, macro elements over microscopic ones.

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

2013-02-01

210

An evaluation of a human stem cell line to identify risk of developmental neurotoxicity with antiepileptic drugs.  

PubMed

Determination of the impact of a drug on human brain development relies instead on surrogate animal studies. Here we have exploited the human stem cell line, TERA2.cl.SP12 to differentiate into neurons and addressed their value as an in vitro model to evaluate the risk of developmental neurotoxicity with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The effects of four AEDs were investigated on cell viability, cell cycle and neural differentiation. Exposure to either phenobarbital (10-1000?M), valproic acid (10-1000?M), lamotrigine (1-100?M) or carbamazepine (1-100?M) for 3days reduced viability in non-differentiating cells only at the highest concentrations tested. Viability was also reduced with lower concentrations of all AEDs in cells undergoing neural differentiation. Valproic acid and carbamazepine increased DNA fragmentation and reduced cell cycle progression. 3days exposure at the start of neural differentiation to phenobarbital, valproic acid or lamotrigine also significantly reduced the proportion of stem cells that subsequently differentiated into neurons at 15days in vitro. The two control agents tested, ciprofloxacin and perfluorooctanoic acid had no impact on neurogenesis in vitro. These new data show that modelling neurogenesis in vitro using a human stem cell line may be a powerful method to predict risks of developmental neurotoxicity in vivo with psychotropic drugs. PMID:25637331

Cao, William S; Livesey, John C; Halliwell, Robert F

2015-04-01

211

Differentiating neurons derived from human umbilical cord blood stem cells work as a test system for developmental neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Differentiating neuronal cells derived from human umbilical cord blood stem cells have been used as an in vitro tool for the assessment of developmental neurotoxicity of monocrotophos (MCP), an organophosphate pesticide. The differentiating cells were exposed to MCP during the different stages of maturation, viz., days 2, 4, and 8, and changes in the makers of cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation, neuronal injuries, and receptors were studied. We found significant upregulation in the different MAPKs, apoptosis, and neurogenesis markers and downregulation in the cell proliferation markers during neuronal differentiation. We further identified significant upregulation in the expression of different MAPKs and proteins involved in oxidative stress, apoptosis, and calpain pathways in the mid-differentiating cells exposed to MCP. The upregulated levels of these proteins seem to be the main cause of alteration during the differentiation process towards apoptosis as a fine-tune of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins are desirable for the process of differentiation without apoptosis. The decreased acetylcholinesterase activity, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors and increased acetylcholine levels in the differentiating neuronal cells indicate the vulnerability of these cells towards MCP-induced neurotoxicity. Our data confirms that differentiating neuronal cells derived from human umbilical cord stem cells could be used as a powerful tool to assess the developmental neurotoxicity in human beings. PMID:24859382

Kashyap, Mahendra P; Kumar, Vivek; Singh, Abhishek K; Tripathi, Vinay K; Jahan, Sadaf; Pandey, Ankita; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Khanna, Vinay K; Pant, Aditya B

2015-04-01

212

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

. For example, in an unexpected change task, a three-year-old would not predict that another would go to the original location of the toy because he or she would assume that the purpose of the other' s behavior is to satisfy a desire. Therefore, the other... would look for the toy in its new location since that would be the only way that the other could satisfy his or 12 her desires. On the other hand, a four-year-old would understand that people have both desires and beliefs about those desires...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

1998-01-01

213

Non-Mendelian developmental defects: animal models and implications for research into human disease*  

PubMed Central

The major groups of malformations in man are polygenic in origin but this review deals only with defects due to non-Mendelian factors. Animal models that help in identifying the causes and in understanding the numerous and often subtle mechanisms of human malformations are of particular value. Many chemicals, physical agents, and nutritional deficiencies affect experimental species but few are teratogenic for domestic animals and even fewer for man. The known fetopathic viruses of animals and man cross the placenta to cause chronic, nonlethal fetal damage without harm to the mother. Ionizing radiations are teratogenic for all species and hyperthermia for many, but the role of the latter in human development is uncertain. The identification of more animal species with spontaneous or induced defects comparable to those found in man and of additional causative teratogens will increase the resources available for research into the causes and mechanisms of abnormal development in man. No animal species is ideal in teratological research but each has its virtues. This report comments on the present status of research in teratology and the trends that might profitably be followed in the future. PMID:413638

1977-01-01

214

Can Developmental Disorders Reveal the Component Parts of the Human Language Faculty?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential profiles of language impairments in genetic developmental disorders have been argued to reveal the component parts of the language system and perhaps even the genetic specification of those components. Focusing predominantly on a comparison between Williams syndrome and Specific Language Impairment, we ar- gue that the detailed level of behavioral fractionations observed in these disorders goes beyond the possible

Michael Thomas; Annette Karmiloff-Smith

2005-01-01

215

EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Agents that may affect reproductive and developmental toxicity are of great concern to the general public. espite this, both the regulatory and public health arenas have been made somewhat haphazard use of the existing data when interpreting these health effects. ppropriate infor...

216

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle†  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts—including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

Galloway, James N.; Leach, Allison M.; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

2013-01-01

217

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle.  

PubMed

Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts-including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

2013-07-01

218

Can human movement analysis contribute to usability understanding?  

PubMed

Nowadays human-machine interfaces are evaluated using different methodologies. These methodologies rarely consider the human movements involved in the interaction, and if so, the movements are considered in a simplistic manner. Another often neglected aspect is the relationship between the learning process and the use of the interface. Traditional approaches of cognitive modeling consider learning as just one continuous process. However there is some current evidence of concurrent processes on different time scales. This paper aims to answer, with experimental measurements, if learning actually implies a set of concurrent processes, if those processes are related to the coordinative aspects of hand movement, and how this can vary between young adult and elderly users. Two different interfaces, a washing machine and a domotic system, were analyzed with 23 and 20 people, respectively, classified as men or women and elderly (over 55) or adult (between 40 and 50). The results of the study provide support for the existence of different concurrent processes in learning, previously demonstrated for motor tasks. Moreover, the learning process is actually associated with changes in movement patterns. Finally, the results show that the progression of the learning process depends on age, although elderly people are equally capable of learning to use technological systems as young adults. PMID:20580455

Belda-Lois, Juan-Manuel; de-Rosario, Helios; Pons, Romà; Poveda, Rakel; Morón, Ana; Porcar, Rosa; García, Ana-Cruz; Gómez, Amelia

2010-08-01

219

Developmental Group Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a reconceptualization of problems and processes of developmental group supervision as occurring in three different but interesting domains. Asserts that a more thorough understanding of developmental assumptions upon which supervision models are built will help to identify deficiencies in existing models and to facilitate development of…

Hayes, Richard L.

1990-01-01

220

Developmental Toxicology##  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

221

Let7 microRNAs are developmentally regulated in circulating human erythroid cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are ~22nt-long small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression through mRNA degradation or translational repression in eukaryotic cells. Based upon their importance in regulating development and terminal differentiation in model systems, erythrocyte microRNA profiles were examined at birth and in adults to determine if changes in their abundance coincide with the developmental phenomenon of hemoglobin switching.

Seung-Jae Noh; Samuel H Miller; Y Terry Lee; Sung-Ho Goh; Francesco M Marincola; David F Stroncek; Christopher Reed; Ena Wang; Jeffery L Miller

2009-01-01

222

Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures.  

PubMed Central

Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many even more complex interactions may occur if two chemicals act at different but related targets. In the extreme case there may be synergistic effects, in which case the effects of two substances together are greater than the sum of either effect alone. In reality, most persons are exposed to many chemicals, not just one or two, and therefore the effects of a chemical mixture are extremely complex and may differ for each mixture depending on the chemical composition. This complexity is a major reason why mixtures have not been well studied. In this review we attempt to illustrate some of the principles and approaches that can be used to study effects of mixtures. By the nature of the state of the science, this discussion is more a presentation of what we do not know than of what we do know about mixtures. We approach the study of mixtures at three levels, using specific examples. First, we discuss several human diseases in relation to a variety of environmental agents believed to influence the development and progression of the disease. We present results of selected cellular and animal studies in which simple mixtures have been investigated. Finally, we discuss some of the effects of mixtures at a molecular level. PMID:11834461

Carpenter, David O; Arcaro, Kathleen; Spink, David C

2002-01-01

223

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

2007-01-01

224

Evolutionary and developmental foundations of human knowledge: a case study of mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the brain and cognitive systems that allow humans to play baseball, compute square roots, cook soufflés, or navigate the Tokyo subways? It may seem that studies of human infants and of non-human animals will tell us little about these abilities, because only educated, enculturated human adults engage in organized games, formal mathematics, gourmet cooking, or map-reading. In this

Marc D. Hauser; Elizabeth Spelke

225

'Unwilling' versus 'unable': capuchin monkeys' (Cebus apella) understanding of human intentional action.  

PubMed

A sensitivity to the intentions behind human action is a crucial developmental achievement in infants. Is this intention reading ability a unique and relatively recent product of human evolution and culture, or does this capacity instead have roots in our non-human primate ancestors? Recent work by Call and colleagues (2004) lends credence to the latter hypothesis, providing evidence that chimpanzees are also sensitive to human intentions. Specifically, chimpanzees remained in a testing area longer and exhibited fewer frustration behaviors when an experimenter behaved as if he intended to give food but was unable to do so, than when the experimenter behaved as if he had no intention of giving food. The present research builds on and extends this paradigm, providing some of the first evidence of intention reading in a more distant primate relative, the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Like chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys distinguish between different goal-directed acts, vacating an enclosure sooner when an experimenter acts unwilling to give food than when she acts unable to give food. Additionally, we found that this pattern is specific to animate action, and does not obtain when the same actions are performed by inanimate rods instead of human hands (for a similar logic, see Woodward, 1998). Taken together with the previous evidence, the present research suggests that our own intention reading is not a wholly unique aspect of the human species, but rather is shared broadly across the primate order. PMID:19840049

Phillips, Webb; Barnes, Jennifer L; Mahajan, Neha; Yamaguchi, Mariko; Santos, Laurie R

2009-11-01

226

Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of conditions sharing as their common features impairment in social reciprocity,\\u000a developmental disturbances affecting communication, and manifestation of restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism is the\\u000a prototypical pervasive developmental disorder, and others include Asperger's Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative\\u000a Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Critical to understanding these conditions\\u000a is appreciation of

Kathleen Koenig; Katherine D. Tsatsanis

227

Biomarkers of human oocyte developmental competence expressed in cumulus cells before ICSI: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify reliable genomic biomarkers expressed in cumulus cells that accurately and non-invasively predict the oocyte developmental\\u000a competence and reinforce the already used morphological criteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eight consenting patients were selected for ovarian stimulation and ICSI procedures. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were transvaginally\\u000a punctured and individually selected based on both good morphological criteria and high zona pellucida birefringence. Following\\u000a ICSI, two 3-day embryos

Mourad Assidi; Markus Montag; Katrin Van Der Ven; Marc-André Sirard

2011-01-01

228

Mutations in the human SC4MOL gene encoding a methyl sterol oxidase cause psoriasiform dermatitis, microcephaly, and developmental delay.  

PubMed

Defects in cholesterol synthesis result in a wide variety of symptoms, from neonatal lethality to the relatively mild dysmorphic features and developmental delay found in individuals with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. We report here the identification of mutations in sterol-C4-methyl oxidase–like gene (SC4MOL) as the cause of an autosomal recessive syndrome in a human patient with psoriasiform dermatitis, arthralgias, congenital cataracts, microcephaly, and developmental delay. This gene encodes a sterol-C4-methyl oxidase (SMO), which catalyzes demethylation of C4-methylsterols in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. C4-Methylsterols are meiosis-activating sterols (MASs). They exist at high concentrations in the testis and ovary and play roles in meiosis activation. In this study, we found that an accumulation of MASs in the patient led to cell overproliferation in both skin and blood. SMO deficiency also substantially altered immunocyte phenotype and in vitro function. MASs serve as ligands for liver X receptors ? and ?(LXR? and LXR?), which are important in regulating not only lipid transport in the epidermis, but also innate and adaptive immunity. Deficiency of SMO represents a biochemical defect in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, the clinical spectrum of which remains to be defined. PMID:21285510

He, Miao; Kratz, Lisa E; Michel, Joshua J; Vallejo, Abbe N; Ferris, Laura; Kelley, Richard I; Hoover, Jacqueline J; Jukic, Drazen; Gibson, K Michael; Wolfe, Lynne A; Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zwick, Michael E; Vockley, Jerry

2011-03-01

229

Early Developmental Conditions and Reproductive Success in Humans: Downstream Effects of Prenatal Famine,  

E-print Network

for subsequent survival and reproductive performance in humans. Environmental conditions which affect early of measures of reproductive performance in both food-limited and contemporary Western human populations can have a large impact on human reproductive strategies and fitness that can span across generations

Lummaa, Virpi

230

Deletion of Porcn in Mice Leads to Multiple Developmental Defects and Models Human Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (Goltz Syndrome)  

PubMed Central

Background Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (FDH) is a genetic disorder characterized by developmental defects in skin, skeleton and ectodermal appendages. FDH is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in X-linked PORCN. PORCN orthologues in Drosophila and mice encode endoplasmic reticulum proteins required for secretion and function of Wnt proteins. Wnt proteins play important roles in embryo development, tissue homeostasis and stem cell maintenance. Since features of FDH overlap with those seen in mouse Wnt pathway mutants, FDH likely results from defective Wnt signaling but molecular mechanisms by which inactivation of PORCN affects Wnt signaling and manifestations of FDH remain to be elucidated. Results We introduced intronic loxP sites and a neomycin gene in the mouse Porcn locus for conditional inactivation. Porcn-ex3-7flox mice have no apparent developmental defects, but chimeric mice retaining the neomycin gene (Porcn-ex3-7Neo-flox) have limb, skin, and urogenital abnormalities. Conditional Porcn inactivation by EIIa-driven or Hprt-driven Cre recombinase results in increased early embryonic lethality. Mesenchyme-specific Prx-Cre-driven inactivation of Porcn produces FDH-like limb defects, while ectodermal Krt14-Cre-driven inactivation produces thin skin, alopecia, and abnormal dentition. Furthermore, cell-based assays confirm that human PORCN mutations reduce WNT3A secretion. Conclusions These data indicate that Porcn inactivation in the mouse produces a model for human FDH and that phenotypic features result from defective WNT signaling in ectodermal- and mesenchymal-derived structures. PMID:22412863

Liu, Wei; Shaver, Timothy M.; Balasa, Alfred; Ljungberg, M. Cecilia; Wang, Xiaoling; Wen, Shu; Nguyen, Hoang; Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

2012-01-01

231

Gene Expression Profiling in Human Fetal Liver and Identification of Tissue- and Developmental-Stage-Specific Genes through Compiled Expression Profiles and Efficient Cloning of Full-Length cDNAs  

PubMed Central

Fetal liver intriguingly consists of hepatic parenchymal cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Human fetal liver aged 22 wk of gestation (HFL22w) corresponds to the turning point between immigration and emigration of the hematopoietic system. To gain further molecular insight into its developmental and functional characteristics, HFL22w was studied by generating expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and by analyzing the compiled expression profiles of liver at different developmental stages. A total of 13,077 ESTs were sequenced from a 3?-directed cDNA library of HFL22w, and classified as follows: 5819 (44.5%) matched to known genes; 5460 (41.8%) exhibited no significant homology to known genes; and the remaining 1798 (13.7%) were genomic sequences of unknown function, mitochondrial genomic sequences, or repetitive sequences. Integration of ESTs of known human genes generated a profile including 1660 genes that could be divided into 15 gene categories according to their functions. Genes related to general housekeeping, ESTs associated with hematopoiesis, and liver-specific genes were highly expressed. Genes for signal transduction and those associated with diseases, abnormalities, or transcription regulation were also noticeably active. By comparing the expression profiles, we identified six gene groups that were associated with different developmental stages of human fetal liver, tumorigenesis, different physiological functions of Itoh cells against the other types of hepatic cells, and fetal hematopoiesis. The gene expression profile therefore reflected the unique functional characteristics of HFL22w remarkably. Meanwhile, 110 full-length cDNAs of novel genes were cloned and sequenced. These novel genes might contribute to our understanding of the unique functional characteristics of the human fetal liver at 22 wk. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under the accession nos. listed in Table 6 herein] PMID:11483580

Yu, Yongtao; Zhang, Chenggang; Zhou, Gangqiao; Wu, Songfeng; Qu, Xianghu; Wei, Handong; Xing, Guichun; Dong, Chunna; Zhai, Yun; Wan, Jinghong; Ouyang, Shuguang; Li, Li; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhou, Kaixin; Zhang, Yinan; Wu, Chutse; He, Fuchu

2001-01-01

232

Continuous force-displacement relationships for the human red blood cell at different erythrocytic developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite  

E-print Network

developmental stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite John P. Mills1 , Lan Qie3 , Ming Dao1 , Kevin S that the malaria parasite Plasmodium (P.) falciparum could result in significant stiffening of infected human red, the deadliest of the four species of malaria, which results in two to three million deaths annually [1]. When

Dao, Ming

233

A comparative analysis of animals' understanding of the human pointing gesture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies demonstrating the ability of some animals to understand the human pointing gesture. We present a 3-step\\u000a analysis of the topic. (1) We compare and evaluate current experimental methods (2) We compare available experimental results\\u000a on performance of different species and investigate the interaction of species differences and other independent variables\\u000a (3) We evaluate how our present understanding

Ádam Miklósi; Krisztina Soproni

2006-01-01

234

The Ecological and Developmental Role of Recovery High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recovery high schools are secondary schools designed specifically for students recovering from substance use or co-occurring disorders. Studies have affirmed the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the developmental value of social supports for adolescents. As part of understanding human growth and development, training programs for…

Finch, Andrew J.; Frieden, Gina

2014-01-01

235

Genomic features and computational identification of human microRNAs under long-range developmental regulation  

PubMed Central

Background Recent functional studies have demonstrated that many microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed by RNA polymerase II in a specific spatiotemporal manner during the development of organisms and play a key role in cell-lineage decisions and morphogenesis. They are therefore functionally related to a number of key protein coding developmental genes, that form genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) with arrays of highly conserved non-coding elements (HCNEs) functioning as long-range enhancers that collaboratively regulate the expression of their target genes. Given this functional similarity as well as recent zebrafish transgenesis assays showing that the miR-9 family is indeed regulated by HCNEs with enhancer activity, we hypothesized that this type of miRNA regulation is prevalent. In this paper, we therefore systematically investigate the regulatory landscape around conserved self-transcribed miRNAs (ST miRNAs), with their own known or computationally inferred promoters, by analyzing the hallmarks of GRB target genes. These include not only the density of HCNEs in their vicinity but also the presence of large CpG islands (CGIs) and distinct patterns of histone modification marks associated with developmental genes. Results Our results show that a subset of the conserved ST miRNAs we studied shares properties similar to those of protein-coding GRB target genes: they are located in regions of significantly higher HCNE/enhancer binding density and are more likely to be associated with CGIs. Furthermore, their putative promoters have both activating as well as silencing histone modification marks during development and differentiation. Based on these results we used both an elevated HCNE density in the genomic vicinity as well as the presence of a bivalent promoter to identify 29 putative GRB target miRNAs/miRNA clusters, over two-thirds of which are known to play a role during development and differentiation. Furthermore these predictions include miRNAs of the miR-9 family, which are the only experimentally verified GRB target miRNAs. Conclusions A subset of the conserved miRNA loci we investigated exhibits typical characteristics of GRB target genes, which may partially explain their complex expression profiles during development. PMID:21619633

2011-01-01

236

Developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

2015-03-28

237

Assessment of human hippocampal developmental neuroanatomy by means of ex-vivo 7 T magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

During development, the hippocampus undergoes numerous changes in its cell morphology and cyto- and myelo-architecture that begin during the fetal period and continue after birth. We investigated the developmental changes occurring in healthy fetal (20-32 gestational weeks) and post-natal human hippocampi (from 1 day to adulthood) by combining high-resolution 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological and immunohistochemical analyses in order to compare variations in signal intensity with cyto- and myeloarchitectural organization. During fetal period the intensity of the T2-weighted images was related to the cell density and the subregions of Ammon's horn and dentate gyrus, characterized by densely packed neurons, were recognizable as hypointense areas. The inverse correlation between MRI signal intensity and cell density was visualized by line profile results. At the age of two post-natal weeks, the low MRI signal was still related to cell density, although thin myelinated fibers were observed in hypointense regions such as the alveus and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. The myelin content subsequently increases until the complete hippocampal myeloarchitecture is reached in adulthood. Comparison of the MRI findings and corresponding histological sections indicated that the differences in the T2-weighted images between the age of seven years and adulthood reflect the increasing density of myelinated fibers. These results provide useful information concerning the interpretation of MRI signals and the developmental changes visualized by in vivo MRI at lower field strengths, and may be used as a reference for the future use of high spatial resolution MRI in clinical practice. PMID:24456808

Milesi, Gloria; Garbelli, Rita; Zucca, Ileana; Aronica, Eleonora; Spreafico, Roberto; Frassoni, Carolina

2014-05-01

238

Spatial frequency discrimination learning in normal and developmentally impaired human vision  

PubMed Central

Perceptual learning effects demonstrate that the adult visual system retains neural plasticity. If perceptual learning holds any value as a treatment tool for amblyopia, trained improvements in performance must generalise. Here we investigate whether spatial frequency discrimination learning generalises within task to other spatial frequencies, and across task to contrast sensitivity. Before and after training, we measured contrast sensitivity and spatial frequency discrimination (at a range of reference frequencies 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 c/deg). During training, normal and amblyopic observers were divided into three groups. Each group trained on a spatial frequency discrimination task at one reference frequency (2, 4, or 8 c/deg). Normal and amblyopic observers who trained at lower frequencies showed a greater rate of within task learning (at their reference frequency) compared to those trained at higher frequencies. Compared to normals, amblyopic observers showed greater within task learning, at the trained reference frequency. Normal and amblyopic observers showed asymmetrical transfer of learning from high to low spatial frequencies. Both normal and amblyopic subjects showed transfer to contrast sensitivity. The direction of transfer for contrast sensitivity measurements was from the trained spatial frequency to higher frequencies, with the bandwidth and magnitude of transfer greater in the amblyopic observers compared to normals. The findings provide further support for the therapeutic efficacy of this approach and establish general principles that may help develop more effective protocols for the treatment of developmental visual deficits. PMID:20832416

Astle, Andrew T.; Webb, Ben S.; McGraw, Paul V.

2010-01-01

239

Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as cell therapeutics for neurological disease. Compared with other types of stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, such as limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potential into functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. In spite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolation from the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion, have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs. However, several groups have recently developed novel techniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normal adult brains, and showed successful applications of aNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologies for aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdles in stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could be overcome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerative stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25621112

Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

2015-01-01

240

Developmentally Learning the Support Affordance of a Platform Brian Russell, Shuky Meyer, Karl Deakyne and Alexander Stoytchev, Developmental Robotics Lab  

E-print Network

Deakyne and Alexander Stoytchev, Developmental Robotics Lab 2. Motivation 4. Methodology 5. Results 6 robotics. In particular, support cannot be learned through programming alone, it must be learned by the robot in order to perform tasks intelligently. Humans begin to understand the concept of support

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

241

Developmental patterns of caspase-3, bax and bcl-2 proteins expression in the human spinal ganglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 proteins was investigated in the cells of developing human spinal ganglia.\\u000a Paraffin sections of 10 human conceptuses between 5th and 9th gestational weeks were analysed morphologically, immunohistochemically\\u000a and by TUNEL-method. Cells positive to caspase-3 had brown stained nuclei or nuclear fragmentations. At earliest stages, 6%\\u000a of ganglion population were caspase-3 positive cells.

Katarina Vukojevic; Dominko Carev; Damir Sapunar; Danijel Petrovic; Mirna Saraga-Babic

2008-01-01

242

Conceptions of Human-Computer Interaction: A Model for Understanding Student Errors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a human-computer interaction (HCI) conceptions model designed to help in the understanding of the cognitive processes involved when college students learn to program computers. Examines syntactic and algorithmic HCI operational errors and reviews conceptions based on natural language reasoning, independent computer reasoning, and…

Rath, Alex; Brown, David E.

1995-01-01

243

An Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots  

E-print Network

in a Japanese elementary school to verify this hy- pothesis. In the experiment, two "Robovie" robots were placedAn Approach for a Social Robot to Understand Human Relationships: Friendship Estimation through Interaction with Robots Takayuki Kanda1 and Hiroshi Ishiguro1,2 1 ATR, Intelligent Robotics and Communication

Kanda, Takayuki

244

Toward new understandings of human–animal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

245

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

246

Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care  

PubMed Central

In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.

2014-01-01

247

A comparative analysis of animals' understanding of the human pointing gesture  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review studies demonstrating the ability of some animals to understand the human pointing gesture. We present a 3-step analysis of the topic. (1) We compare and evaluate current experimental methods (2) We compare available experimental results on performance of different species and investigate the interaction of species differ- ences and other independent variables (3) We evaluate how our present

Adam Miklosi; Krisztina Soproni

2005-01-01

248

The Circuit of Culture: A Strategy for Understanding the Evolving Human Dimensions of Wildland Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this conceptual article, the authors explore the possibilities of another approach to examining the human dimensions of wildland fire. They argue that our understanding of this issue could be enhanced by considering a cultural studies construct known as the “circuit of culture.” This cross-disciplinary perspective provides increased analytic power by accounting for the meaningful role of 5 cultural processes

Joseph G. Champ; Jeffrey J. Brooks

2010-01-01

249

Project website: http://neutral.cs.northwestern.edu Understanding Human Mobility  

E-print Network

Project website: http://neutral.cs.northwestern.edu Understanding Human Mobility: A Point, Networks Group EPFL, Laboratory for Computer Communications and Applications Motivation Methodology People's mobility is driven by goals and influenced by their surroundings: points of interest (POIs) Goal: study

Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

250

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro  

E-print Network

Friendship estimation model for social robots to understand human relationships Takayuki Kanda, Hiroshi Ishiguro ATR Intelligent Robotics Laboratories 2-2-2 Hikaridai, Seikacho, Sorakugun Kyoto, 619-0288, JAPAN E-mail kanda@atr.jp Abstract This paper reports our friendship estimation model for social robots

Kanda, Takayuki

251

Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

2002-01-01

252

Paper accepted to Human-Computer Interaction Understanding the role of body movement in player  

E-print Network

Paper accepted to Human-Computer Interaction Understanding the role of body movement in player games more accessible and promises to provide a more natural and engaging experience to players. However how body movement affects the player's experience during game play. We start by presenting a taxonomy

Blandford, Ann

253

Communicating Numerical Risk: Human Factors That Aid Understanding in Health Care.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307

Brust-Renck, Priscila G; Royer, Caisa E; Reyna, Valerie F

2013-10-01

254

The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2003-01-01

255

Understanding challenges in the front lines of home health care: a human-systems approach.  

PubMed

A human-systems perspective is a fruitful approach to understanding home health care because it emphasizes major individual components of the system - persons, equipment/technology, tasks, and environments - as well as the interaction between these components. The goal of this research was to apply a human-system perspective to consider the capabilities and limitations of the persons, in relation to the demands of the tasks and equipment/technology in home health care. Identification of challenges and mismatches between the person(s) capabilities and the demands of providing care provide guidance for human factors interventions. A qualitative study was conducted with 8 home health Certified Nursing Assistants and 8 home health Registered Nurses interviewed about challenges they encounter in their jobs. A systematic categorization of the challenges the care providers reported was conducted and human factors recommendations were proposed in response, to improve home health. The challenges inform a human-systems model of home health care. PMID:24958610

Beer, Jenay M; McBride, Sara E; Mitzner, Tracy L; Rogers, Wendy A

2014-11-01

256

The Importance of Human Reliability Analysis in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HRA is a method used to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the occurrence of human failures in the operation of complex systems that affect availability and reliability. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure in a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) provides a more complete picture of the risk and risk contributions. A high quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedural, equipment design and need for automation.

Hamlin, Teri L.

2010-01-01

257

Testing the Relationship between Human Occupancy in the Landscape and Tadpole Developmental Stress  

PubMed Central

Amphibian population declines are widespread; the main causal factors are human related and include habitat fragmentation due to agriculture, mining, fires, and urban development. Brazil is the richest country in species of amphibians, and the Brazilian regions with the greatest amphibian diversity are experiencing relatively high rates of habitat destruction, but there are presently relatively few reports of amphibian declines. It is thus important to develop research methods that will detect deterioration in population health before severe declines occur. We tested the use of measurements of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) taken on amphibian larvae to detect anthropogenic stress. We hypothesized that greater human occupancy in the landscape might result in more stressful conditions for amphibians. We conducted this study at the Espinhaço mountain range in southeastern Brazil, using as a model an endemic species (Bokermannohyla saxicola, Hylidae). We chose two tadpole denticle rows and eye-nostril distance as traits for FA measurement. We measured percent cover of human-altered habitats in the landscape around tadpole sampling points and measured FA levels in sampled tadpoles. We found FA levels to differ among localities but found no relationship between human modification of the landscape and tadpole FA levels. Levels of FA in the traits we examined may not be strongly affected by environmental conditions, or may be affected by local variables that were not captured by our landscape-scale measures. Alternatively, populations may be genetically differentiated, affecting how FA levels respond to stress and obscuring the effects of anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:25793699

Eterovick, Paula C.; Bar, Luís F. F.; Souza, Jorge B.; Castro, José F. M.; Leite, Felipe S. F.; Alford, Ross A.

2015-01-01

258

Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives on Humans' Sense of the Times of Past and Future Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental time travel in human adults includes a sense of when past events occurred and future events are expected to occur. Studies with adults and children reveal that a number of distinct psychological processes contribute to a temporally differentiated sense of the past and future. Adults possess representations of multiple time patterns, and…

Friedman, W.J.

2005-01-01

259

Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait  

SciTech Connect

The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Saltman, D.L. (Genelabs, Inc., Redwood City, CA (United States))

1991-12-01

260

From Caenorhabditis elegans to the human connectome: a specific modular organization increases metabolic, functional and developmental efficiency.  

PubMed

The connectome, or the entire connectivity of a neural system represented by a network, ranges across various scales from synaptic connections between individual neurons to fibre tract connections between brain regions. Although the modularity they commonly show has been extensively studied, it is unclear whether the connection specificity of such networks can already be fully explained by the modularity alone. To answer this question, we study two networks, the neuronal network of Caenorhabditis elegans and the fibre tract network of human brains obtained through diffusion spectrum imaging. We compare them to their respective benchmark networks with varying modularities, which are generated by link swapping to have desired modularity values. We find several network properties that are specific to the neural networks and cannot be fully explained by the modularity alone. First, the clustering coefficient and the characteristic path length of both C. elegans and human connectomes are higher than those of the benchmark networks with similar modularity. High clustering coefficient indicates efficient local information distribution, and high characteristic path length suggests reduced global integration. Second, the total wiring length is smaller than for the alternative configurations with similar modularity. This is due to lower dispersion of connections, which means each neuron in the C. elegans connectome or each region of interest in the human connectome reaches fewer ganglia or cortical areas, respectively. Third, both neural networks show lower algorithmic entropy compared with the alternative arrangements. This implies that fewer genes are needed to encode for the organization of neural systems. While the first two findings show that the neural topologies are efficient in information processing, this suggests that they are also efficient from a developmental point of view. Together, these results show that neural systems are organized in such a way as to yield efficient features beyond those given by their modularity alone. PMID:25180307

Kim, Jinseop S; Kaiser, Marcus

2014-10-01

261

Current and future needs for developmental toxicity testing.  

PubMed

A review is presented of the use of developmental toxicity testing in the United States and international regulatory assessment of human health risks associated with exposures to pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary), chemicals (agricultural, industrial, and environmental), food additives, cosmetics, and consumer products. Developmental toxicology data are used for prioritization and screening of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, for evaluating and labeling of pharmaceuticals, and for characterizing hazards and risk of exposures to industrial and environmental chemicals. The in vivo study designs utilized in hazard characterization and dose-response assessment for developmental outcomes have not changed substantially over the past 30 years and have served the process well. Now there are opportunities to incorporate new technologies and approaches to testing into the existing assessment paradigm, or to apply innovative approaches to various aspects of risk assessment. Developmental toxicology testing can be enhanced by the refinement or replacement of traditional in vivo protocols, including through the use of in vitro assays, studies conducted in alternative nonmammalian species, the application of new technologies, and the use of in silico models. Potential benefits to the current regulatory process include the ability to screen large numbers of chemicals quickly, with the commitment of fewer resources than traditional toxicology studies, and to refine the risk assessment process through an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms of developmental toxicity and their relevance to potential human risk. As the testing paradigm evolves, the ability to use developmental toxicology data to meet diverse critical regulatory needs must be retained. PMID:21922641

Makris, Susan L; Kim, James H; Ellis, Amy; Faber, Willem; Harrouk, Wafa; Lewis, Joseph M; Paule, Merle G; Seed, Jennifer; Tassinari, Melissa; Tyl, Rochelle

2011-10-01

262

Developmental Testing of Habitability and Human Factors Tools and Methods During Neemo 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, no established methods exist to collect real-time human factors and habitability data while crewmembers are living aboard the International Space Station (ISS), traveling aboard other space vehicles, or living in remote habitats. Currently, human factors and habitability data regarding space vehicles and habitats are acquired at the end of missions during postflight crew debriefs. These debriefs occur weeks or often longer after events have occurred, which forces a significant reliance on incomplete human memory, which is imperfect. Without a means to collect real-time data, small issues may have a cumulative effect and continue to cause crew frustration and inefficiencies. Without timely and appropriate reporting methodologies, issues may be repeated or lost. TOOL DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: As part of a directed research project (DRP) aiming to develop and validate tools and methods for collecting near real-time human factors and habitability data, a preliminary set of tools and methods was developed. These tools and methods were evaluated during the NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission in October 2011. Two versions of a software tool were used to collect observational data from NEEMO crewmembers that also used targeted strategies for using video cameras to collect observations. Space habitability observation reporting tool (SHORT) was created based on a tool previously developed by NASA to capture human factors and habitability issues during spaceflight. SHORT uses a web-based interface that allows users to enter a text description of any observations they wish to report and assign a priority level if changes are needed. In addition to the web-based format, a mobile Apple (iOS) format was implemented, referred to as iSHORT. iSHORT allows users to provide text, audio, photograph, and video data to report observations. iSHORT can be deployed on an iPod Touch, iPhone, or iPad; for NEEMO 15, the app was provided on an iPad2.

Thaxton, S. S.; Litaker, H. L., Jr.; Holden, K. L.; Adolf, J. A.; Pace, J.; Morency, R. M.

2011-01-01

263

Developmental regulation of human gamma-globin genes in transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

We report results showing that several gamma gene promoter elements participate in the developmental control of gamma-globin genes. Four gamma gene constructs with 5' truncated at -141, -201, -382, and -730 of the A gamma gene promoter linked to a micro locus control region (microLCR) cassette were used for production of transgenic mice and analysis of gamma gene expression during development. Mice carrying a microLCR -141 A gamma construct displayed downregulation of gamma gene expression in the adult stage of development, indicating that the proximal promoter contains elements participating in gamma gene silencing. Mice carrying a microLCR -201 A gamma or a microLCR -382 A gamma construct displayed high gamma gene expression in the fetal stage of development and complete loss of gamma gene downregulation in the adult stage, suggesting that the -141 to -201 gamma gene sequence contains elements which upregulate gamma gene expression and are dominant over the negative element 3' to -141. Extension of the promoter to -730 resulted in reappearance of gamma gene downregulation, suggesting that the -382 to -730 sequences contain an adult-stage-specific silencer. gamma gene expression in the microLCR -201 A gamma and the microLCR -382 A gamma transgenic mice was copy number dependent. All the microLCR -730 A gamma transgenic mice expressed gamma mRNA; however, gamma gene expression was copy number independent, indicating that levels of gamma gene expression were modulated by the surrounding chromatin. Our results suggest that multiple elements participate in gamma gene silencing. The findings in the microLCR-201 A gamma and microLCR -382 A gamma transgenic mice are interpreted to indicate that the LCR interacts not only with the minimal gamma gene promoter but also with sequences of the upstream promoter. We postulate that gamma gene downregulation is achieved when the interaction between LCR and the upstream promoter is disturbed by the silencer located in the -382 to -730 region. We propose that gamma gene silencing is achieved by the combined effect of negative elements located 3' to -141, the negative element located between -382 and -730, and the competition by the beta gene promoter during the adult stage of development. Images PMID:8246980

Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Josephson, B; Zhang, J W; Li, Q

1993-01-01

264

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary developmental psychology is the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (geneÐ environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. The basic assumptions and domains of this emerging Þeld, as related to human life history and social and cognitive development,

David C. Geary; David F. Bjorklund

2000-01-01

265

An automated statistical shape model developmental pipeline: application to the human scapula and humerus.  

PubMed

This paper presents development of statistical shape models based on robust and rigid-groupwise registration followed by pointset nonrigid registration. The main advantages of the pipeline include automation in that the method does not rely on manual landmarks or a regionalization step; there is no bias in the choice of reference during the correspondence steps and the use of the probabilistic principal component analysis framework increases the domain of the shape variability. A comparison between the widely used expectation maximization-iterative closest point algorithm and a recently reported groupwise method on publicly available data (hippocampus) using the well-known criteria of generality, specificity, and compactness is also presented. The proposed method gives similar values but the curves of generality and specificity are superior to those of the other two methods. Finally, the method is applied to the human scapula, which is a known difficult structure, and the human humerus. PMID:25389238

Mutsvangwa, Tinashe; Burdin, Valerie; Schwartz, Cedric; Roux, Christian

2015-04-01

266

Developmental adaptation: where we go from here.  

PubMed

The concept of developmental adaptation is a powerful framework that can be used for understanding the origin of population differences in phenotypic and genotypic biological traits. There is great deal of information describing how developmental responses can shape adult biological outcomes. Specifically, current research suggest that individuals developing in stressful environments such as high altitude will attain an adult enlarged residual lung volume that contribute to the successful cardiovascular adaptation of the high-altitude Andean native. Likewise, studies on the etiology of the metabolic syndrome indicate that development under poor nutritional environments elicit efficient physiological and metabolic responses for the utilization of nutrients and energy, which become disadvantageous when the adult environmental conditions provide abundant access to food and low energy expenditure. Epigenetic research in experimental animals and retrospective research in humans confirm that environmental influences during developmental period have profound consequences on the phenotypic expression of biological and behavioral traits during adulthood. Research on epigenetics is a productive direction for human biologists concerned with understanding the origins of human biological variability. PMID:19214999

Frisancho, A Roberto

2009-01-01

267

The interferon-related developmental regulator 1 is used by human papillomavirus to suppress NF?B activation  

PubMed Central

High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) infect keratinocytes and successfully evade host immunity despite the fact that keratinocytes are well equipped to respond to innate and adaptive immune signals. Using non-infected and freshly established or persistent hrHPV-infected keratinocytes we show that hrHPV impairs the acetylation of NF?B/RelA K310 in keratinocytes. As a consequence, keratinocytes display a decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and immune cell attraction in response to stimuli of the innate or adaptive immune pathways. HPV accomplishes this by augmenting the expression of interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (IFRD1) in an EGFR-dependent manner. Restoration of NF?B/RelA acetylation by IFRD1 shRNA, cetuximab treatment or the HDAC1/3 inhibitor entinostat increases basal and induced cytokine expression. Similar observations are made in IFRD1-overexpressing HPV-induced cancer cells. Thus, our study reveals an EGFR–IFRD1-mediated viral immune evasion mechanism, which can also be exploited by cancer cells.

Tummers, Bart; Goedemans, Renske; Pelascini, Laetitia P. L.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; van Esch, Edith M. G.; Meyers, Craig; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Boer, Judith M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

2015-01-01

268

Brief communication: Developmental versus functional three-dimensional geometric morphometric-based modularity of the human proximal humerus.  

PubMed

The proximal humerus is formed by three secondary ossification centers during the postnatal trajectory of the human infant. The ossification centers later grow into the structures of the articular surface, major tubercle, and minor tubercle. There is a purported functional division between the articular surface and the tubercles, with the articular surface mainly responsible for the range of movement of the shoulder joint, and the tubercles bearing the insertions of the rotator cuff muscles, mainly devoted to securing the joint against humeral displacement. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, we tested the presence of such developmental and functional divisions in the proximal humerus, applying the RV coefficient of Escoufier to these a priori hypothesized modules. Our results indicate that the proximal humerus might be a generally integrated structure. However, a weak signal for modular configuration was present, with slightly stronger support for the two modules depicting the boundaries between the purported functional regions of the epiphysis: the articular surface and the tubercles. PMID:24723325

Arias-Martorell, Julia; Potau, Josep Maria; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

2014-07-01

269

Being mean, having fun, or getting things done? A developmental study of children's understanding of the forms and functions of teasing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teasing is a common form of social interaction, yet relatively understudied as a subject of scholarly inquiry. The present study was designed to investigate how teasing is used and perceived by its participants, and specifically how those uses and perceptions of teasing change with age. In-depth interviews with students in the third, sixth, and tenth grades revealed important, developmentally related

Carol Bishop Mills

2001-01-01

270

Gut microbiota: next frontier in understanding human health and development of biotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

The gut microbiota is a remarkable asset for human health. As a key element in the development and prevention of specific diseases, its study has yielded a new field of promising biotherapeutics. This review provides comprehensive and updated knowledge of the human gut microbiota, its implications in health and disease, and the potentials and limitations of its modification by currently available biotherapeutics to treat, prevent and/or restore human health, and future directions. Homeostasis of the gut microbiota maintains various functions which are vital to the maintenance of human health. Disruption of the intestinal ecosystem equilibrium (gut dysbiosis) is associated with a plethora of human diseases, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, colorectal cancer, metabolic diseases, and bacterial infections. Relevant underlying mechanisms by which specific intestinal bacteria populations might trigger the development of disease in susceptible hosts are being explored across the globe. Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiota using biotherapeutics, such as prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics, may favor health-promoting populations of bacteria and can be exploited in development of biotherapeutics. Other technologies, such as development of human gut models, bacterial screening, and delivery formulations eg, microencapsulated probiotics, may contribute significantly in the near future. Therefore, the human gut microbiota is a legitimate therapeutic target to treat and/or prevent various diseases. Development of a clear understanding of the technologies needed to exploit the gut microbiota is urgently required. PMID:21847343

Prakash, Satya; Rodes, Laetitia; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine

2011-01-01

271

Developmental Exposure to Estrogen Alters Differentiation and Epigenetic Programming in a Human Fetal Prostate Xenograft Model  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-cutaneous malignancy in men. There is strong evidence in rodents that neonatal estrogen exposure plays a role in the development of this disease. However, there is little information regarding the effects of estrogen in human fetal prostate tissue. This study explored early life estrogen exposure, with and without a secondary estrogen and testosterone treatment in a human fetal prostate xenograft model. Histopathological lesions, proliferation, and serum hormone levels were evaluated at 7, 30, 90, and 200-day time-points after xenografting. The expression of 40 key genes involved in prostatic glandular and stromal growth, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, hormone receptors and tumor suppressors was evaluated using a custom PCR array. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was performed on whole tissue, and laser capture-microdissection (LCM) isolated epithelial and stromal compartments of 200-day prostate xenografts. Combined initial plus secondary estrogenic exposures had the most severe tissue changes as revealed by the presence of hyperplastic glands at day 200. Gene expression changes corresponded with the cellular events in the KEGG prostate cancer pathway, indicating that initial plus secondary exposure to estrogen altered the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ultimately resulting in apoptosis inhibition and an increase in cell cycle progression. DNA methylation revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites significantly predominate in the stromal compartment as a result of estrogen-treatment, thereby providing new targets for future investigation. By using human fetal prostate tissue and eliminating the need for species extrapolation, this study provides novel insights into the gene expression and epigenetic effects related to prostate carcinogenesis following early life estrogen exposure. PMID:25799167

Saffarini, Camelia M.; McDonnell-Clark, Elizabeth V.; Amin, Ali; Huse, Susan M.; Boekelheide, Kim

2015-01-01

272

Understanding Substrate Selectivity of Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases through QSAR modeling and analysis of homologous enzymes  

PubMed Central

The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme catalyzes the glucuronidation reaction which is a major metabolic and detoxification pathway in humans. Understanding the mechanisms for substrate recognition by UGT assumes great importance in an attempt to predict its contribution to xenobiotic/drug disposition in vivo. Spurred on by this interest, 2D/3D-quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) and pharmacophore models have been established in the absence of a complete mammalian UGT crystal structure. This review discusses the recent progress in modeling human UGT substrates including those with multiple sites of glucuronidation. A better understanding of UGT active site contributing to substrate selectivity (and regioselectivity) from the homologous enzymes (i.e., plant and bacterial UGTs, all belong to family 1 of glycosyltransferase (GT1)) is also highlighted, as these enzymes share a common catalytic mechanism and/or overlapping substrate selectivity. PMID:22385482

Dong, Dong; Ako, Roland; Hu, Ming; Wu, Baojian

2015-01-01

273

METROPOLITAN ATLANTA DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES PROGRAM (MADDSP)  

EPA Science Inventory

To address the problem of developmental disabilities among children, CDC, the former Division of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, which was funded by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the Georgia Department of Human Resources, initiate...

274

What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both developmental and neurophysiological research suggest a common coding between perceived and generated actions. This shared representational network is innately wired in humans. We review psycho- logical evidence concerning the imitative behaviour of newborn human infants. We suggest that the mech- anisms involved in infant imitation provide the foundation for understanding that others are ' like me' and underlie the

Andrew N. Meltzoff; Jean Decety

2003-01-01

275

A Literature-Circles Approach to Understanding Science as a Human Endeavor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unfortunately, the reading of science-related, historical nonfiction alone does not necessarily lead students to make personal connections to science or understand science as a human endeavor interdependent with culture, society, and history. Teachers must structure students' reading to ensure that they consider specific aspects of science while reading and discussing books. One way for teachers to focus their students' attention on components of the nature of science is through the use of literature circles.

William Straits

2007-10-01

276

Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans  

SciTech Connect

Large numbers and large quantities of endoncrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, trangenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistent of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans.

Colborn, T. (W. Alton Jones Foundation and World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC (United States)); vom Saal, F.S. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)); Soto, A.M. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

1993-10-01

277

Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans.  

PubMed Central

Large numbers and large quantities of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, transgenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans. PMID:8080506

Colborn, T; vom Saal, F S; Soto, A M

1993-01-01

278

Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways-Structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

Welin, Martin [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Paer, E-mail: Par.Nordlund@ki.se [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden) [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-05-21

279

Three-Dimensional Human Skin Models to Understand Staphylococcus aureus Skin Colonization and Infection  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is both a major bacterial pathogen as well as a common member of the human skin microbiota. Due to its widespread prevalence as an asymptomatic skin colonizer and its importance as a source of skin and soft tissue infections, an improved understanding of how S. aureus attaches to, grows within, and breaches the stratified layers of the epidermis is of critical importance. Three-dimensional organotypic human skin culture models are informative and tractable experimental systems for future investigations of the interactions between S. aureus and the multi-faceted skin tissue. We propose that S. aureus virulence factors, primarily appreciated for their role in pathogenesis of invasive infections, play alternative roles in promoting asymptomatic bacterial growth within the skin. Experimental manipulations of these cultures will provide insight into the many poorly understood molecular interactions occurring at the interface between S. aureus and stratified human skin tissue. PMID:24567733

Popov, Lauren; Kovalski, Joanna; Grandi, Guido; Bagnoli, Fabio; Amieva, Manuel R.

2014-01-01

280

Genetic aspects of birth defects: new understandings of old problems  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, combined advances in genetics, developmental biology and biochemistry have transformed the study of human birth defects. This review describes the importance of genome architecture, parent of origin effects (imprinting), molecular pathophysiology, developmental pathways, mosaicism and cancer predisposition syndromes in the understanding of birth defects. This knowledge can be applied to improve diagnostic accuracy, prognostic information, counselling and sometimes even treatment of these conditions. PMID:17585097

Prescott, Katrina R; Wilkie, Andrew O M

2007-01-01

281

ASSESSMENT OF LITHIUM USING THE IEHR EVALUATIVE PROCESS FOR ASSESSING HUMAN DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of lithium and reviews toxicologic information on several specific lithium salts: ithium carbonate, lithium chloride, lithium citrate, and lithium hypochlorite. ithium (Li), an alkali metal, is a n...

282

Male-mediated developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

2014-01-01

283

Male-mediated developmental toxicity  

PubMed Central

Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

2014-01-01

284

Developmental regulation of TAC1 in peptidergic-induced human mesenchymal stem cells: implication for spinal cord injury in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are easy to expand, are relatively safe, and can be transplanted in allogeneic recipients as off-the-shelf cells. MSCs can be induced to form functional peptidergic neurons and express the neurotransmitter gene, TAC1. Expression of TAC1 requires that the repressor gene, RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), is decreased. This study investigated the molecular pathway in TAC1 induction as MSCs differentiated into neurons and then applied the findings in a model of spinal cord injury (SCI) in zebrafish. We studied the developmental roles of the 2 cAMP response element (CRE) sites: CRE1 and CRE2. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site overlaps with CRE2 (CRE2/AP-1). Reporter gene studies with the 5' regulatory region of TAC1 containing wild-type or mutant CRE sites and, parallel studies with ectopically expressed inhibitor of cAMP proteins (inducible cAMP early repressor) indicated that CRE1 and CRE2/AP-1 are activated at days 6 and 12, respectively. Studies with protein kinase-A (PKA) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors in the reporter gene studies, chromatin immunoprecipation assay, and ectopic expression of REST indicated the following pathways: Decrease of REST activated upstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In turn, JNK activated ATF-2 and AP-1 for interaction with CRE1 and CRE2/AP-1, respectively. To apply the finding to SCI, we transplanted 6-day-induced MSCs in transgenic HB9-GFP zebrafish larvae with SCI, in the presence or absence of JNK inhibitors. Imaging and functional studies showed significant improvement in the fish. The repair mechanism involved the activation of JNK. The findings have long-term implications for SCI repair with MSCs. PMID:21671725

Patel, Nitixa; Klassert, Tilman E; Greco, Steven J; Patel, Shyam A; Munoz, Jessian L; Reddy, Bobby Y; Bryan, Margarette; Campbell, Neil; Kokorina, Natalia; Sabaawy, Hatem E; Rameshwar, Pranela

2012-01-20

285

Cultural influences on children's understanding of the human body and the concept of life.  

PubMed

This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. PMID:24628109

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin

2014-09-01

286

Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

2014-03-01

287

Understanding Structural-Functional Relationships in the Human Brain: A Large-Scale Network Perspective.  

PubMed

Relating the brain's structural connectivity (SC) to its functional connectivity (FC) is a fundamental goal in neuroscience because it is capable of aiding our understanding of how the relatively fixed SC architecture underlies human cognition and diverse behaviors. With the aid of current noninvasive imaging technologies (e.g., structural MRI, diffusion MRI, and functional MRI) and graph theory methods, researchers have modeled the human brain as a complex network of interacting neuronal elements and characterized the underlying structural and functional connectivity patterns that support diverse cognitive functions. Specifically, research has demonstrated a tight SC-FC coupling, not only in interregional connectivity strength but also in network topologic organizations, such as community, rich-club, and motifs. Moreover, this SC-FC coupling exhibits significant changes in normal development and neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. This review summarizes recent progress regarding the SC-FC relationship of the human brain and emphasizes the important role of large-scale brain networks in the understanding of structural-functional associations. Future research directions related to this topic are also proposed. PMID:24962094

Wang, Zhijiang; Dai, Zhengjia; Gong, Gaolang; Zhou, Changsong; He, Yong

2014-06-24

288

NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).  

PubMed

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an updated evaluation of the potential for DEHP to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The first CERHR expert panel evaluation of DEHP was completed in 2000 by the Phthalates Expert Panel. CERHR selected DEHP for an updated evaluation because of: (1) widespread human exposure, (2) public and government interest in adverse health effects, (3) recently available human exposure studies, and (4) the large number of relevant toxicity papers published since the earlier evaluation. DEHP (CAS RN: 117-81-7) is a high production volume chemical used as a plasticizer of polyvinyl chloride in the manufacture of a wide variety of consumer goods, such as building products, car products, clothing, food packaging, children's products (but not in toys intended for mouthing), and in medical devices made of polyvinyl chloride. The public can be exposed to DEHP by ingesting food, drink or dust that has been in contact with DEHP-containing materials, by inhaling contaminated air or dust, or by undergoing a medical procedure that uses polyvinyl chloride medical tubing or storage bags. It is estimated that the general population of the United States is exposed to DEHP levels ranging from 1 to 30 microg/kg bw/day (micrograms per kilogram body weight per day). The results of this DEHP update evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph that includes: (1) the NTP Brief, (2) the Expert Panel Update on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of DEHP, and (3) public comments on the expert panel report. The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to DEHP on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. There is serious concern that certain intensive medical treatments of male infants may result in DEHP exposure levels that adversely affect development of the male reproductive tract. DEHP exposure from medical procedures in infants was estimated to be as high as 6000 microg/kg bw/day. There is concern for adverse effects on development of the reproductive tract in male offspring of pregnant and breast feeding women undergoing certain medical procedures that may result in exposure to high levels of DEHP. There is concern for effects of DEHP exposure on development of the male reproductive tract for infants less than one year old. Diet, mouthing of DEHP-containing objects, and certain medical treatments may lead to DEHP exposures that are higher than those experienced by the general population. There is some concern for effects of DEHP exposure on development of the reproductive tract of male children older than one year. As in infants, exposures of children to DEHP may be higher than in the general population. There is some concern for adverse effects of DEHP exposure on development of the male reproductive tract in male offspring of pregnant women not medically exposed to DEHP. Although DEHP exposures are assumed to be the same as for the general population, the developing male reproductive tract is sensitive to the adverse effects of DEHP. There is minimal concern for reproductive toxicity in adults exposed to DEHP at 1 - 30 microg/kg bw/day. This level of concern is not altered for adults medically exposed to DEHP. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on DEHP to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and it will be available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov and in printed text or CD-ROM from the CERHR. PMID:19407857

Shelby, Michael D

2006-11-01

289

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-08-01

290

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-03-01

291

A human pluripotent carcinoma stem cell-based model for in vitro developmental neurotoxicity testing: effects of methylmercury, lead and aluminum evaluated by gene expression studies.  

PubMed

The major advantage of the neuronal cell culture models derived from human stem cells is their ability to replicate the crucial stages of neurodevelopment such as the commitment of human stem cells to the neuronal lineage and their subsequent stages of differentiation into neuronal and glial-like cell. In these studies we used mixed neuronal/glial culture derived from the NTERA-2 (NT-2) cell line, which has been established from human pluripotent testicular embryonal carcinoma cells. After characterization of the different stages of cell differentiation into neuronal- and glial-like phenotype toxicity studies were performed to evaluate whether this model would be suitable for developmental neurotoxicity studies. The cells were exposed during the differentiation process to non-cytotoxic concentrations of methylmercury chloride, lead chloride and aluminum nitrate for two weeks. The toxicity was then evaluated by measuring the mRNA levels of cell specific markers (neuronal and glial). The results obtained suggest that lead chloride and aluminum nitrate at low concentrations were toxic primarily to astrocytes and at the higher concentrations it also induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, MetHgCl was toxic for both cell types, neuronal and glial, as mRNA specific for astrocytes and neuronal markers were affected. The results obtained suggest that a neuronal mixed culture derived from human NT2 precursor cells is a suitable model for developmental neurotoxicity studies and gene expression could be used as a sensitive endpoint for initial screening of potential neurotoxic compounds. PMID:23501475

Laurenza, Incoronata; Pallocca, Giorgia; Mennecozzi, Milena; Scelfo, Bibiana; Pamies, David; Bal-Price, Anna

2013-11-01

292

Developmental Genetics of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most valuable organisms in biological research, particularly in the areas of genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila has been used as a model organism in research for almost a century. The organism is easy to breed and has a short life cycle, making it ideal for the study of genetic mutations. The importance to human

Edward B. Lewis

2004-01-01

293

Developmental Genetics of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most valuable organisms in biological research, particularly in the areas of genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila has been used as a model organism in research for almost a century. The organism is easy to breed and has a short life cycle, making it ideal for the study of genetic mutations. The importance to human

Edward B. Lewis

2005-01-01

294

Large-scale gene expression profiling data for the model moss Physcomitrella patens aid understanding of developmental progression, culture and stress conditions.  

PubMed

The moss Physcomitrella patens is an important model organism for studying plant evolution, development, physiology and biotechnology. Here we have generated microarray gene expression data covering the principal developmental stages, culture forms and some environmental/stress conditions. Example analyses of developmental stages and growth conditions as well as abiotic stress treatments demonstrate that (i) growth stage is dominant over culture conditions, (ii) liquid culture is not stressful for the plant, (iii) low pH might aid protoplastation by reduced expression of cell wall structure genes, (iv) largely the same gene pool mediates response to dehydration and rehydration, and (v) AP2/EREBP transcription factors play important roles in stress response reactions. With regard to the AP2 gene family, phylogenetic analysis and comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana shows commonalities as well as uniquely expressed family members under drought, light perturbations and protoplastation. Gene expression profiles for P. patens are available for the scientific community via the easy-to-use tool at https://www.genevestigator.com. By providing large-scale expression profiles, the usability of this model organism is further enhanced, for example by enabling selection of control genes for quantitative real-time PCR. Now, gene expression levels across a broad range of conditions can be accessed online for P. patens. PMID:24889180

Hiss, Manuel; Laule, Oliver; Meskauskiene, Rasa M; Arif, Muhammad A; Decker, Eva L; Erxleben, Anika; Frank, Wolfgang; Hanke, Sebastian T; Lang, Daniel; Martin, Anja; Neu, Christina; Reski, Ralf; Richardt, Sandra; Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Szövényi, Peter; Tiko, Theodhor; Wiedemann, Gertrud; Wolf, Luise; Zimmermann, Philip; Rensing, Stefan A

2014-08-01

295

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR in Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, the Learning Sciences, Human Development. The Department of Psychology at Portland State University has a  

E-print Network

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR in Developmental Psychology, Educational Psychology, the Learning Sciences orientation and has an Applied Psychology doctoral program with specializations in Applied Developmental, Applied Social and Community, and Industrial/ Organizational Psychology. Within the Applied Developmental

296

Developmental Immunotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

297

Developmental Screening  

MedlinePLUS

Developmental Screening FACT SHEET What is child development? A child’s growth is more than just physical. Children grow, develop, and learn throughout their lives, starting at birth. A child’s development can be followed ...

298

Aspects of Ancient Mitochondrial DNA Analysis in Different Populations for Understanding Human Evolution  

PubMed Central

The evolution of modern humans is a long and difficult process which started from their first appearance and continues to the present day. The study of the genetic origin of populations can help to determine population kinship and to better understand the gradual changes of the gene pool in space and time. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a proper tool for the determination of the origin of populations due to its high evolutionary importance. Ancient mitochondrial DNA retrieved from museum specimens, archaeological finds and fossil remains can provide direct evidence for population origins and migration processes. Despite the problems with contaminations and authenticity of ancient mitochondrial DNA, there is a developed set of criteria and platforms for obtaining authentic ancient DNA. During the last two decades, the application of different methods and techniques for analysis of ancient mitochondrial DNA gave promising results. Still, the literature is relatively poor with information for the origin of human populations. Using comprehensive phylogeographic and population analyses we can observe the development and formation of the contemporary populations. The aim of this study was to shed light on human migratory processes and the formation of populations based on available ancient mtDNA data. PMID:25741209

Nesheva, DV

2014-01-01

299

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students…

Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2001-01-01

300

Predicting Developmental Toxicity of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA?s ToxRefDB contains prenatal guideline study data from rats and rabbits for over 240 chemicals that overlap with the ToxCast in vitro high throughput screening project. A subset of these compounds were tested in Stemina Biomarker Discovery's developmental toxicity platform, a...

301

Vitamin D Signaling in the Bovine Immune System: A Model for Understanding Human Vitamin D Requirements  

PubMed Central

The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocrinology. The current debate regarding vitamin D requirements is centered on the requirements for proper intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling. Studies in adult and young cattle can provide valuable insight for understanding vitamin D requirements as they relate to innate and adaptive immune responses during infectious disease. In cattle, toll-like receptor recognition activates intracrine and paracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in the immune system that regulates innate and adaptive immune responses in the presence of adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Furthermore, experiments with mastitis in dairy cattle have provided in vivo evidence for the intracrine vitamin D signaling mechanism in macrophages as well as vitamin D mediated suppression of infection. Epidemiological evidence indicates that circulating concentrations above 32 ng/mL of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are necessary for optimal vitamin D signaling in the immune system, but experimental evidence is lacking for that value. Experiments in cattle can provide that evidence as circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations can be experimentally manipulated within ranges that are normal for humans and cattle. Additionally, young and adult cattle can be experimentally infected with bacteria and viruses associated with significant diseases in both cattle and humans. Utilizing the bovine model to further delineate the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D will provide potentially valuable insights into the vitamin D requirements of both humans and cattle, especially as they relate to immune response capacity and infectious disease resistance. PMID:22666545

Nelson, Corwin D.; Reinhardt, Timothy A.; Lippolis, John D.; Sacco, Randy E.; Nonnecke, Brian J.

2012-01-01

302

On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

Maestripieri, Dario

2005-01-01

303

Understanding and Evaluating Human Thermal Comfort at Tertiary Level Using a Computer-Based Laboratory Teaching Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase changes in water are experienced in everyday life but students often struggle to understand mechanisms that regulate them. Human thermal comfort is closely related to humidity, evaporative heat loss and heat transfer. The purpose of the present study is to assist students in the evaluation of human thermal comfort. Such a goal is achievable…

Pellegrini, Marco

2014-01-01

304

Application of high-throughput sequencing in understanding human oral microbiome related with health and disease  

PubMed Central

The oral microbiome is one of most diversity habitat in the human body and they are closely related with oral health and disease. As the technique developing, high-throughput sequencing has become a popular approach applied for oral microbial analysis. Oral bacterial profiles have been studied to explore the relationship between microbial diversity and oral diseases such as caries and periodontal disease. This review describes the application of high-throughput sequencing for characterization of oral microbiota and analyzing the changes of the microbiome in the states of health or disease. Deep understanding the knowledge of microbiota will pave the way for more effective prevent dentistry and contribute to the development of personalized dental medicine. PMID:25352835

Chen, Hui; Jiang, Wen

2014-01-01

305

Genetic and developmental basis for urinary tract obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary tract obstruction results in obstructive nephropathy and uropathy. It is the most frequent cause of renal failure\\u000a in infants and children. In the past two decades studies of transgenic models and humans have greatly enhanced our understanding\\u000a of the genetic factors and developmental processes important in urinary tract obstruction. The emerging picture is that development\\u000a of the urinary tract

Feng Chen

2009-01-01

306

Developmental Risk I: Depression and the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article discusses recent findings on the neurobiology of pediatric depression as well as the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in determining the risk for the disorder. Utilizing data from both animal and human studies, the authors focus on the evolving understanding of the developmental neurobiology of emotional regulation, cognitive function and social behavior as it applies to the risk and clinical course of depression. Treatment implications and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:22537725

Weir, John M.; Zakama, Arthurine; Rao, Uma

2012-01-01

307

Parallel evolution of conserved non-coding elements that target a common set of developmental regulatory genes from worms to humans  

PubMed Central

Background The human genome contains thousands of non-coding sequences that are often more conserved between vertebrate species than protein-coding exons. These highly conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) are associated with genes that coordinate development, and have been proposed to act as transcriptional enhancers. Despite their extreme sequence conservation in vertebrates, sequences homologous to CNEs have not been identified in invertebrates. Results Here we report that nematode genomes contain an alternative set of CNEs that share sequence characteristics, but not identity, with their vertebrate counterparts. CNEs thus represent a very unusual class of sequences that are extremely conserved within specific animal lineages yet are highly divergent between lineages. Nematode CNEs are also associated with developmental regulatory genes, and include well-characterized enhancers and transcription factor binding sites, supporting the proposed function of CNEs as cis-regulatory elements. Most remarkably, 40 of 156 human CNE-associated genes with invertebrate orthologs are also associated with CNEs in both worms and flies. Conclusion A core set of genes that regulate development is associated with CNEs across three animal groups (worms, flies and vertebrates). We propose that these CNEs reflect the parallel evolution of alternative enhancers for a common set of developmental regulatory genes in different animal groups. This 're-wiring' of gene regulatory networks containing key developmental coordinators was probably a driving force during the evolution of animal body plans. CNEs may, therefore, represent the genomic traces of these 'hard-wired' core gene regulatory networks that specify the development of each alternative animal body plan. PMID:17274809

Vavouri, Tanya; Walter, Klaudia; Gilks, Walter R; Lehner, Ben; Elgar, Greg

2007-01-01

308

Volunteer human subjects' understandings of their participation in a biomedical research experiment.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on how volunteer human subjects in research understand their own participation in experimentation. We ask how they view their own role, the experimental setting, and how they articulate their understanding of the researcher-subject relationship. The empirical basis of the study is participant-observation and qualitative semi-structures interviews with volunteers in an experimental setting far removed from the more commonly studied randomised control trial (RCT), namely, the early stage testing of a prototype instrument for breast imaging. Analysis of this empirical data leads us to conclude that research subjects do not conform solely to one or other of the models of the researcher-subject relationship suggested in the literature. Rather, the interaction needs to be considered as a social situation which volunteer subjects actively negotiate in real time. They move through multiple roles and identities as part of the navigation through unfamiliar social territory, in order to establish a relationship in which they can feel socially comfortable and appropriately valued. PMID:16085345

Morris, Norma; Bàlmer, Brian

2006-02-01

309

Advancements toward a systems level understanding of the human oral microbiome  

PubMed Central

Oral microbes represent one of the most well studied microbial communities owing to the fact that they are a fundamental part of human development influencing health and disease, an easily accessible human microbiome, a highly structured and remarkably resilient biofilm as well as a model of bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. In the last 80 years since oral plaque was first characterized for its functionally stable physiological properties such as the highly repeatable rapid pH decrease upon carbohydrate addition and subsequent recovery phase, the fundamental approaches to study the oral microbiome have cycled back and forth between community level investigations and characterizing individual model isolates. Since that time, many individual species have been well characterized and the development of the early plaque community, which involves many cell–cell binding interactions, has been carefully described. With high throughput sequencing enabling the enormous diversity of the oral cavity to be realized, a number of new challenges to progress were revealed. The large number of uncultivated oral species, the high interpersonal variability of taxonomic carriage and the possibility of multiple pathways to dysbiosis pose as major hurdles to obtain a systems level understanding from the community to the gene level. It is now possible however to start connecting the insights gained from single species with community wide approaches. This review will discuss some of the recent insights into the oral microbiome at a fundamental level, existing knowledge gaps, as well as challenges that have surfaced and the approaches to address them. PMID:25120956

McLean, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

310

IDM Supervision: An Integrated Developmental Model for Supervising Counselors and Therapists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding change over time in one's ability to function as a professional is fundamental in the practice of clinical supervision. Drawing on developmental models of human behavior, a model of the development over time of therapy practice is presented. Specific domains of clinical practice and overriding structures that provide markers in…

Stoltenberg, Cal D.; McNeill, Brian; Delworth, Ursula

311

Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Developmental Science: Uses and Methodological Choices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple methods are vital to understanding development as a dynamic, transactional process. This article focuses on the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies can be combined to enrich developmental science and the study of human development, focusing on the practical questions of "when" and "how." Research situations that may…

Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel; Way, Niobe

2008-01-01

312

Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial

1995-01-01

313

Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity  

E-print Network

Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity Across Species ABSTRACT: Plasticity is a typical feature in developmental plasticity. Thus, in the context of the concept of developmental homology, epigenetic mechanisms methylation; developmental plasticity; homology; inheritance; phenotypic diversity INTRODUCTION Development

Champagne, Frances A.

314

Psychology 333 Developmental Psychopathology  

E-print Network

Psychology 333 Developmental Psychopathology Instructor: Amy Spilkin, Ph.D. Office Hours: Before 270 is acceptable) Materials: Wenar & Kerig (2010). Developmental Psychopathology with Additional of developmental psychopathology and will focus on major forms of developmental psychopathology, including mood

Gallo, Linda C.

315

Students and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user-centered design to human-computer interaction, we  

E-print Network

, nonprofit organizations, and academia. hcde.uw.edu #12;Human Centered Design & Engineering Education HumanStudents and faculty come together in Human Centered Design & Engineering (HCDE) to focus on understanding human needs and interests as they solve the engineering problems our world is facing. From user

316

Developmental delay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

317

To appear in British Journal of Developmental Psychology Running Head: INPUT ON BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS  

E-print Network

To appear in British Journal of Developmental Psychology Running Head: INPUT ON BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS-cultural developmental psychology; language development; science; conceptual development; folkbiology #12;Input-child conversations in English and Indonesian Overview Developmental research into children's intuitive understandings

Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

318

Understanding Human Decision Making as a Driver for Carbon Sequestration on Land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As society begins to grapple with reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in order to address climate change, policy discussions have emerged on the role of land use as a means to sequester carbon. Land use is already a key player in the global carbon budget through manipulations of vegetation and soils for agriculture and forestry. At the heart of land use is human decision making. The land use pattern and its attendant carbon impacts are a manifestation of a complex set of policy, economic, and cultural drivers that are channeled and expressed through individuals making decisions about land use. In order to understand the current pattern of carbon fluxes on managed land, and any future potential for land use to play a greater role in sequestering carbon, it is essential to understand the drivers of land use decision making at different scales, and their intersection with new imperatives and opportunities coming from climate mitigation goals. To this end, we have conducted a case study on land use decision making in the U.S. state of Colorado, a western state with significant portions of land managed by U.S. Federal governmental agencies in addition to privately-owned agricultural, grazing and forested lands. Our main goal was to put together a first-order look at the types of decision makers involved in managing land, what influences their decisions, and how the potential for storage of additional carbon on land might vary according to ownership category and land vegetation type. Our study has three significant components: 1. examining ownership patterns; 2. calculating the flux and carbon storage by land ownership category; and 3. illuminating the influences on land use decisions at different scales. In this paper, we will report the preliminary results of GIS work examining carbon fluxes by ownership category and the potential for additional storage of carbon based on policy and economic incentives.

Failey, E. L.; Dilling, L.

2008-12-01

319

The Lifenet View: Fostering Contextual Understanding in the Professional Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work described in this article represents an effort to foster a contextual understanding of human development in culturally and developmentally diverse classrooms through autobiographical reflection and reflexive inquiry. The author's goal is to use the exercise to foster "deep learning" about human development and to develop a classroom…

Armstrong, Jan

2010-01-01

320

New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors: a Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors  

PubMed Central

Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt to clarify causation, roles and responsibility as well as to elaborate various preventative and curative countermeasures blending state of the art biomedical, technological advances and psychophysiological training strategies. In-flight related statistics have not been shown significantly changed and a significant number of issues remain not yet resolved. Fine Postural System and its corollary, Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS), both defined in the 1980's, are respectively neurophysiological and medical diagnostic models that reflect central neural sensory-motor and cognitive controls regulatory status. They are successfully used in complex neurotraumatology and related rehabilitation for over two decades. Analysis of clinical data taken over a ten-year period from acute and chronic post-traumatic PDS patients shows a strong correlation between symptoms commonly exhibited before, along side, or even after error, and sensory-motor or PDS related symptoms. Examples are given on how PDS related central sensory-motor control dysfunction can be correctly identified and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system. The data presented provides strong evidence that a specific biomedical assessment methodology can lead to a better understanding of in-flight adaptive neurophysiological, cognitive and perceptual dysfunctional status that could induce in flight-errors. How relevant human factors can be identified and leveraged to maintain optimal performance will be addressed. PMID:19048097

Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

2008-01-01

321

Developmental genetics of Drosophila.  

PubMed

Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most valuable organisms in biological research, particularly in the areas of genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila has been used as a model organism in research for almost a century. The organism is easy to breed and has a short life cycle, making it ideal for the study of genetic mutations. The importance to human health and development lies in the homology of Drosophila genes to those in man, e.g., the homeobox gene complex. PMID:15838102

Lewis, Edward B

2004-12-01

322

Aberrant expression of maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 results in the developmental failure of human in-vivo- and in-vitro-matured oocytes  

PubMed Central

Fertilisation is the first step in embryonic development, and dynamic changes of key genes may potentially improve assisted reproduction techniques efficiency during this process. Here, we analysed genes that were differentially expressed between oocytes and zygotes and focused on cytokinesis-related genes. Plk1 and Dctn3 were identified as showing dramatic changes in expression during fertilisation and were suggested to play a key role in inducing aneuploidy in zygotes and 8-cell embryos. Moreover, we found that maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 were expressed at lower levels in in vitro matured oocytes, which may have contributed to the high ratio of resulting embryos with abnormal Plk1 and Dctn3 expression levels, thereby reducing the developmental competence of the resulting embryos. Furthermore, the overexpression of Dctn3 can silence Plk1 expression, which suggests a potential regulation mechanism. In conclusion, our present study showed that aberrant expression of Plk1 and Dctn3 increases embryo aneuploidy and developmental failure, particularly in in vitro matured oocytes. Our results facilitate a better understanding of the effects of oocyte maternal gene expression on embryonic development and can be used to improve the outcome of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:25645239

Fan, Yong; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Liu, Jianqiao; Tan, Tao; Ding, Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Jie; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

2015-01-01

323

Aberrant expression of maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 results in the developmental failure of human in-vivo- and in-vitro-matured oocytes.  

PubMed

Fertilisation is the first step in embryonic development, and dynamic changes of key genes may potentially improve assisted reproduction techniques efficiency during this process. Here, we analysed genes that were differentially expressed between oocytes and zygotes and focused on cytokinesis-related genes. Plk1 and Dctn3 were identified as showing dramatic changes in expression during fertilisation and were suggested to play a key role in inducing aneuploidy in zygotes and 8-cell embryos. Moreover, we found that maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 were expressed at lower levels in in vitro matured oocytes, which may have contributed to the high ratio of resulting embryos with abnormal Plk1 and Dctn3 expression levels, thereby reducing the developmental competence of the resulting embryos. Furthermore, the overexpression of Dctn3 can silence Plk1 expression, which suggests a potential regulation mechanism. In conclusion, our present study showed that aberrant expression of Plk1 and Dctn3 increases embryo aneuploidy and developmental failure, particularly in in vitro matured oocytes. Our results facilitate a better understanding of the effects of oocyte maternal gene expression on embryonic development and can be used to improve the outcome of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:25645239

Fan, Yong; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Liu, Jianqiao; Tan, Tao; Ding, Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Jie; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

2015-01-01

324

Towards an understanding and application of environmental flow requirements for human welfare in East African Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid regions of Africa, rivers are of vital importance to humans for the many direct ecosystem services they provide and, in some cases, for their potential to irrigate and power larger-scale development. More than in most regions of the world, Africans still rely individually on rivers for domestic water, nutrition, and other materials contributing to their daily welfare. This has led to a uniquely African adaptation of the environmental flow concept to incorporate the basic water needs of people as well as ecosystems. The combined flow is referred to as the 'Reserve'. East Africa has seen comparatively little development of its water resources to-date, but ambitious initiatives are underway to increase water use in new large-scale irrigation schemes and hydropower projects. Consequently, a number of comprehensive environmental flow assessments and ecohydrological research activities have recently been carried out in the region. This presentation briefly reviews the initiatives underway across the region but focuses mainly on combined research and flow-setting efforts in the transboundary Mara River Basin of Kenya and Tanzania, home to more than 800,000 people and the region's most popular conservation areas, Masai-Mara National Reserve and Serengeti National Park. Since 2006 a team of scientists, in cooperation with water authorities and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), has investigated the hydrology, hydraulics, biology, and human uses of the Mara River in order to make initial environmental flow (reserve) recommendations. The flow regime of the still largely unregulated Mara River, based on analyses or 20+ years of data from three gauging stations, is highly variable and perennial flow in the middle reaches is dependent on inflows from two tributaries draining the heavily deforested Mau Escarpment, one of Kenya's five water towers. Downstream flows are also seasonally influenced by inflows from ephemeral tributaries that drain degraded grazing lands. Environmental flow recommendations have been made at six locations along the river, including three sites destined for the construction of new dams and multipurpose reservoirs. Flow recommendations consist of variable mean monthly base flows during normal and drought years and medium to large floods timed to achieve specific ecological objectives. The objective of water authorities, and thus of environmental flow recommendations, is to conserve the current good ecological status of the river and the many services it provides to people living along its margins. Complimentary research on the interrelationships between flow variability, ecosystem function, and human welfare is turning the Mara into a model system for better understanding these dynamics in an African development context.

McClain, Michael

2013-04-01

325

Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

2009-06-01

326

Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?  

PubMed

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

2009-06-01

327

From competencies to human interests: ways of knowing and understanding in medical education.  

PubMed

When considering the teaching and learning of topics of social relevance in medicine, such as professionalism, medical ethics, the doctor-patient relationship, and issues of diversity and social justice, one is tempted to ask, are the ways of knowing in these fields different from that in the biomedical and clinical sciences? Furthermore, given that the competency approach is dominant in medical education, one might also ask, is the competency model truly appropriate for all of the types of knowledge necessary to become a good physician? These questions are not merely academic, for they are at the core of how these subjects are taught, learned, and assessed.The goal of this article is threefold: first, to explore the nature of knowing and the educational goals in different areas of medicine and, in particular, those areas that have social relevance; second, to critically review the concept of competencies when applied to education in these areas; and third, to explore alternative strategies for teaching, learning, and assessment. This discussion reflects a view that the goal of education in areas of social relevance in medicine should be the enhancement of an understanding of-a deep and abiding connection with-the social responsibilities of the physician. Moving beyond competencies, this approach aspires toward the development of practical wisdom (phronesis) which, when embodied in the physician, links the knowledge and skills of the biomedical and clinical sciences with a moral orientation and call to action that addresses human interests in the practice of medicine. PMID:24662200

Kumagai, Arno K

2014-07-01

328

Parent-offspring conflict theory: an evolutionary framework for understanding conflict within human families.  

PubMed

Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psychology: parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT). In the current article, we articulate POCT for psychological scientists, extend its scope by connecting it to the broader framework of life history theory, and draw out its implications for understanding conflict within human families. We specifically apply POCT to 2 instances of early mother-offspring interaction (prenatal conflict and weaning conflict); discuss the effects of genetic relatedness on behavioral conflict between parents, children, and their siblings; review the emerging literature on parent-offspring conflict over the choice of mates and spouses; and examine parent-offspring conflict from the perspective of imprinted genes. This review demonstrates the utility of POCT, not only for explaining what is known about conflict within families but also for generating novel hypotheses, suggesting new lines of research, and moving us toward the "big picture" by integrating across biological and psychological domains of knowledge. PMID:21604906

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J

2011-07-01

329

Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies.  

PubMed

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. PMID:22957800

Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

2012-12-01

330

Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies  

PubMed Central

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. PMID:22957800

Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

2012-01-01

331

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ MOLECULAR, CELL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ MOLECULAR, CELL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Ongoing Lecturer Pool Position #T06-51 The Department of Molecular, Cell & Developmental Biology at the University to apply: cell and molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, development, neuroscience, human physiology

California at Santa Cruz, University of

332

Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

ScienceCinema

Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen

2013-01-15

333

Understanding the Risk to Neotropical Migrant Bird Species of Multiple Human-Caused Stressors: Elucidating Processes Behind the Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous human-caused changes to the environment act as multiple stressors for organisms in the wild, and the effects of these stressors may be synergistic, rather than merely additive, with unexpected results. However, understanding how focal organisms respond to these stressors is crucial for conservation planning for these species. We propose a paradigm that alternates extensive, broadscale data collection by volunteer

Ralph S. Hames; James D. Lowe; Sara Barker Swarthout; Kenneth V. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

334

Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge materials from uncertain experimental data  

E-print Network

Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge and imprecise information. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Helicopter rotors are more susceptible to icing than fixed-wing vehicles. Rotors impact more super-cooled water particles per sec- ond

Granada, Universidad de

335

Assessment of boric acid and borax using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an evaluation of the reproductive and developmental effects of boric acid, H3BO3 (CAS Registry No. 10043-35-3) and disodium tetraborate decahydrate or borax, Na2B4O2O(CAS Registry No. 1303-96-4). The element, boron, does not exist naturally. In dilute aqueous solution and at physiological pH (7.4), the predominant species in undissociated boric acid (greater than 98%), irrespective of whether the initial material was boric acid of borax. Therefore, it is both useful and correct to compare exposures and dosages to boric acid and borax in terms of `boron equivalents`, since both materials form equivalent species in dilute aqueous solution with similar systemic effects. In order to be clear in this document, the term `boron` will refer to `boron equivalents` or percent boron in boric acid and borax.

Moore, J.A.

1995-03-01

336

Germ-line transmission and developmental regulation of a 150-kb yeast artificial chromosome containing the human [beta]-globin locus in transgenic mice  

SciTech Connect

Sequential expression of the genes of the human [beta]-globin locus requires the formation of an erythroid-specific chromatin domain spanning > 200 kb. Regulation of this gene family involves both local interactions with proximal cis-acting sequences and long-range interactions with control elements upstream of the locus. To make it possible to analyze the interactions of cis-acting sequences of the human [beta]-globin locus in their normal spatial and sequence context, the authors characterized two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) 150 and 230 kb in size, containing the entire [beta]-globin locus. They have now successfully integrated the 150 kb YAC into the germ line of transgenic mice as a single unrearranged fragment that includes the locus control region, structural genes, and 30 kb of 3[prime] flanking sequences present in the native locus. Expression of the transgenic human [beta]-globin locus is tissue- and developmental stage-specific and closely follows the pattern of expression of the endogenous mouse [beta]-globin locus. By using homology-directed recombination in yeast and methods for the purification and transfer of YACs into transgenic mice, it will now be feasible to study the physiological role of cis-acting sequences in specifying an erythroid-specific chromatin domain and directing expression of [beta]-globin genes during ontogeny.

Gaensler, K.M.L.; Kitamura, M.; Kan, Yuet Wai (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-11-15

337

Inverse Optimal Control as a Tool to Understand Human Yoyo Playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an inverse optimal control approach to identify objective functions of human motion from motion capture measurements. We apply it to analyze human yoyo playing. Yoyo playing may seem easy to us to learn but it is a challenging problem from a mechanical point of view involving a hybrid dynamics model. We recorded vertical yoyo playing of humans

Katja Mombaur; Manish Sreenivasa

2010-01-01

338

Understanding Man’s Best Friend: The Comparison of Pre-schooler’s Abilities to Identify Emotions in Humans and Dogs Using Different Stimuli.   

E-print Network

to adequately interpret dog behaviour. Limited research has found that children use their understanding of human emotions to guide their understanding of dogs, which often leads to misinterpretation (Lakestani, 2007; Lakestani et al., 2006; Meints, Racca...

Mitchell, Holly

2013-06-02

339

BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish.  

PubMed

The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4i?-32 ?M caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to aquatic species. PMID:21951712

McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M; Tilton, Fred; Gallagher, Evan P

2012-03-01

340

BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to aquatic species. PMID:21951712

McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

2011-01-01

341

Analysis in Serum-Free Culture of the Targets of Recombinant Human Hemopoietic Growth Factors: Interleukin 3 and Granulocyte\\/Macrophage-Colony-Stimulating Factor are Specific for Early Developmental Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a serum-free culture system for enriched human hemopoietic progenitors to analyze the developmental stages and lineage specificities of the human hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. None of the individual factors alone efficiently supported hemopoietic colony formation. Neither interleukin 3 nor granulocyte\\/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor alone or in combination effectively supported proliferation of progenitor cells. However, when combined with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor or

Yoshiaki Sonoda; Yu-Chung Yang; Gordon G. Wong; Steven C. Clark; Makio Ogawa

1988-01-01

342

Understanding our genetic inheritance: The US Human Genome Project, The first five years FY 1991--1995  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the 21st century and will by of immense benefit to the field of medicine. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than 4000 genetic diseases that affect mankind, as well as the many multifactorial diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role. A centrally coordinated project focused on specific objectives is believed to be the most efficient and least expensive way of obtaining this information. The basic data produced will be collected in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible on convenient form to all who need it. This report describes the plans for the U.S. human genome project and updates those originally prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National Research Council (NRC) in 1988. In the intervening two years, improvements in technology for almost every aspect of genomics research have taken place. As a result, more specific goals can now be set for the project.

none,

1990-04-01

343

Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding of human anatomy, physiology, health and life in  

E-print Network

and development are conserved between humans and the worm, so studying C. elegans genes allows us to understand disease). The worms move on top of the bacterial layer and use this bacterial lawn as a food source. First, observe the N2 (wild-type) worm plate for 30 seconds. This is your reference worm type. Write down your

Rose, Michael R.

344

Developmentally Appropriate Gardening for Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the recent interest in gardening with young children has resulted in a variety of programs but little support to teachers or horticulturists on how to understand the developmental needs of children and how to adapt gardening activities to those needs, this paper presents principles and goals of developmentally appropriate gardening.…

Stoecklin, Vicki L.

345

The many forms of a pleomorphic bacterial pathogen—the developmental network of Legionella pneumophila  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila is a natural intracellular bacterial parasite of free-living freshwater protozoa and an accidental human pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila differentiates, and does it in style. Recent experimental data on L. pneumophila's differentiation point at the existence of a complex network that involves many developmental forms. We intend readers to: (i) understand the biological relevance of L. pneumophila's forms found in freshwater and their potential to transmit Legionnaires' disease, and (ii) learn that the common depiction of L. pneumophila's differentiation as a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a replicative and a transmissive form is but an oversimplification of the actual process. Our specific objectives are to provide updates on the molecular factors that regulate L. pneumophila's differentiation (Section The Differentiation Process and Its Regulation), and describe the developmental network of L. pneumophila (Section Dissecting Lp's Developmental Network), which for clarity's sake we have dissected into five separate developmental cycles. Finally, since each developmental form seems to contribute differently to the human pathogenic process and the transmission of Legionnaires' disease, readers are presented with a challenge to develop novel methods to detect the various L. pneumophila forms present in water (Section Practical Implications), as a means to improve our assessment of risk and more effectively prevent legionellosis outbreaks. PMID:25566200

Robertson, Peter; Abdelhady, Hany; Garduño, Rafael A.

2014-01-01

346

The many forms of a pleomorphic bacterial pathogen-the developmental network of Legionella pneumophila.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila is a natural intracellular bacterial parasite of free-living freshwater protozoa and an accidental human pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila differentiates, and does it in style. Recent experimental data on L. pneumophila's differentiation point at the existence of a complex network that involves many developmental forms. We intend readers to: (i) understand the biological relevance of L. pneumophila's forms found in freshwater and their potential to transmit Legionnaires' disease, and (ii) learn that the common depiction of L. pneumophila's differentiation as a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a replicative and a transmissive form is but an oversimplification of the actual process. Our specific objectives are to provide updates on the molecular factors that regulate L. pneumophila's differentiation (Section The Differentiation Process and Its Regulation), and describe the developmental network of L. pneumophila (Section Dissecting Lp's Developmental Network), which for clarity's sake we have dissected into five separate developmental cycles. Finally, since each developmental form seems to contribute differently to the human pathogenic process and the transmission of Legionnaires' disease, readers are presented with a challenge to develop novel methods to detect the various L. pneumophila forms present in water (Section Practical Implications), as a means to improve our assessment of risk and more effectively prevent legionellosis outbreaks. PMID:25566200

Robertson, Peter; Abdelhady, Hany; Garduño, Rafael A

2014-01-01

347

Dynamic and Coordinated Epigenetic Regulation of Developmental Transitions in the Cardiac Lineage  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Heart development is exquisitely sensitive to the precise temporal regulation of thousands of genes that govern developmental decisions during differentiation. However, we currently lack a detailed understanding of how chromatin and gene expression patterns are coordinated during developmental transitions in the cardiac lineage. Here, we interrogated the transcriptome and several histone modifications across the genome during defined stages of cardiac differentiation. We find distinct chromatin patterns that are coordinated with stage-specific expression of functionally related genes, including many human disease-associated genes. Moreover, we discover a novel pre-activation chromatin pattern at the promoters of genes associated with heart development and cardiac function. We further identify stage-specific distal enhancer elements and find enriched DNA binding motifs within these regions that predict sets of transcription factors that orchestrate cardiac differentiation. Together, these findings form a basis for understanding developmentally regulated chromatin transitions during lineage commitment and the molecular etiology of congenital heart disease. PMID:22981692

Wamstad, Joseph A.; Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Truty, Rebecca M.; Shrikumar, Avanti; Li, Fugen; Eilertson, Kirsten E.; Ding, Huiming; Wylie, John N.; Pico, Alexander R.; Capra, John A.; Erwin, Genevieve; Kattman, Steven J.; Keller, Gordon M.; Srivastava, Deepak; Levine, Stuart S.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Boyer, Laurie A.; Bruneau, Benoit G.

2012-01-01

348

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework  

PubMed Central

This article examines the utility of a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of substance use among young people. It provides operational definitions of “youth” and “substances,” a review of current international and national efforts to address substance use among youths, and an introduction to human rights and the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful substance use is introduced and contemporary international and national responses are discussed. When governments uphold their obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, vulnerability to harmful substance use and its consequences can be reduced. PMID:11726374

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

349

Global Developmental Gene Expression and Pathway Analysis of Normal Brain Development and Mouse Models of Human Neuronal Migration Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterozygous LIS1 mutations are the most common cause of human lissencephaly, a human neuronal migration defect, and DCX mutations are the most common cause of X-linked lissencephaly. LIS1 is part of a protein complex including NDEL1 and 14-3-3? that regulates dynein motor function and microtubule dynamics, while DCX stabilizes microtubules and cooperates with LIS1 during neuronal migration and neurogenesis. Targeted

Tiziano Pramparo; Ondrej Libiger; Sonia Jain; Hong Li; Yong Ha Youn; Shinji Hirotsune; Nicholas J. Schork; Anthony Wynshaw-Boris

2011-01-01

350

HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1984, the U.S. EPA published proposed Guidelines for the Health Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. The assessment of data from studies on developmental effects of chemical exposure and the estimation of risk for humans is a difficult process. Although structure/act...

351

Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vygotsky is widely considered one of the most significant and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, true appreciation of his theories has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the background to his thought. "Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology" aims to demonstrate how we can come to a new and…

Langford, Peter E.

2005-01-01

352

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

Berg, Gary A.

2000-01-01

353

"A Friend Who Understand Fully": Notes on Humanizing Research in a Multiethnic Youth Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I conceptualize ethnographic, qualitative, and social language research with marginalized and oppressed communities as "humanizing research". Humanizing research is a methodological stance, which requires that our inquiries involve dialogic consciousness-raising and the building of relationships of dignity and care for both…

Paris, Django

2011-01-01

354

Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

2006-01-01

355

Understanding the Human Genome Project: Using Stations to Provide a Comprehensive Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lesson was designed for lower division general education, non-major biology lecture-only course that included the historical and scientific context, some of the skills used to study the human genome, results, conclusions and ethical consideration. Students learn to examine and compare the published Human Genome maps, and employ the strategies…

Soto, Julio G.

2005-01-01

356

How has the study of the human placenta aided our understanding of partially methylated genes?  

PubMed Central

While the human genome sequence is relatively uniform between the cells of an individual, the DNA methylation of the genome (methylome) has unique features in different cells, tissues and stages of development. Recent genome-wide sequencing of the methylome has revealed large partially methylated domains (PMDs) in the human placenta. Unlike CpG islands and Polycomb-regulated regions, which can also have low levels of methylation, placental PMDs cover approximately 37% of the human genome and are associated with inaccessible chromatin and the repression of tissue-specific genes. Here, we summarize the interesting biological questions that have arisen as a result of finding PMDs in the human placenta, including how PMDs form, what they do, how they evolved and how they might be relevant to human disease. PMID:24283879

Schroeder, Diane I; LaSalle, Janine M

2014-01-01

357

Applying an adult development perspective to developmental networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To elaborate how an adult development perspective can further an understanding of mentoring (developmental) networks and their value to focal individuals in terms of the developmental functions provided and outcomes such as personal learning, task performance and development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article utilizes Kegan's developmental stage theory to explore the implications of an adult development lens for individuals'

Dawn E. Chandler; Kathy E. Kram

2005-01-01

358

Applying developmental psychology to children's road safety: Problems and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the contributions of developmental psychology to our understanding of children's vulnerability as road users and to the formulation and assessment of appropriate intervention programs. Three limitations to the application of developmental psychology are discussed: (1) problems in the applicability to a new domain of both domain-general and domain-specific cognitive competence models; (2) the cultural relativity of developmental

James D. Demetre

1997-01-01

359

Developmental Cell Combinatorial Assembly of Developmental  

E-print Network

Developmental Cell Article Combinatorial Assembly of Developmental Stage-Specific Enhancers's Hospital Boston and Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Stem Cell of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

Yuan, Guo-Cheng "GC"

360

Inverse Optimal Control as a Tool to Understand Human Yoyo Playing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an inverse optimal control approach to identify objective functions of human motion from motion capture measurements. We apply it to analyze human yoyo playing. Yoyo playing may seem easy to us to learn but it is a challenging problem from a mechanical point of view involving a hybrid dynamics model. We recorded vertical yoyo playing of humans measuring yoyo height and rotation angle as well as the corresponding hand motions. Results of inverse optimal control are presented showing a mixed criterion of cycle time and terms depending on yoyo and hand acceleration and velocity.

Mombaur, Katja; Sreenivasa, Manish

2010-09-01

361

The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad, angry,…

Gross, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

362

Early Kindergarten Identification of Academically Not-Ready Children by Use of Human Figure Drawing Developmental Score.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Koppitz Human Figure Drawing (HFD) Test was examined for use in early identification of academically not-ready kindergarten children. HFD scores of children who later "passed" the Metropolitan Readiness Test were compared with HFD scores of children who later "failed." Results indicate that HFD scores are useful in assessing non-readiness.…

Dunleavy, Raymond A.; And Others

1981-01-01

363

Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast? chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultur...

364

Understanding Visual Metaphor: Developmental and Individual Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph describes the development of the Metaphoric Triads Task (MTT), an instrument designed to assess metaphoric comprehension. Validity and reliability of the instrument are discussed and data for 12 samples of subjects are reported. Sex differences were negligible, but progressive improvement in MTT score with age was noted. Pictorial…

Kogan, Nathan; And Others

1980-01-01

365

Developmental expression of wild-type and mutant presenilin-1 in hippocampal neurons from transgenic mice: evidence for novel species-specific properties of human presenilin-1.  

PubMed Central

Presenilins 1 (PS1) and 2 (PS2) are multispanning transmembrane proteins associated with familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). They are developmentally regulated, being expressed at highest levels during neuronal differentiation and are sustained at a lower level throughout life. We investigated the distribution and metabolism of endogenous murine PS1 as well as human wild-type (wtPS1) and the familial AD Met146Leu (M146L) mutant presenilins in dissociated cultures of hippocampal neurons derived from control and transgenic mice. We found that the PS1 endoproteolytic fragments and, to a lesser extent, the full-length protein, were expressed as early as day 3 post-plating. Both species increased until the cells were fully differentiated at day 12. Confocal microscopy revealed that presenilin is present in the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum and, as in punctate, vesicle-like structures within developing neurites and growth cones. Using a human-specific PS1 antibody, we were able to independently examine the distribution of the transgenic protein which, although similar to the endogenous, showed some unique qualities. These included (i) some heterogeneity in the proteolytic fragments of human PS1; (ii) significantly reduced levels of full-length human PS1, possibly as a result of preferential processing; and (iii) a more discrete intracellular distribution of human PS1. Colocalization with organelle-specific proteins revealed that PS1 was located in a diffuse staining pattern in the MAP2-positive dendrites and in a punctate manner in GAP43-positive axons. PS1 showed considerable overlap with GAP43, particularly at the growth cones. Similar patterns of PS1 distribution were detected in cultures derived from transgenic animals expressing human wild-type or mutant presenilins. The studies demonstrate that mutant presenilins are not grossly different in their processing or distribution within cultured neurons, which may represent more physiological models as compared to transfection systems. Our data also suggest that the molecular pathology associated with PS1 mutations results from subtle alterations in presenilin function, which can be further investigated using these transgenic neuronal cell culture models. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:10501657

Lévesque, L.; Annaert, W.; Craessaerts, K.; Mathews, P. M.; Seeger, M.; Nixon, R. A.; Van Leuven, F.; Gandy, S.; Westaway, D.; St George-Hyslop, P.; De Strooper, B.; Fraser, P. E.

1999-01-01

366

Understanding the global architecture of gene regulation in human cells through analysis of chromatin signatures  

E-print Network

In the near future, mapping of the epigenome will help us tomapping and characterizing the entirety of the human epigenomeEpigenome Roadmap Project and the ENCODE Project will undoubtedly come close to mapping

Hon, Gary Chung

2009-01-01

367

USE OF PRIMATE FOLLICULOGENESIS MODELS IN UNDERSTANDING HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND APPLICABILITY TO TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The nonhuman primate reproductive system provides an excellent model for studying basic physiological processes applicable to humans. This article reviews hormonal observations and experimental manipulations useful in the evaluation of ovarian events in various stages of the repr...

368

Understanding human-space suit interaction to prevent injury during extravehicular activity  

E-print Network

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a critical component of human spaceflight. Working in gas-pressurized space suits, however, causes fatigue, unnecessary energy expenditure, and injury. The problem of injury is particularly ...

Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

2014-01-01

369

The role of metagenomics in understanding the human microbiome in health and disease  

PubMed Central

The term microbiome refers to the genetic material of the catalog of microbial taxa associated with humans. As in all ecosystems, the microbiota reaches a dynamic equilibrium in the human body, which can be altered by environmental factors and external stimuli. Metagenomics is a relatively new field of study of microbial genomes within diverse environmental samples, which is of increasing importance in microbiology. The introduction of this ecological perception of microbiology is the key to achieving real knowledge about the influence of the microbiota in human health and disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the link between the human microbiota (focusing on the intestinal, vaginal, skin, and airway body sites) and health from this ecological point of view, highlighting the contribution of metagenomics in the advance of this field. PMID:24429972

Martín, Rebeca; Miquel, Sylvie; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

2014-01-01

370

The role of metagenomics in understanding the human microbiome in health and disease.  

PubMed

The term microbiome refers to the genetic material of the catalog of microbial taxa associated with humans. As in all ecosystems, the microbiota reaches a dynamic equilibrium in the human body, which can be altered by environmental factors and external stimuli. Metagenomics is a relatively new field of study of microbial genomes within diverse environmental samples, which is of increasing importance in microbiology. The introduction of this ecological perception of microbiology is the key to achieving real knowledge about the influence of the microbiota in human health and disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the link between the human microbiota (focusing on the intestinal, vaginal, skin, and airway body sites) and health from this ecological point of view, highlighting the contribution of metagenomics in the advance of this field. PMID:24429972

Martín, Rebeca; Miquel, Sylvie; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G

2014-04-01

371

Situation Understanding Based on Heterogeneous Sensor Networks and Human-Inspired Favor Weak Fuzzy Logic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans use multiple sources of sensory information to estimate environmental properties and has innate ability to integrate information from heterogeneous data sources. How the multi-sensory and multimodal information are integrated in human brain? There is consensus that it depends on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC has top-down control (favor weak) and rule-based mechanisms, and we propose to incorporate the

Qilian Liang

2011-01-01

372

Advances in the understanding and treatment of human severe combined immunodeficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) can result from mutations in any one of at least seven different genes, including\\u000a those for adenosine deaminase, the common cytokine receptor gamma chain, Janus kinase 3, IL-7 receptor alpha chain, recombinase\\u000a activation genes 1 and 2, and CD45. Except for adenosine deaminase, knowledge concerning the latter causes of human SC ID\\u000a has accured since

Rebecca H. Buckley

2000-01-01

373

B.S. Mathematics Developmental  

E-print Network

Verbal ACT must be > 21 or Computer Science 3 MATH 251 3 MATH 451 3 MATH 483 3 Verbal SAT must > 510 ENG 101 3 Related Science 3 MATH 453 3 MATH 488 3 or complete developmental Humanities** 3 Computer be > 28 or ENG 102 3 Related Science 3 MATH 457 3 Upper Div MATH 3 Quan SAT must be >630 Related Science 3

Walker, Lawrence R.

374

Fetal microchimerism in cancer protection and promotion: current understanding in dogs and the implications for human health.  

PubMed

Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother's body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans. PMID:25693490

Bryan, Jeffrey N

2015-05-01

375

Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent Food and Drug Administration legislation enables the mandating of product performance standards for cigarette smoke and the evaluation of manufacturers’ health claims for modified tobacco products. Laboratory studies used for these evaluations, and also to understand tobacco smoke toxicology, use machines to generate smoke. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate methods to assess human smoking behavior and replicate this in the laboratory. Methods Smoking behavior and smoking machine studies were identified using PubMed and publically available databases for internal tobacco company documents. Results The smoking machine was developed to generate smoke to allow for comparing cigarette tar and nicotine yields. The intent was to infer relative human disease risk, but this concept was flawed because humans tailor their smoking to the product and chemical yields and toxicological effects change with different smoking profiles. While smoking machines also allow for mechanistic assessments of smoking-related diseases, the interpretations also are limited. However, available methods to assess how humans puff could be used to provide better laboratory assessments, but these need to be validated. Separately, the contribution of smoke mouth-holding and inhalation to dose need to be assessed, because these parts of smoking are not captured by the smoking machine. Better comparisons of cigarettes might be done by tailoring human puff profiles to the product based on human studies and comparing results across regimens. Conclusions There are major research gaps that limit the use of smoking machine studies for informing tobacco control regulation and mechanistic studies. PMID:19959678

Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard J.; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

2009-01-01

376

Personality and Leadership Developmental Levels as predictors of leader performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is an empirical investigation of constructive-developmental theory as a theoretical framework for understanding leadership and as a predictor of 360-degree leader performance ratings. Constructive-developmental stage (conceptualized as Leadership Developmental Level) was found to predict performance ratings from all rater sources (superiors, peers, and subordinates). Furthermore, the predictive ability of Leadership Developmental Level is compared to that of Big

Sarah E. Strang; Karl W. Kuhnert

2009-01-01

377

Human Sciences and the Human Person: Understanding The Trade-Off Between Normative Generality And Technical Problem Solving1  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1925) to analyze the relationship of the social sciences with ethics and the philosophy of the human person. This framework is consistent with the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition and its main points are hardly new. However, by applying it systematically to the modern social sciences we establish the positive and normative character of such sciences, their relationships with ethics, and derive two

Guillermo Montes

378

Man Bites Mosquito: Understanding the Contribution of Human Movement to Vector-Borne Disease Dynamics  

PubMed Central

In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it. PMID:19707544

Adams, Ben; Kapan, Durrell D.

2009-01-01

379

The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing students to take informed positions on complex problems through critical evaluation is a primary goal of university education. Socioscientific issues (SSI) have been established as effective contexts for students to develop this competency, as well as reasoning skills and content knowledge. This mixed-methods study investigates the effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program focused on the development of evidence-based reasoning to form personal commitments on SSI. Specifically, the study investigates how human biology majors differ from traditional biology majors in their reasoning with SSI, their perceptions of experiences with SSI, their understanding of scientific inquiry, their levels and perceptions of science content knowledge, and their general program perceptions. These outcomes were assessed through open-ended questionnaires on SSI and scientific inquiry and a basic biology concept test administered to 95 participants representing both programs and 16 semi-structured student interviews. Although the two groups did not differ significantly in their decisions or factors influencing their decisions in SSI, human biology majors showed higher levels of socioscientific reasoning, suggesting that learning contextualized in SSI helped them understand and reason with similar issues. While biology majors reported few experiences with socioscientific reasoning, human biology majors felt well equipped to reason with SSI and more likely to consider alternative perspectives in their decision making. Human biology majors also were more likely to view social science research as a form of inquiry and less likely to view scientific inquiry as purely experimental. No difference was found between groups in basic biology content knowledge, although human biology majors felt they were exposed to less detailed biology content. This exploratory study illustrates a novel approach to interdisciplinary, SSI-based science education at the college level.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.

380

Developmentally Regulated Expression of Two Novel Platelet-derived Growth Factor c Receptor Transcripts in Human Teratocarcinoma Cells 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) a-receptor tran- scripts of 1.5 kilobases and 5.0 kilobases are expressed in the human teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-2 only while the cells are in an undifferen- tiated state. After retinoic acid-induced differentiation, expression of these mRNAs is completely shut off and instead, the cells express a single 6.4-kilobase mRNA species which is also expressed

Sietse Mosselman; Lena Claesson-Welsh; J. Stephan Kamphuis; Everardus J. J. van Zoelen

381

Human embryonic germ cell derivatives express a broad range of developmentally distinct markers and proliferate extensively in vitro.  

PubMed

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been derived from the inner cell mass cells of blastocysts (embryonic stem cells) and primordial germ cells of the developing gonadal ridge (embryonic germ cells). Like their mouse counterparts, hPSCs can be maintained in culture in an undifferentiated state and, upon differentiation, generate a wide variety of cell types. Embryoid body (EB) formation is a requisite step in the process of in vitro differentiation of these stem cells and has been used to derive neurons and glia, vascular endothelium, hematopoietic cells, cardiomyocytes, and glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells from mouse PSCs. EBs generated from human embryonic germ cell cultures have also been found to contain a wide variety of cell types, including neural cells, vascular endothelium, muscle cells, and endodermal derivatives. Here, we report the isolation and culture of cells from human EBs as well as a characterization of their gene expression during growth in several different culture environments. These heterogeneous cell cultures are capable of robust and long-term [>70 population doublings (PD)] proliferation in culture, have normal karyotypes, and can be cryopreserved, clonally isolated, and stably transfected. Cell cultures and clonal lines retain a broad pattern of gene expression including simultaneous expression of markers normally associated with cells of neural, vascular/hematopoietic, muscle, and endoderm lineages. The growth and expression characteristics of these EB-derived cells suggest that they are relatively uncommitted precursor or progenitor cells. EB-derived cells may be suited to studies of human cell differentiation and may play a role in future transplantation therapies. PMID:11134532

Shamblott, M J; Axelman, J; Littlefield, J W; Blumenthal, P D; Huggins, G R; Cui, Y; Cheng, L; Gearhart, J D

2001-01-01

382

Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

2009-01-01

383

PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

384

Epigenetic epidemiology of the developmental origins hypothesis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Extensive human epidemiologic and animal model data indicate that during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal mammalian development, nutrition and other environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways and thereby induce permanent changes in metabolism and chronic disease susceptibility....

385

Students' Participation in an Interdisciplinary, Socioscientific Issues Based Undergraduate Human Biology Major and Their Understanding of Scientific Inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine whether Socioscientific Issues (SSI) based learning environments affect university students' epistemological understanding of scientific inquiry differently from traditional science educational contexts. We identify and compare conceptions of scientific inquiry of students participating in an interdisciplinary, SSI-focused undergraduate human biology major (SSI) and those participating in a traditional biology major (BIO). Forty-five SSI students and 50 BIO students completed an open-ended questionnaire examining their understanding of scientific inquiry. Eight general themes including approximately 60 subthemes emerged from questionnaire responses, and the numbers of students including each subtheme in their responses were statistically compared between groups. A subset of students participated in interviews, which were used to validate and triangulate questionnaire data and probe students' understanding of scientific inquiry in relation to their majors. We found that both groups provided very similar responses, differing significantly in only five subthemes. Results indicated that both groups held generally adequate understandings of inquiry, but also a number of misconceptions. Small differences between groups supported by both questionnaires and interviews suggest that the SSI context contributed to nuanced understandings, such as a more interdisciplinary and problem-centered conception of scientific inquiry. Implications for teaching and research are discussed.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Sherwood, Robert D.; Schlegel, Whitney M.

2013-06-01

386

Transcending the individual human mind—creating shared understanding through collaborative design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex design problems require more knowledge than any single person possesses because the knowledge relevant to a problem is usually distributed among stakeholders. Bringing different and often controversial points of view together to create a shared understanding among these stakeholders can lead to new insights, new ideas, and new artifacts. New media that allow owners of problems to contribute to

Ernesto Arias; Hal Eden; Gerhard Fischer; Andrew Gorman; Eric Scharff

2000-01-01

387

The inducible tissue-specific expression of the human IL-3/GM-CSF locus is controlled by a complex array of developmentally regulated enhancers.  

PubMed

The closely linked human IL-3 and GM-CSF genes are tightly regulated and are expressed in activated T cells and mast cells. In this study, we used transgenic mice to study the developmental regulation of this locus and to identify DNA elements required for its correct activity in vivo. Because these two genes are separated by a CTCF-dependent insulator, and the GM-CSF gene is regulated primarily by its own upstream enhancer, the main objective in this study was to identify regions of the locus required for correct IL-3 gene expression. We initially found that the previously identified proximal upstream IL-3 enhancers were insufficient to account for the in vivo activity of the IL-3 gene. However, an extended analysis of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) spanning the entire upstream IL-3 intergenic region revealed the existence of a complex cluster of both constitutive and inducible DHSs spanning the -34- to -40-kb region. The tissue specificity of these DHSs mirrored the activity of the IL-3 gene, and included a highly inducible cyclosporin A-sensitive enhancer at -37 kb that increased IL-3 promoter activity 40-fold. Significantly, inclusion of this region enabled correct in vivo regulation of IL-3 gene expression in T cells, mast cells, and myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:23024272

Baxter, Euan W; Mirabella, Fabio; Bowers, Sarion R; James, Sally R; Bonavita, Aude-Marine; Bertrand, Elisabeth; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Hawwari, Abbas; Bert, Andrew G; Gonzalez de Arce, Andrea; West, Adam G; Bonifer, Constanze; Cockerill, Peter N

2012-11-01

388

The inducible tissue-specific expression of the human IL-3/GM-CSF locus is controlled by a complex array of developmentally regulated enhancers  

PubMed Central

The closely linked human IL-3 and GM-CSF genes are tightly regulated and are expressed in activated T cells and mast cells. Here we used transgenic mice to study the developmental regulation of this locus and to identify DNA elements required for its correct activity in vivo. Because these two genes are separated by a CTCF-dependent insulator, and the GM-CSF gene is regulated primarily by its own upstream enhancer, the main aim was to identify regions of the locus required for correct IL-3 gene expression. We initially found that the previously identified proximal upstream IL-3 enhancers were insufficient to account for the in vivo activity of the IL-3 gene. However, an extended analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) spanning the entire upstream IL-3 intergenic region revealed the existence of a complex cluster of both constitutive and inducible DHSs spanning the ?34 to ?40 kb region. The tissue specificity of these DHSs mirrored the activity of the IL-3 gene, and included a highly inducible CyclosporinA-sensitive enhancer at ?37 kb which increased IL-3 promoter activity 40 fold. Significantly, inclusion of this region enabled correct in vivo regulation of IL-3 gene expression in T cells, mast cells and myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:23024272

Baxter, Euan W.; Mirabella, Fabio; Bowers, Sarion R.; James, Sally R.; Bonavita, Aude-Marine; Bertrand, Elisabeth; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Hawwari, Abbas; Bert, Andrew G.; de Arce, Andrea Gonzalez; West, Adam G.; Bonifer, Constanze; Cockerill, Peter N.

2012-01-01

389

Developmental Disabilities  

MedlinePLUS

... but treatment can help the symptoms. Treatments include physical, speech, and occupational therapy. Special education classes and psychological counseling can also help. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

390

Developmental Systems Science: Exploring the Application of Systems Science Methods to Developmental Science Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science theorists fully acknowledge the wide array of complex interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that together give rise to development. However, despite this conceptual understanding of development as a system, developmental science has not fully applied analytic methods commensurate with this systems perspective. This article provides a brief introduction to systems science, an approach to problem solving that

Jennifer Brown Urban; Nathaniel D. Osgood; Patricia L. Mabry

2011-01-01

391

Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible  

E-print Network

, race, the history of anthropological thought, gender, medicine and applied anthropology. A Bachelor. Alone among the social sciences, Anthropology studies human experience in every part of the world, from tiny traditional communities to modern metropoles, and in every period of history and prehistory

Seldin, Jonathan P.

392

Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

2009-01-01

393

A Dialectic Analysis of Learning Theory Contributions to Understanding Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The philosophies underlying the learning and structural theories used in psychology are described in this article. It is argued that a dialectical view provides some ways to breach the chasm between learning theory and the study of human development. (Author/DB)

Dusek, J. B.; Meyer, W. J.

1980-01-01

394

Anthropologists try to understand human social and cultural life in the broadest possible  

E-print Network

, politics, the family, religion, race, the history of anthropological thought, social movements, gender. Alone among the social sciences, Anthropology studies human experience in every part of the world, from. Anthropology attempts to see the world from many diverse points of view, such as those of peasants, religious

Seldin, Jonathan P.

395

Students' Understanding of Connections between Human Engineered and Natural Environmental Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research draws on developments in educational research where "learning progressions" are emerging as a strategy for synthesizing research on science learning and applying that research to policy and practice, and advances in the natural sciences, where "interdisciplinary research on coupled human and natural systems" has become increasingly…

Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Anderson, Charles W.

2010-01-01

396

Understanding Functions of mRNA Capping in Human Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to compare the expression level of human capping enzyme in different cell lines. Hela, and 293F cells were grown in cell culture and their nuclear extracts were used to do polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) and western blot. Western blot is a technique used to detect particular proteins by using antibodies. The results of

Anish Borkar

397

Leveraging Small Aquarium Fishes to Advance Understanding of Environmentally Influenced Human Disorders and Diseases  

EPA Science Inventory

Small aquarium fishes provide a model organism that recapitulates the development, physiology and specific disease processes present in humans without the many limitations of rodent-based models currently in use. Fish models offer advantages in cost, rapid life-cycles, and extern...

398

Grasping the Affordances, Understanding the Reasoning: Toward a Dialectical Theory of Human Tool Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most exciting issues in psychology is, What are the psychological mechanisms underlying human tool use? The computational approach assumes that the use of a tool (e.g., a hammer) requires the extraction of sensory information about object properties (heavy, rigid), which can then be translated into appropriate motor outputs (grasping,…

Osiurak, Francois; Jarry, Christophe; Le Gall, Didier

2010-01-01

399

Toward a 21st-Century Understanding of Humans' Relation to Nature: Two Hats?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From its inception, environmental education (EE) has shouldered the imposition of impartiality on its methods and practices. Considering the reality of global climate change, the author urges the adoption of the more accurate theory of humans' relation to the natural world. This theory necessitates partiality toward healthy, functioning natural…

Rennie, Scott

2008-01-01

400

Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

Lee, Yeung Chung

2011-01-01

401

Mechanisms of Disease: understanding resistance to HER2-targeted therapy in human breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeted against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 tyrosine kinase receptor, which is overexpressed in approximately 25% of invasive breast cancers. The majority of patients with metastatic breast cancer who initially respond to trastuzumab, however, demonstrate disease progression within 1 year of treatment initiation. Preclinical studies have indicated several molecular mechanisms that could

Dihua Yu; Mien-Chie Hung; Gabriel N Hortobagyi; Rita Nahta; Francisco J Esteva

2006-01-01

402

Human Trafficking and Technology: A framework for understanding the role of technology in the commercial  

E-print Network

@microsoft.com Introduction Networked technologies--including the Internet, mobile phones, and social media--alter how of technology, nor do we know if law enforcement can identify perpetrators better as a result of the traces importantly, we need to develop innovative ways of using technology to address the horrors of human

Chaudhuri, Surajit

403

Understanding Generational Diversity: Strategic Human Resource Management and Development across the Generational "Divide"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are more generations in today's workforce than ever before, which has the possibility to create challenges for Human Resource professionals. The purpose of this article is to interrogate existing stereotypes and generalities about the characteristics of different generations with respect to the workplace, and to offer suggestions for…

Amayah, Angela Titi; Gedro, Julie

2014-01-01

404

Understanding and Modulating Mammalian-Microbial Communication for Improved Human Health  

PubMed Central

The fact that the bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a symbiotic role was noted as early as 1885, well before we began to manage microbial infections using antibiotics. However, even with the first antimicrobial compounds used in humans, the sulfa drugs, microbes were recognized to be critically involved in the biotransformation of these therapeutics. Thus, the roles played by the microbiota in physiology and in the management of human health have long been appreciated. Detailed examinations of GI symbiotic bacteria that started in the early 2000s and the first phases of the Human Microbiome Project that were completed in 2012 have ushered in an exciting period of granularity with respect to the ecology, genetics, and chemistry of the mammalian-microbial axes of communication. Here we review aspects of the biochemical pathways at play between commensal GI bacteria and several mammalian systems, including both local-epithelia and nonlocal responses including inflammation, immunology, metabolism, and neurobiology. Finally, we discuss how the microbial biotransformation of therapeutic compounds, such as anticancer or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can be modulated to reduce toxicity and potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24160697

Mani, Sridhar; Boelsterli, Urs A.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

405

Population Growth. Understanding Global Change: Earth Science and Human Impacts. Global Change Instruction Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Global Change Instruction Program was designed by college professors to fill a need for interdisciplinary materials on the emerging science of global change. This instructional module concentrates on interactions between population growth and human activities that produce global change. The materials are designed for undergraduate students…

Jacobsen, Judith E.

406

Understanding human--coyote encounters in urban ecosystems using citizen science data: what do socioeconomics tell us?  

PubMed

The coyote (Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans. We explored the relative importance of socioeconomic variables compared to those describing coyote habitat in predicting human-coyote encounters in highly-urbanized Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA using 707 public reports of coyote sightings, high-resolution land cover, US Census data, and an autologistic multi-model inference approach. Three of the four socioeconomic variables which we hypothesized would have an important influence on encounter probability, namely building density, household income, and occupation, had effects at least as large as or larger than coyote habitat variables. Our results indicate that the consideration of readily available socioeconomic variables in the analysis of citizen science data improves the prediction of species distributions by providing insight into the effects of important factors for which data are often lacking, such as resource availability for coyotes on private property and observer experience. Managers should take advantage of citizen scientists in human-dominated landscapes to monitor coyotes in order to understand their interactions with humans. PMID:25234049

Wine, Stuart; Gagné, Sara A; Meentemeyer, Ross K

2015-01-01

407

Understanding Human-Coyote Encounters in Urban Ecosystems Using Citizen Science Data: What Do Socioeconomics Tell Us?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coyote ( Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans. We explored the relative importance of socioeconomic variables compared to those describing coyote habitat in predicting human-coyote encounters in highly-urbanized Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA using 707 public reports of coyote sightings, high-resolution land cover, US Census data, and an autologistic multi-model inference approach. Three of the four socioeconomic variables which we hypothesized would have an important influence on encounter probability, namely building density, household income, and occupation, had effects at least as large as or larger than coyote habitat variables. Our results indicate that the consideration of readily available socioeconomic variables in the analysis of citizen science data improves the prediction of species distributions by providing insight into the effects of important factors for which data are often lacking, such as resource availability for coyotes on private property and observer experience. Managers should take advantage of citizen scientists in human-dominated landscapes to monitor coyotes in order to understand their interactions with humans.

Wine, Stuart; Gagné, Sara A.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

2015-01-01

408

Contributions and complexities from the use of in vivo animal models to improve understanding of human neuroimaging signals  

PubMed Central

Many of the major advances in our understanding of how functional brain imaging signals relate to neuronal activity over the previous two decades have arisen from physiological research studies involving experimental animal models. This approach has been successful partly because it provides opportunities to measure both the hemodynamic changes that underpin many human functional brain imaging techniques and the neuronal activity about which we wish to make inferences. Although research into the coupling of neuronal and hemodynamic responses using animal models has provided a general validation of the correspondence of neuroimaging signals to specific types of neuronal activity, it is also highlighting the key complexities and uncertainties in estimating neural signals from hemodynamic markers. This review will detail how research in animal models is contributing to our rapidly evolving understanding of what human neuroimaging techniques tell us about neuronal activity. It will highlight emerging issues in the interpretation of neuroimaging data that arise from in vivo research studies, for example spatial and temporal constraints to neuroimaging signal interpretation, or the effects of disease and modulatory neurotransmitters upon neurovascular coupling. We will also give critical consideration to the limitations and possible complexities of translating data acquired in the typical animals models used in this area to the arena of human fMRI. These include the commonplace use of anesthesia in animal research studies and the fact that many neuropsychological questions that are being actively explored in humans have limited homologs within current animal models for neuroimaging research. Finally we will highlighting approaches, both in experimental animals models (e.g. imaging in conscious, behaving animals) and human studies (e.g. combined fMRI-EEG), that mitigate against these challenges. PMID:25191214

Martin, Chris

2014-01-01

409

Pursuing basic research to understand brain function in health and disease. Generating trained human resources with the capability to carry out inter-disciplinary research in neuro-  

E-print Network

the objectives of the Centre. 1 #12;From the Director's Desk The human brain is the most sensitive in the human body, it is the source and determiner of everything. In the words of Hippocrates, "from the brain scientists in the new millennium is to understand how the human brain works and what goes wrong when

Dhingra, Narender K.

410

Isolation and fine mapping of 16 novel human zinc finger-encoding cDNAs identify putative candidate genes for developmental and malignant disorders  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated and chromosomally fine-mapped 16 novel genes belonging to the human zinc finger Krueppel family (ZNF131-140, 142, 143, 148, 151, 154, and 155), including 1 of the GLI type (ZNF143) and 3 containing a KRAB (Krueppel-associated box) segment (ZNF133, 136, and 140). Based on their map position, several of these ZNF genes are putative candidate genes for both developmental and malignant disorders: ZNF138, ZNF139, and ZNF143 were localized to 7q11.2, 7q21.3-q22.1, and 11p15.3-p15.4, regions involved in deletions and/or translocations associated with Williams syndrome, split hand and foot disease (SHFD1), and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, respectively. ZNF133 was localized to 20p11.2, close to, but probably distinct from, the region deleted in Alagille syndrome. Zinc finger genes mapping to regions commonly deleted in solid tumors included ZNF132, 134, 135, 137, 154, and 155, all located on 19q13 (thyroid adenoma), and ZNF151, at 1p36.1-p36.2 (neuroblastoma, colon cancer, and other tumors). In addition, several of the ZNFs mapped to regions implicated in recurrent chromosomal rearrangements in hematological malignancies (ZNF139, 7q21.3-q22.1; ZNF148, 3q21-q22; ZNF151, 1p36.1-p36.2). The study indicates that the number of ZNF genes in human is large and that systematic isolation and mapping of ZNF genes is a straightforward approach for the identification of novel candidate disease genes. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Tommerup, N. [John F. Kennedy Institute, Glostrup (Denmark)] [John F. Kennedy Institute, Glostrup (Denmark); Vissing, H. [Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)] [Novo Nordisk, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)

1995-05-20

411

The Role of Intuitive Ontologies in Scientific Understanding – the Case of Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological evidence suggests that laypeople understand the world around them in terms of intuitive ontologies which describe\\u000a broad categories of objects in the world, such as ‘person’, ‘artefact’ and ‘animal’. However, because intuitive ontologies\\u000a are the result of natural selection, they only need to be adaptive; this does not guarantee that the knowledge they provide\\u000a is a genuine reflection of

Helen De Cruz; Johan De Smedt

2007-01-01

412

From Monsoons to Microbes: Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book offers a deeper look into the oceans that surround us, exploring the links among physical oceanography, public health, epidemiology, marine biology, and medicine in understanding what the ocean has to offer. Chapters include: contains chapters about climate and weather, coastal hazards, and public health; oceans and infectious diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs); marine-derived pharmaceuticals and related bioactive agents; and marine organisms as models for biomedical research. PDF versions of the chapters are available to skim or read.

Commission on Geosciences; Environment and Resources (CGER) Ocean Studies Board (OSB)

413

Developmental validation of RSID™-Semen: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of human semen.  

PubMed

Tests for the identification of semen commonly involve the microscopic visualization of spermatozoa or assays for the presence of seminal markers such as acid phosphatase (AP) or prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Here, we describe the rapid stain identification kit for the identification of semen (RSID™-Semen), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antihuman semenogelin monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of semenogelin. The RSID™-Semen strip is specific for human semen, detecting <2.5 nL of semen, and does not cross-react with other human or nonhuman tissues tested. RSID™-Semen is more sensitive with certain forensic evidence samples containing mixtures of vaginal secretions and semen than either of the commercially available PSA-based forensic semen detection tests or tests that measure AP activity that were tested in parallel. The RSID™-Semen kit also allows sampling a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority of the sample for further processing through short tandem repeat analysis. PMID:22211796

Old, Jennifer; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Fischer, Brian; Miller, Kevin W P; Reich, Karl

2012-03-01

414

Learning Dictionaries of Sparse Codes of 3D Movements of Body Joints for Real-Time Human Activity Understanding  

PubMed Central

Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

2014-01-01

415

Lessons from the analysis of nonhuman primates for understanding human aging and neurodegenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Animal models are necessary tools for solving the most serious challenges facing medical research. In aging and neurodegenerative disease studies, rodents occupy a place of choice. However, the most challenging questions about longevity, the complexity and functioning of brain networks or social intelligence can almost only be investigated in nonhuman primates. Beside the fact that their brain structure is much closer to that of humans, they develop highly complex cognitive strategies and they are visually-oriented like humans. For these reasons, they deserve consideration, although their management and care are more complicated and the related costs much higher. Despite these caveats, considerable scientific advances have been possible using nonhuman primates. This review concisely summarizes their role in the study of aging and of the mechanisms involved in neurodegenerative disorders associated mainly with cognitive dysfunctions (Alzheimer's and prion diseases) or motor deficits (Parkinson's and related diseases). PMID:25788873

Verdier, Jean-Michel; Acquatella, Isabelle; Lautier, Corinne; Devau, Gina; Trouche, Stéphanie; Lasbleiz, Christelle; Mestre-Francés, Nadine

2015-01-01

416

Emerging technologies from the Human Genome Project for understanding susceptibility and risk.  

PubMed

The new technologies from the Human Genome Program provide exceptional opportunities for surveying and measuring human exposure, as well as determining susceptibility on an individual-by-individual basis. These new technologies will soon enable rapid screening of populations at risk, as well as the broader public, for a variety of genes known to be associated with increased risk. These include specific oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and DNA repair enzymes. Use of these technologies also presents a number of ethical issues, both in screening and in use of the information about individuals. Overall, the use of rapid genotyping technologies will introduce a specificity and possible group identifiers that will present new challenges to the determination of risk within the EPA mandate. PMID:21781826

Spengler, S J

1997-12-01

417

Developmental Pharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

van den Anker, Johannes N.

2010-01-01

418

Human Adaptations for Mating: Frameworks for Understanding Patterns of Family Formation and Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Reproductive and mating systems vary substantially across modern and traditional human societies. A variety of conceptual\\u000a tools may be required to explain this variation. This chapter discusses an explanatory framework based on the notion of evoked\\u000a culture. Evoked cultural differences emerge when behavioral expression of an adaptation is contingent on environmental conditions,\\u000a such that the behavior of groups exposed to

Steven W. Gangestad

419

Systems biological approaches to measure and understand vaccine immunity in humans  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of using systems approaches to identify molecular signatures that can be used to predict vaccine immunity in humans. Such approaches are now being used extensively in vaccinology, and are beginning to yield novel insights about the molecular networks driving vaccine immunity. In this review, we present a broad review of the methodologies involved in these studies, and discuss the promise and challenges involved in this emerging field of “systems vaccinology.” PMID:23796714

Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I; Kazmin, Dmitri A; Oh, Jason; Pulendran, Bali

2013-01-01

420

New dimensions in our understanding of the human health effects of environmental pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The term {open_quotes}hazardous{close_quotes} waste is used primarily in reference to potential hazards to human health and, to a lesser decree, hazards to wildlife and the ecosystem. Many of the chemicals associated with hazardous waste sites are also widely distributed throughout the environment; therefore, the health hazards associated with hazardous waste sites are not different from those associated with general environmental contamination. Until recently, it was generally assumed that cancer was the human disease of greatest concern associated with toxic chemicals. In fact, most governmental regulations related to exposure are designed on the basis of presumed cancer risks. Since the evidence that hazardous chemicals can cause cancer is strong, it is appropriate to be concerned about cancer risk. Recent evidence, however, has triggered a reevaluation of the assumption that only cancer is of concern. New evidence suggests that noncancer endpoints may occur more frequently than cancer, may affect a greater number of individuals, and may occur at lower concentrations. Of particular concern is evidence of irreversible effects on the embryo and very young children, which influence intelligence, attention span, sexual development, and immune function. Although these effects are often subtle and difficult to quantify, the combined evidence is sufficiently compelling to necessitate a reevaluation of those outcomes of primary concern to human health. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Carpenter, D.O. [Univ. of Albany, Rensselaer, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

421

A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

Shen, Song-Hua (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Chang, James Y. H. (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Boring,Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Whaley, April M. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H. (Vattenfall Ringhals AB, Varobacka, Sweden); Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Mosleh, Ali (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

2010-03-01

422

A new approach to understanding the impact of circadian disruption on human health  

PubMed Central

Background Light and dark patterns are the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour solar day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with a variety of maladies. Ecological studies of human exposures to light are virtually nonexistent, however, making it difficult to determine if, in fact, light-induced circadian disruption directly affects human health. Methods A newly developed field measurement device recorded circadian light exposures and activity from day-shift and rotating-shift nurses. Circadian disruption defined in terms of behavioral entrainment was quantified for these two groups using phasor analyses of the circular cross-correlations between light exposure and activity. Circadian disruption also was determined for rats subjected to a consistent 12-hour light/12-hour dark pattern (12L:12D) and ones subjected to a "jet-lagged" schedule. Results Day-shift nurses and rats exposed to the consistent light-dark pattern exhibited pronounced similarities in their circular cross-correlation functions and 24-hour phasor representations except for an approximate 12-hour phase difference between species. The phase difference reflects the diurnal versus nocturnal behavior of humans versus rodents. Phase differences within species likely reflect chronotype differences among individuals. Rotating-shift nurses and rats subjected to the "jet-lagged" schedule exhibited significant reductions in phasor magnitudes compared to the day-shift nurses and the 12L:12D rats. The reductions in the 24-hour phasor magnitudes indicate a loss of behavioral entrainment compared to the nurses and the rats with regular light-dark exposure patterns. Conclusion This paper provides a quantitative foundation for systematically studying the impact of light-induced circadian disruption in humans and in animal models. Ecological light and activity data are needed to develop the essential insights into circadian entrainment/disruption actually experienced by modern people. These data can now be obtained and analyzed to reveal the interrelationship between actual light exposures and markers of circadian rhythm such as rest-activity patterns, core body temperature, and melatonin synthesis. Moreover, it should now be possible to bridge ecological studies of circadian disruption in humans to parametric studies of the relationships between circadian disruption and health outcomes using animal models. PMID:18510756

Rea, Mark S; Bierman, Andrew; Figueiro, Mariana G; Bullough, John D

2008-01-01

423

Culture for genetic manipulation of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Genomes of the major human helminth parasites, and indeed many others of agricultural significance, are now the research focus of intensive genome sequencing and annotation. A draft genome sequence of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi was reported in 2007 and draft genomes of two of the human schistosomes, Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni reported in 2009. These genome data provide the basis for a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in schistosome nutrition and metabolism, host-dependent development and maturation, immune evasion and invertebrate evolution. In addition, new potential vaccine candidates and drug targets will likely be predicted. However, testing these predictions is often not straightforward with schistosomes because of the difficulty and expense in maintenance of the developmental cycle. To facilitate this goal, several developmental stages can be maintained in vitro for shorter or longer intervals of time, and these are amenable to manipulation. Our research interests focus on experimental studies of schistosome gene functions, and more recently have focused on development of transgenesis and RNA interference with the longer term aim of heritable gene manipulation. Here we review methods to isolate and culture developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni, including eggs, sporocysts, schistosomules and adults, in particular as these procedures relate to approaches for gene manipulation. We also discuss recent advances in genetic manipulation of schistosomes including the deployment of square wave electroporation to introduce reporter genes into cultured schistosomes. PMID:19765348

MANN, VICTORIA H.; MORALES, MARIA E.; RINALDI, GABRIEL; BRINDLEY, PAUL J.

2010-01-01

424

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1  

PubMed Central

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

2011-01-01

425

Developmental dyscalculia: a dysconnection syndrome?  

PubMed

Numerical understanding is important for everyday life. For children with developmental dyscalculia (DD), numbers and magnitudes present profound problems which are thought to be based upon neuronal impairments of key regions for numerical understanding. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible differences in white matter fibre integrity between children with DD and controls using diffusion tensor imaging. White matter integrity and behavioural measures were evaluated in 15 children with developmental dyscalculia aged around 10 years and 15 matched controls. The main finding, obtained by a whole brain group comparison, revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in children with developmental dyscalculia. In addition, a region of interest analysis exhibited prominent deficits in fibres of the superior longitudinal fasciculus adjacent to the intraparietal sulcus, which is thought to be the core region for number processing. To conclude, our results outline deficient fibre projection between parietal, temporal and frontal regions in children with developmental dyscalculia, and therefore raise the question of whether dyscalculia can be seen as a dysconnection syndrome. Since the superior longitudinal fasciculus is involved in the integration and control of distributed brain processes, the present results highlight the importance of considering broader domain-general mechanisms in the diagnosis and therapy of dyscalculia. PMID:23783231

Kucian, Karin; Ashkenazi, Simone Schwizer; Hänggi, Jürgen; Rotzer, Stephanie; Jäncke, Lutz; Martin, Ernst; von Aster, Michael

2014-09-01

426

Development of an Intelligent Digital Watershed to understand water-human interaction for a sustainable Agroeconomy in Midwest USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activity is intricately linked to the quality and quantity of water resources. Although many studies have examined water-human interaction, the complexity of such coupled systems is not well understood largely because of gaps in our knowledge of water-cycle processes which are heavily influenced by socio-economic drivers. Considerable research has been performed to develop an understanding of the impact of local land use decisions on field and catchment processes at an annual basis. Still less is known about the impact of economic and environmental outcomes on decision-making processes at the local and national level. Traditional geographic information management systems lack the ability to support the modeling and analysis of complex spatial processes. New frameworks are needed to track, query, and analyze the massive amounts of data generated by ensembles of simulations produced by multiple models that couple socioeconomic and natural system processes. On this context, we propose to develop an Intelligent Digital Watershed (IDW) which fuses emerging concepts of Digital Watershed (DW). DW is a comprehensive characterization of the eco hydrologic systems based on the best available digital data generated by measurements and simulations models. Prototype IDW in the form of a cyber infrastructure based engineered system will facilitate novel insights into human/environment interactions through multi-disciplinary research focused on watershed-related processes at multiple spatio-temporal scales. In ongoing effort, the prototype IDW is applied to Clear Creek watershed, an agricultural dominating catchment in Iowa, to understand water-human processes relevant to management decisions by farmers regarding agro ecosystems. This paper would also lay out the database design that stores metadata about simulation scenarios, scenario inputs and outputs, and connections among these elements- essentially the database. The paper describes the cyber infrastructure and workflows developed for connecting the IDW modeling tools: ABM, Data-Driven Modeling, and SWAT.

Mishra, S. K.; Rapolu, U.; Ding, D.; Muste, M.; Bennett, D.; Schnoor, J. L.

2011-12-01

427

Understanding the comparative catarrhine context of human pelvic form: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis.  

PubMed

Comparative studies of catarrhine pelvic morphology in an evolutionary framework play an important role in paleoanthropology, especially since this is the context from which human bipedalism eventually arose. Given the abundance of potentially confounding evolutionary and mechanical factors influencing pelvic form, it is important to tease apart the effects of shape and size in the major component of the primate pelvis, the os coxae. However, os coxae form is difficult to assess via traditional morphometric methods. Here, we adopt a 3D geometric morphometric approach to landmark data. Our analyses included data from 30 extant catarrhine taxa. Data were transformed and registered using Procrustes analysis and analyzed via examination of principal components. Two analyses were performed: one excluding Homo sapiens, and a second including them. Results of the first analysis demonstrate that the total diversity of os coxae morphology is significantly greater in hominoids than it is in cercopithecoids. This appears to be driven by the greater effects of size diversity (i.e., allometric effects) in the case of the hominoids. This analysis also revealed a clear taxonomic/phylogenetic distinction between hominoids and cercopithecoids in terms of os coxae shape. The second analysis showed that Procrustes distances in shape space are significantly greater between extant Pan and Homo than they are between any two non-human catarrhine taxa. This analysis thus quantifies, on a comparative basis, the dramatic effect that the course of hominin evolution had upon the morphology of the human pelvis, within what is - even by catarrhine standards--a relatively short span of evolutionary time. PMID:23452956

Lycett, Stephen J; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

2013-04-01

428

Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Summary We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term ‘T. gondii–rat manipulation–schizophrenia model’ and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

Webster, Joanne P.; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C.; McConkey, Glenn A.

2013-01-01

429

Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?  

PubMed

We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term 'T. gondii-rat manipulation-schizophrenia model' and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

Webster, Joanne P; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C; McConkey, Glenn A

2013-01-01

430

Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety  

PubMed Central

Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological systems theory provides a useful framework for organizing and synthesizing findings related to the development of the perception of hunger, thirst and satiety, or alimentary interoception. It is argued that neither developmental psychology nor the psychology of eating and drinking have adequately dealt with the ontogeny of alimentary interoception and that a more serious consideration of the species-typical developmental system of food and fluid intake and the many modifications that have been made therein is likely necessary for a full understanding of both alimentary and emotional development. PMID:19956358

Harshaw, Christopher

2008-01-01

431

Proteomics in developmental toxicology.  

PubMed

The objective of this presentation is to review the major proteomic technologies available to developmental toxicologists and, when possible, to provide examples of how various proteomic technologies have been used in developmental toxicology or toxicology in general. The field of proteomics is too broad for us to go into great depth about each technology, so we have attempted to provide brief overviews supplemented with many references that cover the subjects in more detail. Proteomics tools produce a global view of complex biological systems by examining complex protein mixtures using large-scale, high-throughput technologies. These technologies speed up the process of protein separation, quantification, and identification. As an important complement to genomics, proteomics allows for the examination of the entire complement of proteins in an organism, tissue, or cell-type. Current proteomics technologies not only identify protein expression, but also post-translational modifications and protein interactions. The field of proteomics is expanding rapidly to provide greater volume and quality of protein information to help understand the multifaceted nature of biological systems. PMID:15686865

Barrier, Marianne; Mirkes, Philip E

2005-01-01

432

Understanding the human factors contribution to railway accidents and incidents in Australia.  

PubMed

Forty rail safety investigation reports were reviewed and a theoretical framework (the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System; HFACS) adopted as a means of identifying errors associated with rail accidents/incidents in Australia. Overall, HFACS proved useful in categorising errors from existing investigation reports and in capturing the full range of relevant rail human factors data. It was revealed that nearly half the incidents resulted from an equipment failure, most of these the product of inadequate maintenance or monitoring programs. In the remaining cases, slips of attention (i.e. skilled-based errors), associated with decreased alertness and physical fatigue, were the most common unsafe acts leading to accidents and incidents. Inadequate equipment design (e.g. driver safety systems) was frequently identified as an organisational influence and possibly contributed to the relatively large number of incidents/accidents resulting from attention failures. Nearly all incidents were associated with at least one organisational influence, suggesting that improvements to resource management, organisational climate and organisational processes are critical for Australian accident and incident reduction. Future work will aim to modify HFACS to generate a rail-specific framework for future error identification, accident analysis and accident investigation. PMID:18760104

Baysari, Melissa T; McIntosh, Andrew S; Wilson, John R

2008-09-01

433

Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

Iidaka, Tetsuya

434

Understanding human visual systems and its impact on our intelligent instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the evolution of machine vision and comment on the cross-fertilization from the neural sciences onto flourishing fields of neural processing, parallel processing, and associative memory in optical sciences and computing. Then we examine how the intensive efforts in mapping the human brain have been influenced by concepts in computer sciences, control theory, and electronic circuits. We discuss two neural paths that employ the input from the vision sense to determine the navigational options and object recognition. They are ventral temporal pathway for object recognition (what?) and dorsal parietal pathway for navigation (where?), respectively. We describe the reflexive and conscious decision centers in cerebral cortex involved with visual attention and gaze control. Interestingly, these require return path though the midbrain for ocular muscle control. We find that the cognitive psychologists currently study human brain employing low-spatial-resolution fMRI with temporal response on the order of a second. In recent years, the life scientists have concentrated on insect brains to study neural processes. We discuss how reflexive and conscious gaze-control decisions are made in the frontal eye field and inferior parietal lobe, constituting the fronto-parietal attention network. We note that ethical and experiential learnings impact our conscious decisions.

Strojnik Scholl, Marija; Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Michelle K.

2013-09-01

435

Knowledge of Persuasion and Story Comprehension: Developmental Changes in Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of nontext social knowledge on elementary school children and college students' understanding of protagonist-antagonist stories, noting some developmental changes in the understanding of these stories based on knowledge of persuasion. (FL)

Bisanz, Gay L.

1982-01-01

436

Enhancing Understanding Of Coupled Human-Natural Systems Through Collaborative Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, it has become clear that the dynamic nature of coupled human-natural systems must be better understood and incorporated into decision making. If the interactions between society and the rest of the ecosystem are poorly represented in system models, our ability to explore the potential consequences of feedbacks between the biophysical system and policy or management actions will be limited. Teams of researchers from three Oregon universities are collaborating with regional experts, water managers, and decision-makers to examine how climate change, population growth, and economic growth may alter the availability and use of water in the Willamette River Basin over the next one hundred years. A central project component is development of a version of the ENVISION modeling framework that will provide decision makers with a way to visualize the Willamette water system and evaluate the interaction of management choices with changing environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Key objectives of the project broader impacts team include: 1) assist with incorporating the human component of the system into the model, (2) fostering growth of the research team as an interdependent, interdisciplinary research community, and (3) communicating effectively with regional stakeholders. Through Learning-Action Networks we have been able to gather insightful, project-relevant knowledge on water use, management, policies and issues that impact water management in the region. We have identified the types of project outputs that managers and decision makers would find useful for anticipating water scarcity and informing integrative water systems responses. Events and processes used to accomplish our objectives began with field trips involving researchers, educators, and other stakeholders. Follow-up meetings and an all day symposium featured focus group interviews, plenary sessions on project progress, and interactive poster sessions in which participants could help identify water related policies and actions they would like to see modeled. Participants assisted in compiling an interactive table of potential policies and actions organized by water use sector and policy type (e.g., regulatory vs. incentive based). Involvement of K-12 educators and development of innovative interdisciplinary courses has enhanced the broader impacts of the project and helped us achieve multiple project objectives. We present plans to build on initial collaborative learning experiences to promote project outcomes that will advance coupled human-natural systems research and enhance the utility of model outcomes in water management.

Santelmann, M. V.; Chan, S.; Morzillo, A.; Stebbins, A.; Wright, M.

2012-12-01

437

Understanding the role of NRF2-regulated miRNAs in human malignancies  

PubMed Central

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of over a hundred cytoprotective and antioxidant genes that provide cellular protection from reactive oxygen species. Chemotherapy resistance in several cancers has been linked to dysregulation of the NRF2 signalling pathway, moreover there is growing evidence that NRF2 may contribute to tumorigenesis. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate mRNA sequences. In cancer pathogenesis, aberrantly expressed miRNAs can act as either tumor suppressor or oncogenic miRNA. Recent evidence has been described that identifies a number of miRNA that can be regulated by NRF2. This review outlines the importance of NRF2 in regulating miRNA, and the functional role this may have in the tumorigenesis of human malignancies and their chemotherapy resistance. PMID:24029073

Shah, Niraj M; Rushworth, Stuart A; Murray, Megan Y; Bowles, Kristian M; MacEwan, David J

2013-01-01

438

Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2014-01-01

439

Understanding the tissue effects of tribo-corrosion: uptake, distribution, and speciation of cobalt and chromium in human bone cells.  

PubMed

Cobalt and chromium species are released in the local tissues as a result of tribo-corrosion, and affect bone cell survival and function. However we have little understanding of the mechanisms of cellular entry, intracellular distribution, and speciation of the metals that result in impaired bone health. Here we used synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and fluorescent-probing approaches of candidate receptors P2X7R and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), to better understand the entry, intra-cellular distribution and speciation of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) in human osteoblasts and primary human osteoclasts. We found that both Co and Cr were most highly localized at nuclear and perinuclear sites in osteoblasts, suggesting uptake through cell membrane transporters, and supported by a finding that P2X7 receptor blockade reduced cellular entry of Co. In contrast, metal species were present at discrete sites corresponding to the basolateral membrane in osteoclasts, suggesting cell entry by endocytosis and trafficking through a functional secretory domain. An intracellular reduction of Cr6+ to Cr3+ was the only redox change observed in cells treated with Co2+, Cr3+, and Cr6+. Our data suggest that the cellular uptake and processing of Co and Cr differs between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:25251692

Shah, Karan M; Quinn, Paul D; Gartland, Alison; Wilkinson, J Mark

2015-01-01

440

Understanding Alcoholism Through microRNA Signatures in Brains of Human Alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Advances in the fields of genomics and genetics in the last decade have identified a large number of genes that can potentially influence alcohol-drinking behavior in humans as well as animal models. Consequently, the task of identifying efficient molecular targets that could be used to develop effective therapeutics against the disease has become increasingly daunting. One of the reasons for this is the fact that each of the many alcohol-responsive genes only contributes a small effect to the overall mechanism and disease phenotype, as is characteristic of complex traits. Current research trends are hence shifting toward the analysis of gene networks rather than emphasizing individual genes. The discovery of microRNAs and their mechanisms of action on regulation of transcript level and protein translation have made evident the utility of these small non-coding RNA molecules that act as central coordinators of multiple cross-communicating cellular pathways. Cells exploit the fact that a single microRNA can target hundreds of mRNA transcripts and that a single mRNA transcript can be simultaneously targeted by distinct microRNAs, to ensure fine-tuned and/or redundant control over a large number of cellular functions. By the same token, we can use these properties of microRNAs to develop novel, targeted strategies to combat complex disorders. In this review, we will focus on recent discoveries of microRNA signatures in brain of human alcoholics supporting the hypothesis that changes in gene expression and regulation by microRNAs are responsible for long-term neuroadaptations occurring during development of alcoholism. We also discuss insights into the potential modulation of epigenetic regulators by a subset of microRNAs. Taken together, microRNA activity may be controlling many of the cellular mechanisms already known to be involved in the development of alcoholism, and suggests potential targets for the development of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:22514554

Nunez, Yury O.; Mayfield, R. Dayne

2012-01-01

441

Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and knobcone pines were established, that trended positively with 2 Mg C ha-1. Soil changes resulting from wild and prescribed fire were substantial. About 50% of the soil C (3-21 Mg ha-1) and 36% of soil N (41-650 kg ha-1) were lost from the upper profile (0-6.2 cm) compared to pre-fire conditions. Intense wildfire that killed most forest trees had about double the losses of C and N than forests burned at lower temperature with fewer trees killed. Average wildfire C losses were more than twice prescribed-fire losses. A long-term perspective is needed to compare episodic influences on soils, like harvesting and wildfire, to day-in, day-out effects of different species mixtures. Especially important is the effect of shrubs, that can rapidly achieve full leaf area but that lack the woody stem structure to store captured C as well as conifers. In theory, therefore, extending shrub cover will increase soil C. The annual profile soil C loss in Douglas-fir (-0.8 Mg ha-1yr-1), if continued beyond 11 yrs, would be similar to the effects of a fire-return interval of less than a third of the historical interval of about 100 years. National and regional soil-C monitoring would benefit from being grounded in existing experimental studies to help integrate large-scale changes with an unfolding understanding of processes in ways useful to decisionmakers.

Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

2011-12-01

442

Genomic Science in Understanding Cholera Outbreaks and Evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX–? prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core- and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

Mekalanos, John J.

2014-01-01

443

Genomic science in understanding cholera outbreaks and evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a human pathogen.  

PubMed

Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX? prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

Robins, William P; Mekalanos, John J

2014-01-01

444

Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. Whi