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1

Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies  

SciTech Connect

The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

Generoso, W.M.

1989-01-01

2

Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

2009-01-01

3

Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: Understanding the evolution of human behavior and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue

Carlos Hernández Blasi; Kayla Causey

2010-01-01

4

Developmental Approaches to Understanding and Treating Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade our understanding of early social communication development in young children with autism has undergone a remarkable change. We now know something about how young children with autism process the social world in a very different way from typical children. This has led to truly developmental models of autism. In turn, these have had profound impacts on

Tony Charman

2010-01-01

5

Human Embryology & Developmental Biology  

E-print Network

. Developmental Biology provides the foundation for much of modern medicine, such as stem cell therapies. Research cell maintenance and differentiation in wound healing, regeneration and tissue repair. Many diseases a single fertilised egg into a whole new individual with many specialised cell types. Students receive

Levi, Ran

6

NEW FRONTIER IN UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent advancements in molecular developmental biology afford an opportunity to apply newly developed tools for understanding the mechanisms of both normal and abnormal development. lthough a number of agents have been identified as causing developmental abnormalities, knowledge ...

7

Many human accelerated regions are developmental enhancers  

PubMed Central

The genetic changes underlying the dramatic differences in form and function between humans and other primates are largely unknown, although it is clear that gene regulatory changes play an important role. To identify regulatory sequences with potentially human-specific functions, we and others used comparative genomics to find non-coding regions conserved across mammals that have acquired many sequence changes in humans since divergence from chimpanzees. These regions are good candidates for performing human-specific regulatory functions. Here, we analysed the DNA sequence, evolutionary history, histone modifications, chromatin state and transcription factor (TF) binding sites of a combined set of 2649 non-coding human accelerated regions (ncHARs) and predicted that at least 30% of them function as developmental enhancers. We prioritized the predicted ncHAR enhancers using analysis of TF binding site gain and loss, along with the functional annotations and expression patterns of nearby genes. We then tested both the human and chimpanzee sequence for 29 ncHARs in transgenic mice, and found 24 novel developmental enhancers active in both species, 17 of which had very consistent patterns of activity in specific embryonic tissues. Of these ncHAR enhancers, five drove expression patterns suggestive of different activity for the human and chimpanzee sequence at embryonic day 11.5. The changes to human non-coding DNA in these ncHAR enhancers may modify the complex patterns of gene expression necessary for proper development in a human-specific manner and are thus promising candidates for understanding the genetic basis of human-specific biology. PMID:24218637

Capra, John A.; Erwin, Genevieve D.; McKinsey, Gabriel; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Pollard, Katherine S.

2013-01-01

8

How Neuropsychology Informs Our Understanding of Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review includes 1) an explanation of what neuropsychology is, 2) a brief history of how developmental cognitive neuroscience emerged from earlier neuropsychological approaches to understanding atypical development, 3) three recent examples that illustrate the benefits of this approach, 4) issues and challenges this approach must face, and 5)…

Pennington, Bruce F.

2009-01-01

9

A Developmental Psychological Perspective on the Human–Animal Bond  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human–animal bond contributes to well-being in a variety of ways. Our understanding of our relationship with animals,\\u000a particularly from a psychological point of view, is enhanced when viewed through the lens of a lifetime developmental perspective.\\u000a Issues of attachment and the nature of the human–animal bond vary across childhood, adulthood, and later life. These in turn\\u000a influence how animals

Nancy A. Pachana; Bronwyn M. Massavelli; Sofia Robleda-Gomez

10

Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz  

E-print Network

Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

Kautz, Henry

11

DEVELOPMENTAL IMMUNOTOXICITY AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

To compile literature information for web-based dissemination. The report will be on our current understanding of the science of development of the immune system, to provide examples of perturbations that can be brought about by environmental agents and that could produce effects...

12

Developmental Issues in Understanding, Assessing, and Managing Pediatric Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Infants, children, and adolescents presenting with pain differ dramatically in physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral,\\u000a and social characteristics. This chapter presents an overview of basic concepts that should be understood in the delivery\\u000a of developmentally appropriate care and addresses their relevance to pain assessment and management. The developmental issues\\u000a concern variations in maturation and growth in perception and central processing of

Kenneth D. Craig; Christine T. Korol

13

Towards Computer Understanding of Human Interactions  

E-print Network

Towards Computer Understanding of Human Interactions Iain McCowan, Daniel Gatica-Perez, Samy Bengio Introduction The domain of human-computer interaction aims to help humans interact more naturally or understand human interactions : putting computers in the human interaction loop [1]. Humans naturally

Wrigley, Stuart

14

Understanding individual human mobility patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human mobility patterns is of major importance for a number of areas, ranging from urban planning to traffic forecasting, transportation geography, and preventing the spread of biological and mobile viruses. Yet, in the absence of tools to monitor the time resolved location of a large number of individuals, our understanding of the basic laws governing human trajectories remains limited. Here we study the individual mobility pattern of mobile phone users whose position is tracked in a time resolved manner. We find that the displacement distribution of the whole population can be approximated with a truncated L'evy statistics, in agreement with earlier measurements. We show, however, that the main contribution to the observed distribution comes from the differences in the travel pattern of individuals. Furthermore, we find that the individual trajectories are bounded in space and are highly anisotropic, an effect that increases with the trajectory's radius of gyration. After we correct for differences in the radius of gyration and anisotropy all individuals are described by the same universal mobility pattern. These results open new avenues for modeling human motion, with important impact on agent based modeling, epidemic prevention, emergency response and urban planing.

González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Barabási, Albert-Lászlo

2008-03-01

15

Workshop Reports Understanding Paleoclimate and Human Evolution  

E-print Network

Workshop Reports Understanding Paleoclimate and Human Evolution Through the Hominin Sites.10.2009 60 Scientific Drilling, No. 8, September 2009 Workshop Reports Understanding the evolution of humans, involving research in anthropology, archaeology, human genetics and genomics, and the earth sciences

Reiners, Peter W.

16

Reading Comprehension and Understanding Idiomatic Expressions: A Developmental Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate idiom comprehension in school-age Italian children with different reading comprehension skills. According to our hypothesis, the level of a child's text comprehension skills should predict his/her ability to understand idiomatic meanings. Idiom comprehension in fact requires children to go beyond a…

Chiara Levorato, Maria; Nesi, Barbara; Cacciari, Cristina

2004-01-01

17

Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology  

PubMed Central

Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development ‘in a dish’. We also summarize some of the recently developed genetic tools that greatly facilitate the interrogation of gene function during hPSC differentiation. With the development of high-throughput screening technologies, hPSCs have the potential to revolutionize gene discovery in mammalian development. PMID:23362344

Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

2013-01-01

18

Developmental Counseling and Therapy: An Effective Approach to Understanding and Counseling Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the cognitive development of children, with a focus on Piagetian theory as a framework for understanding Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT). Describes both the assessment process and intervention planning, and provides specific applications to counseling children in school settings. (Contains 35 references.) (GCP)

Myers, Jane E.; Shoffner, Marie F.; Briggs, Michele Kielty

2002-01-01

19

Understanding Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Reply to Ghetti (2008) and Howe (2008)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

S. Ghetti (2008) and M. L. Howe (2008) presented probative ideas for future research that will deepen scientific understanding of developmental reversals on false memory and establish boundary conditions for these counterintuitive patterns. Ghetti extended the purview of current theoretical principles by formulating hypotheses about how…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Ceci, S. J.; Holliday, R. E.

2008-01-01

20

The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity: A Tool for Understanding Principals' Cultural Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals' understanding and skills pertaining to diversity are important in leading diverse schools and preparing all students for a democratic and multicultural society. Although educational leadership scholars have theorized about exemplary leadership of and for diversity, a developmental perspective on principals' diversity or cultural…

Hernandez, Frank; Kose, Brad W.

2012-01-01

21

Understanding Developmental Coordination Disorder and Its Impact on Families: The Contribution of Single Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ the single case study approach to address unresolved issues in our understanding of Developmental Coordination Disorder. From a large cohort of clinically referred UK primary school children, six boys and one girl were selected to participate. The experiences of each child as he/she journeyed through the process…

Peters, Judith M.; Henderson, Sheila E.

2008-01-01

22

Theory of Mind "Emotion", Developmental Characteristics and Social Understanding in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of development of ToM-emotion abilities in intellectually disabled (ID) children and typically developing (TD) children matched on their developmental age were investigated. The links between cognition, language, social understanding and ToM-emotion abilities were examined. EDEI-R (Perron-Borelli, M. (1996). "Echelles Differentielles…

Thirion-Marissiaux, Anne-Francoise; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie

2008-01-01

23

Modeling, Understanding, and Interacting with Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machines and robots extend their frequency and quality of interaction with humans. Tools invented by humans have shown evolution\\u000a in the history. One may find a similar genealogical tree of tools to the evolution of life. Machines that interact with humans\\u000a based on understanding humans are in a sense the ultimate tools for humans. The advance of computational algorithms and

Yoshihiko Nakamura

2008-01-01

24

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-01-01

25

Studying dialects to understand human language  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the study of dialect variations as a way to understand how humans might process speech. It evaluates some of the important research in dialect identification and draws conclusions about how their ...

Nti, Akua Afriyie

2009-01-01

26

Understanding complexity in the human brain  

E-print Network

Understanding complexity in the human brain Danielle S. Bassett1 and Michael S. Gazzaniga2 1 the ultimate aim of neuroscientific enquiry is to gain an understanding of the brain and how its work- ings of mind­brain mechanisms if the cumulative findings from these neu- roscientific studies are coupled

Gazzaniga, Michael

27

Understanding human management of automation errors  

PubMed Central

Automation has the potential to aid humans with a diverse set of tasks and support overall system performance. Automated systems are not always reliable, and when automation errs, humans must engage in error management, which is the process of detecting, understanding, and correcting errors. However, this process of error management in the context of human-automation interaction is not well understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the variables that contribute to error management. We examined relevant research in human-automation interaction and human error to identify critical automation, person, task, and emergent variables. We propose a framework for management of automation errors to incorporate and build upon previous models. Further, our analysis highlights variables that may be addressed through design and training to positively influence error management. Additional efforts to understand the error management process will contribute to automation designed and implemented to support safe and effective system performance. PMID:25383042

McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

2013-01-01

28

Ecological Human Brain and Young Children's "Naturalist Intelligence" from the Perspective of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice (DCAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that young children have a different intellectual culture from adults' in the way they know and understand nature, this paper explores ecological human brain development, children's intellectual culture of naturalist intelligence, and developmentally and culturally congruent curricula for young children. The paper discusses the…

Hyun, Eunsook

29

The EvoDevoCI: A Concept Inventory for Gauging Students' Understanding of Evolutionary Developmental Biology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association for the Advancement of Science 2011 report "Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education" encourages the teaching of developmental biology as an important part of teaching evolution. Recently, however, we found that biology majors often lack the developmental knowledge needed to understand evolutionary…

Perez, Kathryn E.; Hiatt, Anna; Davis, Gregory K.; Trujillo, Caleb; French, Donald P.; Terry, Mark; Price, Rebecca M.

2013-01-01

30

Theories of Human Development that Enhance an Understanding of the College Transition Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Although theories of human development often play a central role in K-12 pedagogical practices, evidence suggests that developmental theories have not been used extensively to understand the college transition process or to develop programs to support students during these transitions. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus…

Guiffrida, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

31

Children's understanding of the immune system: Integrating the cognitive-developmental and intuitive theories' perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cognitive-developmental researchers have provided a large body of evidence supporting the stage-like progression of children's cognitive development. Further, from this body of research comes evidence that children's understanding of HIV/AIDS develops in much the same way as their understanding of other illness-related concepts. Researchers from a newer perspective assert that biological concepts develop from intuitive theories. In general, as children are exposed to relevant content and have opportunities to organize this information, their theories become more accurate and differentiated. According to this perspective, there are no broad structural constraints on developing concepts, as asserted by cognitive developmental theorists. The purpose of the current study was two-fold: to provide support for both theoretical perspectives, while at the same time to explore children's conceptualizations of the immune system, which has not been done previously in the cognitive-developmental literature. One hundred ninety children ranging in age from 4 years old through 11 years old, and a group of adults, participated. Each participant was interviewed regarding health concepts and the body's function in maintaining health. Participants were also asked to report if they had certain experiences that would have led to relevant content exposure. Qualitative analyses were utilized to code the interviews with rubrics based on both theoretical perspectives. Quantitative analyses consisted of a series of univariate ANOVAs (and post hoc tests when appropriate) examining all three coding variables (accuracy, differentiation, and developmental level) across various age-group combinations and exposure groups. Results of these analyses provided support for both theoretical perspectives. When the data were analyzed for developmental level by all ages, a stage-like progression consistent with Piagetian stages emerged. When accuracy and differentiation were examined (intuitive theories perspective), discrete groups could not be formed. Instead, a gradual increase in accuracy and differentiation was observed. Additional support for this perspective was found when the responses of participants who had additional exposure provided responses that were more accurate, differentiated, and sophisticated than those of participants with no additional exposure. Theoretical and educational implications of these findings are discussed.

Landry-Boozer, Kristine L.

32

Different forms of human odor memory: a developmental study.  

PubMed

Recognizing odors is an important biological function, both in the animal kingdom as well as for humans. It has been debated whether there exist different forms of human odor memory. For verbal memory, the concept of recollection and familiarity for conscious and unconscious recognition is widely accepted. Here we introduce a similar model for human odor memory. We use a combination of an odor naming and odor recognition memory task to estimate the relationship between depth of processing and retention of olfactory information. A developmental approach with children, young adults, middle aged adults and elderly subjects was chosen in order to study the influence of age. Our results indicate the existence of two separable forms of odor memory depending on whether the odors were correctly or incorrectly named during the naming task. These two forms of odor memory were differently represented across the human age range. Intact familiarity-based memory was found in all age groups, whereas memory based on recollection was impaired in the elderly and not yet fully developed in children. Our data show, for the first time, two different forms of human odor memory across the human life span. PMID:10507532

Lehrner, J P; Walla, P; Laska, M; Deecke, L

1999-09-01

33

Evaluation of developmental toxicity using undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

An embryonic stem cell test (EST) has been developed to evaluate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals with an in vitro system. In the present study, novel methods to screen toxic chemicals during the developmental process were evaluated using undifferentiated human embryonic stem (hES) cells. By using surface marker antigens (SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81), we confirmed undifferentiated conditions of the used hES cells by immunocytochemistry. We assessed the developmental toxicity of embryotoxic chemicals, 5-fluorouracil, indomethacin and non-embryotoxic penicillin G in different concentrations for up to 7 days. While expressions of the surface markers were not significantly affected, the embryotoxic chemicals influenced their response to pluripotent ES cell markers, such as OCT-4, NANOG, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB), secreted frizzled related protein 2 (SFRP2), teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1 (TDGF1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Most of the pluripotent ES cell markers were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with embryotoxic chemicals. After treatment with 5-fluorouracil, indomethacin and penicillin G, we observed a remarkable convergence in the degree of up-regulation of development, cell cycle and apoptosis-related genes by gene expression profiles using an Affymetrix GeneChips. Taken together, these results suggest that embryotoxic chemicals have cytotoxic effects, and modulate the expression of ES cell markers as well as development-, cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes that have pivotal roles in undifferentiated hES cells. Therefore, we suggest that hES cells may be useful for testing the toxic effects of chemicals that could impact the embryonic developmental stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24737281

Jung, Eui-Man; Choi, Yeo-Ul; Kang, Hong-Seok; Yang, Hyun; Hong, Eui-Ju; An, Beum-Soo; Yang, Jun-Young; Choi, Ki Hwan; Jeung, Eui-Bae

2015-02-01

34

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

35

Enhancer-adoption as a mechanism of human developmental disease.  

PubMed

Disruption of the long-range cis-regulation of developmental gene expression is increasingly recognized as a cause of human disease. Here, we report a novel type of long-range cis-regulatory mutation, in which ectopic expression of a gene is driven by an enhancer that is not its own. We have termed this gain of regulatory information as "enhancer adoption." We mapped the breakpoints of a de novo 7q inversion in a child with features of a holoprosencephaly spectrum (HPES) disorder and severe upper limb syndactyly with lower limb synpolydactyly. The HPES plausibly results from the 7q36.3 breakpoint dislocating the sonic hedgehog (SHH) gene from enhancers that are known to drive expression in the early forebrain. However, the limb phenotype cannot be explained by loss of known SHH enhancers. The SHH transcription unit is relocated to 7q22.1, ?190 kb 3' of a highly conserved noncoding element (HCNE2) within an intron of EMID2. We show that HCNE2 functions as a limb bud enhancer in mouse embryos and drives ectopic expression of Shh in vivo recapitulating the limb phenotype in the child. This developmental genetic mechanism may explain a proportion of the novel or unexplained phenotypes associated with balanced chromosome rearrangements. PMID:21948517

Lettice, Laura A; Daniels, Sarah; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Venkataraman, Shanmugasundaram; Devenney, Paul S; Gautier, Philippe; Morrison, Harris; Fantes, Judy; Hill, Robert E; FitzPatrick, David R

2011-12-01

36

A REVIEW OF HUMAN STUDIES ON THE REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many pesticides cxause reproductive or developmental toxicity at high doses in animal models, but effects in humans at environmental exposure levels are difficult to assess. Human data on reproductive and developmental outcomes for currently used pesticides may help to define ris...

37

Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

West, Paul R., E-mail: pwest@stemina.co [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, Gabriela G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Animal Sciences, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2010-08-15

38

Understanding the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms: a developmental examination.  

PubMed

Self-discrepancy theory (SDT) is one framework for understanding how goal failure is associated with depressive symptoms. The present studies sought to examine the variance in depressive symptoms explained by actual:ideal discrepancies, beyond what is accounted for by actual-self ratings. Additionally, gender and grade were examined as potential moderators in the relationship. In Study 1 (N = 228), discrepancies accounted for additional variance in the level of depressive symptoms beyond what was explained by actual-self ratings in a college sample. In Study 2 (N = 192), while similar global patterns were found, gender and grade differences emerged. For boys, the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms was due to actual-self ratings. For girls, a developmental pattern suggested that actual:ideal discrepancies become more important to the prediction of depressive symptoms among older girls. Implications for the emergence of the discrepancy-depression association are discussed. PMID:24931564

Stevens, Erin N; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

2014-07-01

39

Development/Plasticity/Repair Developmental Plasticity in the Human Auditory Brainstem  

E-print Network

Development/Plasticity/Repair Developmental Plasticity in the Human Auditory Brainstem Krista L auditory brainstem is thought to be primarily complete by the age of 2 years, such that subsequent sensory-dependent developmental plasticity in the mammalian auditory brainstem in an animal model. It is not known whether

40

Developmental and Reproductive Outcomes in Humans and Animals After Glyphosate Exposure: A Critical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an

Amy Lavin Williams; Rebecca E. Watson; John M. DeSesso

2012-01-01

41

Understanding human perception by human-made illusions  

PubMed Central

It may be fun to perceive illusions, but the understanding of how they work is even more stimulating and sustainable: They can tell us where the limits and capacity of our perceptual apparatus are found—they can specify how the constraints of perception are set. Furthermore, they let us analyze the cognitive sub-processes underlying our perception. Illusions in a scientific context are not mainly created to reveal the failures of our perception or the dysfunctions of our apparatus, but instead point to the specific power of human perception. The main task of human perception is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to be able to perceive, orientate and act very quickly, specifically and efficiently. The present paper strengthens this line of argument, strongly put forth by perceptual pioneer Richard L. Gregory (e.g., Gregory, 2009), by discussing specific visual illusions and how they can help us to understand the magic of perception. PMID:25132816

Carbon, Claus-Christian

2014-01-01

42

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical 'toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

Kumar, Kevin K; Lowe, Edward W; Aboud, Asad A; Neely, M Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B

2014-01-01

43

Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical ‘toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation. PMID:25348053

Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Jr., Edward W.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

2014-01-01

44

A Human Integrin-?3 Mutation Confers Major Renal Developmental Defects  

PubMed Central

The development of the mammalian kidney is a highly complex process dependent upon the interplay of various cell types, secreted morphogens, and the extra-cellular matrix (ECM). Although integrins are the most important receptors for ECM proteins and are ubiquitously expressed during kidney development, mice lacking expression of integrin ?3 (Itga3) do not demonstrate a reduced number of nephrons, but mostly a disorganized GBM (glomerular basement membrane) leading to proteinuria. Thus, ITGA3 is considered mostly a passive GBM stabilizer and not an active player in nephrogenesis. Recently, mutations in the human ITGA3 were shown to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa and interstitial lung disease, otherwise termed NEP syndrome (Nephrotic syndrome, Epidermolysis bullosa and Pulmonary disease). Herein, we performed histological and molecular analysis on the kidneys of a single patient from the initial cohort harboring an ITGA3 mutation, to illuminate the role of ITGA3 in human renal development. We show the patient to harbor a unique phenotype at birth, including severe unilateral renal hypodysplasia. Interrogation of global gene expression in the hypodysplastic kidney versus three controls (fetal, child and adult kidneys) revealed perturbed expression in several renal developmental pathways implicated in hypodysplasia, including the Wnt, BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) and TGF (transforming growth factor) pathways. Moreover, the affected kidney showed upregulation of early embryonic genes (e.g. OCT4 and PAX8) concomitant with downregulated kidney differentiation markers, implying a defect in proper renal differentiation. In conclusion, we show for the first time that ITGA3 is not merely a passive anchor for renal ECM proteins, as predicted by mouse models. Instead, our results may suggest it plays a central role in the interplay of cells, morphogens and ECM, required for proper nephrogenesis, thus adding ITGA3 to the list of CAKUT (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract)-causing genes. PMID:24621570

Pleniceanu, Oren; Vax, Einav; Anikster, Yair

2014-01-01

45

Electronic Networking in Human Service Agencies: A Developmental Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiences of an alliance of child and youth treatment agencies whose members converted to computer-based networking modalities. A developmental analysis of individual users and telecommunications networks is offered. Side effects, barriers, and unexpected advantages are delineated. (BB)

Tovey, Robert; And Others

1990-01-01

46

The Hazards of Human Developmental Gene Modification BY STUART A. NEWMAN  

E-print Network

- cil for Responsible Genetics' 1992 Po- sition Paper on Human Germline Manipulation: http engineering. Genetic modification of human em- bryos or fetuses, referred to here as developmental. The hazards of genetic modifications to humans have usually been discussed in terms of somatic (body cell

Newman, Stuart A.

47

The Role of Mathematical Models in Understanding Pattern Formation in Developmental Biology.  

PubMed

In a Wall Street Journal article published on April 5, 2013, E. O. Wilson attempted to make the case that biologists do not really need to learn any mathematics-whenever they run into difficulty with numerical issues, they can find a technician (aka mathematician) to help them out of their difficulty. He formalizes this in Wilsons Principle No. 1: "It is far easier for scientists to acquire needed collaboration from mathematicians and statisticians than it is for mathematicians and statisticians to find scientists able to make use of their equations." This reflects a complete misunderstanding of the role of mathematics in all sciences throughout history. To Wilson, mathematics is mere number crunching, but as Galileo said long ago, "The laws of Nature are written in the language of mathematics[Formula: see text] the symbols are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without whose help it is impossible to comprehend a single word." Mathematics has moved beyond the geometry-based model of Galileo's time, and in a rebuttal to Wilson, E. Frenkel has pointed out the role of mathematics in synthesizing the general principles in science (Both point and counter-point are available in Wilson and Frenkel in Notices Am Math Soc 60(7):837-838, 2013). We will take this a step further and show how mathematics has been used to make new and experimentally verified discoveries in developmental biology and how mathematics is essential for understanding a problem that has puzzled experimentalists for decades-that of how organisms can scale in size. Mathematical analysis alone cannot "solve" these problems since the validation lies at the molecular level, but conversely, a growing number of questions in biology cannot be solved without mathematical analysis and modeling. Herein, we discuss a few examples of the productive intercourse between mathematics and biology. PMID:25280665

Umulis, David M; Othmer, Hans G

2014-10-01

48

Dental Approach to Craniofacial Syndromes: How Can Developmental Fields Show Us a New Way to Understand Pathogenesis?  

PubMed Central

The paper consists of three parts. Part 1: Definition of Syndromes. Focus is given to craniofacial syndromes in which abnormal traits in the dentition are associated symptoms. In the last decade, research has concentrated on phenotype, genotype, growth, development, function, and treatment. Part 2: Syndromes before Birth. How can the initial malformation sites in these syndromes be studied and what can we learn from it? In this section, deviations observed in syndromes prenatally will be highlighted and compared to the normal human embryological craniofacial development. Specific focus will be given to developmental fields studied on animal tissue and transferred to human cranial development. Part 3: Developmental Fields Affected in Two Craniofacial Syndromes. Analysis of primary and permanent dentitions can determine whether a syndrome affects a single craniofacial field or several fields. This distinction is essential for insight into craniofacial syndromes. The dentition, thus, becomes central in diagnostics and evaluation of the pathogenesis. Developmental fields can explore and advance the concept of dental approaches to craniofacial syndromes. Discussion. As deviations in teeth persist and do not reorganize during growth and development, the dentition is considered useful for distinguishing between syndrome pathogenesis manifested in a single developmental field and in several fields. PMID:23091490

Kjær, Inger

2012-01-01

49

Understanding human trafficking in the United States.  

PubMed

The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States. PMID:19056686

Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

2009-01-01

50

Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research  

PubMed Central

Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB. PMID:24273368

Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

2013-01-01

51

Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

SciTech Connect

Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast Trade-Mark-Sign chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultures were evaluated for known and novel signatures that may be indicative of developmental toxicity. Significant fold changes in endogenous metabolites were detected for 83 putatively annotated mass features in response to the subset of ToxCast chemicals. The annotations were mapped to specific human metabolic pathways. This revealed strong effects on pathways for nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism pathways. Predictivity for adverse outcomes in mammalian prenatal developmental toxicity studies used ToxRefDB and other sources of information, including Stemina Biomarker Discovery's predictive DevTox Registered-Sign model trained on 23 pharmaceutical agents of known developmental toxicity and differing potency. The model initially predicted developmental toxicity from the blinded ToxCast compounds in concordance with animal data with 73% accuracy. Retraining the model with data from the unblinded test compounds at one concentration level increased the predictive accuracy for the remaining concentrations to 83%. These preliminary results on a 11-chemical subset of the ToxCast chemical library indicate that metabolomics analysis of the hES secretome provides information valuable for predictive modeling and mechanistic understanding of mammalian developmental toxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested 11 environmental compounds in a hESC metabolomics platform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant changes in secreted small molecule metabolites were observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perturbed mass features map to pathways critical for normal development and pregnancy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arginine, proline, nicotinate, nicotinamide and glutathione pathways were affected.

Kleinstreuer, N.C., E-mail: kleinstreuer.nicole@epa.gov [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Smith, A.M.; West, P.R.; Conard, K.R.; Fontaine, B.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir-Hauptman, A.M. [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States)] [Covance, Inc., Madison, WI 53704 (United States); Palmer, J.A. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Knudsen, T.B.; Dix, D.J. [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States)] [NCCT, US EPA, RTP, NC 27711 (United States); Donley, E.L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States)] [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, G.G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States) [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2011-11-15

52

A MODE-OF-ACTION-BASED QSAR APPROACH TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

QSAR models of developmental toxicity (devtox) have met with limited regulatory acceptance due to the use of ill-defined endpoints, lack of biological interpretability, and poor model performance. More generally, the lack of biological inference of many QSAR models is often due t...

53

Understanding Teachers' Perceptions of the Motor Difficulties of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) are often identified by classroom teachers and the identification process relies heavily on teachers' perceptions. The literature would suggest that teachers' perceptions may be influenced by a child's gender, behaviour and the type of motor problem they demonstrate. To date, the…

Rivard, Lisa M.; Missiuna, Cheryl; Hanna, Steven; Wishart, Laurie

2007-01-01

54

Understanding African American Adolescents' Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the development of African American adolescents' identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents' healthy development. Different personological theories…

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

55

06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion -Understanding, Modeling,  

E-print Network

the seminar topics and goals in general. Keywords. Computer Vision, Computer Graphics, Biomechanics 06241- quences is a eld of research of increasing importance, with applications in sports sciences, medicine, biomechanics, animation (avatars), surveillance, and so forth. Progress in human motion analysis depends

56

Human Behavior Understanding for Robotics Albert Ali Salah1  

E-print Network

Human Behavior Understanding for Robotics Albert Ali Salah1 , Javier Ruiz-del-Solar2 , C¸etin Meri, France pierre-yves.oudeyer@inria.fr Abstract. Human behavior is complex, but structured along individual to correctly interpret, predict and respond to human behaviors. This paper discusses the scientific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Friendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships  

E-print Network

, a robot system can estimate a human's subjective evaluation of the robot by observing his/her body-attention mechanism [7]. In these systems, the robots identify humans' intentions from their behaviors. FurthermoreFriendly social robot that understands human's friendly relationships Takayuki Kanda 1 , Rumi Sato

Kanda, Takayuki

58

Understanding African American Adolescents’ Identity Development: A Relational Developmental Systems Perspective  

PubMed Central

This article examines the development of African American adolescents’ identity using a relational developmental systems theory framework, which led to the expectation that identity development is linked to both the reduction of risk behaviors and the promotion of African American adolescents’ healthy development. Different personological theories of identity development were discussed, including Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development and Marcia’s theory of identity statuses. Developmental systems theory was used to further the literature on African American adolescents’ identity development, by integrating various views of identity development as they pertain to these youth. Furthermore, the formation of many aspects of identity may be an important coping and resilience process for such youth. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, including a consideration of the complexity of diversity that exists within the African American adolescent population, and a call for more longitudinal assessments of identity development is presented. PMID:23243325

Brittian, Aerika S.

2012-01-01

59

Understanding Random Effects in Group-Based Trajectory Modeling: An Application of Moffitt's Developmental Taxonomy.  

PubMed

The group-based trajectory modeling approach is a systematic way of categorizing subjects into different groups based on their developmental trajectories using formal and objective statistical criteria. With the recent advancement in methods and statistical software, modeling possibilities are almost limitless; however, parallel advances in theory development have not kept pace. This paper examines some of the modeling options that are becoming more widespread and how they impact both empirical and theoretical findings. The key issue that is explored is the impact of adding random effects to the latent growth factors and how this alters the meaning of a group. The paper argues that technical specification should be guided by theory, and Moffitt's developmental taxonomy is used as an illustration of how modeling decisions can be matched to theory. PMID:21544268

Saunders, Jessica M

2010-01-01

60

Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Awidely,accepted prediction is that computing,will move,to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human,user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which wewill call human computing, should be about anticipatory user interfaces that should be human-centered, built for humans based on human models. They

Maja Pantic; Alex Pentland; Anton Nijholt; Thomas S. Huang; F. Quek; Yie Yang

2006-01-01

61

Understanding the complexity of human gait dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time series of human gait stride intervals exhibit fractal and multifractal properties under several conditions. Records from subjects walking at normal, slow, and fast pace speed are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the stress condition of the system. Records from subjects with different age from children to elderly and patients suffering from neurodegenerative disease are analyzed to determine changes in the fractal scalings as a function of the physical maturation or degeneration of the system. A supercentral pattern generator model is presented to simulate the above two properties that are typically found in dynamical network performance: that is, how a dynamical network responds to stress and to evolution.

Scafetta, Nicola; Marchi, Damiano; West, Bruce J.

2009-06-01

62

Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday\\u000a living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation\\u000a computing should be about anticipatory user interfaces that should be human-centered, built for humans based on human models.\\u000a They should

Maja Pantic; Alex Pentland; Anton Nijholt; Thomas S. Huang; Th. S. Huang

2007-01-01

63

Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

2011-01-01

64

The Juvenile Transition: A Developmental Switch Point in Human Life History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new perspective on the transition from early to middle childhood (i.e., human juvenility), investigated in an integrative evolutionary framework. Juvenility is a crucial life history stage, when social learning and interaction with peers become central developmental functions; here it is argued that the "juvenile transition"…

Del Giudice, Marco; Angeleri, Romina; Manera, Valeria

2009-01-01

65

Linking Social Change and Developmental Change: Shifting Pathways of Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

P. M. Greenfield's new theory of social change and human development aims to show how changing sociodemographic ecologies alter cultural values and learning environments and thereby shift developmental pathways. Worldwide sociodemographic trends include movement from rural residence, informal education at home, subsistence economy, and…

Greenfield, Patricia M.

2009-01-01

66

Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To a greater extent than any other species, human beings create the environments that, in turn, shape their own development. This book endeavors to demonstrate that human beings can also develop those environments to optimize their most constructive genetic potentials. What makes human beings human, therefore, is both the potential to shape their…

Bronfenbrenner, Urie, Ed.

2004-01-01

67

"Unwilling" versus "Unable": Chimpanzees' Understanding of Human Intentional Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the intentional actions of others is a fundamental part of human social cognition and behavior. An important question is therefore whether other animal species, especially our nearest relatives the chimpanzees, also understand the intentional actions of others. Here we show that chimpanzees spontaneously (without training) behave…

Call, Josep; Hare, Brian; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

2004-01-01

68

Developmental regulation of human fetal-to-adult globin gene switching in transgenic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic mice containing a human fetal (gamma-) or adult (beta-) globin gene linked to the beta-globin gene locus activation region (LAR) express the gene throughout development. By contrast transgenic mice containing LAR linked to both a fetal and an adult globin gene display the normal developmental switch from fetal to adult gene expression. This suggests that the human fetal-to-adult globin

Tariq Enver; Natacha Raich; Allen J. Ebens; Thalia Papayannopoulou; Frank Costantini; George Stamatoyannopoulos

1990-01-01

69

Human Neurospheres as Three-Dimensional Cellular Systems for Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing  

PubMed Central

Background Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals is a serious threat to human health. Current DNT testing guidelines propose investigations in rodents, which require large numbers of animals. With regard to the “3 Rs” (reduction, replacement, and refinement) of animal testing and the European regulation of chemicals [Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH)], alternative testing strategies are needed in order to refine and reduce animal experiments and allow faster and less expensive screening. Objectives The goal of this study was to establish a three-dimensional test system for DNT screening based on human fetal brain cells. Methods We established assays suitable for detecting disturbances in basic processes of brain development by employing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), which grow as neurospheres. Furthermore, we assessed effects of mercury and oxidative stress on these cells. Results We found that human neurospheres imitate proliferation, differentiation, and migration in vitro. Exposure to the proapoptotic agent staurosporine further suggests that human neurospheres possess functioning apoptosis machinery. The developmental neurotoxicants methylmercury chloride and mercury chloride decreased migration distance and number of neuronal-like cells in differentiated hNPCs. Furthermore, hNPCs undergo caspase-independent apoptosis when exposed toward high amounts of oxidative stress. Conclusions Human neurospheres are likely to imitate basic processes of brain development, and these processes can be modulated by developmental neurotoxicants. Thus, this three-dimensional cell system is a promising approach for DNT testing. PMID:19654924

Moors, Michaela; Rockel, Thomas Dino; Abel, Josef; Cline, Jason E.; Gassmann, Kathrin; Schreiber, Timm; Schuwald, Janette; Weinmann, Nicole; Fritsche, Ellen

2009-01-01

70

British and Pakistani children's understanding of death: Cultural and developmental influences.  

PubMed

This study explored British and Pakistani 4- to 7-year-olds' (N = 188) understanding of death. The aim was to examine possible influences on the acquisition of the subcomponents of the death concept by investigating how they are understood by children of different ages and cultural and religious backgrounds. Three groups of children were compared: White British and British Muslim living in London, and Pakistani Muslim living in rural Pakistan. In line with previous research (Slaughter, 2005, Aust. Psychol., 40(3), 179), irreversibility of death was one of the first subcomponents to be acquired, while causality was the last. The two groups of British children shared many similarities in their understanding of inevitability, applicability, irreversibility, and cessation. Pakistani Muslim children understood irreversibility earlier than did children in both British groups. In all three cultural groups, children's responses demonstrated very limited understanding of causality. Our findings support the view that aspects of a mature understanding of death develop between the ages of 4 and 7 years and that the process of understanding death as a biological event is, to a great extent, universal. They also suggest that aspects of children's reasoning are influenced by culturally specific experiences, particularly those arising from living in rural versus urban settings. PMID:25262770

Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin; Ashraf, Aisha; Aubby, Herjit

2014-09-26

71

Reward-related processing in the human brain: Developmental considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pursuit of rewarding experiences motivates everyday human behavior, and can prove beneficial when pleasurable, positive consequences result (e.g., satisfying hunger, earning a paycheck). However, reward seeking may also be maladaptive and lead to risky decisions with potentially negative long-term consequences (e.g., unprotected sex, drug use). Such risky decision making is often observed during adolescence, a time in which important

Dominic S. Fareri; Laura N. Martin; Mauricio R. Delgado

2008-01-01

72

Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect

Although there has been substantial progress in improving ambient air quality in the United States, atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) continue to exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in many locations. Consequently, a large portion of the U.S. population continues to be exposed to unhealthful levels of ozone and fine particles. This issue of EM, entitled 'Understanding the relationships between air quality and human health' presents a series of articles that focus on the relationships between air quality and human health - what we know so far and the challenges that remain. Their titles are: Understanding the effects of air pollution on human health; Assessing population exposures in studies of human health effects of PM2.5; Establishing a national environmental public health tracking network; Linking air quality and exposure models; and On alert: air quality forecasting and health advisory warnings.

S.T. Rao

2006-09-15

73

The Developmental Progression of Understanding of Mind during a Hiding Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, 52 typically developing preschoolers engaged in a hiding game with their mothers when children were 42-, 54-, and 66-months old. Children's understanding of mind, positive affect, and engagement with the task were rated, and mothers' utterances were coded for role and content. Analyses confirmed that some facets of…

Nelson, P. Brooke; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger

2012-01-01

74

Developmental regulation of human cortex transcription and its clinical relevance at single base resolution.  

PubMed

Transcriptome analysis of human brain provides fundamental insight into development and disease, but it largely relies on existing annotation. We sequenced transcriptomes of 72 prefrontal cortex samples across six life stages and identified 50,650 differentially expression regions (DERs) associated with developmental and aging, agnostic of annotation. While many DERs annotated to non-exonic sequence (41.1%), most were similarly regulated in cytosolic mRNA extracted from independent samples. The DERs were developmentally conserved across 16 brain regions and in the developing mouse cortex, and were expressed in diverse cell and tissue types. The DERs were further enriched for active chromatin marks and clinical risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. Lastly, we demonstrate quantitatively that these DERs associate with a changing neuronal phenotype related to differentiation and maturation. These data show conserved molecular signatures of transcriptional dynamics across brain development, have potential clinical relevance and highlight the incomplete annotation of the human brain transcriptome. PMID:25501035

Jaffe, Andrew E; Shin, Jooheon; Collado-Torres, Leonardo; Leek, Jeffrey T; Tao, Ran; Li, Chao; Gao, Yuan; Jia, Yankai; Maher, Brady J; Hyde, Thomas M; Kleinman, Joel E; Weinberger, Daniel R

2015-01-01

75

Non-human primates: a comparative developmental perspective on yawning.  

PubMed

There is a long history of yawning in Old World monkeys being viewed as a form of communication, in particular, as a kind of threat. Yawning in agonistic and tense situations is seen in adult males, in particular, and it varies with male hormonal levels and social status. Experiments are reviewed that demonstrate operant control of the rate of yawning in adult male macaques, using food rewards. This indicates a degree of flexibility in the production of yawning. However, although adult male Old World monkeys often engage in 'canine contests', there is little evidence for the contagious yawning seen in humans. Experiments are reviewed showing that chimpanzees tested under comparable conditions to human adults, namely exposed to video sequences showing yawns, may yawn contagiously to yawn stimuli. Chimpanzees also yawn to computer animations of yawns. There is controversy in the literature over whether other species, including dogs and some monkeys, may also show contagious yawning. Further research is required to address unresolved issues. A hypothesis is put forward that in modern industrial society adults' natural pattern of yawning is inhibited, and that being reminded to yawn by seeing another individual yawn (contagious yawning) can help us to catch up on missed yawns. This would explain the lack of contagious yawning reported in young children and chimpanzees in natural surroundings, as these populations do not have the same social constraints on yawning. PMID:20357464

Anderson, James R

2010-01-01

76

The Developmental Origins of Voice Processing in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Summary In human adults, voices are processed in specialized brain regions in superior temporal cortices. We examined the development of this cortical organization during infancy by using near-infrared spectroscopy. In experiment 1, 7-month-olds but not 4-month-olds showed increased responses in left and right superior temporal cortex to the human voice when compared to nonvocal sounds, suggesting that voice-sensitive brain systems emerge between 4 and 7 months of age. In experiment 2, 7-month-old infants listened to words spoken with neutral, happy, or angry prosody. Hearing emotional prosody resulted in increased responses in a voice-sensitive region in the right hemisphere. Moreover, a region in right inferior frontal cortex taken to serve evaluative functions in the adult brain showed particular sensitivity to happy prosody. The pattern of findings suggests that temporal regions specialize in processing voices very early in development and that, already in infancy, emotions differentially modulate voice processing in the right hemisphere. PMID:20346760

Grossmann, Tobias; Oberecker, Regine; Koch, Stefan Paul; Friederici, Angela D.

2010-01-01

77

First steps in establishing a developmental toxicity test method based on human embryonic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of embryonic stem cells is currently the most promising approach to assess developmental toxicity in vitro. In addition, the possibility of using human embryonic stem (hES) cells will increase safety of consumers and patients as false classification of substances due to inter-species variations can be avoided.One validated test based on murine embryonic stem cells, the embryonic stem cell

Sarah Adler; Cristian Pellizzer; Lars Hareng; Thomas Hartung; Susanne Bremer

2008-01-01

78

Mental Retardation Genes in Drosophila: New Approaches to Understanding and Treating Developmental Brain Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Drosophila melanogaster" is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron…

Restifo, Linda L.

2005-01-01

79

The significance of the subplate for evolution and developmental plasticity of the human brain  

PubMed Central

The human life-history is characterized by long development and introduction of new developmental stages, such as childhood and adolescence. The developing brain had important role in these life-history changes because it is expensive tissue which uses up to 80% of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the newborn and continues to use almost 50% of it during the first 5 postnatal years. Our hominid ancestors managed to lift-up metabolic constraints to increase in brain size by several interrelated ecological, behavioral and social adaptations, such as dietary change, invention of cooking, creation of family-bonded reproductive units, and life-history changes. This opened new vistas for the developing brain, because it became possible to metabolically support transient patterns of brain organization as well as developmental brain plasticity for much longer period and with much greater number of neurons and connectivity combinations in comparison to apes. This included the shaping of cortical connections through the interaction with infant's social environment, which probably enhanced typically human evolution of language, cognition and self-awareness. In this review, we propose that the transient subplate zone and its postnatal remnant (interstitial neurons of the gyral white matter) probably served as the main playground for evolution of these developmental shifts, and describe various features that makes human subplate uniquely positioned to have such a role in comparison with other primates. PMID:23935575

Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Kostovi?, Ivica

2013-01-01

80

NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of amphetamines.  

PubMed

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for amphetamines to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. Amphetamines evaluated were D- and D,L-amphetamine and methamphetamine. Amphetamine is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in persons over 3 years of age and narcolepsy; methamphetamine is approved for the treatment of ADHD in persons 6 years of age and older and for short-term treatment of obesity. Amphetamines were selected for evaluation because of 1) widespread usage in children, 2) availability of developmental studies in children and experimental animals, and 3) public concern about the effect of this stimulant on child development. The results of this evaluation on amphetamines are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Methylphenidate, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to methylphenidate on human development and reproduction. First, there is some concern for developmental effects, specifically for potential neurobehavioral alterations, from prenatal amphetamine exposure in humans both in therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. After prenatal exposure to therapeutic doses of amphetamine, rat pups demonstrated neurobehavioral alterations. Data from human and animal studies were judged insufficient for an evaluation of the effect of amphetamine exposure on growth and other related developmental effects. Second, there is concern for methamphetamine-induced adverse developmental effects, specifically on growth and neurobehavioral development, in therapeutic and non-therapeutic settings. This conclusion is based on evidence from studies in experimental animals that prenatal and postnatal exposures to methamphetamine produce neurobehavioral alterations, small litter size, and low birth weight. Results from studies in humans suggest that methamphetamine may cause low birth weight and shortened gestation, but study confounders such as possible multiple drug usage prevent a definite conclusion. NTP-CERHR monographs are transmitted to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and are available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD-ROM from the CERHR (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-32, Research Triangle Park, NC; fax: 919-316-4511). PMID:16130031

2005-07-01

81

Cell-Cycle Control of Developmentally Regulated Transcription Factors Accounts for Heterogeneity in Human Pluripotent Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Heterogeneity within pluripotent stem cell (PSC) populations is indicative of dynamic changes that occur when cells drift between different states. Although the role of metastability in PSCs is unclear, it appears to reflect heterogeneity in cell signaling. Using the Fucci cell-cycle indicator system, we show that elevated expression of developmental regulators in G1 is a major determinant of heterogeneity in human embryonic stem cells. Although signaling pathways remain active throughout the cell cycle, their contribution to heterogeneous gene expression is restricted to G1. Surprisingly, we identify dramatic changes in the levels of global 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, an unanticipated source of epigenetic heterogeneity that is tightly linked to cell-cycle progression and the expression of developmental regulators. When we evaluated gene expression in differentiating cells, we found that cell-cycle regulation of developmental regulators was maintained during lineage specification. Cell-cycle regulation of developmentally regulated transcription factors is therefore an inherent feature of the mechanisms underpinning differentiation. PMID:24371808

Singh, Amar M.; Chappell, James; Trost, Robert; Lin, Li; Wang, Tao; Tang, Jie; Wu, Hao; Zhao, Shaying; Jin, Peng; Dalton, Stephen

2013-01-01

82

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

83

Improved Understanding of Human Anatomy through Self-guided  

E-print Network

Improved Understanding of Human Anatomy through Self-guided Radiological Anatomy Modules Andrew W: To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehen- sion was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course

84

To Err is Human: To Understand Error is  

E-print Network

To Err is Human: To Understand Error is Divine - Part II Peter DeBlieux, MD LSUHSC Department administrative responsibilities. The resident is having trouble keeping the intricacies of the exam straight. #12-drug interactions · Timing and dating orders · Access to common data and medical records #12;Orders

85

1970 Project Understanding: A Community Education Project on Human Survival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of Project Understanding were to help participants to: obtain accurate information of human survival issues relating to people, poverty, pollution, and politics; think through the implications of these issues and examine their opinions about them; change their own opinions, attitudes, and behavior; and take effective citizen action.…

Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee.

86

Functional understanding facilitates learning about tools in human children.  

PubMed

Human children benefit from a possibly unique set of adaptations facilitating the acquisition of knowledge about material culture. They represent artifacts (human-made objects) as tools with specific functions and seek for functional information about novel objects. Even young infants pay attention to functionally relevant features of objects, and learn tool use and infer tool functions from others' goal-directed actions and demonstrations. Children tend to imitate causally irrelevant elements of tool use demonstrations, which helps them to acquire means actions even before they fully understand their causal role in bringing about the desired goal. Although non-human animals use and make tools, and recognize causally relevant features of objects in a given task, they - unlike human children - do not appear to form enduring functional representations of tools as being for achieving particular goals when they are not in use. PMID:19477630

Hernik, Mikolaj; Csibra, Gergely

2009-02-01

87

Contemporary, yeast-based approaches to understanding human genetic variation  

PubMed Central

Determining how genetic variation contributes to human health and disease is a critical challenge. As one of the most genetically tractable model organisms, yeast has played a central role in meeting this challenge. The advent of new technologies, including high-throughput DNA sequencing and synthesis, proteomics, and computational methods, has vastly increased the power of yeast-based approaches to determine the consequences of human genetic variation. Recent successes include systematic exploration of the effects of gene dosage, large-scale analysis of the effect of coding variation on gene function, and the use of humanized yeast to model disease. By virtue of its manipulability, small genome size, and genetic tractability, yeast is poised to help us understand human genetic variation. PMID:24252429

Dunham, Maitreya J.; Fowler, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

88

Toward An Integrative "Educare" System: An Investigation of Teachers' Understanding and Uses of Developmentally Appropriate Practices for Young Children in Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate how early childhood teachers in Korea understand developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and follow DAP's instructional guidelines. In order to obtain insights for developing "educare," an integrated system for the education and care of young children in Korea, a comparison of early childhood…

Kim, Juhu; Kim, Sun-Young; Maslak, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

89

Variation at genes influencing facial morphology are not associated with developmental imprecision in human faces.  

PubMed

Facial asymmetries are commonly used as a proxy for human developmental imprecision resulting from inbreeding, and thus reduced genetic heterozygosity. Several environmental factors influence human facial asymmetry (e.g., health care, parasites), but the generalizability of findings on genetic stressors has been limited in humans by sample characteristics (island populations, endogamy) and indirect genetic assessment (inference from pedigrees). In a sample of 3215 adult humans from the Rotterdam Study, we therefore studied the relationship of facial asymmetry, estimated from nine mid-facial landmarks, with genetic variation at 102 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci recently associated with facial shape variation. We further tested whether the degree of individual heterozygosity is negatively correlated with facial asymmetry. An ANOVA tree regression did not identify any SNP relating to either fluctuating asymmetry or total asymmetry. In a general linear model, only age and sex--but neither heterozygosity nor any SNP previously reported to covary with facial shape--was significantly related to total or fluctuating asymmetry of the midface. Our study does not corroborate the common assumption in evolutionary and behavioral biology that morphological asymmetries reflect heterozygosity. Our results, however, may be affected by a relatively small degree of inbreeding, a relatively stable environment, and an advanced age in the Rotterdam sample. Further large-scale genetic studies, including gene expression studies, are necessary to validate the genetic and developmental origin of morphological asymmetries. PMID:24914781

Windhager, Sonja; Schaschl, Helmut; Schaefer, Katrin; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Huber, Susanne; Wallner, Bernard; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

90

Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. I: behavioral effects.  

PubMed Central

Alterations in nervous system function after exposure to a developmental neurotoxicant may be identified and characterized using neurobehavioral methods. A number of methods can evaluate alterations in sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in laboratory animals exposed to toxicants during nervous system development. Fundamental issues underlying proper use and interpretation of these methods include a) consideration of the scientific goal in experimental design, b) selection of an appropriate animal model, c) expertise of the investigator, d) adequate statistical analysis, and e) proper data interpretation. Strengths and weaknesses of the assessment methods include sensitivity, selectivity, practicality, and variability. Research could improve current behavioral methods by providing a better understanding of the relationship between alterations in motor function and changes in the underlying structure of these systems. Research is also needed to develop simple and sensitive assays for use in screening assessments of sensory and cognitive function. Assessment methods are being developed to examine other nervous system functions, including social behavior, autonomic processes, and biologic rhythms. Social behaviors are modified by many classes of developmental neurotoxicants and hormonally active compounds that may act either through neuroendocrine mechanisms or by directly influencing brain morphology or neurochemistry. Autonomic and thermoregulatory functions have been the province of physiologists and neurobiologists rather than toxicologists, but this may change as developmental neurotoxicology progresses and toxicologists apply techniques developed by other disciplines to examine changes in function after toxicant exposure. PMID:11250808

Cory-Slechta, D A; Crofton, K M; Foran, J A; Ross, J F; Sheets, L P; Weiss, B; Mileson, B

2001-01-01

91

Instead of Erklären and Verstehen: William James on Human Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perhaps more than any other American psychologist and philosopher, William James (1842-1910) was intimately familiar with contemporary European thought and debate, including the discussion of Erklären and Verstehen advanced by Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911) and others around the turn of the twentieth century. Even before this discussion was initiated, James had been dealing with related issues, pondering alternative solutions, and formulating his own original views on human understanding. These views coalesced in a distinctive approach to cognition. Fundamental to this approach was a belief in possibility and probability as innate features of the physical as well as mental manifestations of the universe. Also fundamental was a conviction that understanding is understanding, regardless of its viewpoint, object, or label as either "descriptive" or "explanatory."

Leary, David E.

92

Evaluation of a human neurite growth assay as specific screen for developmental neurotoxicants.  

PubMed

Organ-specific in vitro toxicity assays are often highly sensitive, but they lack specificity. We evaluated here examples of assay features that can affect test specificity, and some general procedures are suggested on how positive hits in complex biological assays may be defined. Differentiating human LUHMES cells were used as potential model for developmental neurotoxicity testing. Forty candidate toxicants were screened, and several hits were obtained and confirmed. Although the cells had a definitive neuronal phenotype, the use of a general cell death endpoint in these cultures did not allow specific identification of neurotoxicants. As alternative approach, neurite growth was measured as an organ-specific functional endpoint. We found that neurite extension of developing LUHMES was specifically inhibited by diverse compounds such as colchicine, vincristine, narciclasine, rotenone, cycloheximide, or diquat. These compounds reduced neurite growth at concentrations that did not compromise cell viability, and neurite growth was affected more potently than the integrity of developed neurites of mature neurons. A ratio of the EC50 values of neurite growth inhibition and cell death of >4 provided a robust classifier for compounds associated with a developmental neurotoxic hazard. Screening of unspecific toxicants in the test system always yielded ratios <4. The assay identified also compounds that accelerated neurite growth, such as the rho kinase pathway modifiers blebbistatin or thiazovivin. The negative effects of colchicine or rotenone were completely inhibited by a rho kinase inhibitor. In summary, we suggest that assays using functional endpoints (neurite growth) can specifically identify and characterize (developmental) neurotoxicants. PMID:23670202

Krug, Anne K; Balmer, Nina V; Matt, Florian; Schönenberger, Felix; Merhof, Dorit; Leist, Marcel

2013-12-01

93

Can we understand modern humans without considering pathogens?  

PubMed Central

Throughout our evolutionary history, humankind has always lived in contact with large numbers of pathogens. Some cultural traits, such as sedentarization and animal domestication, have considerably increased new parasitic contacts and epidemic transitions. Here, we review the various phenotypic traits that have been proposed to be affected by the highly parasitic human environment, including fertility, birth weight, fluctuating asymmetry, body odours, food recipes, sexual behaviour, pregnancy sickness, language, religion and intellectual quotient. We also discuss how such knowledge is important to understanding several aspects of the current problems faced by humanity in our changing world and to predicting the long-term consequences of parasite eradication policies on our health and well-being. The study of the evolutionary interactions between humans and parasites is a burgeoning and most promising field, as demonstrated by the recent increasing popularity of Darwinian medicine. PMID:25568057

Thomas, Frédéric; Daoust, Simon P; Raymond, Michel

2012-01-01

94

Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories  

PubMed Central

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin, with an estimated overall worldwide prevalence of 5–10% of the population. It is characterised by difficulties in reading, accuracy, fluency, spelling and decoding abilities. The majority of publications reviewed indicated that screening is performed at the preschool level. Screening can also be conducted at birth or the first year of life. Understanding human development theory, for example, Piaget’s human development theory, may help determine at which stage of childhood development dyslexia is more detectable, and therefore guide the management of this disability. The objective of this review is to provide a brief and updated overview of dyslexia and its management in children through human development issues. PMID:23269949

Al-Shidhani, Thuraya Ahmed; Arora, Vinita

2012-01-01

95

Human Developmental Chondrogenesis as a Basis for Engineering Chondrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Joint injury and osteoarthritis affect millions of people worldwide, but attempts to generate articular cartilage using adult stem/progenitor cells have been unsuccessful. We hypothesized that recapitulation of the human developmental chondrogenic program using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) may represent a superior approach for cartilage restoration. Using laser-capture microdissection followed by microarray analysis, we first defined a surface phenotype (CD166low/negCD146low/negCD73+CD44lowBMPR1B+) distinguishing the earliest cartilage committed cells (prechondrocytes) at 5–6 weeks of development. Functional studies confirmed these cells are chondrocyte progenitors. From 12 weeks, only the superficial layers of articular cartilage were enriched in cells with this progenitor phenotype. Isolation of cells with a similar immunophenotype from differentiating human PSCs revealed a population of CD166low/negBMPR1B+ putative cartilage-committed progenitors. Taken as a whole, these data define a developmental approach for the generation of highly purified functional human chondrocytes from PSCs that could enable substantial progress in cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:24371811

Wu, Ling; Bluguermann, Carolina; Kyupelyan, Levon; Latour, Brooke; Gonzalez, Stephanie; Shah, Saumya; Galic, Zoran; Ge, Sundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Nsair, Ali; Miriuka, Santiago G.; Li, Xinmin; Lyons, Karen M.; Crooks, Gay M.; McAllister, David R.; Van Handel, Ben; Adams, John S.; Evseenko, Denis

2013-01-01

96

Systematic human\\/zebrafish comparative identification of cis-regulatory activity around vertebrate developmental transcription factor genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pan-vertebrate developmental cis-regulatory elements are discernible as highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs) and are often dispersed over large areas around the pleiotropic genes whose expression they control. On the loci of two developmental transcription factor genes, SOX3 and PAX6, we demonstrate that HCNEs conserved between human and zebrafish can be systematically and reliably tested for their regulatory function in multiple

Pavla Navratilova; David Fredman; Thomas A. Hawkins; Katherine Turner; Boris Lenhard; Thomas S. Becker

2009-01-01

97

Model organisms inform the search for the genes and developmental pathology underlying malformations of the human hindbrain  

PubMed Central

Congenital malformations the human hindbrain, including the cerebellum, are poorly understood largely because their recognition is a relatively recent advance for imaging diagnostics. Cerebellar malformations are the most obvious and best characterized hindbrain malformations due to their relative ease to view by MRI and the recent identification of several causative genes1. Malformations of the pons and medulla have also been described both in isolation and in association with cerebellar malformations2. Although little is understood regarding the specific developmental pathologies underlying hindbrain malformations in humans, much is known regarding the mechanisms and genes driving hindbrain development in vertebrate model organisms. Thus, studies in vertebrate models provide a developmental framework in which to categorize human hindbrain malformations and serve to inform our thinking regarding disrupted developmental processes and candidate genes. Here we survey the basic principles of vertebrate hindbrain development and integrate our current knowledge of human hindbrain malformations into this framework. PMID:19778712

Aldinger, Kimberly A.; Elsen, Gina E.; Prince, Victoria E.; Millen, Kathleen J.

2009-01-01

98

Global transcriptional profiling of neural and mesenchymal progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells reveals alternative developmental signaling pathways  

E-print Network

embryonic stem cells reveals alternative developmental signaling pathways Jérôme Alexandre Denis1 21 e-mail : gpietu@istem.fr Keys words : Human embryonic stem cells ; Neural precursors ; mesenchymal-reviewedandacceptedforpublication,buthasyettoundergocopyeditingandproofcorrection.Thefinalpublishedversionmaydifferfromthisproof. #12;2 Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated along different lineages, providing

Boyer, Edmond

99

Human-vehicle interaction by hand sign understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactive ability of intelligent electric vehicle with human has the capital importance of convincing public to accept the existence and usage of intelligent electric vehicle, it can greatly enhance the safety of intelligent electric vehicle in public service. In this paper, an interactive model based on hand gesture understanding is represented, it offers more compact and intuitive meanings than other interactive models in an outdoor environment. The Typical hand gestures are defined to guide the motion of vehicle by considering gesture differentiation and human tendency in the model, they are classified as motion-oriented and direction-oriented gestures for different interactive intentions. The color distribution of human skin is analyzed in different color spaces, it reveals that human skin colors cluster in a specific region with the irregular appearance, they have more differences in intensity than colors among the people. A color model of human skin is built for hand gesture segmentation by using the training procedure of RCE neural network, it has the ability of delineating the pattern class with arbitrary appearance in feature space. The quality of hand gesture segmentation is further improved by the procedure of hand-forearm separation. A hand tracking mechanism is proposed to locate the hand by camera pan-tilt and zooming. The gesture recognition is implemented by template matching of multiple features.

Dong, Guo; Ming, Xie; Yin, Xiaoming

1999-07-01

100

Safety and side effects of ayahuasca in humans--an overview focusing on developmental toxicology.  

PubMed

Despite being relatively well studied from a botanical, chemical, and (acute) pharmacological perspective, little is known about the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca (an hallucinogenic brew used for magico-ritual purposes) in pregnant women and in their children, and the potential toxicity of long-term ayahuasca consumption. It is the main objective of the present text to do an overview of the risks and possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in humans, reviewing studies on the acute ayahuasca administration to humans, on the possible risks associated with long-term consumption by adults and adolescents, and on the possible toxic effects on pregnant animals and in their offspring. Acute ayahuasca administration, as well as long-term consumption of this beverage, does not seem to be seriously toxic to humans. Although some nonhuman developmental studies suggested possible toxic effects of ayahuasca or of some of its alkaloids, the limited human literature on adolescents exposed to ayahuasca as early as in the uterus reports no serious toxic effects of the ritual consumption of the brew. Researchers must take caution when extrapolating nonhuman data to humans and more data are needed in basic and human research before a definite opinion can be made regarding the possible toxic effects of ayahuasca in pregnant women and in their children. PMID:23662333

dos Santos, Rafael Guimarães

2013-01-01

101

Developmental changes in the spatial organization of neurons in the neocortex of humans and common chimpanzees  

PubMed Central

In adult humans, the prefrontal cortex possesses wider minicolumns and more neuropil space than other cortical regions. These aspects of prefrontal cortex architecture, furthermore, are increased in comparison to chimpanzees and other great apes. In order to determine the developmental appearance of this human cortical specialization, we examined the spatial organization of neurons in four cortical regions (frontal pole [Brodmann’s area 10], primary motor [area 4], primary somatosensory [area 3b], and prestriate visual cortex [area 18]) in chimpanzees and humans from birth to approximately the time of adolescence (11 years of age). Horizontal spacing distance (HSD) and gray level ratio (GLR) of layer III neurons were measured in Nissl-stained sections. In both human and chimpanzee area 10, HSD was significantly higher in the post-weaning specimens compared to the pre-weaning ones. No significant age-related differences were seen in the other regions in either species. In concert with other recent studies, the current findings suggest that there is a relatively slower maturation of area 10 in both humans and chimpanzees as compared to other cortical regions, and that further refinement of the spatial organization of neurons within this prefrontal area in humans takes place after the post-weaning periods included here. PMID:23839595

Teffer, Kate; Buxhoeveden, Daniel P.; Stimpson, Cheryl D.; Fobbs, Archibald J.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Baze, Wallace B.; McArthur, Mark J.; Hopkins, William D.; Hof, Patrick R.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Semendeferi, Katerina

2013-01-01

102

Utilising proteomic approaches to understand oncogenic human herpesviruses (Review)  

PubMed Central

The ?-herpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus are successful pathogens, each infecting a large proportion of the human population. These viruses persist for the life of the host and may each contribute to a number of malignancies, for which there are currently no cures. Large-scale proteomic-based approaches provide an excellent means of increasing the collective understanding of the proteomes of these complex viruses and elucidating their numerous interactions within the infected host cell. These large-scale studies are important for the identification of the intricacies of viral infection and the development of novel therapeutics against these two important pathogens. PMID:25279171

OWEN, CHRISTOPHER B.; HUGHES, DAVID J.; BAQUERO-PEREZ, BELINDA; BERNDT, ANJA; SCHUMANN, SOPHIE; JACKSON, BRIAN R.; WHITEHOUSE, ADRIAN

2014-01-01

103

Developmental pathways that generate natural-killer-cell diversity in mice and humans.  

PubMed

Natural killer (NK) cells are large granular lymphocytes capable of producing inflammatory cytokines and spontaneously killing malignant, infected or 'stressed' cells. These NK-cell functions are controlled by cell-surface receptors that titrate stimulatory and inhibitory signals. However, we remain puzzled about where and when NK cells develop and differentiate, and this has fuelled the debate over the diversification of the peripheral NK-cell pool: are NK cells functionally homogeneous or are there subsets with specialized effector functions? In this Review, we consider the developmental relationships and biological significance of the diverse NK-cell subsets in mice and humans, and discuss how new humanized mouse models may help to characterize them further. PMID:17717540

Huntington, Nicholas D; Vosshenrich, Christian A J; Di Santo, James P

2007-09-01

104

Developmental rescue of Drosophila cephalic defects by the human Otx genes.  

PubMed

The molecular mechanisms of head development are a central question in vertebrate and invertebrate developmental biology. The anteriorly expressed homeobox gene otd in Drosophila and its homolog Otx in mouse are required for the early development of the most anterior part of the body, suggesting that a fundamental genetic program of cephalic development might be conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. We have examined this hypothesis by introducing the human Otx genes into flies. By inducing expression of the human Otx homologs with a heat shock promoter, we found that both Otx1 and Otx2 functionally complement the cephalic defects of a fly otd mutant through specific activation and inactivation of downstream genes. Combined with previous morphological studies, these results are consistent with the view that a common molecular ground plan of cephalization was invented before the diversification of the protostome and the deuterostome in the course of metazoan evolution. PMID:9520436

Nagao, T; Leuzinger, S; Acampora, D; Simeone, A; Finkelstein, R; Reichert, H; Furukubo-Tokunaga, K

1998-03-31

105

The relevance of human fetal subplate zone for developmental neuropathology of neuronal migration disorders and cortical dysplasia.  

PubMed

The human fetal cerebral cortex develops through a series of partially overlapping histogenetic events which occur in transient cellular compartments, such as the subplate zone. The subplate serves as waiting compartment for cortical afferent fibers, the major site of early synaptogenesis and neuronal differentiation and the hub of the transient fetal cortical circuitry. Thus, the subplate has an important but hitherto neglected role in the human fetal cortical connectome. The subplate is also an important compartment for radial and tangential migration of future cortical neurons. We review the diversity of subplate neuronal phenotypes and their involvement in cortical circuitry and discuss the complexity of late neuronal migration through the subplate as well as its potential relevance for pathogenesis of migration disorders and cortical dysplasia. While migratory neurons may become misplaced within the subplate, they can easily survive by being involved in early subplate circuitry; this can enhance their subsequent survival even if they have immature or abnormal physiological activity and misrouted connections and thus survive into adulthood. Thus, better understanding of subplate developmental history and various subsets of its neurons may help to elucidate certain types of neuronal disorders, including those accompanied by epilepsy. PMID:25312583

Kostovi?, Ivica; Sedmak, Goran; Vukši?, Mario; Judaš, Miloš

2015-02-01

106

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology  

E-print Network

Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology is concerned with both physical and psychological changes throughout life-- from conception until death. www.uwindsor.ca/psychology A Rigorous, Enriching Program Developmental Psychology is a specialized major within Psychology that focuses on child

107

Priming 3D cultures of human mesenchymal stromal cells toward cartilage formation via developmental pathways.  

PubMed

The field of regenerative medicine has increasingly recognized the importance to be inspired by developmental processes to identify signaling pathways crucial for 3D organogenesis and tissue regeneration. Here, we aimed at recapitulating the first events occurring during limb development (ie, cell condensation and expansion of an undifferentiated mesenchymal cell population) to prime 3D cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hBM-MSC) toward the chondrogenic route. Based on embryonic development studies, we hypothesized that Wnt3a and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induce hBM-MSC to proliferate in 3D culture as an undifferentiated pool of progenitors (defined by clonogenic capacity and expression of typical markers), retaining chondrogenic potential upon induction by suitable morphogens. hBM-MSC were responsive to Wnt signaling in 3D pellet culture, as assessed by significant upregulation of main target genes and increase of unphosphorylated ?-catenin levels. Wnt3a was able to induce a five-fold increase in the number of proliferating hBM-MSC (6.4% vs. 1.3% in the vehicle condition), although total DNA content of the 3D construct was decreasing over time. Preconditioning with Wnt3a improved transforming growth factor-?1 mediated chondrogenesis (30% more glycosaminoglycans/cell in average). In contrast to developmental and 2D MSC culture models, FGF2 antagonized the Wnt-mediated effects. Interestingly, the CD146? subpopulation was found to be more responsive to Wnt3a. The presented data indicate a possible strategy to prime 3D cultures of hBM-MSC by invoking a "developmental engineering" approach. The study also identifies some opportunities and challenges to cross-fertilize skeletal development models and 3D hBM-MSC culture systems. PMID:23777290

Centola, Matteo; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Schären, Stefan; Glaser, Nicolas; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

2013-11-01

108

Do Domestic Dogs Understand Human Actions as Goal-Directed?  

PubMed Central

Understanding of other’s actions as goal-directed is considered a fundamental ability underlying cognitive and social development in human infants. A number of studies using the habituation-dishabituation paradigm have shown that the ability to discern intentional relations, in terms of goal-directedness of an action towards an object, appears around 5 months of age. The question of whether non-human species can perceive other’s actions as goal-directed has been more controversial, however there is mounting evidence that at least some primates species do. Recently domestic dogs have been shown to be particularly sensitive to human communicative cues and more so in cooperative and intentional contexts. Furthermore, they have been shown to imitate selectively. Taken together these results suggest that dogs may perceive others' actions as goal-directed, however no study has investigated this issue directly. In the current study, adopting an infant habituation-dishabituation paradigm, we investigated whether dogs attribute intentions to an animate (a human) but not an inanimate (a black box) agent interacting with an object. Following an habituation phase in which the agent interacted always with one of two objects, two sets of 3 trials were presented: new side trials (in which the agent interacted with the same object as in the habituation trial but placed in a novel location) and new goal trials (in which the agent interacted with the other object placed in the old location). Dogs showed a similar pattern of response to that shown in infants, looking longer in the new goal than new side trials when they saw the human agent interact with the object. No such difference emerging with the inanimate agent (the black box). Results provide the first evidence that a non-primate species can perceive another individual’s actions as goal-directed. We discuss results in terms of the prevailing mentalisitic and non-mentalistic hypotheses regarding goal-attribution. PMID:25229452

Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ceretta, Maria; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

2014-01-01

109

Human Science for Human Freedom? Piaget's Developmental Research and Foucault's Ethical Truth Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construction of the modern subject and the pursuit of human freedom and autonomy, as well as the practice of human science has been pivotal in the development of modern education. But for Foucault, the subject is only the effect of discourses and power-knowledge arrangements, and modern human science is part of the very arrangement that has…

Zhao, Guoping

2012-01-01

110

Allelic diversity in human developmental neurogenetics: insights into biology and disease  

PubMed Central

One of the biggest challenges in neuroscience is illuminating the architecture of developmental brain disorders, which include structural malformations of the brain and nerves, intellectual disability, epilepsy, as well as some psychiatric conditions like autism and potentially schizophrenia. Ongoing gene identification reveals a great diversity of genetic causes underlying abnormal brain development, illuminating new biochemical pathways often not suspected based on genetic studies in other organisms. Our greater understanding of genetic disease also shows the complexity of “allelic diversity”, in which distinct mutations in a given gene can cause a wide range of distinct diseases or other phenotypes. These diverse alleles not only provide a platform for discovery of critical protein-protein interactions in a genetic fashion, but also illuminate the likely genetic architecture of as yet poorly characterized neurological disorders. PMID:20955932

Walsh, Christopher A.; Engle, Elizabeth C.

2010-01-01

111

Combined small molecule inhibition accelerates developmental timing and converts human pluripotent stem cells into nociceptors  

PubMed Central

There has been considerable progress in identifying signaling pathways directing the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into specialized cell types including neurons. However, extrinsic factor-based differentiation of hPSCs is a slow, step-wise process mimicking the protracted timing of normal human development. Using a small molecule screen we identified a combination of five small molecule pathway inhibitors sufficient to yield hPSC-derived neurons at >75% efficiency within 10 days of differentiation. The resulting neurons express canonical markers and functional properties of human nociceptors including TTX-resistant, SCN10A-dependent sodium currents and response to nociceptive stimuli including ATP and capsaicin. Neuronal fate acquisition occurs three-fold faster than during in vivo1 development suggesting that use of small molecule pathway inhibitors could develop into a general strategy for accelerating developmental timing in vitro. The quick and high efficiency derivation of nociceptors offers unprecedented access to this medically relevant cell type for studies of human pain. PMID:22750882

Chambers, Stuart M.; Qi, Yuchen; Mica, Yvonne; Lee, Gabsang; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Niu, Lei; Bilsland, James; Cao, Lishuang; Stevens, Edward; Whiting, Paul; Shi, Song-Hai; Studer, Lorenz

2012-01-01

112

Building a Database of Developmental Neurotoxitants: Evidence from Human and Animal Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA?s program for the screening and prioritization of chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) necessitates the generation of a list of chemicals that are known mammalian developmental neurotoxicants. This chemical list will be used to evaluate the sensitivity, reliability...

113

Molecular signature in human cumulus cells related to embryonic developmental potential.  

PubMed

Identification of criteria for embryo quality is required to improve the clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC) surrounding the oocyte as biomarkers for embryonic developmental potential. CCs from single oocytes were analysed using DNA microarrays. Gene expression profiles of CC surrounding the oocyte associated with good embryonic quality were analyzed. We observed that CCs issued from oocytes that developed into embryos with a good morphology had significantly different gene expression profile from those with bad morphology. These results were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. The gene expression profiling of human CC correlates with embryo potential. Our findings suggest anon-invasive approach, offering a new potential strategy for competent embryo selection. PMID:24899471

Xu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wei, Zhaolian; Cao, Yunxia

2015-02-01

114

Developmental trajectories during adolescence in males and females: a cross-species understanding of underlying brain changes  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood that encompasses vast changes within brain systems that parallel some, but not all, behavioral changes. Elevations in emotional reactivity and reward processing follow an inverted U shape in terms of onset and remission, with the peak occurring during adolescence. However, cognitive processing follows a more linear course of development. This review will focus on changes within key structures and will highlight the relationships between brain changes and behavior, with evidence spanning from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to molecular studies of receptor and signaling factors in animals. Adolescent changes in neuronal substrates will be used to understand how typical and atypical behaviors arise during adolescence. We draw upon clinical and preclinical studies to provide a neural framework for defining adolescence and its role in the transition to adulthood. PMID:21600919

Brenhouse, Heather C.; Andersen, Susan L.

2011-01-01

115

Cellular reprogramming for understanding and treating human disease  

PubMed Central

In the last two decades we have witnessed a paradigm shift in our understanding of cells so radical that it has rewritten the rules of biology. The study of cellular reprogramming has gone from little more than a hypothesis, to applied bioengineering, with the creation of a variety of important cell types. By way of metaphor, we can compare the discovery of reprogramming with the archeological discovery of the Rosetta stone. This stone slab made possible the initial decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphics because it allowed us to see this language in a way that was previously impossible. We propose that cellular reprogramming will have an equally profound impact on understanding and curing human disease, because it allows us to perceive and study molecular biological processes such as differentiation, epigenetics, and chromatin in ways that were likewise previously impossible. Stem cells could be called “cellular Rosetta stones” because they allow also us to perceive the connections between development, disease, cancer, aging, and regeneration in novel ways. Here we present a comprehensive historical review of stem cells and cellular reprogramming, and illustrate the developing synergy between many previously unconnected fields. We show how stem cells can be used to create in vitro models of human disease and provide examples of how reprogramming is being used to study and treat such diverse diseases as cancer, aging, and accelerated aging syndromes, infectious diseases such as AIDS, and epigenetic diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome. While the technology of reprogramming is being developed and refined there have also been significant ongoing developments in other complementary technologies such as gene editing, progenitor cell production, and tissue engineering. These technologies are the foundations of what is becoming a fully-functional field of regenerative medicine and are converging to a point that will allow us to treat almost any disease. PMID:25429365

Kanherkar, Riya R.; Bhatia-Dey, Naina; Makarev, Evgeny; Csoka, Antonei B.

2014-01-01

116

Myosin Va is developmentally regulated and expressed in the human cerebellum from birth to old age  

PubMed Central

Myosin Va functions as a processive, actin-based motor molecule highly enriched in the nervous system, which transports and/or tethers organelles, vesicles, and mRNA and protein translation machinery. Mutation of myosin Va leads to Griscelli disease that is associated with severe neurological deficits and a short life span. Despite playing a critical role in development, the expression of myosin Va in the central nervous system throughout the human life span has not been reported. To address this issue, the cerebellar expression of myosin Va from newborns to elderly humans was studied by immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was expressed at all ages from the 10th postnatal day to the 98th year of life, in molecular, Purkinje and granular cerebellar layers. Cerebellar myosin Va expression did not differ essentially in localization or intensity from childhood to old age, except during the postnatal developmental period. Structures resembling granules and climbing fibers in Purkinje cells were deeply stained. In dentate neurons, long processes were deeply stained by anti-myosin Va, as were punctate nuclear structures. During the first postnatal year, myosin Va was differentially expressed in the external granular layer (EGL). In the EGL, proliferating prospective granule cells were not stained by anti-myosin Va antibody. In contrast, premigratory granule cells in the EGL stained moderately. Granule cells exhibiting a migratory profile in the molecular layer were also moderately stained. In conclusion, neuronal myosin Va is developmentally regulated, and appears to be required for cerebellar function from early postnatal life to senescence. PMID:23558932

Souza, C.C.R.; Dombroski, T.C.D.; Machado, H.R.; Oliveira, R.S.; Rocha, L.B.; Rodrigues, A.R.A.; Neder, L.; Chimelli, L.; Corrêa, V.M.A.; Larson, R.E.; Martins, A.R.

2013-01-01

117

Developmental patterns of DR6 in normal human hippocampus and in Down syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Death receptor 6 (DR6) is highly expressed in the human brain: it has been shown to induce axon pruning and neuron death via distinct caspases and to mediate axonal degeneration through binding to N-terminal ? amyloid precursor protein (N-APP). Methods We investigated the expression of DR6 during prenatal and postnatal development in human hippocampus and temporal cortex by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis (118 normal human brain specimens; 9 to 41 gestational weeks; 1 day to 7 months postnatally; 3 to 91 years). To investigate the role of N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway in the development of hippocampal Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-associated pathology, we examined DR6 immunoreactivity (IR) in the developing hippocampus from patients with Down syndrome (DS; 48 brain specimens; 14 to 41 gestational weeks; 7 days to 8 months postnatally; 15 to 64 years) and in adults with DS and AD. Results DR6 was highly expressed in human adult hippocampus and temporal cortex: we observed consistent similar temporal and spatial expression in both control and DS brain. Western blot analysis of total homogenates of temporal cortex and hippocampus showed developmental regulation of DR6. In the hippocampus, DR6 IR was first apparent in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare at 16 weeks of gestation, followed by stratum oriens, radiatum, pyramidale (CA1 to CA4) and molecular layer of the dentate gyrus between 21 and 23 gestational weeks, reaching a pattern similar to adult hippocampus around birth. Increased DR6 expression in dystrophic neurites was detected focally in a 15-year-old DS patient. Abnormal DR6 expression pattern, with increased expression within dystrophic neurites in and around amyloid plaques was observed in adult DS patients with widespread AD-associated neurodegeneration and was similar to the pattern observed in AD hippocampus. Double-labeling experiments demonstrated the colocalization, in dystrophic neurites, of DR6 with APP. We also observed colocalization with hyper-phosphorylated Tau and with caspase 6 (increased in hippocampus with AD pathology) in plaque-associated dystrophic neurites and within the white matter. Conclusions These findings demonstrate a developmental regulation of DR6 in human hippocampus and suggest an abnormal activation of the N-APP/DR6/caspase 6 pathway, which can contribute to initiation or progression of hippocampal AD-associated pathology. PMID:23618225

2013-01-01

118

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities: 1981 Research Programs of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The monograph reviews federal research activities and progress in biomedical and behavioral/social science research in mental retardation. Activities represent the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities branch. The following categories are addressed in terms of biomedical…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

119

Impairments in Monkey and Human Face Recognition in 2-Year-Old Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in…

Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

2007-01-01

120

Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuron as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons as a human model for testing environmentally induced developmental neurotoxicity Ingrid L. Druwe1, Timothy J. Shafer2, Kathleen Wallace2, Pablo Valdivia3 ,and William R. Mundy2. 1University of North Carolina, Curriculum in Toxicology...

121

EVALUATION OF HUMAN NEURAL PROGENITOR CELLS FOR DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY SCREENING: TIME COURSE OF EFFECTS ON CELL PROLIFERATION AND VIABILITY.  

EPA Science Inventory

Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a screen for DNT. ReNcell CX (ReN CX) cells are a...

122

Developmental Changes of Prefrontal Activation in Humans: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Preschool Children and Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous morphological studies indicated that development of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) appears to continue into late adolescence. Although functional brain imaging studies have sought to determine the time course of functional development of the PFC, it is unclear whether the developmental change occurs after adolescence to adulthood and when it achieves a peak because of the narrow or discontinuous

Yuki Kawakubo; Toshiaki Kono; Ryu Takizawa; Hitoshi Kuwabara; Ayaka Ishii-Takahashi; Kiyoto Kasai; Kenji Hashimoto

2011-01-01

123

1992 Oxford University Press Human Molecular Genetics, Vol. 1, No. 2 77--82 Identification and developmental expression of the  

E-print Network

and developmental expression of the Xenopus laevis cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene Stephen homologue of the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene has been isolated Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal autosomal recessive disease in the Caucasian population

Tucker, Stephen J.

124

Specializations of the human upper respiratory and upper digestive systems as seen through comparative and developmental anatomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human upper respiratory, or aerodigestive, tract serves as the crossroads of our breathing, swallowing and vocalizing pathways. Accordingly, developmental or evolutionary change in any of these functions will, of necessity, affect the others. Our studies have shown that the position in the neck of the mammalian larynx is a major factor in determining function in this region. Most mammals,

Jeffrey T. Laitman; Joy S. Reidenberg

1993-01-01

125

The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

2005-01-01

126

Understanding the Diversity: A Taxonomy for Postsecondary Education Programs and Services for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The number of postsecondary education (PSE) programs for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) has been steadily growing over the last few decades. There has been little public information regarding these programs and schools. Consequently, students, families, and researchers alike lack details about the various…

McEathron, Mary A.; Beuhring, Trisha; Maynard, Amelia; Mavis, Ann

2013-01-01

127

A Structural Biology Approach to Understand Human Lymphatic Filarial Infection  

PubMed Central

The presence of aspartic protease inhibitor in filarial parasite Brugia malayi (Bm-Aspin) makes it interesting to study because of the fact that the filarial parasite never encounters the host digestive system. Here, the aspartic protease inhibition kinetics of Bm-Aspin and its NMR structural characteristics have been investigated. The overall aim of this study is to explain the inhibition and binding properties of Bm-Aspin from its structural point of view. UV-spectroscopy and multi-dimensional NMR are the experiments that have been performed to understand the kinetic and structural properties of Bm-Aspin respectively. The human aspartic proteases that are considered for this study are pepsin, renin, cathepsin-E and cathepsin-D. The results of this analysis performed with the specific substrate [Phe-Ala-Ala-Phe (4-NO2)-Phe-Val-Leu (4-pyridylmethyl) ester] against aspartic proteases suggest that Bm-Aspin inhibits the activities of all four human aspartic proteases. The kinetics studies indicate that Bm-Aspin follows a competitive mode of inhibition for pepsin and cathepsin-E, non-competitive for renin and mixed mode for cathepsin-D. The triple resonance NMR experiments on Bm-Aspin suggested the feasibility of carrying out NMR studies to obtain its solution structure. The NMR titration studies on the interactions of Bm-Aspin with the proteases indicate that it undergoes fast-exchange phenomena among themselves. In addition to this, the chemical shift perturbations for some of the residues of Bm-Aspin observed from 15N-HSQC spectra upon the addition of saturated amounts of aspartic proteases suggest the binding between Bm-Aspin and human aspartic proteases. They also provide information on the variations in the intensities and mode of binding between the proteases duly corroborating with the results from the protease inhibition assay method. PMID:24516678

Nagampalli, Raghavendra Sashi Krishna; Gunasekaran, Krishnasamy; Narayanan, Rangarajan Badri; Peters, Angela; Bhaskaran, Rajagopalan

2014-01-01

128

Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

129

Understanding Human-Battery Interaction on Mobile Ahmad Rahmati, Angela Qian, and Lin Zhong  

E-print Network

Understanding Human-Battery Interaction on Mobile Phones Ahmad Rahmati, Angela Qian, and Lin Zhong human-battery interaction (HBI). We conducted three user studies in order to understand HBI and discover Design, Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords Mobile phones, human-battery interaction, batteries

Zhong, Lin

130

NTP-CERHR monograph on the potential human reproductive and developmental effects of bisphenol A.  

PubMed

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for bisphenol A to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. The CERHR Expert Panel on Bisphenol A completed its evaluation in August 2007. CERHR selected bisphenol A for evaluation because of the: widespread human exposure; public concern for possible health effects from human exposures; high production volume; evidence of reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animal studies Bisphenol A (CAS RN: 80-05-7) is a high production volume chemical used primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are used in some food and drink containers; the resins are used as lacquers to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. To a lesser extent bisphenol A is used in the production of polyester resins, polysulfone resins, polyacrylate resins, and flame retardants. In addition, bisphenol A is used in the processing of polyvinyl chloride plastic and in the recycling of thermal paper. Some polymers used in dental sealants and tooth coatings contain bisphenol A. The primary source of exposure to bisphenol A for most people is assumed to occur through the diet. While air, dust, and water (including skin contact during bathing and swimming) are other possible sources of exposure, bisphenol A in food and beverages accounts for the majority of daily human exposure. The highest estimated daily intakes of bisphenol A in the general population occur in infants and children. The results of this bisphenol A evaluation are published in an NTP-CERHR Monograph that includes the (1) NTP Brief and (2) Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Bisphenol A. Additional information related to the evaluation process, including the peer review report for the NTP Brief and public comments received on the draft NTP Brief and the final expert panel report, are available on the CERHR website (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/). See bisphenol A under "CERHR Chemicals" on the homepage or go directly to http://cerhr.niehs. nih.gov/chemicals/bisphenol/bisphenol.html). The NTP reached the following conclusions on the possible effects of exposure to bisphenol A on human development and reproduction. Note that the possible levels of concern, from lowest to highest, are negligible concern, minimal concern, some concern, concern, and serious concern. The NTP has some concern for effects on the brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has minimal concern for effects on the mammary gland and an earlier age for puberty for females in fetuses, infants, and children at current human exposures to bisphenol A. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure of pregnant women to bisphenol A will result in fetal or neonatal mortality, birth defects, or reduced birth weight and growth in their offspring. The NTP has negligible concern that exposure to bisphenol A will cause reproductive effects in non-occupationally exposed adults and minimal concern for workers exposed to higher levels in occupational settings. NTP will transmit the NTP-CERHR Monograph on Bisphenol A to federal and state agencies, interested parties, and the public and make it available in electronic PDF format on the CERHR web site (http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov) and in printed text or CD from CERHR. PMID:19407859

Shelby, Michael D

2008-09-01

131

Understanding Random Effects in Group-Based Trajectory Modeling: An Application of Moffitt’s Developmental Taxonomy  

PubMed Central

The group-based trajectory modeling approach is a systematic way of categorizing subjects into different groups based on their developmental trajectories using formal and objective statistical criteria. With the recent advancement in methods and statistical software, modeling possibilities are almost limitless; however, parallel advances in theory development have not kept pace. This paper examines some of the modeling options that are becoming more widespread and how they impact both empirical and theoretical findings. The key issue that is explored is the impact of adding random effects to the latent growth factors and how this alters the meaning of a group. The paper argues that technical specification should be guided by theory, and Moffitt’s developmental taxonomy is used as an illustration of how modeling decisions can be matched to theory. PMID:21544268

Saunders, Jessica M.

2011-01-01

132

Developmental alterations of the respiratory human retrotrapezoid nucleus in sudden unexplained fetal and infant death.  

PubMed

The study aims were twofold: 1) identify the localization and the cytoarchitecture of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) in the human fetus and infant and 2) ascertain if the RTN, given its essential role in animal studies for the maintenance of breathing and chemoreception, showed abnormalities in victims of sudden perinatal and infant death (sudden intrauterine unexplained death/SIUD - and sudden infant death syndrome/SIDS). We examined SIDS and SIUD cases and Controls (n=58) from 34 gestational weeks to 8 months of postnatal age by complete autopsy, in-depth autonomic nervous system histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis of the PHOX2B gene, a transcriptional factor involved in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome that has been defined as a marker of rat RTN neurons. We identified a group of PHOX2B-immunopositive neurons within the caudal pons, contiguous to the facial/parafacial complex, in 90% of Controls, likely the homologous human RTN (hRTN). We observed structural and/or PHOX2B-expression abnormalities of the hRTN in 71% of SIUD/SIDS cases vs 10% of Controls (p<0.05). In conclusion we suggest that developmental abnormalities of the hRTN may seriously compromise chemoreception control, playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of both SIUD and SIDS. PMID:22796552

Lavezzi, Anna M; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Yu, Margaret Y; Jennings, Lawrence J; Corna, Melissa F; Casale, Valentina; Oneda, Roberta; Matturri, Luigi

2012-09-25

133

CD16. Developmentally regulated IgG Fc receptors on cultured human monocytes  

PubMed Central

We have demonstrated that one Fc receptor for IgG (FcR) (CD16) on cultured human monocytes appears to be a developmentally regulated membrane protein. This receptor appears to contain less carbohydrate (if any) than does its counterpart on human neutrophils. Expression of CD16 on cultured monocytes increases with respect to both percentage of positive cells and numbers of sites per cell with length of time in culture. This was in contrast to expression of other types of FcRs that either decreased (CDw32) or did not change (FcRp72). Unlike an FcR that binds monomeric IgG (FcRp72), expression of CD16 on monocytes from most normal individuals was not influenced by IFN-gamma. After 14 d in culture, CD16 appeared to be the predominant FcR on cultured monocytes, and was capable of mediating both ligand attachment and phagocytosis. These findings support the hypothesis that CD16 plays an important role in mediating immunophagocytosis. PMID:2964496

1988-01-01

134

Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled about evolution, but offered limited response categories that mask complexity in public opinion (Bishop 2006; Moore 2008). The main problems concerning the leading survey questions about evolution are: first, questions measure only a single dimension, thus they ignore the potential for multidimensionality in people's attitudes. Second, depending on question wording and response options, the results of public opinion surveys vary by polling groups. This is an example of measurement error which misleads the interpretation and impression of American public opinion on the origin of humankind. A number of studies have analyzed Americans' beliefs about evolution and hypothesized about the influential effects of several factors (Deckman 2002; Mazur 2005; Mooney 2005; Miller et al. 2006; Newport 2006; Forrest 2007;Nisbet and Goidel 2007;Scott 2009). However, there remains a lack of complete understanding of what Americans know and believe about human evolution. Given the salience of this issue and the significant influence of public opinion on policy-making in America (Page and Shapiro 1992; Stimson 2004; Newport 2004), the measurement error and explanation of polling results on controversial issues related to this topic are in need of clarification. In this study, I address these deficiencies with analyses of data from a 2008 national survey by Harris Interactive (n= 4,626) that included numerous measures of factual knowledge and beliefs about evolution. The items offer more nuanced response options than the standard three-category question asked for decades by the Gallup poll. The Harris survey also had multiple measures of religiosity and the Right-Wing-Authoritarianism personality scale. Using this uniquely rich data set I develop a model of the nature and organization of these various attitude structures. Data analyses on explanation of public acceptance or rejection of evolution indicate that the Right-wing-authoritarianism and religious factors including beliefs in God's existence, views of the Bible, frequency of church attendance, and Evangelical Protestant affiliation are significant predictors across all measures. Scientific literacy, genetic science knowledge and familiarity, in general, are another contributor to prediction of public attitudes toward evolution. On measurement validity, consistency of measurement and responses are examined. The results from data analyses reveal the effect of question wording form and context is at play. In addition, public beliefs and knowledge about evolution are not consistent, rather contradictory, and are susceptible to framing effects. As scholars of public opinion warn, we should avoid the referendum view of polls on controversial issues (Schuman 2008; Moore 2008; Bishop 2005). Findings from this research lead to two key conclusions. First, great caution should be taken interpreting poll results on human evolution. Second, for better understanding of public opinion on this issue, a modified standard question should replace the current question.

Gwon, Misook

135

The Chaotic Nature of Human Experience: An Alternative Approach to Determinacy in Understanding Emotions and Experience  

E-print Network

The Chaotic Nature of Human Experience: An Alternative Approach to Determinacy in Understanding Nature of Human Experience: An Alternative Approach to Determinacy in Understanding Emotions and Experience Bilge Mutlu and Jodi Forlizzi School of Design & Human-Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie

Mutlu, Bilge

136

Human enhancement and communication: on meaning and shared understanding.  

PubMed

Our technologies have enabled us to change both the world and our perceptions of the world, as well as to change ourselves and to find new ways to fulfil the human desire for improvement and for having new capacities. The debate around using technology for human enhancement has already raised many ethical concerns, however little research has been done in how human enhancement can affect human communication. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether some human enhancements could change our shared lifeworld so radically that human communication as we know it would not be possible any longer. After exploring the kinds of communication problems we are concerned with as well as mentioning some possible enhancement interventions that could bring about such problems, we will address some of the ethical implications that follow from these potential communication problems. We argue that because of the role that communication plays in human society, this issue deserves attention. PMID:23054673

Cabrera, Laura; Weckert, John

2013-09-01

137

Impairments in monkey and human face recognition in 2-year-old toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay.  

PubMed

Face recognition impairments are well documented in older children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD); however, the developmental course of the deficit is not clear. This study investigates the progressive specialization of face recognition skills in children with and without ASD. Experiment 1 examines human and monkey face recognition in 2-year-old children with ASD, matched for nonverbal mental age (NVMA) with developmentally delayed (DD) children, and typically developing children (TD), using the Visual Paired Comparison (VPC) paradigm. Results indicate that, consistent with the other-species effect, TD controls show enhanced recognition of human but not monkey faces; however, neither the ASD nor the DD group show evidence of face recognition regardless of the species. Experiment 2 examines the same question in a group of older 3- to 4-year-old developmentally disabled (ASD and DD) children as well as in typical controls. In this experiment, both human and monkey faces are recognized by all three groups. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that difficulties in face processing, as measured by the VPC paradigm, are common in toddlers with ASD as well as DD, but that these deficits tend to disappear by early preschool age. In addition, the experiments show that higher efficacy of incidental encoding and recognition of facial identity in a context of passive exposure is positively related to nonverbal cognitive skills and age, but not to overall social interaction skills or greater attention to faces exhibited in naturalistic contexts. PMID:17286849

Chawarska, Katarzyna; Volkmar, Fred

2007-03-01

138

Understanding the Human Genome Project — A Fact Sheet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Understanding the Human Genome Project — A Fact Sheet Past Issues / Summer ... known about the genetic factors that contribute to human disease. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick ...

139

Non-invasive imaging of human embryos to predict developmental competence  

PubMed Central

Although some aspects of human embryo development are conserved with those of other species, including the mouse, many aspects such as the timing of reprogramming and occurrence in the absence of transcription, duration of transcriptional silence and identity of genes with modulated expression in the oocyte to embryo transition, appear to be unique. Yet, frequently, the only data available for understanding the programs of early embryo development is that derived from model or agricultural species. We suggest that a specific understanding of basic aspects of human embryo development can affect a two-fold positive impact: 1) We can improve the health of a substantial subset of patients who seek assisted reproduction by improving diagnostics of viable embryo development in the clinic and, 2) we can use the information we gather to improve derivation and diagnosis of pluripotent stem cell lines (including reference or gold-standard human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and closely-related induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines) and their fates in novel basic and clinical applications. PMID:21802136

Pera, Renee A. Reijo

2015-01-01

140

The Dynamic Lift of Developmental Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the essential properties of human intelligence, currently unparalleled in its power relative to other biological forms and relative to artificial forms of intelligence? We suggest that answering this question depends critically on understanding developmental process. This paper considers three principles potentially essential to building…

Smith, Linda B.; Breazeal, Cynthia

2007-01-01

141

Understanding face perception by means of human electrophysiology  

E-print Network

perception difficult to achieve. Human electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording on the scalp Electroencephalography (EEG): recording of electrical activity on the scalp. Event-related potentials (ERPs): small

Rossion, Bruno

142

Understanding culture and ethnicity: basic rudiments of an "anthropsychological" perspective for understanding human behavior.  

PubMed

While there appears to be general consensus in the behavioral sciences as to the importance of culture and ethnicity in shaping behavior, the discipline of psychology, a major producer of psychotherapists, is often resistant to the study of the basic concepts; seeing it as the domain of other disciplines. Thus, psychologically trained practitioners may not have rudimentary understanding of these concept; while endorsing and even trying to incorporate ethnically and culturally sensitive practices and techniques. This paper provides a basic reformulation of culture and ethnicity and presents the novel concept of an "anthropsychological" model for understanding individual behavior while being sensitive to ethnicity and culture. PMID:11855257

Chestnut, D E

2000-01-01

143

Developmental dynamics of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus during the first postnatal year.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, during the first postnatal year using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-NT. Ten human postmortem hypothalami obtained from control neonates and infants (aged from 2 h to 1 year of postnatal age) were used. The biochemical kinetics of the binding in all obtained in this study revealed that the binding affinity constants were of high affinity (in the nanomolar range) and did not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Furthermore, competition experiments show insensitivity to levocabastine and were in favor of the presence of the high affinity site of NT receptor. Autoradiographic distribution showed that NT binding sites were widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites was not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities were mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic area. High NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical, and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, low to very low densities could be observed in all the mammillary complex subdivisions, as well as the posterior hypothalamic area. Although this topographical distribution is almost identical during the postnatal period analyzed, age-related variations exist in discrete structures of the hypothalamus. The densities were higher in neonates/less aged infants than older infants in preoptic area (medial and lateral parts). The developmental profile is characterized by a progressive decrease from the neonate period to 1 year of postnatal age with a tendency to reach adult levels. On the other hand, the low levels of NT binding sites observed in posterior hypothalamus did not vary during the first postnatal year. They contrast in that with the very high levels we reported previously in adult. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high NT binding sites density in various structures in many regions in the human neonate/infant hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions. PMID:25309316

Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

2014-01-01

144

Developmental dynamics of neurotensin binding sites in the human hypothalamus during the first postnatal year  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine a detailed mapping of neurotensin (NT) in the human hypothalamus, during the first postnatal year using an in vitro quantitative autoradiography technique and the selective radioligand monoiodo-Tyr3-NT. Ten human postmortem hypothalami obtained from control neonates and infants (aged from 2 h to 1 year of postnatal age) were used. The biochemical kinetics of the binding in all obtained in this study revealed that the binding affinity constants were of high affinity (in the nanomolar range) and did not differ significantly between all cases investigated. Furthermore, competition experiments show insensitivity to levocabastine and were in favor of the presence of the high affinity site of NT receptor. Autoradiographic distribution showed that NT binding sites were widely distributed throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypothalamus. However, the distribution of NT binding sites was not homogenous and regional variations exist. In general, the highest densities were mainly present in the anterior hypothalamic level, particularly in the preoptic area. High NT binding site densities are also present at the mediobasal hypothalamic level, particularly in the paraventricular, parafornical, and dorsomedial nuclei. At the posterior level, low to very low densities could be observed in all the mammillary complex subdivisions, as well as the posterior hypothalamic area. Although this topographical distribution is almost identical during the postnatal period analyzed, age-related variations exist in discrete structures of the hypothalamus. The densities were higher in neonates/less aged infants than older infants in preoptic area (medial and lateral parts). The developmental profile is characterized by a progressive decrease from the neonate period to 1 year of postnatal age with a tendency to reach adult levels. On the other hand, the low levels of NT binding sites observed in posterior hypothalamus did not vary during the first postnatal year. They contrast in that with the very high levels we reported previously in adult. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the occurrence of high NT binding sites density in various structures in many regions in the human neonate/infant hypothalamus, involved in the control of neuroendocrine and/or neurovegetative functions. PMID:25309316

Najimi, Mohamed; Sarrieau, Alain; Kopp, Nicolas; Chigr, Fatiha

2014-01-01

145

Understanding Movement: A Sociocultural Approach to Exploring Moving Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the article is to outline a sociocultural way of exploring human movement. Our ambition is to develop an analytical framework where moving humans are explored in terms of what it means to move as movements are performed by somebody, for a certain purpose, and in a certain situation. We find this approach in poststructural…

Larsson, Hakan; Quennerstedt, Mikael

2012-01-01

146

High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

2013-01-01

147

[Towards understanding human ecology in nursing practice: a concept analysis].  

PubMed

Human ecology is an umbrella concept encompassing several social, physical, and cultural elements existing in the individual's external environment. The pragmatic utility method was used to analyze the "human ecology" concept in order to ascertain the conceptual fit with nursing epistemology and to promote its use by nurses in clinical practice. Relevant articles for the review were retrieved from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CSA databases using the terms "human ecology," "environment," "nursing," and "ecology." Data analysis revealed that human ecology is perceived as a theoretical perspective designating a complex, multilayered, and multidimensional system, one that comprises individuals and their reciprocal interactions with their global environments and the subsequent impact of these interactions upon their health. Human ecology preconditions include the individuals, their environments, and their transactions. Attributes of this concept encompass the characteristics of an open system (e.g., interdependence, reciprocal). PMID:20608260

Huynh, Truc; Alderson, Marie

2010-06-01

148

SUPERNUMERARY RIBS IN DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY BIOASSAYS AND IN HUMAN POPULATIONS: INCIDENCE AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Supernumerary or accessory ribs (SNR), either lumbar (LSNR) or cervical (CSNR) are a common finding in standard developmental toxicology bioassays. The biological significance of these anomalies within the regulatory arena has been problematic and the subject of some...

149

Increasing our Understanding of Human Cognition Through the Study of Fragile X Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. It is caused by reductions in the expression level or function of a single protein, the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), a translational regulator which binds to approximately 4% of brain messenger RNAs. Accumulating evidence suggests that FXS is a complex disorder of cognition, involving interactions between genetic and environmental influences, leading to difficulties in acquiring key life skills including motor skills, language, and proper social behaviors. Since many FXS patients also present with one or more features of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), insights gained from studying the monogenic basis of FXS could pave the way to a greater understanding of underlying features of multigenic ASDs. Here we present an overview of the FXS and FMRP field with the goal of demonstrating how loss of a single protein involved in translational control affects multiple stages of brain development and leads to debilitating consequences on human cognition. We also focus on studies which have rescued or improved FXS symptoms in mice using genetic or therapeutic approaches to reduce protein expression. We end with a brief description of how deficits in translational control are implicated in FXS and certain cases of ASDs, with many recent studies demonstrating that ASDs are likely caused by increases or decreases in the levels of certain key synaptic proteins. The study of FXS and its underlying single genetic cause offers an invaluable opportunity to study how a single gene influences brain development and behavior. © 2013 The Authors. Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 74: 147–177, 2014 PMID:23723176

Denise, Cook; Erin, Nuro; Keith, K. Murai

2014-01-01

150

Brain and Tissue Bank for Developmental Disorders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Brain and Tissue Bank at the University of Maryland at Baltimore is established to advance the research of developmental disorders and is in contract to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. The objective of this human tissue repository is to systematically collect, store, and distribute brain and other tissue for research dedicated to the improved understanding, care and treatment of individuals with developmental disorders. A listing of disorders, tissues and request information is available, in addition to registry information for potential donors.

1995-01-01

151

Developmental robustness.  

PubMed

Developmental robustness, the capacity to stay "on track" despite the myriad vicissitudes that inevitably plague a developing organism, is, I argue, a prerequisite for natural selection and key to our understanding of the evolution of developmental processes. But how is such robustness achieved? And how can we reconcile this property with the delicate precision that seems to characterize so many developmental mechanisms, with what Michael Behe calls "irreducible complexity"? By looking at context, I argue. Developmental mechanisms must be robust with respect to the kinds of insults they are most likely to face, but with respect to less likely vicissitudes, they can be fragile. More specifically, I examine the relative absence of reaction-diffusion mechanisms in development and suggest that such mechanisms, theoretically attractive though they may be, have been judged by evolution to be ill suited for providing protection against the kinds of vicissitudes developing organisms are most likely to face, and have been supplanted by more intricate mechanisms that are protected from insult by structural design. PMID:12547680

Keller, Evelyn Fox

2002-12-01

152

Understanding 3D human torso shape via manifold clustering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovering the variations in human torso shape plays a key role in many design-oriented applications, such as suit designing. With recent advances in 3D surface imaging technologies, people can obtain 3D human torso data that provide more information than traditional measurements. However, how to find different human shapes from 3D torso data is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose to use spectral clustering approach on torso manifold to address this problem. We first represent high-dimensional torso data in a low-dimensional space using manifold learning algorithm. Then the spectral clustering method is performed to get several disjoint clusters. Experimental results show that the clusters discovered by our approach can describe the discrepancies in both genders and human shapes, and our approach achieves better performance than the compared clustering method.

Li, Sheng; Li, Peng; Fu, Yun

2013-05-01

153

High School Students’ Understanding of the Human Body System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive\\u000a the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - “The human body, emphasizing homeostasis”.\\u000a The students’ systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main

Orit Ben-Zvi Assaraf; Jeff Dodick; Jaklin Tripto

2011-01-01

154

Visible Speech Improves Human Language Understanding: Implications for Speech Processing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from the study of human language understanding is presented suggesting that our ability to perceive visible speech can greatly influence our ability to understand and remember spoken language. A view of the speaker's face can greatly aid in the perception of ambiguous or noisy speech and can aid cognitive processing of speech leading to better understanding and recall. Some

Laura A. Thompson; William C. Ogden

1995-01-01

155

Which Aesthetic has the Greatest Effect on Human Understanding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the creation of graph drawing algorithms and systems, designers claim that by producing layouts that optimise certain aesthetic qualities, the graphs are easier to understand. Such aesthetics include maximise symmetry, minimise edge crosses and minimise bends. A previous study aimed to validate these claims with respect to three aesthetics, using paper-based experiments (11). The study reported here is superior

Helen C. Purchase

1997-01-01

156

Out of Sight Is Not out of Mind: Developmental Changes in Infants' Understanding of Visual Perception during the Second Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated 14-, 18-, and 24- month-old infants' understanding of visual perception. Infants viewed films in which a protagonist was either able to view the location of a hidden object (Visual Access condition) or was blindfolded when the object location was revealed (No Visual Access condition). When requested to find the…

Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Sodian, Beate; Metz, Ulrike; Tilden, Joanne; Schoeppner, Barbara

2007-01-01

157

Use of a mouse in vitro fertilization model to understand the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis.  

PubMed

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis holds that alterations to homeostasis during critical periods of development can predispose individuals to adult-onset chronic diseases such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It remains controversial whether preimplantation embryo manipulation, clinically used to treat patients with infertility, disturbs homeostasis and affects long-term growth and metabolism. To address this controversy, we have assessed the effects of in vitro fertilization (IVF) on postnatal physiology in mice. We demonstrate that IVF and embryo culture, even under conditions considered optimal for mouse embryo culture, alter postnatal growth trajectory, fat accumulation, and glucose metabolism in adult mice. Unbiased metabolic profiling in serum and microarray analysis of pancreatic islets and insulin sensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue) revealed broad changes in metabolic homeostasis, characterized by systemic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Adopting a candidate approach, we identify thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a key molecule involved in integrating cellular nutritional and oxidative states with metabolic response, as a marker for preimplantation stress and demonstrate tissue-specific epigenetic and transcriptional TXNIP misregulation in selected adult tissues. Importantly, dysregulation of TXNIP expression is associated with enrichment for H4 acetylation at the Txnip promoter that persists from the blastocyst stage through adulthood in adipose tissue. Our data support the vulnerability of preimplantation embryos to environmental disturbance and demonstrate that conception by IVF can reprogram metabolic homeostasis through metabolic, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms with lasting effects for adult growth and fitness. This study has wide clinical relevance and underscores the importance of continued follow-up of IVF-conceived offspring. PMID:24684304

Feuer, Sky K; Liu, Xiaowei; Donjacour, Annemarie; Lin, Wingka; Simbulan, Rhodel K; Giritharan, Gnanaratnam; Piane, Luisa Delle; Kolahi, Kevin; Ameri, Kurosh; Maltepe, Emin; Rinaudo, Paolo F

2014-05-01

158

The Prevalence of Chromosomal Deletions Relating to Developmental Delay and/or Intellectual Disability in Human Euploid Blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal anomalies in human embryos produced by in vitro fertilization are very common, which include numerical (aneuploidy) and structural (deletion, duplication or others) anomalies. Our previous study indicated that chromosomal deletion(s) is the most common structural anomaly accounting for approximately 8% of euploid blastocysts. It is still unknown if these deletions in human euploid blastocysts have clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed 15 previously diagnosed euploid blastocysts that had chromosomal deletion(s) using Agilent oligonucleotide DNA microarray platform and localized the gene location in each deletion. Then, we used OMIM gene map and phenotype database to investigate if these deletions are related with some important genes that cause genetic diseases, especially developmental delay or intellectual disability. As results, we found that the detectable chromosomal deletion size with Agilent microarray is above 2.38 Mb, while the deletions observed in human blastocysts are between 11.6 to 103 Mb. With OMIM gene map and phenotype database information, we found that deletions can result in loss of 81-464 genes. Out of these genes, 34–149 genes are related with known genetic problems. Furthermore, we found that 5 out of 15 samples lost genes in the deleted region, which were related to developmental delay and/or intellectual disability. In conclusion, our data indicates that all human euploid blastocysts with chromosomal deletion(s) are abnormal and transfer of these embryos may cause birth defects and/or developmental and intellectual disabilities. Therefore, the embryos with chromosomal deletion revealed by DNA microarray should not be transferred to the patients, or further gene map and/or phenotype seeking is necessary before making a final decision. PMID:24409323

He, Wenyin; Sun, Xiaofang; Liu, Lian; Li, Man; Jin, Hua; Wang, Wei-Hua

2014-01-01

159

Work in progress — Phenomenographic approach to understanding students' ways of experiencing human-centered design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-centered approaches to design contribute to innovations in engineering design and have been shown to increase productivity, improve quality, reduce errors, improve acceptance of new products, and reduce development costs. Understanding the ways in which students understand and experience human-centered design is needed to create effective design learning experiences to develop the skills needed for human-centered design. To address that

Carla B. Zoltowski; William C. Oakes; Monica E. Cardella

2010-01-01

160

Understanding human-landscape interactions in the "Anthropocene".  

PubMed

This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)--"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"--suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified--thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops--serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science. PMID:23793544

Harden, Carol P; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A; Gerlak, Andrea K; McDowell, Patricia F; McNamara, Dylan E; Peterson, Jeffrey M; Poff, N LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A; Solecki, William D; Wohl, Ellen E

2014-01-01

161

Understanding Human-Landscape Interactions in the "Anthropocene"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)—"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"—suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified—thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops—serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

Harden, Carol P.; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R.; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; McDowell, Patricia F.; McNamara, Dylan E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A.; Solecki, William D.; Wohl, Ellen E.

2014-01-01

162

A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

2005-01-01

163

A hierarchical framework for understanding human-human interactions in video surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human behavior in video is essential in numerous applications including smart surveillance, video annotation/retrieval, and human-computer interaction. However, recognizing human interactions is a challenging task due to ambiguity in body articulation, variations in body size and appearance, loose clothing, mutual occlusion, and shadows. In this paper we present a framework for recognizing human actions and interactions in color video, and a hierarchical graphical model that unifies multiple-level processing in video computing: pixel level, blob level, object level, and event level. A mixture of Gaussian (MOG) model is used at the pixel level to train and classify individual pixel colors. A relaxation labeling with attribute relational graph (ARG) is used at the blob level to merge the pixels into coherent blobs and to register inter-blob relations. At the object level, the poses of individual body parts are recognized using Bayesian networks (BNs). At the event level, the actions of a single person are modeled using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN). The results of the object-level descriptions for each person are juxtaposed along a common timeline to identify an interaction between two persons. The linguistic 'verb argument structure' is used to represent human action in terms of triplets. A meaningful semantic description in terms of is obtained. Our system achieves semantic descriptions of positive, neutral, and negative interactions between two persons including hand-shaking, standing hand-in-hand, and hugging as the positive interactions, approaching, departing, and pointing as the neutral interactions, and pushing, punching, and kicking as the negative interactions.

Park, Sangho; Aggarwal, J. K.

2004-12-01

164

Ontologies of Developmental Anatomy: Their Current and Future Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central problem in current biology is elucidating the molecular networks that drive developmental change and physiological function. Such knowledge is needed partly to understand these networks, partly to be able to manipulate them, and partly to understand and help treat those human congenital abnormalities that arise as a result of mutation. Thus far, bioinformatics technology has been of limited

Jonathan Bard; Robin Winter

2001-01-01

165

Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled…

Gwon, Misook

2012-01-01

166

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

Belief Tasks . . . . . . . . . . 36 6 Correlations Between Number of Pets and Performance on False Belief Tasks . . . . . . INTRODUCTION How and when do children come to understand their own mental states and those of others'? How do they distinguish... were recruited from one of eight local area preschools that had pets in the classroom areas. Included in the pets of the eleven classrooms used were three guinea pigs, two rabbits, two hamsters, two fish, two hedgehogs, two mice, one gerbil, and one...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

2012-06-07

167

Applying artificial vision models to human scene understanding  

PubMed Central

How do we understand the complex patterns of neural responses that underlie scene understanding? Studies of the network of brain regions held to be scene-selective—the parahippocampal/lingual region (PPA), the retrosplenial complex (RSC), and the occipital place area (TOS)—have typically focused on single visual dimensions (e.g., size), rather than the high-dimensional feature space in which scenes are likely to be neurally represented. Here we leverage well-specified artificial vision systems to explicate a more complex understanding of how scenes are encoded in this functional network. We correlated similarity matrices within three different scene-spaces arising from: (1) BOLD activity in scene-selective brain regions; (2) behavioral measured judgments of visually-perceived scene similarity; and (3) several different computer vision models. These correlations revealed: (1) models that relied on mid- and high-level scene attributes showed the highest correlations with the patterns of neural activity within the scene-selective network; (2) NEIL and SUN—the models that best accounted for the patterns obtained from PPA and TOS—were different from the GIST model that best accounted for the pattern obtained from RSC; (3) The best performing models outperformed behaviorally-measured judgments of scene similarity in accounting for neural data. One computer vision method—NEIL (“Never-Ending-Image-Learner”), which incorporates visual features learned as statistical regularities across web-scale numbers of scenes—showed significant correlations with neural activity in all three scene-selective regions and was one of the two models best able to account for variance in the PPA and TOS. We suggest that these results are a promising first step in explicating more fine-grained models of neural scene understanding, including developing a clearer picture of the division of labor among the components of the functional scene-selective brain network.

Aminoff, Elissa M.; Toneva, Mariya; Shrivastava, Abhinav; Chen, Xinlei; Misra, Ishan; Gupta, Abhinav; Tarr, Michael J.

2015-01-01

168

Developmental Fate and Cellular Maturity Encoded in Human Regulatory DNA Landscapes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Cellular-state information between generations of developing cells may be propagated via regulatory regions. We report consistent patterns of gain and loss of DNase I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) as cells progress from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to terminal fates. DHS patterns alone convey rich information about cell fate and lineage relationships distinct from information conveyed by gene expression. Developing cells share a proportion of their DHS landscapes with ESCs; that proportion decreases continuously in each cell type as differentiation progresses, providing a quantitative benchmark of developmental maturity. Developmentally stable DHSs densely encode binding sites for transcription factors involved in autoregulatory feedback circuits. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells extensively reactivate silenced ESC DHSs and those from developmental programs external to the cell lineage from which the malignancy derives. Our results point to changes in regulatory DNA landscapes as quantitative indicators of cell-fate transitions, lineage relationships, and dysfunction. PMID:23953118

Reynolds, Alex; Humbert, Richard; Miller, Brady; Paige, Sharon L.; Vernot, Benjamin; Cheng, Jeffrey B.; Thurman, Robert E.; Sandstrom, Richard; Haugen, Eric; Heimfeld, Shelly; Murry, Charles E.; Akey, Joshua M.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

2014-01-01

169

High School Students' Understanding of the Human Body System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum - "The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly divides it into three main levels that are arranged "pyramid" style, in an ascending order of difficulty: 1. Analysis of system components—the ability to identify the components and processes existing in the human body system; 2. Synthesis of system components—ability to identify dynamic relations within the system; 3. Implementation—ability to generalize and identify patterns in the system, and to identify its hidden dimensions. The students in this study proved largely incapable of achieving systems thinking beyond the primary STH level of identifying components. An overwhelming majority if their responses corresponded to this level of the STH model, further indicating a pronounced favoring of structure over process, and of larger, macro elements over microscopic ones.

Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin

2013-02-01

170

Non-Mendelian developmental defects: animal models and implications for research into human disease*  

PubMed Central

The major groups of malformations in man are polygenic in origin but this review deals only with defects due to non-Mendelian factors. Animal models that help in identifying the causes and in understanding the numerous and often subtle mechanisms of human malformations are of particular value. Many chemicals, physical agents, and nutritional deficiencies affect experimental species but few are teratogenic for domestic animals and even fewer for man. The known fetopathic viruses of animals and man cross the placenta to cause chronic, nonlethal fetal damage without harm to the mother. Ionizing radiations are teratogenic for all species and hyperthermia for many, but the role of the latter in human development is uncertain. The identification of more animal species with spontaneous or induced defects comparable to those found in man and of additional causative teratogens will increase the resources available for research into the causes and mechanisms of abnormal development in man. No animal species is ideal in teratological research but each has its virtues. This report comments on the present status of research in teratology and the trends that might profitably be followed in the future. PMID:413638

1977-01-01

171

GENETIC ANOMALIES IN MAMMALIAN GERM CELLS AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The induction of heritable mutations in germ cells represents a potential health concern. his paper will highlight several themes in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis and their implications in reproductive and developmental risk. dditionally, factors that influence the yield of g...

172

Analysis of gene expression in a developmental context emphasizes distinct biological leitmotifs in human cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In recent years, the molecular underpinnings of the long-observed resemblance between neoplastic and immature tissue have begun to emerge. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling has revealed similar gene expression signatures in several tumor types and early developmental stages of their tissue of origin. However, it remains unclear whether such a relationship is a universal feature of malignancy, whether heterogeneities exist

Kamila Naxerova; Carol J Bult; Anne Peaston; Karen Fancher; Barbara B Knowles; Simon Kasif; Isaac S Kohane

2008-01-01

173

Understanding Human Glycosylation Disorders: Biochemistry Leads the Charge*  

PubMed Central

Nearly 70 inherited human glycosylation disorders span a breathtaking clinical spectrum, impacting nearly every organ system and launching a family-driven diagnostic odyssey. Advances in genetics, especially next generation sequencing, propelled discovery of many glycosylation disorders in single and multiple pathways. Interpretation of whole exome sequencing results, insights into pathological mechanisms, and possible therapies will hinge on biochemical analysis of patient-derived materials and animal models. Biochemical diagnostic markers and readouts offer a physiological context to confirm candidate genes. Recent discoveries suggest novel perspectives for textbook biochemistry and novel research opportunities. Basic science and patients are the immediate beneficiaries of this bidirectional collaboration. PMID:23329837

Freeze, Hudson H.

2013-01-01

174

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle.  

PubMed

Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts-including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

2013-07-01

175

A chronology of human understanding of the nitrogen cycle†  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen over the ages! It was discovered in the eighteenth century. The following century, its importance in agriculture was documented and the basic components of its cycle were elucidated. In the twentieth century, a process to provide an inexhaustible supply of reactive N (Nr; all N species except N2) for agricultural, industrial and military uses was invented. This discovery and the extensive burning of fossil fuels meant that by the beginning of the twenty-first century, anthropogenic sources of newly created Nr were two to three times that of natural terrestrial sources. This caused a fundamental change in the nitrogen cycle; for the first time, there was the potential for enough food to sustain growing populations and changing dietary patterns. However, most Nr created by humans is lost to the environment, resulting in a cascade of negative earth systems impacts—including enhanced acid rain, smog, eutrophication, greenhouse effect and stratospheric ozone depletion, with associated impacts on human and ecosystem health. The impacts continue and will be magnified, as Nr is lost to the environment at an even greater rate. Thus, the challenge for the current century is how to optimize the uses of N while minimizing the negative impacts. PMID:23713118

Galloway, James N.; Leach, Allison M.; Bleeker, Albert; Erisman, Jan Willem

2013-01-01

176

Understanding the human health effects of chemical mixtures.  

PubMed Central

Most research on the effects of chemicals on biologic systems is conducted on one chemical at a time. However, in the real world people are exposed to mixtures, not single chemicals. Although various substances may have totally independent actions, in many cases two substances may act at the same site in ways that can be either additive or nonadditive. Many even more complex interactions may occur if two chemicals act at different but related targets. In the extreme case there may be synergistic effects, in which case the effects of two substances together are greater than the sum of either effect alone. In reality, most persons are exposed to many chemicals, not just one or two, and therefore the effects of a chemical mixture are extremely complex and may differ for each mixture depending on the chemical composition. This complexity is a major reason why mixtures have not been well studied. In this review we attempt to illustrate some of the principles and approaches that can be used to study effects of mixtures. By the nature of the state of the science, this discussion is more a presentation of what we do not know than of what we do know about mixtures. We approach the study of mixtures at three levels, using specific examples. First, we discuss several human diseases in relation to a variety of environmental agents believed to influence the development and progression of the disease. We present results of selected cellular and animal studies in which simple mixtures have been investigated. Finally, we discuss some of the effects of mixtures at a molecular level. PMID:11834461

Carpenter, David O; Arcaro, Kathleen; Spink, David C

2002-01-01

177

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

2007-01-01

178

Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects.  

EPA Science Inventory

The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive developm...

179

Biomarkers of human oocyte developmental competence expressed in cumulus cells before ICSI: a preliminary study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify reliable genomic biomarkers expressed in cumulus cells that accurately and non-invasively predict the oocyte developmental\\u000a competence and reinforce the already used morphological criteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eight consenting patients were selected for ovarian stimulation and ICSI procedures. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were transvaginally\\u000a punctured and individually selected based on both good morphological criteria and high zona pellucida birefringence. Following\\u000a ICSI, two 3-day embryos

Mourad Assidi; Markus Montag; Katrin Van Der Ven; Marc-André Sirard

2011-01-01

180

Deconstructing Pancreas Developmental Biology  

PubMed Central

The relentless nature and increasing prevalence of human pancreatic diseases, in particular, diabetes mellitus and adenocarcinoma, has motivated further understanding of pancreas organogenesis. The pancreas is a multifunctional organ whose epithelial cells govern a diversity of physiologically vital endocrine and exocrine functions. The mechanisms governing the birth, differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, maturation, and maintenance of the endocrine and exocrine components in the pancreas have been discovered recently with increasing tempo. This includes recent studies unveiling mechanisms permitting unexpected flexibility in the developmental potential of immature and mature pancreatic cell subsets, including the ability to interconvert fates. In this article, we describe how classical cell biology, genetic analysis, lineage tracing, and embryological investigations are being complemented by powerful modern methods including epigenetic analysis, time-lapse imaging, and flow cytometry-based cell purification to dissect fundamental processes of pancreas development. PMID:22587935

Benitez, Cecil M.; Goodyer, William R.

2012-01-01

181

The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of developmental theory and developmental psychopathology in understanding the development, maintenance, and course of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is explored in this article. Following a brief examination of the phenomenology of SAD in youth, we provide an overview of the tenets of developmental psychology and developmental psychopathology, including the principles of equifinality (i.e., the same outcome can result

Thomas H Ollendick; Dina R Hirshfeld-Becker

2002-01-01

182

The effect of human follicular fluid on bovine oocyte developmental competence and embryo quality.  

PubMed

In this study, the hypothesis that embryo development during routine IVF procedures is determined by the pre-ovulatory follicular fluid composition was tested. Follicular fluid from women with obesity ('obese') and a 'positive' or 'negative' IVF outcome was added during the in-vitro maturation of bovine oocytes. 'Negative' and 'obese' follicular fluid reduced bovine embryo development, compared with laboratory control embryo development (P < 0.05 or P < 0.1). The addition of follicular fluid also altered bovine blastocyst gene expression. Furthermore, LDHA and PPARGC1B gene expression differed between follicular fluid groups. Data suggest that pre-ovulatory follicular fluid can potentially affect oocyte developmental competence and embryo quality. Furthermore, the bovine model may be used as a screening tool. PMID:25498595

Valckx, Sara D M; De Bie, Jessie; Michiels, Ellen D; Goovaerts, Ilse G; Punjabi, Usha; Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Bols, Peter E; Leroy, Jo L

2015-02-01

183

Understanding the meaning of human dignity in Korea: a content analysis  

PubMed Central

This study aims to understand the meaning of human dignity among adults in Korea. The authors utilized a qualitative study design. Data were collected with non-structured questions in a sample of 74 Korean adults and were then analyzed with qualitative content analysis. There were 4 categories, 31 themes and 106 theme clusters classified. The four categories that emerged were: fullness of dignity, loss of dignity, reinforcement of dignity, and enfeeblement of dignity. The results of this study may contribute to healthcare professionals’ understanding of Korean adults’ human dignity. PMID:19430413

Jo, Kae-Hwa; Doorenbos, Ardith

2010-01-01

184

The Ecological and Developmental Role of Recovery High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recovery high schools are secondary schools designed specifically for students recovering from substance use or co-occurring disorders. Studies have affirmed the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the developmental value of social supports for adolescents. As part of understanding human growth and development, training programs for…

Finch, Andrew J.; Frieden, Gina

2014-01-01

185

Structure and Sequence of the Human Fast Skeletal Troponin T (TNNT3) Gene: Insight Into the Evolution of the Gene and the Origin of the Developmentally Regulated Isoforms  

PubMed Central

We describe the cloning, sequencing and structure of the human fast skeletal troponin T (TNNT3) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5. The single-copy gene encodes 19 exons and 18 introns. Eleven of these exons, 1–3, 9–15 and 18, are constitutively spliced, whereas exons 4–8 are alternatively spliced. The gene contains an additional subset of developmentally regulated and alternatively spliced exons, including a foetal exon located between exon 8 and 9 and exon 16 or ? (adult) and 17 or ? (foetal and neonatal). Exon phasing suggests that the majority of the alternatively spliced exons located at the 5? end of the gene may have evolved as a result of exon shuffling, because they are of the same phase class. In contrast, the 3? exons encoding an evolutionarily conserved heptad repeat domain, shared by both TnT and troponin I (TnI), may be remnants of an ancient ancestral gene. The sequence of the 5? flanking region shows that the putative promoter contains motifs including binding sites for MyoD, MEF-2 and several transcription factors which may play a role in transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression of TnT. The coding region of TNNT3 exhibits strong similarity to the corresponding rat sequence. However, unlike the rat TnT gene, TNNT3 possesses two repeat regions of CCA and TC. The exclusive presence of these repetitive elements in the human gene indicates divergence in the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian TnT genes. Homologous muscle-specific splicing enhancer motifs are present in the introns upstream and downstream of the foetal exon, and may play a role in the developmental pattern of alternative splicing of the gene. The genomic correlates of TNNT3 are relevant to our understanding of the evolution and regulation of expression of the gene, as well as the structure and function of the protein isoforms. The nucleotide sequence of TNNT3 has been submitted to EMBL/GenBank under Accession No. AF026276. PMID:18629027

Stefancsik, Raymund; Randall, Jeffrey D.; Mao, Chengjian

2003-01-01

186

Developmentally Learning the Support Affordance of a Platform Brian Russell, Shuky Meyer, Karl Deakyne and Alexander Stoytchev, Developmental Robotics Lab  

E-print Network

Deakyne and Alexander Stoytchev, Developmental Robotics Lab 2. Motivation 4. Methodology 5. Results 6 robotics. In particular, support cannot be learned through programming alone, it must be learned by the robot in order to perform tasks intelligently. Humans begin to understand the concept of support

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

187

Applying principles of robotics to understand the biomechanics, neuromuscular control and clinical rehabilitation of human digits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the biomechanical complexity of the human hand, it is not surprising that the grasping ability of individuals after treatment for severe paralysis or injury can seldom be restored to the level of the “normal” hand. Improving clinical outcomes will require: i) developing experimental paradigms to evaluate hand function objectively, ii) understanding how the nervous system controls the redundant musculature

Francisco J. Valero-Cuevas

2000-01-01

188

The Psychology of Isolated and Confined Environments: Understanding Human Behavior in Antarctica.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews lessons learned from research in Antarctica with relevance to understanding human behavior in other isolated and confined environments. Outlines four distinct characteristics of psychosocial adaptation to such environments and discusses some of the benefits for individuals seeking challenging experiences. (Contains references.) (SLD)

Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2003-01-01

189

X Chromosome Abnormalities and Cognitive Development: Implications for Understanding Normal Human Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that knowledge from studies of individuals with sex chromosome abnormalities can further understanding of aspects of normal human development. Studies of XO girls, XXY boys, XXX girls, and males with a fragile X chromosome are summarized to demonstrate how results contribute to knowledge about normal cognitive development and about…

Walzer, Stanley

1985-01-01

190

A distinction fundamental to our understanding of human and animal memory systems is that between ref-  

E-print Network

and Demas used a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the expected tendencies of the bees to revisit locationsA distinction fundamental to our understanding of human and animal memory systems is that between-duration reference memory system, whereas a relatively small-capacity and often short-duration sys- tem is used

Cook, Robert

191

Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as cell therapeutics for neurological disease. Compared with other types of stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, such as limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potential into functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. In spite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolation from the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion, have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs. However, several groups have recently developed novel techniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normal adult brains, and showed successful applications of aNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologies for aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdles in stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could be overcome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerative stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25621112

Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

2015-01-01

192

Adult human neural stem cell therapeutics: Current developmental status and prospect.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, regenerative therapies using stem cell technologies have been developed for various neurological diseases. Although stem cell therapy is an attractive option to reverse neural tissue damage and to recover neurological deficits, it is still under development so as not to show significant treatment effects in clinical settings. In this review, we discuss the scientific and clinical basics of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs), and their current developmental status as cell therapeutics for neurological disease. Compared with other types of stem cells, aNSCs have clinical advantages, such as limited proliferation, inborn differentiation potential into functional neural cells, and no ethical issues. In spite of the merits of aNSCs, difficulties in the isolation from the normal brain, and in the in vitro expansion, have blocked preclinical and clinical study using aNSCs. However, several groups have recently developed novel techniques to isolate and expand aNSCs from normal adult brains, and showed successful applications of aNSCs to neurological diseases. With new technologies for aNSCs and their clinical strengths, previous hurdles in stem cell therapies for neurological diseases could be overcome, to realize clinically efficacious regenerative stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25621112

Nam, Hyun; Lee, Kee-Hang; Nam, Do-Hyun; Joo, Kyeung Min

2015-01-26

193

Developmental Regulation of Genomic Imprinting of the IGF2 Gene in Human Liver1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of the expression of the human insulin-like growth factor II gene is knownto be complex,displayingboth tissue-specificand develop mental regulation. Insulin-like growth factor II is expressed at high levels in most tissues in the human fetus and appears to be importantin fetal growth. In adult life, high levels of expressionare found chiefly in liver, kidney, skin, nerve, and muscle tissue.

Stella M. Davies

194

Developmentally regulated expression of the novel cancer anti-apoptosis gene survivin in human and mouse differentiation.  

PubMed Central

Inhibitors of programmed cell death (apoptosis) may regulate tissue differentiation and aberrantly promote cell survival in neoplasia. A novel apoptosis inhibitor of the IAP gene family, designated survivin, was recently found in all of the most common human cancers but not in normal, terminally differentiated adult tissues. The expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated strong expression of survivin in several apoptosis-regulated fetal tissues, including the stem cell layer of stratified epithelia, endocrine pancreas, and thymic medulla, with a pattern that did not overlap with that of another apoptosis inhibitor, bcl-2. A sequence-specific antibody to survivin immunoblotted a single approximately 16.5-kd survivin band in human fetal lung, liver, heart, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. In mouse embryo, prominent and nearly ubiquitous distribution of survivin was found at embryonic day (E)11.5, whereas at E15 to -21, survivin expression was restricted to the distal bronchiolar epithelium of the lung and neural-crest-derived cells, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, hypophysis, and the choroid plexus. These data suggest that expression of survivin in embryonic and fetal development may contribute to tissue homeostasis and differentiation independently of bcl-2. Aberrations of this developmental pathway may result in prominent re-expression of survivin in neoplasia and abnormally prolonged cell viability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9422522

Adida, C.; Crotty, P. L.; McGrath, J.; Berrebi, D.; Diebold, J.; Altieri, D. C.

1998-01-01

195

Differences in lymphocyte developmental potential between human embryonic stem cell and umbilical cord blood–derived hematopoietic progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) develop into diverse mature hematopoietic lineages, including lymphocytes. Whereas functional natural killer (NK) cells can be efficiently generated in vitro from hESC-derived CD34+ cells, studies of T- and B-cell development from hESCs have been much more limited. Here, we demonstrate that despite expressing functional Notch-1, CD34+ cells from hESCs did not derive T cells when cocultured with OP9 cells expressing Delta-like 1, or in fetal thymus organ culture. hESC-derived CD34+ cells also did not produce B cells in vitro. In contrast, CD34+ cells isolated from UCB routinely generated T and B cells when cultured in the same conditions. Notably, both undifferentiated hESCs, and sorted hESC-derived populations with hematopoietic developmental potential exhibited constitutive expression of ID family genes and of transcriptional targets of stem cell factor–induced signaling. These pathways both inhibit T-cell development and promote NK-cell development. Together, these results demonstrate fundamental differences between hESC-derived hematopoietic progenitors and analogous primary human cells. Therefore, hESCs can be more readily supported to differentiate into certain cell types than others, findings that have important implications for derivation of defined lineage-committed populations from hESCs. PMID:18621931

Martin, Colin H.; Woll, Petter S.; Ni, Zhenya; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

2008-01-01

196

The Importance of Human Reliability Analysis in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HRA is a method used to describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the occurrence of human failures in the operation of complex systems that affect availability and reliability. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure in a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) provides a more complete picture of the risk and risk contributions. A high quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedural, equipment design and need for automation.

Hamlin, Teri L.

2010-01-01

197

Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait  

SciTech Connect

The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Saltman, D.L. (Genelabs, Inc., Redwood City, CA (United States))

1991-12-01

198

Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives on Humans' Sense of the Times of Past and Future Events  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mental time travel in human adults includes a sense of when past events occurred and future events are expected to occur. Studies with adults and children reveal that a number of distinct psychological processes contribute to a temporally differentiated sense of the past and future. Adults possess representations of multiple time patterns, and…

Friedman, W.J.

2005-01-01

199

Constitutive activation of fibroblast growth factor receptors in human developmental syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) represent specific receptors for the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), a family of at least 13 polypeptides. Ligand\\/receptor interactions between FGFs and their receptors are involved in many fundamental biological processes, particularly cell growth and differentiation during chondrogenesis and myogenesis. The four different human FGFR genes encode related glycoproteins with a common structure consisting of

Melanie K. Webster; Daniel J. Donoghue

1998-01-01

200

Species-Specific Differential AhR Expression Protects Human Neural Progenitor Cells against Developmental Neurotoxicity of PAHs  

PubMed Central

Background Because of their lipophilicity, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) cross the human placenta, possibly affecting central nervous system development. Most POPs are known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands and activators of AhR signaling. Therefore, AhR activation has been suggested to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Objective We studied the effects of AhR ligands on basic processes of brain development in two comparative in vitro systems to determine whether AhR-activation is the underlying mechanism for reported DNT of POPs in humans. Methods We employed neurosphere cultures based on human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and wild-type and AhR-deficient mouse NPCs (mNPCs) and studied the effects of different AhR agonists [3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)] and an antagonist [3?-methoxy-4?-nitroflavone (MNF)] on neurosphere development. Moreover, we analyzed expression of AhR and genes involved in AhR signaling. Results In contrast to wild-type mNPCs, hNPCs and AhR-deficient mNPCs were insensitive to AhR agonism or antagonism. Although AhR modulation attenuated wild-type mNPC proliferation and migration, hNPCs and AhR-deficient mNPCs remained unaffected. Results also suggest that species-specific differences resulted from nonfunctional AhR signaling in hNPCs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that in contrast to wild-type mNPCs, hNPCs were protected against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon–induced DNT because of an absence of AhR. This difference may contribute to species-specific differences in sensitivity to POPs. PMID:20570779

Gassmann, Kathrin; Abel, Josef; Bothe, Hanno; Haarmann-Stemmann, Thomas; Merk, Hans F.; Quasthoff, Kim N.; Rockel, Thomas Dino; Schreiber, Timm; Fritsche, Ellen

2010-01-01

201

Understanding Human Action in Daily Life Scene based on Action Decomposition using Dictionary Terms and Bayesian Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a novel approach for understanding human actions in daily life scene by decomposing the human motions into actions primitive using the definition of the motion verb in dictionary and representing the relationship of the action words using Bayesian network. Because there are so many variant of human motions and the difficulty in naming the human

Juanda Lokman; Jun-ichi Imai; Masahide Kaneko

2008-01-01

202

What imitation tells us about social cognition: a rapprochement between developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both developmental and neurophysiological research suggest a common coding between perceived and generated actions. This shared representational network is innately wired in humans. We review psycho- logical evidence concerning the imitative behaviour of newborn human infants. We suggest that the mech- anisms involved in infant imitation provide the foundation for understanding that others are ' like me' and underlie the

Andrew N. Meltzoff; Jean Decety

2003-01-01

203

An investigation of the general, reproductive and postnatal developmental toxicity of Betapol, a human milk fat equivalent.  

PubMed

Betapol consists of triglyceride fatty acids commonly found in vegetable and animal fats. A similarity to human milk fat indicated a potential use in infant formulae as well as for food use in general. To test the potential for substantial equivalence with a related food grade oil, palm oil, Betapol was fed to rats at 15% content in the diet using an augmented two-generation study, in order to obtain information on general (6 months), reproductive and postnatal developmental toxicity in a single study rather than separate studies. For comparison there were two control groups, namely a comparative control fed a diet containing 15% of food grade oil and a negative, or laboratory standard control fed a commercial rodent breeding diet (LAD), containing 2.3-4.7% fat. It was reasoned that if Betapol fed groups showed differences from the comparative control in the direction of the negative control these would reflect differences in the nutritional value of the high fat diets. Presence of a toxicant might be indicated by differences from the comparative control group opposite to the negative control group. The group fed 15% Betapol showed occasional, statistically significant differences from the comparative control group but the direction of difference was towards the negative control group and did not indicate the presence of an unexpected toxicant. PMID:12909269

Spurgeon, M J; Palmer, A K; Hepburn, P A

2003-10-01

204

Brief communication: Developmental versus functional three-dimensional geometric morphometric-based modularity of the human proximal humerus.  

PubMed

The proximal humerus is formed by three secondary ossification centers during the postnatal trajectory of the human infant. The ossification centers later grow into the structures of the articular surface, major tubercle, and minor tubercle. There is a purported functional division between the articular surface and the tubercles, with the articular surface mainly responsible for the range of movement of the shoulder joint, and the tubercles bearing the insertions of the rotator cuff muscles, mainly devoted to securing the joint against humeral displacement. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, we tested the presence of such developmental and functional divisions in the proximal humerus, applying the RV coefficient of Escoufier to these a priori hypothesized modules. Our results indicate that the proximal humerus might be a generally integrated structure. However, a weak signal for modular configuration was present, with slightly stronger support for the two modules depicting the boundaries between the purported functional regions of the epiphysis: the articular surface and the tubercles. PMID:24723325

Arias-Martorell, Julia; Potau, Josep Maria; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

2014-07-01

205

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

PubMed Central

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely that the mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and evidence from humans makes a strong case against the position. PMID:19199415

Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

206

Thyrotropin acts as a T-cell developmental factor in mice and humans.  

PubMed

Using gene expression profiling, we detected differential thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) expression during human T-cell development in the thymus. This expression pattern indicated a potential role for the TSH-R within the thymus, independent of its function in the thyroid gland. Here, we demonstrate that TSH-R expression is thymus-specific within the immune system. TSH was able to bind and activate the TSH-R present on thymocytes, thereby activating calcium signaling and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signaling pathways. Mice lacking functional TSH-R expression (hyt/hyt mice) were shown to have lower frequencies of DP and SP thymocytes compared to their heterozygous littermates. Moreover, addition of TSH to co-cultures of human thymocytes enhanced T-cell development. Thus, TSH acts as a previously unrecognized growth factor for developing T cells, with potential clinical use to enhance thymic output and thereby the functional T-cell repertoire in the periphery. The direct effects of TSH on thymocytes may also explain the thus far enigmatic thymic hyperplasia in Graves' disease. PMID:24635198

van der Weerd, Kim; van Hagen, P Martin; Schrijver, Benjamin; Heuvelmans, Sjanneke J W M; Hofland, Leo J; Swagemakers, Sigrid M A; Bogers, Ad J J C; Dik, Willem A; Visser, Theo J; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Staal, Frank J T

2014-06-01

207

Developmental profile of neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus: an immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Hippocampus has attracted the attention of the neuroscientists for its involvement in a wide spectrum of higher-order brain functions and pathological conditions, especially its persistent neurogenesis in subgranular zone (SGZ). The development of hippocampus was intensively investigated on animals such as rodents. However, in prenatal human hippocampus, little information on the distribution of neural stem/progenitor cells, newly generated neurons and mature neurons is available and the timetable of a series of neurogenesis event is even more obscure. So in the present study, we aim at immunohistochemically providing more information on neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation. We found that the ki67-positive cells were always detected in hippocampus from 9 weeks to 32 weeks, with a peak at 9 weeks in cornu ammonis (CA) or 14 weeks in dentate gyrus (DG). At 9 weeks the nestin-expressing cells were distributed throughout the hippocampus, with concentrated immunoreactivity in intermediate zone (IZ), marginal zone (MZ), fimbria, and relatively sparse immunoreactivity in the ventricular zone (VZ) and hippocampal plate (HP). With development, the optical density (OD) and the number of nestin-positive cells decreased gradually. At 32 weeks, there were relatively more nestin-positive cells in DG than that in CA. About DCX-positive cells, they displayed a similar distribution as nestin-positive cells (immunoreactivity concentrated in IZ, MZ, fimbria and HP) and a dramatic decrease of OD or cell number density from 9 weeks on. NeuN-positive cells, with small nuclei, were firstly found in MZ and subplate of hippocampus at 9 weeks. After 14 weeks, many NeuN-positive cells extended from subplate into HP and the density of NeuN-positive cells peaked at 22 weeks. That the immunoreactivity for NeuN was the strongest and the nuclei were the biggest at 32 weeks suggests that the neurons reach maturity gradually. Therefore this study provides an important timetable of neurogenesis in prenatal human hippocampus for the clinicians in neuroscience or pediatrics. PMID:24999120

Yang, Pengbo; Zhang, Junfeng; Shi, Hangyu; Zhang, Jianshui; Xu, Xi; Xiao, Xinli; Liu, Yong

2014-11-01

208

Four decades of teaching developmental biology in Germany.  

PubMed

I have taught developmental biology in Essen for 30 years. Since my department is named Zoophysiologie (Zoophysiology), besides Developmental Biology, I also have to teach General Animal Physiology. This explains why the time for teaching developmental biology is restricted to a lecture course, a laboratory course and several seminar courses. However, I also try to demonstrate in the lecture courses on General Physiology the close relationship between developmental biology, physiology, morphology, anatomy, teratology, carcinogenesis, evolution and ecology (importance of environmental factors on embryogenesis). Students are informed that developmental biology is a core discipline of biology. In the last decade, knowledge about molecular mechanisms in different organisms has exponentially increased. The students are trained to understand the close relationship between conserved gene structure, gene function and signaling pathways, in addition to or as an extension of, classical concepts. Public reports about the human genome project and stem cell research (especially therapeutic and reproductive cloning) have shown that developmental biology, both in traditional view and at the molecular level, is essential for the understanding of these complex topics and for serious and non-emotional debate. PMID:12705670

Grunz, Horst

2003-01-01

209

Developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of arithmetic skills in an otherwise-normal child. Although poor teaching, environmental deprivation, and low intelligence have been implicated in the etiology of developmental dyscalculia, current data indicate that this learning disability is a brain-based disorder with a familial-genetic predisposition. The neurologic substrate of developmental dyscalculia is thought to involve both hemispheres, particularly the left parietotemporal areas. Developmental dyscalculia is a common cognitive handicap; its prevalence in the school population is about 5-6%, a frequency similar to those of developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unlike these, however, it is as common in females as in males. Developmental dyscalculia frequently is encountered in neurologic disorders, examples of which include attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. The long-term prognosis of developmental dyscalculia is unknown; it appears, however, to persist, at least for the short-term, in about half of affected preteen children. The consequences of developmental dyscalculia and its impact on education, employment, and psychologic well-being of affected individuals are unknown. PMID:11516606

Shalev, R S; Gross-Tsur, V

2001-05-01

210

Understanding specificity in metabolic pathways-Structural biology of human nucleotide metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Interactions are the foundation of life at the molecular level. In the plethora of activities in the cell, the evolution of enzyme specificity requires the balancing of appropriate substrate affinity with a negative selection, in order to minimize interactions with other potential substrates in the cell. To understand the structural basis for enzyme specificity, the comparison of structural and biochemical data between enzymes within pathways using similar substrates and effectors is valuable. Nucleotide metabolism is one of the largest metabolic pathways in the human cell and is of outstanding therapeutic importance since it activates and catabolises nucleoside based anti-proliferative drugs and serves as a direct target for anti-proliferative drugs. In recent years the structural coverage of the enzymes involved in human nucleotide metabolism has been dramatically improved and is approaching completion. An important factor has been the contribution from the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) at Karolinska Institutet, which recently has solved 33 novel structures of enzymes and enzyme domains in human nucleotide metabolism pathways and homologs thereof. In this review we will discuss some of the principles for substrate specificity of enzymes in human nucleotide metabolism illustrated by a selected set of enzyme families where a detailed understanding of the structural determinants for specificity is now emerging.

Welin, Martin [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Paer, E-mail: Par.Nordlund@ki.se [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden) [Structural Genomics Consortium, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-05-21

211

GATA1 and YY1 are developmental repressors of the human epsilon-globin gene.  

PubMed Central

The human epsilon-globin gene is transcribed in erythroid cells only during the embryonic stages of development. Expression of epsilon-globin gene, however, can be maintained in adult transgenic mice following removal of DNA positioned between -467 and -182 bp upstream of the epsilon-globin cap site. We have identified three protein binding regions within this silencer; a CCACC motif around -379, two overlapping motifs for YY1 and GATA around -269 and a GATA motif around -208 and we have analyzed their function during development by studying several mutants in transgenic mice. Mutation of the -208 GATA motif allows high epsilon-globin transgene expression in the adult suggesting that, in addition to its positive effects on transcription, GATA-1 also plays a negative role in the regulation of globin gene expression during development. Repression of epsilon gene expression in the adult also requires a functional YY1 binding site at position -269. Finally, mutation of the -379 CCACC site results in a small but detectable level of epsilon expression in adult erythroid cells. Thus, multiple proteins, including GATA-1, participate in the formation of the epsilon gene repressor complex that may disrupt the interaction between the proximal epsilon-promoter and the locus control region (LCR) in definitive erythroid cells. Images PMID:7882983

Raich, N; Clegg, C H; Grofti, J; Roméo, P H; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

1995-01-01

212

Early developmental emergence of human amygdala–prefrontal connectivity after maternal deprivation  

PubMed Central

Under typical conditions, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) connections with the amygdala are immature during childhood and become adult-like during adolescence. Rodent models show that maternal deprivation accelerates this development, prompting examination of human amygdala–mPFC phenotypes following maternal deprivation. Previously institutionalized youths, who experienced early maternal deprivation, exhibited atypical amygdala–mPFC connectivity. Specifically, unlike the immature connectivity (positive amygdala–mPFC coupling) of comparison children, children with a history of early adversity evidenced mature connectivity (negative amygdala–mPFC coupling) and thus, resembled the adolescent phenotype. This connectivity pattern was mediated by the hormone cortisol, suggesting that stress-induced modifications of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis shape amygdala–mPFC circuitry. Despite being age-atypical, negative amygdala–mPFC coupling conferred some degree of reduced anxiety, although anxiety was still significantly higher in the previously institutionalized group. These findings suggest that accelerated amygdala–mPFC development is an ontogenetic adaptation in response to early adversity. PMID:24019460

Gee, Dylan G.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel J.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

2013-01-01

213

Developmental hierarchy of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in human leukemic pre-B-cells.  

PubMed Central

We have used a special class of human acute lymphocytic leukemias, the common "non-T/non-B" cell type, to define a hierarchy of genetic rearrangements that occur during the earliest stages of B-cell maturation. This has allowed us to identify intermediate cells predicted by a hierarchial model in which immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene formation precedes that of light chain and in which kappa light chain gene formation precedes that of lambda. The model emphasizes the flexible nature of immunoglobulin gene recombination that not infrequently produces aberrant or null genes that are phenotypically excluded from expression. Remaining alleles or isotypic genes can then be utilized as "spares" undergoing recombination until a valid gene is formed. Significantly, the excluded allele or isotype is frequently deleted from the genome. In addition to defining a pathway of genetic maturation, this analysis provides a powerful means to further classify cases of non-T/non-B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia, most of which seem to reside at early stages along the B-cell pathway of differentiation. Images PMID:6273911

Korsmeyer, S J; Hieter, P A; Ravetch, J V; Poplack, D G; Waldmann, T A; Leder, P

1981-01-01

214

An In Vitro Model of Developmental Synaptogenesis Using Cocultures of Human Neural Progenitors and Cochlear Explants  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the sensory hair cells and auditory neurons do not spontaneously regenerate and their loss results in permanent hearing impairment. Stem cell therapy is one emerging strategy that is being investigated to overcome the loss of sensory cells after hearing loss. To successfully replace auditory neurons, stem cell-derived neurons must be electrically active, capable of organized outgrowth of processes, and of making functional connections with appropriate tissues. We have developed an in vitro assay to test these parameters using cocultures of developing cochlear explants together with neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We found that these neural progenitors are electrically active and extend their neurites toward the sensory hair cells in cochlear explants. Importantly, this neurite extension was found to be significantly greater when neural progenitors were predifferentiated toward a neural crest-like lineage. When grown in coculture with hair cells only (denervated cochlear explants), stem cell-derived processes were capable of locating and growing along the hair cell rows in an en passant-like manner. Many presynaptic terminals (synapsin 1-positive) were observed between hair cells and stem cell-derived processes in vitro. These results suggest that differentiated hESC-derived neural progenitors may be useful for developing therapies directed at auditory nerve replacement, including complementing emerging hair cell regeneration therapies. PMID:23078657

Edge, Albert S.; Needham, Karina; Hyakumura, Tomoko; Leung, Jessie; Nayagam, David A.X.

2013-01-01

215

Male-mediated developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

2014-01-01

216

Male-mediated developmental toxicity  

PubMed Central

Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

2014-01-01

217

Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

2014-03-01

218

Understanding the Basis of Auriculocondylar Syndrome: Insights From Human and Mouse Genetic Studies  

PubMed Central

Among human birth defect syndromes, malformations affecting the face are perhaps the most striking due to cultural and psychological expectations of facial shape. One such syndrome is auriculocondylar syndrome (ACS), in which patients present with defects in ear and mandible development. Affected structures arise from cranial neural crest cells, a population of cells in the embryo that reside in the pharyngeal arches and give rise to most of the bone, cartilage and connective tissue of the face. Recent studies have found that most cases of ACS arise from defects in signaling molecules associated with the endothelin signaling pathway. Disruption of this signaling pathway in both mouse and zebrafish results in loss of identity of neural crest cells of the mandibular portion of the first pharyngeal arch and the subsequent repatterning of these cells, leading to homeosis of lower jaw structures into more maxillary-like structures. These findings illustrate the importance of endothelin signaling in normal human craniofacial development and illustrate how clinical and basic science approaches can coalesce to improve our understanding of the genetic basis of human birth syndromes. Further, understanding the genetic basis for ACS that lies outside of known endothelin signaling components may help elucidate unknown aspects critical to the establishment of neural crest cell patterning during facial morphogenesis. PMID:24123988

Clouthier, David E.; Passos Bueno, Maria Rita; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Amiel, Jeanne; Gordon, Christopher T.

2014-01-01

219

The Developmental Origins of Conversion Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attachment theory offers a novel developmental framework for understanding conversion reactions as having phylogenetic roots in two different innate animal defense behaviours: The `freeze response' and `appeasement defense behaviours'. From this perspective, conversion symptoms reflect two distinct, threat-elicited emotional responses, which are primed in context-dependent developmental experiences (pathways) and underpinned by different neurobiological mechanisms. The first of these two developmental

Kasia Kozlowska

2007-01-01

220

Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Golden Section Study .  

E-print Network

??Objectives. Pervasive developmental disability theories are combined with golden section research in an effort to understand how people organize and process interpersonal/social information. In order… (more)

Davison, Mitzie

2010-01-01

221

Developmental programming and transgenerational transmission of obesity.  

PubMed

The global obesity pandemic is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle, namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high-energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, far less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from environmental perturbations during the early-life period. Human and animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early-life environment and increased susceptibility to obesity and related metabolic disorders in later life. In particular, altered maternal nutrition, including both undernutrition and maternal obesity, has been shown to lead to transgenerational transmission of metabolic disorders. This association has been conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby the impact of environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the physiology of the offspring. Further, evidence to date suggests that this developmental programming is a transgenerational phenomenon, with a number of studies showing transmission of programming effects to subsequent generations, even in the absence of continued environmental stressors, thus perpetuating a cycle of obesity and metabolic disorders. The mechanisms responsible for these transgenerational effects remain poorly understood; evidence to date suggests a number of potential mechanisms underpinning the transgenerational transmission of the developmentally programmed phenotype through both the maternal and paternal lineage. Transgenerational phenotype transmission is often seen as a form of epigenetic inheritance with evidence showing both germline and somatic inheritance of epigenetic modifications leading to phenotype changes across generations. However, there is also evidence for non-genomic components as well as an interaction between the developing fetus with the in utero environment in the perpetuation of programmed phenotypes. A better understanding of how developmental programming effects are transmitted is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity crisis. PMID:25059803

Vickers, M H

2014-01-01

222

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in deltas and floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in deltas and floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-08-01

223

Towards understanding the dynamic behaviour of floodplains as human-water systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper offers a conceptual approach to explore the complex dynamics of floodplains as fully coupled human-water systems. A number of hydrologists have recently investigated the impact of human activities (such as flood control measures, land-use changes, and settlement patterns) on the frequency and severity of floods. Meanwhile, social scientists have shown how interactions between society and waters in floodplain areas, including the frequency and severity of floods, have an impact on the ways in which social relations unfold (in terms of governance processes, policies, and institutions) and societies are organised (spatially, politically, and socially). However, we argue that the interactions and associated feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. Thus, there is a need to better understand how the institutions and governance processes interact with hydrological processes in floodplains to influence the frequency and severity of floods, while (in turn) hydrological processes co-constitute the social realm and make a difference for how social relations unfold to shape governance processes and institutions. Our research goal, therefore, is not in identifying one or the other side of the cycle (hydrological or social), but in explaining the relationship between them: how, when, where, and why they interact, and to what result for both social relations and hydrological processes? We argue that long time series of hydrological and social data, along with remote sensing data, can be used to observe floodplain dynamics from unconventional approaches, and understand the complex interactions between water and human systems taking place in floodplain areas, across scales and levels of human impacts, and within different hydro-climatic conditions, socio-cultural settings, and modes of governance.

Di Baldassarre, G.; Kooy, M.; Kemerink, J. S.; Brandimarte, L.

2013-03-01

224

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

2000-01-01

225

Symmetry States of the physical space: an expanded reference frame for understanding human consciousness.  

PubMed

A remarkable phenomenon is taking place around the globe, one that I have been fortunate enough to witness and in which to participate. The relics of the historical Buddha, also known as Siddhartha or Shakyamuni Buddha, still survive today over 2500 years since his enlightenment, and, for the first time in history, are traveling throughout the world. In common Buddhist practice, relics are highly venerated and treasured remains of realized Masters. It is very rare for relics to travel from city to city and be available for viewing by the general public. The Buddha relic tour is demonstrating that a direct experience of the spiritual state is not mysterious, nor is it for a select few. The spiritual state, here defined as a universal theme of unconditional love, is a component of human evolutionary unfoldment, a process through which thousands of human beings have passed, and through which thousands more will pass. We are "waking up" as a species. Consequently, more information is required about this transformation of human consciousness. The Buddha relics offer us a priceless means by which we can obtain a richer perspective about the nature of human consciousness, spiritual realities such as love, and ultimately understanding ourselves. PMID:22106870

Manek, Nisha J

2012-01-01

226

A human pluripotent carcinoma stem cell-based model for in vitro developmental neurotoxicity testing: effects of methylmercury, lead and aluminum evaluated by gene expression studies.  

PubMed

The major advantage of the neuronal cell culture models derived from human stem cells is their ability to replicate the crucial stages of neurodevelopment such as the commitment of human stem cells to the neuronal lineage and their subsequent stages of differentiation into neuronal and glial-like cell. In these studies we used mixed neuronal/glial culture derived from the NTERA-2 (NT-2) cell line, which has been established from human pluripotent testicular embryonal carcinoma cells. After characterization of the different stages of cell differentiation into neuronal- and glial-like phenotype toxicity studies were performed to evaluate whether this model would be suitable for developmental neurotoxicity studies. The cells were exposed during the differentiation process to non-cytotoxic concentrations of methylmercury chloride, lead chloride and aluminum nitrate for two weeks. The toxicity was then evaluated by measuring the mRNA levels of cell specific markers (neuronal and glial). The results obtained suggest that lead chloride and aluminum nitrate at low concentrations were toxic primarily to astrocytes and at the higher concentrations it also induced neurotoxicity. In contrast, MetHgCl was toxic for both cell types, neuronal and glial, as mRNA specific for astrocytes and neuronal markers were affected. The results obtained suggest that a neuronal mixed culture derived from human NT2 precursor cells is a suitable model for developmental neurotoxicity studies and gene expression could be used as a sensitive endpoint for initial screening of potential neurotoxic compounds. PMID:23501475

Laurenza, Incoronata; Pallocca, Giorgia; Mennecozzi, Milena; Scelfo, Bibiana; Pamies, David; Bal-Price, Anna

2013-11-01

227

Current understanding of ZIP and ZnT zinc transporters in human health and diseases.  

PubMed

Zinc transporters, the Zrt-, Irt-like protein (ZIP) family and the Zn transporter (ZnT) family transporters, are found in all aspects of life. Increasing evidence has clarified the molecular mechanism, in which both transporters play critical roles in cellular and physiological functions via mobilizing zinc across the cellular membrane. In the last decade, mutations in ZIP and ZnT transporter genes have been shown to be implicated in a number of inherited human diseases. Moreover, dysregulation of expression and activity of both transporters has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic diseases including cancer, immunological impairment, and neurodegenerative diseases, although comprehensive understanding is far from complete. The diverse phenotypes of diseases related to ZIP and ZnT transporters reflect the multifarious biological functions of both transporters. The present review summarizes the current understanding of ZIP and ZnT transporter functions from the standpoint of human health and diseases. The study of zinc transporters is currently of great clinical interest. PMID:24710731

Kambe, Taiho; Hashimoto, Ayako; Fujimoto, Shigeyuki

2014-09-01

228

Developmental Immunotoxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

229

Genomic Assessment of Human Cumulus Cell Marker Genes as Predictors of Oocyte Developmental Competence: Impact of Various Experimental Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Single embryo transfer (SET) is the most successful way to reduce the frequency of multiple pregnancies following in vitro fertilisation. However, selecting the embryo for SET with the highest chances of pregnancy remains a difficult challenge since morphological and kinetics criteria provide poor prediction of both developmental and implantation ability. Partly through the expression of specific genes, the oocyte-cumulus interaction helps the oocyte to acquire its developmental competence. Our aim was therefore to identify at the level of cumulus cells (CCs) genes related to oocyte developmental competence. Methodology/Principal Findings 197 individual CCs were collected from 106 patients undergoing an intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Gene expression of CCs was studied using microarray according to the nuclear maturity of the oocyte (immature vs. mature oocyte) and to the developmental competence of the oocyte (ability to reach the blastocyst stage after fertilisation). Microarray study was followed by a meta-analysis of the behaviour of these genes in other datasets available in Gene Expression Omnibus which showed the consistency of this list of genes. Finally, 8 genes were selected according to oocyte developmental competence from the 308 differentially expressed genes (p<0.0001) for further validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Three of these 8 selected genes were validated as potential biomarkers (PLIN2, RGS2 and ANG). Experimental factors such as inter-patient and qPCR series variability were then assessed using the Generalised Linear Mixed Model procedure, and only the expression level of RGS2 was confirmed to be related to oocyte developmental competence. The link between biomarkers and pregnancy was finally evaluated and level of RGS2 expression was also correlated with clinical pregnancy. Conclusion/Significance RGS2, known as a regulator of G protein signalling, was the only gene among our 8 selected candidates biomarkers of oocyte competence to cover many factors of variability, including inter-patient factors and experimental conditions. PMID:22848380

Chevalier, Catherine; Teusan, Raluca; Cadoret, Veronique; Guerif, Fabrice; Houlgatte, Remi; Royere, Dominique

2012-01-01

230

The Contribution of Conceptual Change Texts Accompanied by Concept Mapping to Students' Understanding of the Human Circulatory System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction to 10th-grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system. Indicates that the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping instruction produced a positive effect on students' understanding of concepts. Concludes that students…

Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Geban, Omer

2001-01-01

231

Predicting Developmental Toxicity of ToxCast Phase I Chemicals Using Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA?s ToxRefDB contains prenatal guideline study data from rats and rabbits for over 240 chemicals that overlap with the ToxCast in vitro high throughput screening project. A subset of these compounds were tested in Stemina Biomarker Discovery's developmental toxicity platform, a...

232

The significance of human–animal relationships as modulators of trauma effects in children: a developmental neurobiological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid, or cortisol leading to an ongoing over?arousal of the anatomic nervous system. Kindling

Jan Yorke

2010-01-01

233

The Significance of Human-Animal Relationships as Modulators of Trauma Effects in Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid,…

Yorke, Jan

2010-01-01

234

On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

Maestripieri, Dario

2005-01-01

235

Human Cytochrome P450 1A1 Structure and Utility in Understanding Drug and Xenobiotic Metabolism*  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is an extrahepatic monooxygenase involved in the metabolism of endogenous substrates and drugs, as well as the activation of certain toxins and environmental pollutants. CYP1A1 is particularly well known for its ability to biotransform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene in tobacco smoke, into carcinogens. CYP1A1 possesses functional similarities and differences with human CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 enzymes, but the structural basis for this has been unclear. We determined a 2.6 ? structure of human CYP1A1 with the inhibitor ?-naphthoflavone. ?-Naphthoflavone binds within an enclosed active site, with the planar benzochromen-4-one core packed flat against the I helix that composes one wall of the active site, and the 2-phenyl substituent oriented toward the catalytic heme iron. Comparisons with previously determined structures of the related cytochrome P450 1A2 and 1B1 enzymes reveal distinct features among the active sites that may underlie the functional variability of these enzymes. Finally, docking studies probed the ability of CYP1A structures to assist in understanding their known in vitro interactions with several typical substrates and inhibitors. PMID:23508959

Walsh, Agnes A.; Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Scott, Emily E.

2013-01-01

236

Cognitive developmental robotics as a new paradigm for the design of humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes cognitive developmental roboticsas a new principle for the design of humanoid robots. This principle may provide ways of understanding human beings that go beyond the current level of explanation found in the natural and social sciences. Furthermore, a methodological emphasis on humanoid robots in the design of artificial creatures holds promise because they have many degrees of

Minoru Asada; Karl F. Macdorman; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Yasuo Kuniyoshi

2001-01-01

237

Developmental toxicology: status of the field and contribution of the National Toxicology Program.  

PubMed Central

The NTP has conducted developmental toxicity studies on more than 50 chemicals, often in multiple species. Several chemicals caused developmental toxicity in the absence of any toxicity to the mother. Although hazard to humans is determined by the level of exposure to the chemical and its inherent toxicity, those agents that selectively disturb the development of the conceptus are of particular concern because other manifestations of toxicity would not warn the mother of overexposure. Whether the LOAEL (lowest-observed adverse effect level) for maternal toxicity was high or low did not correlate with the potential of chemicals to cause developmental toxicity. The form of developmental toxicity that determined the LOAEL most frequently was decreased body weight in mice and rats, but not rabbits, where the LOAEL was determined more often by an increase in resorptions. Several in vitro and short-term tests appear promising as screens to predict the outcome of developmental toxicity studies in mammals. However, the only screens that have undergone formal validation studies are those evaluated by the NTP. Improvements in our ability to predict risk to humans have been limited by our knowledge of the mechanisms by which agents cause developmental toxicity. Thus, future growth is dependent on a better understanding of the biological processes that regulate normal development, therein providing the necessary framework for understanding mechanisms of abnormal development. PMID:8354175

Schwetz, B A; Harris, M W

1993-01-01

238

Developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

Shalev, Ruth S

2004-10-01

239

Developmentally cognitive robot vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic methodology for designing developmental cognitive robot vision systems was proposed to add development capability to cognitive vision systems. Four issues were discussed: (1) human-like architecture suitable for different visual purposes, (2) efficient memory organization, forming, and indexing mechanism proper for emergence of machine imagery and experience-based learning, (3) life-like development model for open-ended cognitive improvement and perception development,

Tao Jiang; Fuchun Sun; Xingzhou Jiang

2004-01-01

240

Understanding human – bat interactions in NSW, Australia: improving risk communication for prevention of Australian bat lyssavirus  

PubMed Central

Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human – bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Results Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to ‘rescue’ bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat’s welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Conclusions Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted ‘rescue’ should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis. PMID:24984790

2014-01-01

241

New Paradigm for Understanding In-Flight Decision Making Errors: a Neurophysiological Model Leveraging Human Factors  

PubMed Central

Human factors centered aviation accident analyses report that skill based errors are known to be cause of 80% of all accidents, decision making related errors 30% and perceptual errors 6%1. In-flight decision making error is a long time recognized major avenue leading to incidents and accidents. Through the past three decades, tremendous and costly efforts have been developed to attempt to clarify causation, roles and responsibility as well as to elaborate various preventative and curative countermeasures blending state of the art biomedical, technological advances and psychophysiological training strategies. In-flight related statistics have not been shown significantly changed and a significant number of issues remain not yet resolved. Fine Postural System and its corollary, Postural Deficiency Syndrome (PDS), both defined in the 1980's, are respectively neurophysiological and medical diagnostic models that reflect central neural sensory-motor and cognitive controls regulatory status. They are successfully used in complex neurotraumatology and related rehabilitation for over two decades. Analysis of clinical data taken over a ten-year period from acute and chronic post-traumatic PDS patients shows a strong correlation between symptoms commonly exhibited before, along side, or even after error, and sensory-motor or PDS related symptoms. Examples are given on how PDS related central sensory-motor control dysfunction can be correctly identified and monitored via a neurophysiological ocular-vestibular-postural monitoring system. The data presented provides strong evidence that a specific biomedical assessment methodology can lead to a better understanding of in-flight adaptive neurophysiological, cognitive and perceptual dysfunctional status that could induce in flight-errors. How relevant human factors can be identified and leveraged to maintain optimal performance will be addressed. PMID:19048097

Souvestre, P A; Landrock, C K; Blaber, A P

2008-01-01

242

Use of Both Cumulus Cells’ Transcriptomic Markers and Zona Pellucida Birefringence to Select Developmentally Competent Oocytes in Human Assisted Reproductive Technologies  

PubMed Central

Background Selection of the best oocyte for subsequent steps of fertilization and embryo transfer was shown to be the crucial step in human infertility treatment procedure. Oocyte selection using morphological criteria mainly Zona pellucida (ZP) has been the gold standard method in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) clinics, but this selection approach has limitations in terms of accuracy, objectivity and constancy. Recent studies using OMICs-based approaches have allowed the identification of key molecular markers that quantitatively and non-invasively predict the oocyte quality for higher pregnancy rates and efficient infertility treatment. These biomarkers are a valuable reinforcement of the morphological selection criteria widely used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. In this context, this study was designed to investigate the relationship between transcriptomic predictors of oocyte quality found by our group and the conventional morphological parameters of oocyte quality mainly the ZP birefringence. Results Microarray data revealed that 48 and 27 differentially expressed candidate genes in cumulus cells (CCs) were respectively overexpressed and underexpressed in the ZGP (Zona Good Pregnant) versus ZBNP (Zona Bad Non Pregnant) groups. More than 70% of previously reported transcriptomic biomarkers of oocyte developmental competence were confirmed in this study. The analysis of possible association between ZP birefringence versus molecular markers approach showed an absence of correlation between them using the current set of markers. Conclusions This study suggested a new integrative approach that matches morphological and molecular approaches used to select developmentally competent oocytes able to lead to successful pregnancy and the delivery of healthy baby. For each ZP birefringence score, oocytes displayed a particular CCs' gene expression pattern. However, no correlations were found between the 7 gene biomarkers of oocyte developmental potential and the ZP birefringence score. Further studies using larger lists of candidate markers are required to identify suitable genes that are highly correlated with the morphological criteria, and therefore able to reinforce the accuracy of oocyte selection and the effectiveness of infertility treatment.

2015-01-01

243

Aberrant expression of maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 results in the developmental failure of human in-vivo- and in-vitro-matured oocytes  

PubMed Central

Fertilisation is the first step in embryonic development, and dynamic changes of key genes may potentially improve assisted reproduction techniques efficiency during this process. Here, we analysed genes that were differentially expressed between oocytes and zygotes and focused on cytokinesis-related genes. Plk1 and Dctn3 were identified as showing dramatic changes in expression during fertilisation and were suggested to play a key role in inducing aneuploidy in zygotes and 8-cell embryos. Moreover, we found that maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 were expressed at lower levels in in vitro matured oocytes, which may have contributed to the high ratio of resulting embryos with abnormal Plk1 and Dctn3 expression levels, thereby reducing the developmental competence of the resulting embryos. Furthermore, the overexpression of Dctn3 can silence Plk1 expression, which suggests a potential regulation mechanism. In conclusion, our present study showed that aberrant expression of Plk1 and Dctn3 increases embryo aneuploidy and developmental failure, particularly in in vitro matured oocytes. Our results facilitate a better understanding of the effects of oocyte maternal gene expression on embryonic development and can be used to improve the outcome of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:25645239

Fan, Yong; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Liu, Jianqiao; Tan, Tao; Ding, Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Jie; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

2015-01-01

244

Aberrant expression of maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 results in the developmental failure of human in-vivo- and in-vitro-matured oocytes.  

PubMed

Fertilisation is the first step in embryonic development, and dynamic changes of key genes may potentially improve assisted reproduction techniques efficiency during this process. Here, we analysed genes that were differentially expressed between oocytes and zygotes and focused on cytokinesis-related genes. Plk1 and Dctn3 were identified as showing dramatic changes in expression during fertilisation and were suggested to play a key role in inducing aneuploidy in zygotes and 8-cell embryos. Moreover, we found that maternal Plk1 and Dctn3 were expressed at lower levels in in vitro matured oocytes, which may have contributed to the high ratio of resulting embryos with abnormal Plk1 and Dctn3 expression levels, thereby reducing the developmental competence of the resulting embryos. Furthermore, the overexpression of Dctn3 can silence Plk1 expression, which suggests a potential regulation mechanism. In conclusion, our present study showed that aberrant expression of Plk1 and Dctn3 increases embryo aneuploidy and developmental failure, particularly in in vitro matured oocytes. Our results facilitate a better understanding of the effects of oocyte maternal gene expression on embryonic development and can be used to improve the outcome of assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:25645239

Fan, Yong; Zhao, Hong-Cui; Liu, Jianqiao; Tan, Tao; Ding, Ting; Li, Rong; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Jie; Sun, Xiaofang; Yu, Yang; Qiao, Jie

2015-01-01

245

Developmental perspectives on oxytocin and vasopressin.  

PubMed

The related neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are involved in species-typical behavior, including social recognition behavior, maternal behavior, social bonding, communication, and aggression. A wealth of evidence from animal models demonstrates significant modulation of adult social behavior by both of these neuropeptides and their receptors. Over the last decade, there has been a flood of studies in humans also implicating a role for these neuropeptides in human social behavior. Despite popular assumptions that oxytocin is a molecule of social bonding in the infant brain, less mechanistic research emphasis has been placed on the potential role of these neuropeptides in the developmental emergence of the neural substrates of behavior. This review summarizes what is known and assumed about the developmental influence of these neuropeptides and outlines the important unanswered questions and testable hypotheses. There is tremendous translational need to understand the functions of these neuropeptides in mammalian experience-dependent development of the social brain. The activity of oxytocin and vasopressin during development should inform our understanding of individual, sex, and species differences in social behavior later in life. PMID:24863032

Hammock, Elizabeth A D

2015-01-01

246

Towards an understanding and application of environmental flow requirements for human welfare in East African Rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid regions of Africa, rivers are of vital importance to humans for the many direct ecosystem services they provide and, in some cases, for their potential to irrigate and power larger-scale development. More than in most regions of the world, Africans still rely individually on rivers for domestic water, nutrition, and other materials contributing to their daily welfare. This has led to a uniquely African adaptation of the environmental flow concept to incorporate the basic water needs of people as well as ecosystems. The combined flow is referred to as the 'Reserve'. East Africa has seen comparatively little development of its water resources to-date, but ambitious initiatives are underway to increase water use in new large-scale irrigation schemes and hydropower projects. Consequently, a number of comprehensive environmental flow assessments and ecohydrological research activities have recently been carried out in the region. This presentation briefly reviews the initiatives underway across the region but focuses mainly on combined research and flow-setting efforts in the transboundary Mara River Basin of Kenya and Tanzania, home to more than 800,000 people and the region's most popular conservation areas, Masai-Mara National Reserve and Serengeti National Park. Since 2006 a team of scientists, in cooperation with water authorities and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), has investigated the hydrology, hydraulics, biology, and human uses of the Mara River in order to make initial environmental flow (reserve) recommendations. The flow regime of the still largely unregulated Mara River, based on analyses or 20+ years of data from three gauging stations, is highly variable and perennial flow in the middle reaches is dependent on inflows from two tributaries draining the heavily deforested Mau Escarpment, one of Kenya's five water towers. Downstream flows are also seasonally influenced by inflows from ephemeral tributaries that drain degraded grazing lands. Environmental flow recommendations have been made at six locations along the river, including three sites destined for the construction of new dams and multipurpose reservoirs. Flow recommendations consist of variable mean monthly base flows during normal and drought years and medium to large floods timed to achieve specific ecological objectives. The objective of water authorities, and thus of environmental flow recommendations, is to conserve the current good ecological status of the river and the many services it provides to people living along its margins. Complimentary research on the interrelationships between flow variability, ecosystem function, and human welfare is turning the Mara into a model system for better understanding these dynamics in an African development context.

McClain, Michael

2013-04-01

247

Ad cerebrum per scientia: Ira Hirsh, psychoacoustics, and new approaches to understanding the human brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As Research Director of CID, Ira emphasized the importance of combining information from biology with rigorous studies of behavior, such as psychophysics, to better understand how the brain and body accomplish the goals of everyday life. In line with this philosophy, my doctoral dissertation sought to explain brain functional asymmetries (studied with dichotic listening) in terms of the physical dimensions of a library of test sounds designed to represent a speech-music continuum. Results highlighted individual differences plus similarities in terms of patterns of relative ear advantages, suggesting an organizational basis for brain asymmetries depending on physical dimensions of stimulus and gesture with analogs in auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor systems. My subsequent work has employed a number of noninvasive methods (OAEs, EPs, qEEG, PET, MRI) to explore the neurobiological bases of individual differences in general and functional asymmetries in particular. This research has led to (1) the AXS test battery for assessing the neurobiology of human sensory-motor function; (2) the handshaking model of brain function, describing dynamic relations along all three body/brain axes; (3) the four-domain EPIC model of functional asymmetries; and (4) the trimodal brain, a new model of individual differences based on psychoimmunoneuroendocrinology.

Lauter, Judith

2002-05-01

248

From competencies to human interests: ways of knowing and understanding in medical education.  

PubMed

When considering the teaching and learning of topics of social relevance in medicine, such as professionalism, medical ethics, the doctor-patient relationship, and issues of diversity and social justice, one is tempted to ask, are the ways of knowing in these fields different from that in the biomedical and clinical sciences? Furthermore, given that the competency approach is dominant in medical education, one might also ask, is the competency model truly appropriate for all of the types of knowledge necessary to become a good physician? These questions are not merely academic, for they are at the core of how these subjects are taught, learned, and assessed.The goal of this article is threefold: first, to explore the nature of knowing and the educational goals in different areas of medicine and, in particular, those areas that have social relevance; second, to critically review the concept of competencies when applied to education in these areas; and third, to explore alternative strategies for teaching, learning, and assessment. This discussion reflects a view that the goal of education in areas of social relevance in medicine should be the enhancement of an understanding of-a deep and abiding connection with-the social responsibilities of the physician. Moving beyond competencies, this approach aspires toward the development of practical wisdom (phronesis) which, when embodied in the physician, links the knowledge and skills of the biomedical and clinical sciences with a moral orientation and call to action that addresses human interests in the practice of medicine. PMID:24662200

Kumagai, Arno K

2014-07-01

249

Understanding social complexity within the wildland-urban interface: a new species of human habitation?  

PubMed

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management. PMID:19238478

Paveglio, Travis B; Jakes, Pamela J; Carroll, Matthew S; Williams, Daniel R

2009-06-01

250

Understanding Social Complexity Within the Wildland-Urban Interface: A New Species of Human Habitation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we lay out the knowledge and preliminary case study evidence needed to begin systematically documenting the differing levels and types of adaptive capacity WUI communities have for addressing collective problems such as wildland fire hazard. In order to achieve this end, we draw from two theoretical perspectives encompassing humans' interactions with their environment, including (1) Kenneth Wilkinson's interactional approach to community, (2) and certain elements of place literature. We also present case study research on wildfire protection planning in two drastically different California communities to illustrate how social diversity influences adaptive capacity to deal with hazards such as wildland fire. These perspectives promote an image of the WUI not as a monolithic entity but a complex mosaic of communities with different needs and existing capacities for wildland fire and natural resource management.

Paveglio, Travis B.; Jakes, Pamela J.; Carroll, Matthew S.; Williams, Daniel R.

2009-06-01

251

Parent-offspring conflict theory: an evolutionary framework for understanding conflict within human families.  

PubMed

Decades of research demonstrate that conflict shapes and permeates a broad range of family processes. In the current article, we argue that greater insight, integration of knowledge, and empirical achievement in the study of family conflict can be realized by utilizing a powerful theory from evolutionary biology that is barely known within psychology: parent-offspring conflict theory (POCT). In the current article, we articulate POCT for psychological scientists, extend its scope by connecting it to the broader framework of life history theory, and draw out its implications for understanding conflict within human families. We specifically apply POCT to 2 instances of early mother-offspring interaction (prenatal conflict and weaning conflict); discuss the effects of genetic relatedness on behavioral conflict between parents, children, and their siblings; review the emerging literature on parent-offspring conflict over the choice of mates and spouses; and examine parent-offspring conflict from the perspective of imprinted genes. This review demonstrates the utility of POCT, not only for explaining what is known about conflict within families but also for generating novel hypotheses, suggesting new lines of research, and moving us toward the "big picture" by integrating across biological and psychological domains of knowledge. PMID:21604906

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Del Giudice, Marco; Ellis, Bruce J

2011-07-01

252

Understanding customers' holistic perception of switches in automotive human-machine interfaces.  

PubMed

For successful new product development, it is necessary to understand the customers' holistic experience of the product beyond traditional task completion, and acceptance measures. This paper describes research in which ninety-eight UK owners of luxury saloons assessed the feel of push-switches in five luxury saloon cars both in context (in-car) and out of context (on a bench). A combination of hedonic data (i.e. a measure of 'liking'), qualitative data and semantic differential data was collected. It was found that customers are clearly able to differentiate between switches based on the degree of liking for the samples' perceived haptic qualities, and that the assessment environment had a statistically significant effect, but that it was not universal. A factor analysis has shown that perceived characteristics of switch haptics can be explained by three independent factors defined as 'Image', 'Build Quality', and 'Clickiness'. Preliminary steps have also been taken towards identifying whether existing theoretical frameworks for user experience may be applicable to automotive human-machine interfaces. PMID:19375691

Wellings, Tom; Williams, Mark; Tennant, Charles

2010-01-01

253

From Mice to Men: research models of developmental programming  

PubMed Central

Developmental programming can be defined as a response to a specific challenge to the mammalian organism during a critical developmental time window that alters the trajectory of development with persistent effects on offspring phenotype and predisposition to future illness. We focus on the need for studies in relevant, well-characterized animal models in the context of recent research discoveries on the challenges, mechanisms and outcomes of developmental programming. We discuss commonalities and differences in general principles of developmental programming as they apply to several species, including humans. The consequences of these differences are discussed. Obesity, metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are associated with the highest percentage of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although many of the causes are associated with lifestyle, high-energy diets and lack of physical activity, recent evidence has linked developmental programming to the epidemic of metabolic diseases. A better understanding of comparative systems physiology of mother, fetus and neonate using information provided by rapid advances in molecular biology has the potential to improve the lifetime health of future generations by providing better women’s health, diagnostic tools and preventative and therapeutic interventions in individuals exposed during their development to programming influences. PMID:23525085

Rabadán-Diehl, C.; Nathanielsz, P.

2012-01-01

254

Anatomy of the pectoral and forelimb muscles of wildtype and green fluorescent protein-transgenic axolotls and comparison with other tetrapods including humans: a basis for regenerative, evolutionary and developmental studies  

PubMed Central

The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is one of the most used model organisms in evolutionary, developmental and regenerative studies, particularly because it can reconstitute a fully functional and complete forelimb/hindlimb. Surprisingly, there is no publication that describes all the pectoral and forelimb muscles of this species or provides a comparative framework between these muscles and those of other model organisms and of modern humans. In the present paper we describe and illustrate all these muscles in A. mexicanum and provide the first report about the myology of adults of a model organism that is based on analyses and dissections of both wildtype animals and transgenic animals that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in muscle fibers. On the one hand, the inclusion of GFP-transgenic animals allows us to show the muscles as more commonly seen, and thus easier to understand, by current developmental and regenerative biologists. On the other hand, by including wildtype and GFP-transgenic animals and by visualizing these latter animals with and without a simultaneous transmission laser light, we were able to obtain a more complete and clearer understanding of the exact limit of the fleshy and tendinous parts of the muscles and their specific connections with the skeletal elements. This in turn allowed us to settle some controversies in previous anatomical and comparative studies. As most developmental, regenerative and evolutionary biologists are interested in comparing their observations of A. mexicanum with observations in other model organisms, and ultimately in using this information to increase the understanding of human evolution and medicine, we also provide tables showing the homologies between the pectoral and forelimb muscles of axolotls, of model organisms such as mice, frogs and chicken, and of Homo sapiens. An example illustrating the outcomes of using our methodology and of our observations is that they revealed that, contrary to what is often stated in the literature, A. mexicanum has a muscle coracoradialis that has both a well developed proximal fleshy belly and a distal long and thin tendon, supporting the idea that this muscle very likely corresponds to at least part of the amniote biceps brachii. Our observations also: (i) confirmed that the flexores digitorum minimi, interphalangeus digiti 3, pronator quadratus and palmaris profundus 1 are present as distinct muscles in A. mexicanum, supporting the idea that the latter muscle does not correspond to the pronator accessorius of reptiles; (ii) confirmed that the so-called extensor antebrachii radialis is present as a distinct muscle in this species and, importantly, indicated that this muscle corresponds to the supinator of other tetrapods; (iii) showed that, contrary to some other urodeles, including some other Ambystoma species, there is no distinct muscle epitrochleoanconeus in A. mexicanum and; (iv) showed that the ulnar and radial bundles of the abductor et extensor digiti 1 correspond to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis longus of other tetrapods, respectively. PMID:22957800

Diogo, R; Tanaka, E M

2012-01-01

255

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ MOLECULAR, CELL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ MOLECULAR, CELL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Ongoing Lecturer Pool Position #T06-51 The Department of Molecular, Cell & Developmental Biology at the University to apply: cell and molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, development, neuroscience, human physiology

California at Santa Cruz, University of

256

Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

ScienceCinema

Eske Willerslev from the University of Copenhagen on "Understanding Historical Human Migration Patterns and Interbreeding Using the Ancient Genomes of a Palaeo-Eskimo and an Aboriginal Australian" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

Willerslev, Eske [University of Copenhagen

2013-01-15

257

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists seek to understand the nature of the human language  

E-print Network

of the human language faculty by examining the formal properties of natural- language grammars and the process speech communities (bilingualism). The study of natural- language processing involvesLinguistics is the scientific study of language. Linguists seek to understand the nature

Saldin, Dilano

258

Understanding the Risk to Neotropical Migrant Bird Species of Multiple Human-Caused Stressors: Elucidating Processes Behind the Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquitous human-caused changes to the environment act as multiple stressors for organisms in the wild, and the effects of these stressors may be synergistic, rather than merely additive, with unexpected results. However, understanding how focal organisms respond to these stressors is crucial for conservation planning for these species. We propose a paradigm that alternates extensive, broadscale data collection by volunteer

Ralph S. Hames; James D. Lowe; Sara Barker Swarthout; Kenneth V. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

259

miRNA expression profiling in a human stem cell-based model as a tool for developmental neurotoxicity testing.  

PubMed

The main aim of this study was to evaluate whether microRNA (miRNA) profiling could be a useful tool for in vitro developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. Therefore, to identify the possible DNT biomarkers among miRNAs, we have studied the changes in miRNA expressions in a mixed neuronal/glial culture derived from carcinoma pluripotent stem cells (NT2 cell line) after exposure to methyl mercury chloride (MeHgCl) during the process of neuronal differentiation (2-36 days in vitro (DIV1)). The neuronal differentiation triggered by exposure to retinoic acid (RA) was characterized in the control culture by mRNA expression analysis of neuronal specific markers such as MAP2, NF-200, Tubulin ?III, MAPT-tau, synaptophysin as well as excitatory (NMDA, AMPA) and inhibitory (GABA) receptors. The results obtained from the miRNA expression analysis have identified the presence of a miRNA signature which is specific for neural differentiation in the control culture and another for the response to MeHgCl-induced toxicity. In differentiated neuronal control cultures, we observed the downregulation of the stemness phenotype-linked miR-302 cluster and the overexpression of several miRNAs specific for neuronal differentiation (e.g. let-7, miR-125b and miR-132). In the cultures exposed to MeHgCl (400 nM), we observed an overexpression of a signature composed of five miRNAs (miR-302b, miR-367, miR-372, miR-196b and miR-141) that are known to be involved in the regulation of developmental processes and cellular stress response mechanisms. Using gene ontology term and pathway enrichment analysis of the validated targets of the miRNAs deregulated by the toxic treatment, the possible effect of MeHgCl exposure on signalling pathways involved in axon guidance and learning and memory processes was revealed. The obtained data suggest that miRNA profiling could provide simplified functional evaluation of the toxicity pathways involved in developmental neurotoxicity in comparison with the transcriptomics studies. PMID:23903816

Pallocca, Giorgia; Fabbri, Marco; Sacco, Maria Grazia; Gribaldo, Laura; Pamies, David; Laurenza, Incoronata; Bal-Price, Anna

2013-08-01

260

Developmental maturation of intestinal and renal thiamin uptake: studies in wild-type and transgenic mice carrying human THTR-1 and 2 promoters.  

PubMed

Thiamin (B1) is an essential micronutrient for normal growth and development. Mammals obtain thiamin through intestinal absorption, while in the kidney thiamin is reabsorbed to prevent its loss in the urine, both processes are specialized, carrier-mediated and involve thiamin transporters-1 and 2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2, respectively; products of the SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 genes). Although thiamin appears to play an important role in neonatal growth, little is currently known about the possible regulation of intestinal and renal thiamin uptake during developmental maturation. We addressed these issues by examining intestinal and renal thiamin uptake and expression of THTR-1 and THTR-2 during early stages of life. We utilized wild-type mice (mice express orthologues of both thiamin transporters) and transgenic mice expressing human SLC19A2 or SLC19A3 promoter-reporter transgenes as a model system and examined carrier-mediated thiamin uptake, mTHTR-1 and 2 protein and mRNA levels and luciferase activity in suckling (13 days), weanling (25-27 days), and adult (60-65 days) mice. Carrier-mediated thiamin uptake by jejunal and renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) both decreased with maturation (suckling>weanling>adult) and were associated with a reduction in mTHTR-1 and mTHTR-2 protein, mRNA levels, and the activity of human SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoter-reporter constructs in the intestines and kidneys of transgenic mice. These results are the first to demonstrate that intestinal and renal thiamin uptake are developmentally regulated during early stages of life, mediated through mTHTR-1 and mTHTR-2, and suggest the possible involvement of transcriptional regulatory mechanism(s) in this regulation. PMID:16206251

Reidling, Jack C; Nabokina, Svetlana M; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Said, Hamid M

2006-02-01

261

Evo-Devo insights from pathological networks: exploring craniosynostosis as a developmental mechanism for modularity and complexity in the human skull.  

PubMed

Bone fusion has occurred repeatedly during skull evolution in all tetrapod lineages, leading to a reduction in the number of bones and an increase in their morphological complexity. The ontogeny of the human skull includes also bone fusions as part of its normal developmental process. However, several disruptions might cause premature closure of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis), reducing the number of bones and producing new skull growth patterns that causes shape changes. Here, we compare skull network models of a normal newborn with different craniosynostosis conditions, the normal adult stage, and phylogenetically reconstructed forms of a primitive tetrapod, a synapsid, and a placental mammal. Changes in morphological complexity of newborn-to-synostosed skulls are two to three times less than in newborn-to-adult; and even smaller when we compare them to the increases among the reconstructed ancestors in the evolutionary transitions. In addition, normal, synostosed, and adult human skulls show the same connectivity modules: facial and cranial. Differences arise in the internal structure of these modules. In the adult skull the facial module has an internal hierarchical organization, whereas the cranial module has a regular network organization. However, all newborn forms, normal and synostosed, do not reach such kind of internal organization. We conclude that the subtle changes in skull complexity at the developmental scale can change the modular substructure of the newborn skull to more integrated modules in the adult skull, but is not enough to generate radical changes as it occurs at a macroevolutionary scale. The timing of closure of craniofacial sutures, together with the conserved patterns of morphological modularity, highlights a potential relation between the premature fusion of bones and the evolution of the shape of the skull in hominids. PMID:25324462

Esteve-Altava, Borja; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

2014-10-10

262

Germ-line transmission and developmental regulation of a 150-kb yeast artificial chromosome containing the human [beta]-globin locus in transgenic mice  

SciTech Connect

Sequential expression of the genes of the human [beta]-globin locus requires the formation of an erythroid-specific chromatin domain spanning > 200 kb. Regulation of this gene family involves both local interactions with proximal cis-acting sequences and long-range interactions with control elements upstream of the locus. To make it possible to analyze the interactions of cis-acting sequences of the human [beta]-globin locus in their normal spatial and sequence context, the authors characterized two yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) 150 and 230 kb in size, containing the entire [beta]-globin locus. They have now successfully integrated the 150 kb YAC into the germ line of transgenic mice as a single unrearranged fragment that includes the locus control region, structural genes, and 30 kb of 3[prime] flanking sequences present in the native locus. Expression of the transgenic human [beta]-globin locus is tissue- and developmental stage-specific and closely follows the pattern of expression of the endogenous mouse [beta]-globin locus. By using homology-directed recombination in yeast and methods for the purification and transfer of YACs into transgenic mice, it will now be feasible to study the physiological role of cis-acting sequences in specifying an erythroid-specific chromatin domain and directing expression of [beta]-globin genes during ontogeny.

Gaensler, K.M.L.; Kitamura, M.; Kan, Yuet Wai (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-11-15

263

BDE 49 and developmental toxicity in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of brominated flame retardants. Human health concerns of these agents have largely centered upon their potential to elicit reproductive and developmental effects. Of the various congeners, BDE 49 (2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) has been poorly studied, despite the fact that it is often detected in the tissues of fish and wildlife species. Furthermore, we have previously shown that BDE 49 is a metabolic debromination product of BDE 99 hepatic metabolism in salmon, carp and trout, underscoring the need for a better understanding of biological effects. In the current study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of BDE 49 using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo larval model. Embryo and larval zebrafish were exposed to BDE 49 at either 5 hours post fertilization (hpf) or 24 hpf and monitored for developmental and neurotoxicity. Exposure to BDE 49 at concentrations of 4 µM- 32 µM caused a dose-dependent loss in survivorship at 6 days post fertilization (dpf). Morphological impairments were observed prior to the onset of mortality, the most striking of which included severe dorsal curvatures of the tail. The incidence of dorsal tail curvatures was dose and time dependent. Exposure to BDE 49 caused cardiac toxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in zebrafish heart rates at 6 dpf but not earlier, suggesting that cardiac toxicity was non-specific and associated with physiological stress. Neurobehavioral injury from BDE 49 was evidenced by an impairment of touch-escape responses observed at 5 dpf. Our results indicate that BDE 49 is a developmental toxicant in larval zebrafish that can cause morphological abnormalities and adversely affect neurobehavior. The observed toxicities from BDE 49 were similar in scope to those previously reported for the more common tetrabrominated congener, BDE 47, and also for other lower brominated PBDEs, suggest that these compounds may share similarities in risk to aquatic species. PMID:21951712

McClain, Valerie; Stapleton, Heather M.; Gallagher, Evan

2011-01-01

264

Understanding our genetic inheritance: The US Human Genome Project, The first five years FY 1991--1995  

SciTech Connect

The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the 21st century and will by of immense benefit to the field of medicine. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than 4000 genetic diseases that affect mankind, as well as the many multifactorial diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role. A centrally coordinated project focused on specific objectives is believed to be the most efficient and least expensive way of obtaining this information. The basic data produced will be collected in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible on convenient form to all who need it. This report describes the plans for the U.S. human genome project and updates those originally prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National Research Council (NRC) in 1988. In the intervening two years, improvements in technology for almost every aspect of genomics research have taken place. As a result, more specific goals can now be set for the project.

none,

1990-04-01

265

The many forms of a pleomorphic bacterial pathogen—the developmental network of Legionella pneumophila  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila is a natural intracellular bacterial parasite of free-living freshwater protozoa and an accidental human pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila differentiates, and does it in style. Recent experimental data on L. pneumophila's differentiation point at the existence of a complex network that involves many developmental forms. We intend readers to: (i) understand the biological relevance of L. pneumophila's forms found in freshwater and their potential to transmit Legionnaires' disease, and (ii) learn that the common depiction of L. pneumophila's differentiation as a biphasic developmental cycle that alternates between a replicative and a transmissive form is but an oversimplification of the actual process. Our specific objectives are to provide updates on the molecular factors that regulate L. pneumophila's differentiation (Section The Differentiation Process and Its Regulation), and describe the developmental network of L. pneumophila (Section Dissecting Lp's Developmental Network), which for clarity's sake we have dissected into five separate developmental cycles. Finally, since each developmental form seems to contribute differently to the human pathogenic process and the transmission of Legionnaires' disease, readers are presented with a challenge to develop novel methods to detect the various L. pneumophila forms present in water (Section Practical Implications), as a means to improve our assessment of risk and more effectively prevent legionellosis outbreaks. PMID:25566200

Robertson, Peter; Abdelhady, Hany; Garduño, Rafael A.

2014-01-01

266

Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.  

PubMed

Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all countries pooled compared to country specific information provided even on average negligible increases (0.05 and 0.2 months for MAD and MSE, respectively). For the juvenile-adult discrimination, using information from all countries instead of country specific information yielded comparable performances. Using Belgium instead of country specific information increased the percentage of correctly identified juveniles, but decreased the percentage of correctly identified adults. The adult-juvenile discrimination based on information used from Belgium provides judicially the best applied reference. PMID:20483555

Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

2010-09-10

267

Mitigating Human-Black Bear Conflicts by Understanding Spatial Patterns and Associated Site  

E-print Network

-carnivore conflict in increasingly human-dominated landscapes. Key words: conflict, scale, black bear, Ursus americanus, carnivore conservation, generalized least squares, resource utilization function, spatial

268

Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vygotsky is widely considered one of the most significant and influential psychologists of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, true appreciation of his theories has been hindered by a lack of understanding of the background to his thought. "Vygotsky's Developmental and Educational Psychology" aims to demonstrate how we can come to a new and…

Langford, Peter E.

2005-01-01

269

HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1984, the U.S. EPA published proposed Guidelines for the Health Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. The assessment of data from studies on developmental effects of chemical exposure and the estimation of risk for humans is a difficult process. Although structure/act...

270

Transformation from Developmental Mathematics Student to Mathematics Teacher: Narratives of Adult Learning Experiences  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of developmental mathematics students who, after successful completion of their developmental courses, chose a career in teaching and to gain a better understanding...

Wright, Gary L.

2010-01-16

271

Pcid2 inactivates developmental genes in human and mouse embryonic stem cells to sustain their pluripotency by modulation of EID1 stability.  

PubMed

Self-renewal and differentiation are the hallmarks of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, it is largely unknown about how the pluripotency is regulated. Here we demonstrate that Pcid2 is required for the maintenance of self-renewal both in mouse and human ESCs. Pcid2 plays a critical role in suppression of ESC differentiation. Pcid2 deficiency causes early embryonic lethality before the blastocyst stage. Pcid2 associates with EID1 and is present in the CBP/p300-EID1 complex in the ESCs. We show that MDM2 is an E3 ligase for K48-linked EID1 ubiquitination for its degradation. For the maintenance of self-renewal, Pcid2 binds to EID1 to impede the association with MDM2. Then EID1 is not degraded to sustain its stability to block the HAT activity of CBP/p300, leading to suppression of the developmental gene expression. Collectively, Pcid2 is present in the CBP/p300-EID1 complex to control the switch balance of mouse and human ESCs through modulation of EID1 degradation. PMID:24167073

Ye, Buqing; Dai, Zhonghua; Liu, Benyu; Wang, Rui; Li, Chong; Huang, Guanling; Wang, Shuo; Xia, Pengyan; Yang, Xuan; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo; Fan, Zusen

2014-03-01

272

Localisation of the high affinity facilitative glucose transporter protein GLUT 1 in the placenta of human, marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) and rat at different developmental stages.  

PubMed

In the present study, the facilitative D-glucose transporter protein GLUT 1 was localised by immunohistochemistry in the placenta of human, marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and rat at different developmental stages. A polyclonal antiserum against a 13-amino-acid peptide of the GLUT 1 carboxy terminus was used. It identified a protein of around 50 kDa molecular weight in immunoblotting of the placental tissues. GLUT 1 was located in the syncytiotrophoblast, in cytotrophoblast cells and in fetal endothelium. Similar staining patterns, except in human extravillous cytotrophoblast cells, were observed at all differentiation stages, despite differences in the internal placental architecture of the species. In the marmoset placenta, GLUT 1 was undetectable in endothelial cells of maternal vessels. In rat placentae, trophoblastic giant cells, epithelial cells of both visceral and parietal yolk sac, yolk sac vessels and the stratum spongiosum were stained. Reichert's membrane did not immunoreact. Preadsorption of the antiserum with a 13-amino-acid peptide resulted in the loss of immunoreactivity. The results suggest that GLUT 1 is a prominent isoform of glucose transporters in mammalian placentae. It is generally abundant in placental cell populations bordering on the maternal and fetal circulations and may therefore facilitate an effective glucose supply to the fetus and placenta. PMID:7750136

Hahn, T; Hartmann, M; Blaschitz, A; Skofitsch, G; Graf, R; Dohr, G; Desoye, G

1995-04-01

273

Why Primates? The Importance of Nonhuman Primates for Understanding Human Infancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce the thematic collection by noting some striking similarities in the cognitive abilities of human infants and nonhuman primates. What are the implications of these similarities for our comprehension of human infant cognition? After providing a brief historical and conceptual background on comparative behavioral research, we discuss how…

Weiss, Daniel J.; Santos, Laurie R.

2006-01-01

274

Grasping the Affordances, Understanding the Reasoning: Toward a Dialectical Theory of Human Tool Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most exciting issues in psychology is, What are the psychological mechanisms underlying human tool use? The computational approach assumes that the use of a tool (e.g., a hammer) requires the extraction of sensory information about object properties (heavy, rigid), which can then be translated into appropriate motor outputs (grasping, hammering). The ecological approach suggests that humans perceive

François Osiurak; Christophe Jarry; Didier Le Gall

2010-01-01

275

Interactivity in human–computer interaction: a study of credibility, understanding, and influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in computer technology have allowed the development of human-appearing and -behaving virtual agents. This study examined if increased richness and anthropomorphism in interface design lead to computers being more influential during a decision-making task with a human partner. In addition, user experiences of the communication format, communication process, and the task partner were evaluated for their association with various

J. K. Burgoon; J. A. Bonito; B. Bengtsson; C. Cederberg; M. Lundeberg; L. Allspach

2000-01-01

276

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) in Educational Environments: Implications of Understanding Computers as Media.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) as it applies to educational environments. Topics include the origin of HCI; human factors; usability; computer interface design; goals, operations, methods, and selection (GOMS) models; command language versus direct manipulation; hypertext; visual perception; interface…

Berg, Gary A.

2000-01-01

277

Understanding and Responding to Youth Substance Use: The Contribution of a Health and Human Rights Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a health and human rights framework for conceptualizing and responding to the causes and consequences of youth substance use, reviewing international and national efforts to address youth substance use and discussing the intersection between health and human rights. A methodology for modeling vulnerability in relation to harmful…

Gruskin, Sofia; Plafker, Karen; Smith-Estelle, Allison

2001-01-01

278

The Importance of HRA in Human Space Flight: Understanding the Risks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human performance is critical to crew safety during space missions. Humans interact with hardware and software during ground processing, normal flight, and in response to events. Human interactions with hardware and software can cause Loss of Crew and/or Vehicle (LOCV) through improper actions, or may prevent LOCV through recovery and control actions. Humans have the ability to deal with complex situations and system interactions beyond the capability of machines. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a method used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the occurrence of human failures that affect availability and reliability of complex systems. Modeling human actions with their corresponding failure probabilities in a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) provides a more complete picture of system risks and risk contributions. A high-quality HRA can provide valuable information on potential areas for improvement, including training, procedures, human interfaces design, and the need for automation. Modeling human error has always been a challenge in part because performance data is not always readily available. For spaceflight, the challenge is amplified not only because of the small number of participants and limited amount of performance data available, but also due to the lack of definition of the unique factors influencing human performance in space. These factors, called performance shaping factors in HRA terminology, are used in HRA techniques to modify basic human error probabilities in order to capture the context of an analyzed task. Many of the human error modeling techniques were developed within the context of nuclear power plants and therefore the methodologies do not address spaceflight factors such as the effects of microgravity and longer duration missions. This presentation will describe the types of human error risks which have shown up as risk drivers in the Shuttle PRA which may be applicable to commercial space flight. As with other large PRAs of complex machines, human error in the Shuttle PRA proved to be an important contributor (12 percent) to LOCV. An existing HRA technique was adapted for use in the Shuttle PRA, but additional guidance and improvements are needed to make the HRA task in space-related PRAs easier and more accurate. Therefore, this presentation will also outline plans for expanding current HRA methodology to more explicitly cover spaceflight performance shaping factors.

Hamlin, Teri

2010-01-01

279

How has the study of the human placenta aided our understanding of partially methylated genes?  

PubMed Central

While the human genome sequence is relatively uniform between the cells of an individual, the DNA methylation of the genome (methylome) has unique features in different cells, tissues and stages of development. Recent genome-wide sequencing of the methylome has revealed large partially methylated domains (PMDs) in the human placenta. Unlike CpG islands and Polycomb-regulated regions, which can also have low levels of methylation, placental PMDs cover approximately 37% of the human genome and are associated with inaccessible chromatin and the repression of tissue-specific genes. Here, we summarize the interesting biological questions that have arisen as a result of finding PMDs in the human placenta, including how PMDs form, what they do, how they evolved and how they might be relevant to human disease. PMID:24283879

Schroeder, Diane I; LaSalle, Janine M

2014-01-01

280

Understanding the Link between Urban Activity Destinations and Human Travel Pattern  

E-print Network

In the urban transportation field, planners and engineers have explored the relationship between urban destinations and travel behavior for more than half a century. However, we still have only a preliminary understanding ...

Jiang, Shan

281

Brief on the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill Amendments relating to Clause 4 `Human Admixed Embryos'  

E-print Network

for debilitating diseases and infertility, while reducing the number of human eggs and embryos needed to produce to improve our understanding of infertility, sperm function and stem cell development, and must infertility, and to understand early developmental processes and abnormalities. The creation of HAEs is one

Rambaut, Andrew

282

USE OF PRIMATE FOLLICULOGENESIS MODELS IN UNDERSTANDING HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY AND APPLICABILITY TO TOXICOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The nonhuman primate reproductive system provides an excellent model for studying basic physiological processes applicable to humans. This article reviews hormonal observations and experimental manipulations useful in the evaluation of ovarian events in various stages of the repr...

283

Experimental human exposure to air pollutants is essential to understand adverse health effects.  

PubMed

Air pollution has been found to cause significant global mortality, with 6.8 million excess deaths attributed to air pollution each year, and similarly large numbers of exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological research has identified associations, and experimental human exposure has provided critical information on dose-response relationships of adverse effects caused by controlled human exposure to individual pollutants. Human exposures further enable examination of the relationship of adverse effects such as symptoms and pulmonary function changes to presumed mechanisms of disease revealed through analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from the lower respiratory tract. In this Perspective, we analyze the ethics of human exposure, the importance of the information gained, and the risks of such exposure. We find that these studies appear to have been done with proper approval of institutional review boards, were done with informed consent from the participants, and have rarely been associated with serious adverse events. PMID:24024529

Rom, William N; Boushey, Homer; Caplan, Arthur

2013-11-01

284

Understanding human-space suit interaction to prevent injury during extravehicular activity  

E-print Network

Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is a critical component of human spaceflight. Working in gas-pressurized space suits, however, causes fatigue, unnecessary energy expenditure, and injury. The problem of injury is particularly ...

Anderson, Allison P. (Allison Paige)

2014-01-01

285

Understanding human mobility patterns through mobile phone records : a cross-cultural study  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I present a cross-cultural study on human's trip length distribution and how it might be influenced by regional socio-economic factors, such as population density, income and unemployment rate. Mobile phone ...

Ji, Yan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

286

B.S. Mathematics Developmental  

E-print Network

Verbal ACT must be > 21 or Computer Science 3 MATH 251 3 MATH 451 3 MATH 483 3 Verbal SAT must > 510 ENG 101 3 Related Science 3 MATH 453 3 MATH 488 3 or complete developmental Humanities** 3 Computer be > 28 or ENG 102 3 Related Science 3 MATH 457 3 Upper Div MATH 3 Quan SAT must be >630 Related Science 3

Walker, Lawrence R.

287

Evolution of Human Lactation and Complementary Feeding: Implications for Understanding Contemporary Cross-cultural Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artistic reconstructions of ancestral hominids1 often depict mothers with bared breasts and suckling infants, reflecting assumptions about the importance of lactation in\\u000a human evolution. However, anthropologists have published no detailed theories about how our ancestors fed young children.\\u000a In the absence of a scientific model of the evolution of human lactation and complementary feeding, it is difficult to evaluate\\u000a claims

D. W. Sellen

288

An investigation of the general, reproductive and postnatal developmental toxicity of Betapol™, a human milk fat equivalent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betapol™ consists of triglyceride fatty acids commonly found in vegetable and animal fats. A similarity to human milk fat indicated a potential use in infant formulae as well as for food use in general. To test the potential for substantial equivalence with a related food grade oil, palm oil, Betapol™ was fed to rats at 15% content in the diet

M. J Spurgeon; A. K Palmer; P. A Hepburn

2003-01-01

289

The Perception of Four Basic Emotions in Human and Nonhuman Faces by Children with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children who experienced autism, mental retardation, and language disorders; and, children in a clinical control group were shown photographs of human female, orangutan, and canine (boxer) faces expressing happiness, sadness, anger, surprise and a neutral expression. For each species of faces, children were asked to identify the happy, sad, angry,…

Gross, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

290

Identifying developmental toxicity pathways for a subset of ToxCast chemicals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics  

EPA Science Inventory

Metabolomics analysis was performed on the supernatant of human embryonic stem (hES) cell cultures exposed to a blinded subset of 11 chemicals selected from the chemical library of EPA's ToxCast? chemical screening and prioritization research project. Metabolites from hES cultur...

291

Future Directions in the Developmental Science of Addictions  

PubMed Central

This essay addresses important future directions for the study of addictions, emphasizing the incorporation of developmental perspectives into how we think about substance use and disorder as unfolding processes over time and context for a heterogeneous group of individuals. These perspectives articulate complexities in the developmental processes that underlie change and continuity in human behavior over time. We consider two key developmental concepts, namely ‘time’ and ‘heterogeneity’. We argue that a lack of attention to time sampling creates ambiguity in the meaning of time-linked assessments, challenges in discerning which of multiple clocks may govern behavior, and the inability in some instances to distinguish which of multiple etiological processes may be driving behavior within our samples. Moreover, artificial divisions among disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use are a barrier to the further integration of the study and treatment of addictions with that of psychopathology. Similar to recent changes in the study of psychiatric disorders more broadly, we argue that identifying common deficits among commonly comorbid disorders, rather than patterns of comorbidity per se, is key to identifying early emerging risk factors for substance use and disorder, with important implications for identifying risk populations and developmental periods as well as potentially malleable intervention targets. Attention to time sampling in theory-driven research designs and attempts to identify more homogenous groups of individuals who use and eventually abuse substances over time are two examples of ways to better understand some of the complexity underlying the development of addictions. PMID:24156358

Hussong, Andrea M.; Burns, Alison R.; Solis, Jessica M.; Rothenberg, W. Andrew

2014-01-01

292

Reconciling Human Smoking Behavior and Machine Smoking Patterns: Implications for Understanding Smoking Behavior and the Impact on Laboratory Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent Food and Drug Administration legislation enables the mandating of product performance standards for cigarette smoke and the evaluation of manufacturers’ health claims for modified tobacco products. Laboratory studies used for these evaluations, and also to understand tobacco smoke toxicology, use machines to generate smoke. The goal of this review is to critically evaluate methods to assess human smoking behavior and replicate this in the laboratory. Methods Smoking behavior and smoking machine studies were identified using PubMed and publically available databases for internal tobacco company documents. Results The smoking machine was developed to generate smoke to allow for comparing cigarette tar and nicotine yields. The intent was to infer relative human disease risk, but this concept was flawed because humans tailor their smoking to the product and chemical yields and toxicological effects change with different smoking profiles. While smoking machines also allow for mechanistic assessments of smoking-related diseases, the interpretations also are limited. However, available methods to assess how humans puff could be used to provide better laboratory assessments, but these need to be validated. Separately, the contribution of smoke mouth-holding and inhalation to dose need to be assessed, because these parts of smoking are not captured by the smoking machine. Better comparisons of cigarettes might be done by tailoring human puff profiles to the product based on human studies and comparing results across regimens. Conclusions There are major research gaps that limit the use of smoking machine studies for informing tobacco control regulation and mechanistic studies. PMID:19959678

Marian, Catalin; O'Connor, Richard J.; Djordjevic, Mirjana; Rees, Vaughan W.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

2009-01-01

293

The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preparing students to take informed positions on complex problems through critical evaluation is a primary goal of university education. Socioscientific issues (SSI) have been established as effective contexts for students to develop this competency, as well as reasoning skills and content knowledge. This mixed-methods study investigates the effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program focused on the development of evidence-based reasoning to form personal commitments on SSI. Specifically, the study investigates how human biology majors differ from traditional biology majors in their reasoning with SSI, their perceptions of experiences with SSI, their understanding of scientific inquiry, their levels and perceptions of science content knowledge, and their general program perceptions. These outcomes were assessed through open-ended questionnaires on SSI and scientific inquiry and a basic biology concept test administered to 95 participants representing both programs and 16 semi-structured student interviews. Although the two groups did not differ significantly in their decisions or factors influencing their decisions in SSI, human biology majors showed higher levels of socioscientific reasoning, suggesting that learning contextualized in SSI helped them understand and reason with similar issues. While biology majors reported few experiences with socioscientific reasoning, human biology majors felt well equipped to reason with SSI and more likely to consider alternative perspectives in their decision making. Human biology majors also were more likely to view social science research as a form of inquiry and less likely to view scientific inquiry as purely experimental. No difference was found between groups in basic biology content knowledge, although human biology majors felt they were exposed to less detailed biology content. This exploratory study illustrates a novel approach to interdisciplinary, SSI-based science education at the college level.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.

294

PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

295

Students' Participation in an Interdisciplinary, Socioscientific Issues Based Undergraduate Human Biology Major and Their Understanding of Scientific Inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine whether Socioscientific Issues (SSI) based learning environments affect university students' epistemological understanding of scientific inquiry differently from traditional science educational contexts. We identify and compare conceptions of scientific inquiry of students participating in an interdisciplinary, SSI-focused undergraduate human biology major (SSI) and those participating in a traditional biology major (BIO). Forty-five SSI students and 50 BIO students completed an open-ended questionnaire examining their understanding of scientific inquiry. Eight general themes including approximately 60 subthemes emerged from questionnaire responses, and the numbers of students including each subtheme in their responses were statistically compared between groups. A subset of students participated in interviews, which were used to validate and triangulate questionnaire data and probe students' understanding of scientific inquiry in relation to their majors. We found that both groups provided very similar responses, differing significantly in only five subthemes. Results indicated that both groups held generally adequate understandings of inquiry, but also a number of misconceptions. Small differences between groups supported by both questionnaires and interviews suggest that the SSI context contributed to nuanced understandings, such as a more interdisciplinary and problem-centered conception of scientific inquiry. Implications for teaching and research are discussed.

Eastwood, Jennifer L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Sherwood, Robert D.; Schlegel, Whitney M.

2013-06-01

296

Importance of MUC1 and spontaneous mouse tumor models for understanding the immunobiology of human adenocarcinomas.  

PubMed

Many important aspects of cancer biology, such as cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis, have been studied in animal models, mostly mice. As long as cancer was considered primarily a genetic disease, the study of transplantable mouse tumors, or even human tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice, appeared to suffice. Many important genetic events that lead to transformation and in vivo tumor growth were elucidated. However, many even more important factors that determine whether or not the genetic potential of a tumor cell will be realized, such as the host response to the tumor and the tumor microenvironment that influences this response over a long period of time of tumor development, remained untested and unappreciated. This is slowly changing with the advent of molecular techniques that have spurred efforts to engineer better mouse models of human tumors. In this review, we show results of our efforts to combine a genetic mouse model of spontaneous human adenocarcinomas based on a Kras mutation, with an important human molecule MUC1 that is abnormally expressed on human adenocarcinomas, promoting oncogenesis, proinflammatory tumor microenvironment, and immunosurveillance. PMID:21717081

Finn, Olivera J; Gantt, Kira R; Lepisto, Andrew J; Pejawar-Gaddy, Sharmila; Xue, Jia; Beatty, Pamela L

2011-08-01

297

That which surpasses all understanding Mathematical insights on the limitations of human thought  

E-print Network

, and all the children of men which are, and which were created; of the same he greatly marveled central role in God's plan, but neither dwells much on the inadequacy of understanding that inspired the feeling in the first place. The Moses story does contain some interesting references to it, such as God

Nielsen, Mark J.

298

Eight Problems for the Mirror Neuron Theory of Action Understanding in Monkeys and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of mirror neurons in macaque frontal cortex has sparked a resurgence of interest in motor\\/embodied theories of cognition. This critical review examines the evidence in support of one of these theories, namely, that mirror neurons provide the basis of action understanding. It is argued that there is no evidence from monkey data that directly tests this theory, and

Gregory Hickok

2009-01-01

299

A Human-Centric Approach to Program Understanding Ray Buse -PhD Proposal  

E-print Network

, Department of Computer Science DocumentationRuntime BehaviorReadability 1.20.2010 "The real question. What Do Programmers Really Do Anyway? Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) ­ C# Compiler. Jan 2006. #12 Dimensions of Understanding DocumentationRuntime BehaviorReadability #12;12 Proposal: Three Dimensions

Weimer, Westley

300

Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

2009-01-01

301

Sarcosaprophagous flies in Suez governorate, Egypt IV--persistence of human pathogenic bacteria in the developmental stages.  

PubMed

The persistence of three species of human pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Staphylococcus epidermidis) in sterile artificially fed larvae was examined till adult emergence after ingestion by three species of sarcosaprophagous flies (House fly, Musca domestica, Oriental latrine blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Australian cheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina). The number of bacteria present in mature maggots, pupae and emerging adults declined significantly (P < 0.05). Each human pathogenic bacteria when introduced into a sterilized larval medium, was routinely recovered from larvae (10(5)), pupae (ranged from 10(3) to 10(4) and the majority of emerging flies retain 102 bacteria, whereas some are sterile. The potentiality of emerged flies to harbor bacteria is clearly different (M. domestica > C. megacephala > L. cuprina). No detection for S. epidermidis from emerged C. megacephala and L. cuprina flies, moreover S. sonnei was not detected in the emerged flies of L. cuprina. PMID:19530618

Gabre, Refaat M

2009-04-01

302

Insulin receptors in syncytitrophoblast and fetal endothelium of human placenta. Immunohistochemical evidence for developmental changes in distribution pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localisation of insulin receptors (IR) was investigated on cryosections of human non-pathologic first trimester and full term placentae by indirect immunohistochemistry with three different monoclonal antibodies (MABS). In placentae from 6 to 10 weeks post-menstruation (p-m.), only syncytiotrophoblast was stained, predominantly that of mesenchymal villi and syncytial sprouts, which are areas of high proliferative activity. In placentae from 11

G. Desoye; T. Hahn; M. Hartmann; A. Blaschitz; G. Dohr; G. Kohnen; P. Kaufmann

1994-01-01

303

Differences in lymphocyte developmental potential between human embryonic stem cell and umbilical cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) develop into diverse mature he- matopoietic lineages, including lympho- cytes. Whereas functional natural killer (NK) cells can be efficiently generated in vitro from hESC-derived CD34 cells, studies of T- and B-cell development from hESCs have been much more limited. Here, we demonstrate that despite ex- pressing functional Notch-1, CD34 cells

Colin H. Martin; Petter S. Woll; Zhenya Ni; Juan Carlos Zuniga-Pflucker; Dan S. Kaufman

2008-01-01

304

Developmental Regulation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons by Calcium Entry via Transient Receptor Potential (Trp) Channels  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous calcium (Ca2+) transients in the developing nervous system can affect proliferation, migration, neuronal subtype specification and neurite outgrowth. Here we show that telencephalic human neuroepithelia (hNE) and post-mitotic neurons (PMNs) generated from embryonic stem cells display robust Ca2+ transients. Unlike previous reports in animal models, transients occurred by a Gd3+/La3+-sensitive, but thapsigargin- and Cd2+-insensitive mechanism, strongly suggestive of a role for transient receptor potential (Trp) channels. Furthermore, Ca2+ transients in PMNs exhibited an additional sensitivity to the TrpC antagonist SKF96365 as well as shRNA-mediated knock down of the TrpC1 subunit. Functionally, inhibition of Ca2+ transients in dividing hNE cells led to a significant reduction in proliferation, while either pharmacological inhibition or shRNA-mediated knockdown of the TrpC1 and TrpC4 subunits significantly reduced neurite extension in PMNs. Primary neurons cultured from fetal human cortex displayed nearly identical Ca2+ transients and pharmacological sensitivities to Trp channel antagonists. Together these data suggest that Trp channels present a novel mechanism for controlling Ca2+ transients in human neurons and may offer a target for regulating proliferation and neurite outgrowth when engineering cells for therapeutic transplantation. PMID:19725137

Weick, Jason P.; Johnson, M. Austin; Zhang, Su-Chun

2009-01-01

305

Is Human Decision Making under Ambiguity Guided by Loss Frequency Regardless of the Costs? A Developmental Study Using the Soochow Gambling Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Converging developmental decision-making studies have demonstrated that until late adolescence, individuals prefer options for which the risk of a loss is low regardless of the final outcome. Recent works have shown a similar inability to consider both loss frequency and final outcome among adults. The current study aimed to identify developmental

Aite, Ania; Cassotti, Mathieu; Rossi, Sandrine; Poirel, Nicolas; Lubin, Amelie; Houde, Olivier; Moutier, Sylvain

2012-01-01

306

Developmental Systems Science: Exploring the Application of Systems Science Methods to Developmental Science Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental science theorists fully acknowledge the wide array of complex interactions among biology, behavior, and environment that together give rise to development. However, despite this conceptual understanding of development as a system, developmental science has not fully applied analytic methods commensurate with this systems perspective. This article provides a brief introduction to systems science, an approach to problem solving that

Jennifer Brown Urban; Nathaniel D. Osgood; Patricia L. Mabry

2011-01-01

307

The immature human ovary shows loss of abnormal follicles and increasing follicle developmental competence through childhood and adolescence  

PubMed Central

STUDY QUESTION Do the ovarian follicles of children and adolescents differ in their morphology and in vitro growth potential from those of adults? SUMMARY ANSWER Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of morphologically abnormal non-growing follicles, and follicles showed reduced capacity for in vitro growth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The pre-pubertal ovary is known to contain follicles at the early growing stages. How this changes over childhood and through puberty is unknown, and there are no previous data on the in vitro growth potential of follicles from pre-pubertal and pubertal girls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies from five pre-pubertal and seven pubertal girls and 19 adult women were analysed histologically, cultured in vitro for 6 days, with growing follicles then isolated and cultured for a further 6 days. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were obtained from girls undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation, and compared with biopsies from adult women. Follicle stage and morphology were classified. After 6 days in culture, follicle growth initiation was assessed. The growth of isolated secondary follicles was assessed over a further 6 days, including analysis of oocyte growth. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of abnormal non-growing follicles (19.4 versus 4.85% in pubertal ovaries; 4004 follicles analysed; P = 0.02) characterized by indistinct germinal vesicle membrane and absent nucleolus. Follicles with this abnormal morphology were not seen in the adult ovary. During 6 days culture, follicle growth initiation was observed at all ages; in pre-pubertal samples there was very little development to secondary stages, while pubertal samples showed similar growth activation to that seen in adult tissue (pubertal group: P = 0.02 versus pre-pubertal, ns versus adult). Isolated secondary follicles were cultured for a further 6 days. Those from pre-pubertal ovary showed limited growth (P < 0.05 versus both pubertal and adult follicles) and no change in oocyte diameter over that period. Follicles from pubertal ovaries showed increased growth; this was still reduced compared with follicles from adult women (P < 0.05) but oocyte growth was proportionate to follicle size. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION These data derive from only a small number of ovarian biopsies, although large numbers of follicles were analysed. It is unclear whether the differences between groups are related to puberty, or just age. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS These findings show that follicles from girls of all ages can be induced to grow in vitro, which has important implications for some patients who are at high risk of malignant contamination of their ovarian tissue. The reduced growth of isolated follicles indicates that there are true intrafollicular differences in addition to potential differences in their local environment, and that there are maturational processes occurring in the ovary through childhood and adolescence, which involve the loss of abnormal follicles, and increasing follicle developmental competence. Study funding/competing interest(s) Funded by MRC grants G0901839 and G1100357. No competing interests. PMID:24135076

Anderson, R.A.; McLaughlin, M.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Albertini, D.F.; Telfer, E.E.

2014-01-01

308

Ideas to stimulate the non-major biology student: Understanding human energy requirements - A laboratory exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a laboratory exercise suitable for introducing the concepts of human metabolism to non-majors students, or as a practical application of the concepts of energy and metabolism for introductory biology students. Students monitor metabolic intake and expendtiures, calculate requirements, and consider the implications of excess intake or deficits on health.

Roberta B. Williams (University of Nevada;)

1988-01-01

309

Evolution of Humans: Understanding the Nature and Methods of Science through Cooperative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of an enquiry-based approach to the study of human evolution in a practical context, integrating role-playing, jigsaw cooperative learning and scientific argumentation. The activity seeks to unravel the evolutionary relationships of five hominids and one ape from rather "messy" evidence. This approach enhanced the…

Lee, Yeung Chung

2011-01-01

310

Understanding Generational Diversity: Strategic Human Resource Management and Development across the Generational "Divide"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are more generations in today's workforce than ever before, which has the possibility to create challenges for Human Resource professionals. The purpose of this article is to interrogate existing stereotypes and generalities about the characteristics of different generations with respect to the workplace, and to offer suggestions for…

Amayah, Angela Titi; Gedro, Julie

2014-01-01

311

Leveraging Small Aquarium Fishes to Advance Understanding of Environmentally Influenced Human Disorders and Diseases  

EPA Science Inventory

Small aquarium fishes provide a model organism that recapitulates the development, physiology and specific disease processes present in humans without the many limitations of rodent-based models currently in use. Fish models offer advantages in cost, rapid life-cycles, and extern...

312

Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

2009-01-01

313

Relational Frame Theory: Some Implications for Understanding and Treating Human Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current paper, we attempt to show how both the basic and applied sciences of behavior analysis have been transformed by the modern research agenda in human language and cognition, known as Relational Frame Theory (RFT). At the level of basic process, the paper argues that the burgeoning literature on derived stimulus relations calls for a reinterpretation of complex

Yvonne Barnes-Holmes; Dermot Barnes-Holmes; Louise McHugh; Steven C. Hayes

2004-01-01

314

Understanding hereditary diseases using the dog and human as companion model systems  

PubMed Central

Animal models are requisite for genetic dissection of, and improved treatment regimens for, human hereditary diseases. While several animals have been used in academic and industrial research, the primary model for dissection of hereditary diseases has been the many strains of the laboratory mouse. However, given its greater (than the mouse) genetic similarity to the human, high number of naturally occurring hereditary diseases, unique population structure, and the availability of the complete genome sequence, the purebred dog has emerged as a powerful model for study of diseases. The major advantage the dog provides is that it is afflicted with approximately 450 hereditary diseases, about half of which have remarkable clinical similarities to corresponding diseases of the human. In addition, humankind has a strong desire to cure diseases of the dog so these two facts make the dog an ideal clinical and genetic model. This review highlights several of these shared hereditary diseases. Specifically, the canine models discussed herein have played important roles in identification of causative genes and/or have been utilized in novel therapeutic approaches of interest to the dog and human. PMID:17653794

Tsai, Kate L.; Clark, Leigh Anne

2007-01-01

315

Students' Understanding of Connections between Human Engineered and Natural Environmental Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research draws on developments in educational research where "learning progressions" are emerging as a strategy for synthesizing research on science learning and applying that research to policy and practice, and advances in the natural sciences, where "interdisciplinary research on coupled human and natural systems" has become increasingly…

Tsurusaki, Blakely K.; Anderson, Charles W.

2010-01-01

316

Understanding and Modulating Mammalian-Microbial Communication for Improved Human Health  

PubMed Central

The fact that the bacteria in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract play a symbiotic role was noted as early as 1885, well before we began to manage microbial infections using antibiotics. However, even with the first antimicrobial compounds used in humans, the sulfa drugs, microbes were recognized to be critically involved in the biotransformation of these therapeutics. Thus, the roles played by the microbiota in physiology and in the management of human health have long been appreciated. Detailed examinations of GI symbiotic bacteria that started in the early 2000s and the first phases of the Human Microbiome Project that were completed in 2012 have ushered in an exciting period of granularity with respect to the ecology, genetics, and chemistry of the mammalian-microbial axes of communication. Here we review aspects of the biochemical pathways at play between commensal GI bacteria and several mammalian systems, including both local-epithelia and nonlocal responses including inflammation, immunology, metabolism, and neurobiology. Finally, we discuss how the microbial biotransformation of therapeutic compounds, such as anticancer or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can be modulated to reduce toxicity and potentially improve therapeutic efficacy. PMID:24160697

Mani, Sridhar; Boelsterli, Urs A.; Redinbo, Matthew R.

2013-01-01

317

Water as a Human Right: The Understanding of Water Rights in Palestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international community has affirmed the human right to water in a number of international treaties, declarations and other documents. Most notably, in November 2002 the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted General Comment No. 15 on the right to water, setting out general standards and obligations related to the right to water. This paper analyses if

SIMONE KLAWITTER

2007-01-01

318

Vitamin D signaling in the bovine immune system: A model for understanding human vitamin D requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The endocrine physiology of vitamin D in cattle has been rigorously investigated and has yielded information on vitamin D requirements, endocrine function in health and disease, general metabolism, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis in cattle. These results are relevant to human vitamin D endocr...

319

A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF WHY MURINE MODELS OF TRAUMA DO NOT RECAPITULATE THE HUMAN SYNDROME  

PubMed Central

Objective Genomic analyses from blood leukocytes have concluded that mouse injury poorly reflects human trauma at the leukocyte transcriptome. Concerns have focused on the modest severity of murine injury models, differences in murine compared to human age, dissimilar circulating leukocyte populations between species, and whether similar signaling pathways are involved. We sought to examine whether the transcriptomic response to severe trauma in mice could be explained by these extrinsic factors, by utilizing an increasing severity of murine trauma and shock in young and aged mice over time, and examining the response in isolated neutrophil populations. Design Pre-clinical controlled in vivo laboratory study and retrospective cohort study Setting Laboratory of Inflammation Biology and Surgical Science and multi-institution level 1 trauma centers Subjects 6–10 week old and 20–24 month old C57BL/6 (B6) mice and two cohorts of 167 and 244 severely traumatized (ISS >15) adult (>18 yo) patients. Interventions Mice underwent one of two severity polytrauma models of injury. Total blood leukocyte and neutrophil samples were collected. Measurements and Main Results Fold expression changes in leukocyte and neutrophil genome-wide expression analyses between healthy and injured mice (p<0.001) were compared to human total and enriched blood leukocyte expression analyses of severe trauma patients at 0.5, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 days after injury (Glue Grant TRDB). We found that increasing the severity of the murine trauma model only modestly improved the correlation in the transcriptomic response with humans, whereas the age of the mice did not. In addition, the genome-wide response to blood neutrophils (rather than total WBC) was also not well correlated between humans and mice. However, the expression of many individual gene families was much more strongly correlated after injury in mice and humans. Conclusions Although overall transcriptomic association remained weak even after adjusting for the severity of injury, age of the animals, timing, and individual leukocyte populations, there were individual signaling pathways and ontogenies that were strongly correlated between mice and humans. These genes are involved in early inflammation and innate/adaptive immunity. PMID:24413577

Gentile, Lori F.; Nacionales, Dina C.; Lopez, M. Cecilia; Vanzant, Erin; Cuenca, Angela; Cuenca, Alex G.; Ungaro, Ricardo; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; McKinley, Bruce A.; Bihorac, Azra; Cuschieri, Joseph; Maier, Ronald V.; Moore, Frederick A.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V.; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Efron, Philip A.

2014-01-01

320

The Omo-Turkana Basin fossil hominins and their contribution to our understanding of human evolution in Africa.  

PubMed

The Omo-Turkana Basin, including the hominin fossil sites around Lake Turkana and the sites along the lower reaches of the Omo River, has made and continues to make an important contribution to improving our murky understanding of human evolution. This review highlights the various ways the Omo-Turkana Basin fossil record has contributed to, and continues to challenge, interpretations of human evolution. Despite many diagrams that look suspiciously like comprehensive hypotheses about human evolutionary history, any sensible paleoanthropologist knows that the early hominin fossil record is too meager to do anything other than offer very provisional statements about hominin taxonomy and phylogeny. If history tells us anything, it is that we still have much to learn about the hominin clade. Thus, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the hominin species represented at the Omo-Turkana Basin sites. We then focus on three specific topics for which the fossil evidence is especially relevant: the origin and nature of Paranthropus; the origin and nature of early Homo; and the ongoing debate about whether the pattern of human evolution is more consistent with speciation by cladogenesis, with greater taxonomic diversity or with speciation by anagenetic transformation, resulting in less taxonomic diversity and a more linear interpretation of human evolutionary history. PMID:22170695

Wood, Bernard; Leakey, Meave

2011-01-01

321

Understanding race and human variation: why forensic anthropologists are good at identifying race.  

PubMed

American forensicanthropologists uncritically accepted the biological race concept from classic physical anthropology and applied it to methods of human identification. Why and how the biological race concept might work in forensic anthropology was contemplated by Sauer (Soc Sci Med 34 1992 107-111), who hypothesized that American forensic anthropologists are good at what they do because of a concordance between social race and skeletal morphology in American whites and blacks. However, Sauer also stressed that this concordance did not validate the classic biological race concept of physical anthropology that there are a relatively small number of discrete types of human beings. Results from Howells (Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 67 1973 1-259; Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 79 1989 1-189; Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 82 1995 1-108) and others using craniometric and molecular data show strong geographic patterning of human variation despite overlap in their distributions. However, Williams et al. (Curr Anthropol 46 2005 340-346) concluded that skeletal morphology cannot be used to accurately classify individuals. Williams et al. cited additional support from Lewontin (Evol Biol 6 1972 381-398), who analyzed classic genetic markers. In this study, multivariate analyses of craniometric data support Sauer's hypothesis that there are morphological differences between American whites and blacks. We also confirm significant geographic patterning in human variation but also find differences among groups within continents. As a result, if biological races are defined by uniqueness, then there are a very large number of biological races that can be defined, contradicting the classic biological race concept of physical anthropology. Further, our results show that humans can be accurately classified into geographic origin using craniometrics even though there is overlap among groups. PMID:19226647

Ousley, Stephen; Jantz, Richard; Freid, Donna

2009-05-01

322

Understanding Human-Coyote Encounters in Urban Ecosystems Using Citizen Science Data: What Do Socioeconomics Tell Us?  

PubMed

The coyote (Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans. We explored the relative importance of socioeconomic variables compared to those describing coyote habitat in predicting human-coyote encounters in highly-urbanized Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA using 707 public reports of coyote sightings, high-resolution land cover, US Census data, and an autologistic multi-model inference approach. Three of the four socioeconomic variables which we hypothesized would have an important influence on encounter probability, namely building density, household income, and occupation, had effects at least as large as or larger than coyote habitat variables. Our results indicate that the consideration of readily available socioeconomic variables in the analysis of citizen science data improves the prediction of species distributions by providing insight into the effects of important factors for which data are often lacking, such as resource availability for coyotes on private property and observer experience. Managers should take advantage of citizen scientists in human-dominated landscapes to monitor coyotes in order to understand their interactions with humans. PMID:25234049

Wine, Stuart; Gagné, Sara A; Meentemeyer, Ross K

2014-09-19

323

Understanding Human-Coyote Encounters in Urban Ecosystems Using Citizen Science Data: What Do Socioeconomics Tell Us?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coyote ( Canis latrans) has dramatically expanded its range to include the cities and suburbs of the western US and those of the Eastern Seaboard. Highly adaptable, this newcomer's success causes conflicts with residents, necessitating research to understand the distribution of coyotes in urban landscapes. Citizen science can be a powerful approach toward this aim. However, to date, the few studies that have used publicly reported coyote sighting data have lacked an in-depth consideration of human socioeconomic variables, which we suggest are an important source of overlooked variation in data that describe the simultaneous occurrence of coyotes and humans. We explored the relative importance of socioeconomic variables compared to those describing coyote habitat in predicting human-coyote encounters in highly-urbanized Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, USA using 707 public reports of coyote sightings, high-resolution land cover, US Census data, and an autologistic multi-model inference approach. Three of the four socioeconomic variables which we hypothesized would have an important influence on encounter probability, namely building density, household income, and occupation, had effects at least as large as or larger than coyote habitat variables. Our results indicate that the consideration of readily available socioeconomic variables in the analysis of citizen science data improves the prediction of species distributions by providing insight into the effects of important factors for which data are often lacking, such as resource availability for coyotes on private property and observer experience. Managers should take advantage of citizen scientists in human-dominated landscapes to monitor coyotes in order to understand their interactions with humans.

Wine, Stuart; Gagné, Sara A.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

2015-01-01

324

The Role of Intuitive Ontologies in Scientific Understanding – the Case of Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological evidence suggests that laypeople understand the world around them in terms of intuitive ontologies which describe\\u000a broad categories of objects in the world, such as ‘person’, ‘artefact’ and ‘animal’. However, because intuitive ontologies\\u000a are the result of natural selection, they only need to be adaptive; this does not guarantee that the knowledge they provide\\u000a is a genuine reflection of

Helen De Cruz; Johan De Smedt

2007-01-01

325

From Monsoons to Microbes: Understanding the Ocean's Role in Human Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online book offers a deeper look into the oceans that surround us, exploring the links among physical oceanography, public health, epidemiology, marine biology, and medicine in understanding what the ocean has to offer. Chapters include: contains chapters about climate and weather, coastal hazards, and public health; oceans and infectious diseases, harmful algal blooms (HABs); marine-derived pharmaceuticals and related bioactive agents; and marine organisms as models for biomedical research. PDF versions of the chapters are available to skim or read.

Commission on Geosciences; Environment and Resources (CGER) Ocean Studies Board (OSB)

326

Developmental cues for the maturation of metabolic, electrophysiological and calcium handling properties of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes  

PubMed Central

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, are abundant sources of cardiomyocytes (CMs) for cell replacement therapy and other applications such as disease modeling, drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screening. However, hPSC-derived CMs display immature structural, electrophysiological, calcium-handling and metabolic properties. Here, we review various biological as well as physical and topographical cues that are known to associate with the development of native CMs in vivo to gain insights into the development of strategies for facilitated maturation of hPSC-CMs. PMID:24467782

2014-01-01

327

We're here to celebrate our colleagues and our work--of increasing understanding of the human experience. We do  

E-print Network

as the record of human experience isbroadanddeep,bothbypreservationandworktobringinto view elements that might acknowledged here, increase our understanding of the human experience and encourage us to reflect critically `thank you' for the wonderful humanities education that I received at UCSC." "My experience

California at Santa Cruz, University of

328

Learning Dictionaries of Sparse Codes of 3D Movements of Body Joints for Real-Time Human Activity Understanding  

PubMed Central

Real-time human activity recognition is essential for human-robot interactions for assisted healthy independent living. Most previous work in this area is performed on traditional two-dimensional (2D) videos and both global and local methods have been used. Since 2D videos are sensitive to changes of lighting condition, view angle, and scale, researchers begun to explore applications of 3D information in human activity understanding in recently years. Unfortunately, features that work well on 2D videos usually don't perform well on 3D videos and there is no consensus on what 3D features should be used. Here we propose a model of human activity recognition based on 3D movements of body joints. Our method has three steps, learning dictionaries of sparse codes of 3D movements of joints, sparse coding, and classification. In the first step, space-time volumes of 3D movements of body joints are obtained via dense sampling and independent component analysis is then performed to construct a dictionary of sparse codes for each activity. In the second step, the space-time volumes are projected to the dictionaries and a set of sparse histograms of the projection coefficients are constructed as feature representations of the activities. Finally, the sparse histograms are used as inputs to a support vector machine to recognize human activities. We tested this model on three databases of human activities and found that it outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. Thus, this model can be used for real-time human activity recognition in many applications. PMID:25473850

Qi, Jin; Yang, Zhiyong

2014-01-01

329

Developmental Pharmacology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs used in psychopharmacology across the pediatric age spectrum from infants to adolescents represents a major challenge for clinicians. In pediatrics, treatment protocols use either standard dose reductions for these drugs for children below a certain age or use less conventional…

van den Anker, Johannes N.

2010-01-01

330

An integrative framework for understanding cross-national human resource management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, debate in the area of cross-national human resource management (HRM) suggests that both “culture-bound” and “culture-free” factors and variables are important determinants of HRM policies and practices. HRM is presented as being context-specific and it is argued that with the growth of new markets world-wide, and increased levels of competition and globalization of business, there is a strong need

Pawan S Budhwar; Paul R Sparrow

2002-01-01

331

Systems biological approaches to measure and understand vaccine immunity in humans  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of using systems approaches to identify molecular signatures that can be used to predict vaccine immunity in humans. Such approaches are now being used extensively in vaccinology, and are beginning to yield novel insights about the molecular networks driving vaccine immunity. In this review, we present a broad review of the methodologies involved in these studies, and discuss the promise and challenges involved in this emerging field of “systems vaccinology.” PMID:23796714

Li, Shuzhao; Nakaya, Helder I; Kazmin, Dmitri A; Oh, Jason; Pulendran, Bali

2013-01-01

332

The mouse notches up another success: understanding the causes of human vertebral malformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defining characteristic of all vertebrates is a spine composed of a regular sequence of vertebrae. In humans, congenital\\u000a spinal defects occur with an incidence of 0.5–1 per 1,000 live births and arise when the formation of vertebral precursors\\u000a in the embryo is disrupted. These precursors (somites) form in a process (somitogenesis) in which each somite is progressively\\u000a separated from

Duncan B. Sparrow; Gavin Chapman; Sally L. Dunwoodie

2011-01-01

333

Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck\\u000a malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people\\u000a have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of

Mario A. BrondaniMario; Mario A. Cruz-Cabrera; Cheryle Colombe

2010-01-01

334

New dimensions in our understanding of the human health effects of environmental pollutants  

SciTech Connect

The term {open_quotes}hazardous{close_quotes} waste is used primarily in reference to potential hazards to human health and, to a lesser decree, hazards to wildlife and the ecosystem. Many of the chemicals associated with hazardous waste sites are also widely distributed throughout the environment; therefore, the health hazards associated with hazardous waste sites are not different from those associated with general environmental contamination. Until recently, it was generally assumed that cancer was the human disease of greatest concern associated with toxic chemicals. In fact, most governmental regulations related to exposure are designed on the basis of presumed cancer risks. Since the evidence that hazardous chemicals can cause cancer is strong, it is appropriate to be concerned about cancer risk. Recent evidence, however, has triggered a reevaluation of the assumption that only cancer is of concern. New evidence suggests that noncancer endpoints may occur more frequently than cancer, may affect a greater number of individuals, and may occur at lower concentrations. Of particular concern is evidence of irreversible effects on the embryo and very young children, which influence intelligence, attention span, sexual development, and immune function. Although these effects are often subtle and difficult to quantify, the combined evidence is sufficiently compelling to necessitate a reevaluation of those outcomes of primary concern to human health. 57 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Carpenter, D.O. [Univ. of Albany, Rensselaer, NY (United States)

1996-12-31

335

A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

Shen, Song-Hua (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Chang, James Y. H. (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Boring,Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Whaley, April M. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H. (Vattenfall Ringhals AB, Varobacka, Sweden); Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Mosleh, Ali (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

2010-03-01

336

A new approach to understanding the impact of circadian disruption on human health  

PubMed Central

Background Light and dark patterns are the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour solar day. Disruption of circadian rhythms has been associated with a variety of maladies. Ecological studies of human exposures to light are virtually nonexistent, however, making it difficult to determine if, in fact, light-induced circadian disruption directly affects human health. Methods A newly developed field measurement device recorded circadian light exposures and activity from day-shift and rotating-shift nurses. Circadian disruption defined in terms of behavioral entrainment was quantified for these two groups using phasor analyses of the circular cross-correlations between light exposure and activity. Circadian disruption also was determined for rats subjected to a consistent 12-hour light/12-hour dark pattern (12L:12D) and ones subjected to a "jet-lagged" schedule. Results Day-shift nurses and rats exposed to the consistent light-dark pattern exhibited pronounced similarities in their circular cross-correlation functions and 24-hour phasor representations except for an approximate 12-hour phase difference between species. The phase difference reflects the diurnal versus nocturnal behavior of humans versus rodents. Phase differences within species likely reflect chronotype differences among individuals. Rotating-shift nurses and rats subjected to the "jet-lagged" schedule exhibited significant reductions in phasor magnitudes compared to the day-shift nurses and the 12L:12D rats. The reductions in the 24-hour phasor magnitudes indicate a loss of behavioral entrainment compared to the nurses and the rats with regular light-dark exposure patterns. Conclusion This paper provides a quantitative foundation for systematically studying the impact of light-induced circadian disruption in humans and in animal models. Ecological light and activity data are needed to develop the essential insights into circadian entrainment/disruption actually experienced by modern people. These data can now be obtained and analyzed to reveal the interrelationship between actual light exposures and markers of circadian rhythm such as rest-activity patterns, core body temperature, and melatonin synthesis. Moreover, it should now be possible to bridge ecological studies of circadian disruption in humans to parametric studies of the relationships between circadian disruption and health outcomes using animal models. PMID:18510756

Rea, Mark S; Bierman, Andrew; Figueiro, Mariana G; Bullough, John D

2008-01-01

337

Effects of Children's Understanding of Time Concepts on Historical Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the relationship between how children learn clock, calendar, and historical time skills and concepts. An alternative view of how temporal and historical understandings affect the teaching of history called the developmental-historical time view is proposed. (BSR)

Thornton, Stephen J.; Vukelich, Ronald

1988-01-01

338

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Dioxin in Fish1  

PubMed Central

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) is a global environmental contaminant and the prototypical ligand for investigating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated toxicity. Environmental exposure to TCDD results in developmental and reproductive toxicity in fish, birds and mammals. To resolve the ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks posed by exposure to dioxin-like AHR agonists, a vertebrate model is needed that allows for toxicity studies at various levels of biological organization, assesses adverse reproductive and developmental effects and establishes appropriate integrative correlations between different levels of effects. Here we describe the reproductive and developmental toxicity of TCDD in feral fish species and summarize how using the zebrafish model to investigate TCDD toxicity has enabled us to characterize the AHR signaling in fish and to better understand how dioxin-like chemicals induce toxicity. We propose that such studies can be used to predict the risks that AHR ligands pose to feral fish populations and provide a platform for integrating risk assessments for both ecologically relevant organisms and humans. PMID:21958697

King-Heiden, Tisha C.; Mehta, Vatsal; Xiong, Kong M.; Lanham, Kevin A.; Antkiewicz, Dagmara S.; Ganser, Alissa; Heideman, Warren

2011-01-01

339

Adolescent Narrative Thought: Developmental and Neurological Evidence in Support of a Central Social Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter we discuss how young adolescents gradually develop the capacity to interpret human intentions and, in so doing,\\u000a develop a deeper understanding of the social world, as evidenced in their stories and interpretations of events in their lives.\\u000a Robbie Case’s theory is utilized to explain how and why developmental change occurs in the domain of narrative thought. More

Anne McKeough; Stephanie Griffiths

340

Population Physiology: Leveraging Electronic Health Record Data to Understand Human Endocrine Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Studying physiology and pathophysiology over a broad population for long periods of time is difficult primarily because collecting human physiologic data can be intrusive, dangerous, and expensive. One solution is to use data that have been collected for a different purpose. Electronic health record (EHR) data promise to support the development and testing of mechanistic physiologic models on diverse populations and allow correlation with clinical outcomes, but limitations in the data have thus far thwarted such use. For example, using uncontrolled population-scale EHR data to verify the outcome of time dependent behavior of mechanistic, constructive models can be difficult because: (i) aggregation of the population can obscure or generate a signal, (ii) there is often no control population with a well understood health state, and (iii) diversity in how the population is measured can make the data difficult to fit into conventional analysis techniques. This paper shows that it is possible to use EHR data to test a physiological model for a population and over long time scales. Specifically, a methodology is developed and demonstrated for testing a mechanistic, time-dependent, physiological model of serum glucose dynamics with uncontrolled, population-scale, physiological patient data extracted from an EHR repository. It is shown that there is no observable daily variation the normalized mean glucose for any EHR subpopulations. In contrast, a derived value, daily variation in nonlinear correlation quantified by the time-delayed mutual information (TDMI), did reveal the intuitively expected diurnal variation in glucose levels amongst a random population of humans. Moreover, in a population of continuously (tube) fed patients, there was no observable TDMI-based diurnal signal. These TDMI-based signals, via a glucose insulin model, were then connected with human feeding patterns. In particular, a constructive physiological model was shown to correctly predict the difference between the general uncontrolled population and a subpopulation whose feeding was controlled. PMID:23272040

Albers, D. J.; Hripcsak, George; Schmidt, Michael

2012-01-01

341

Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety  

PubMed Central

Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge probabilistically as a function of experience during individual development. The metatheoretical perspective provided by developmental psychobiological systems theory provides a useful framework for organizing and synthesizing findings related to the development of the perception of hunger, thirst and satiety, or alimentary interoception. It is argued that neither developmental psychology nor the psychology of eating and drinking have adequately dealt with the ontogeny of alimentary interoception and that a more serious consideration of the species-typical developmental system of food and fluid intake and the many modifications that have been made therein is likely necessary for a full understanding of both alimentary and emotional development. PMID:19956358

Harshaw, Christopher

2008-01-01

342

Understanding the apothecaries within: the necessity of a systematic approach for defining the chemical output of the human microbiome.  

PubMed

The human microbiome harbors a massive diversity of microbes that effectively form an "organ" that strongly influences metabolism and immune function and hence, human health. Although the growing interest in the microbiome has chiefly arisen due to its impact on human physiology, the probable rules of operation are embedded in the roots of microbiology where chemical communication (i.e., with metabolites) is a dominant feature of coexistence. Indeed, recent examples in microbiome research offer the impression that the collective microbiome operates as an "apothecary," creating chemical concoctions that influence health and alter drug response. Although these principles are not unappreciated, the majority of emphasis is on metagenomics and research efforts often omit systematic efforts to interrogate the chemical component of the complex equation between microbial community and host phenotype. One of the reasons for this omission may be due to the inaccessibility to high-breadth, high-throughput, and scalable technologies. Since these technologies are now available, we propose that a more systematic effort to survey the host-microbiota chemical output be embedded into microbiome research as there is strong likelihood, and growing precedence, that this component may often be integral to developing our understanding of these ultimate apothecaries and how they impact human health. PMID:24422665

Beebe, Kirk; Sampey, Brante; Watkins, Steven M; Milburn, Michael; Eckhart, Andrea D

2014-02-01

343

Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?  

PubMed Central

Summary We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term ‘T. gondii–rat manipulation–schizophrenia model’ and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

Webster, Joanne P.; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C.; McConkey, Glenn A.

2013-01-01

344

Understanding human visual systems and its impact on our intelligent instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the evolution of machine vision and comment on the cross-fertilization from the neural sciences onto flourishing fields of neural processing, parallel processing, and associative memory in optical sciences and computing. Then we examine how the intensive efforts in mapping the human brain have been influenced by concepts in computer sciences, control theory, and electronic circuits. We discuss two neural paths that employ the input from the vision sense to determine the navigational options and object recognition. They are ventral temporal pathway for object recognition (what?) and dorsal parietal pathway for navigation (where?), respectively. We describe the reflexive and conscious decision centers in cerebral cortex involved with visual attention and gaze control. Interestingly, these require return path though the midbrain for ocular muscle control. We find that the cognitive psychologists currently study human brain employing low-spatial-resolution fMRI with temporal response on the order of a second. In recent years, the life scientists have concentrated on insect brains to study neural processes. We discuss how reflexive and conscious gaze-control decisions are made in the frontal eye field and inferior parietal lobe, constituting the fronto-parietal attention network. We note that ethical and experiential learnings impact our conscious decisions.

Strojnik Scholl, Marija; Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Michelle K.

2013-09-01

345

Neuroimaging Study of the Human Amygdala - Toward an Understanding of Emotional and Stress Responses -  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amygdala plays a critical role in the neural system involved in emotional responses and conditioned fear. The dysfunction of this system is thought to be a cause of several neuropsychiatric disorders. A neuroimaging study provides a unique opportunity for noninvasive investigation of the human amygdala. We studied the activity of this structure in normal subjects and patients with schizophrenia by using the face recognition task. Our results showed that the amygdala was activated by presentation of face stimuli, and negative face activated the amygdala to a greater extent than a neutral face. Under the happy face condition, the activation of the amygdala was higher in the schizophrenic patients than in control subjects. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the regulatory region of the serotonin type 3 receptor gene had modulatory effects on the amygdaloid activity. The emotion regulation had a significant impact on neural interaction between the amygdala and prefrontal cortices. Thus, studies on the human amygdala would greatly contribute to the elucidation of the neural system that determines emotional and stress responses. To clarify the relevance of the neural dysfunction and neuropsychiatric disorders, further studies using physiological, genetic, and hormonal approaches are essential.

Iidaka, Tetsuya

346

Developmental changes in the expression of Leishmania chagasi gp63 and heat shock protein in a human macrophage cell line.  

PubMed

The ability of the protozoan Leishmania chagasi to infect a vertebrate host depends on its ability to survive intracellularly in a mammalian macrophage. Novel patterns of gene expression are probably important for conversion from the extracellular promastigote to the obligate intracellular amastigote parasite form. We found that the human macrophage-like cell line U937 provided an in vitro model of phagocytosis of L. chagasi promastigotes and intracellular conversion to amastigotes, allowing examination of parasite protein and RNA expression. The Leishmania surface protease gp63 assumed three isoforms during stage conversion, and a 64-kDa form of gp63 not present in promastigotes became the most prominent form in amastigotes. gp63 RNAs derived from the three different classes of msp genes (mspS, mspL, and mspC) were also differentially expressed. Infectious promastigotes contained mRNAs from mspS and mspC genes, whereas converting parasites expressed only mspL and mspC mRNAs. Sequence analysis of clones from an amastigote cDNA library confirmed the presence of gp63 mRNAs only from mspL and mspC class genes in tissue-derived amastigotes. Finally, 24 h after phagocytosis, there was a transient increase in the level of hsp70 and hsp90 proteins that subsequently decreased to baseline; this increase was not due to heat shock alone. We conclude that a unique pattern of selected L. chagasi proteins and RNAs is induced following phagocytosis by macrophages. PMID:8613395

Streit, J A; Donelson, J E; Agey, M W; Wilson, M E

1996-05-01

347

Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: Clinical implications for physicians and surgeons  

PubMed Central

Summary Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

2012-01-01

348

Understanding the tissue effects of tribo-corrosion: Uptake, distribution, and speciation of cobalt and chromium in human bone cells.  

PubMed

Cobalt and chromium species are released in the local tissues as a result of tribo-corrosion, and affect bone cell survival and function. However we have little understanding of the mechanisms of cellular entry, intracellular distribution, and speciation of the metals that result in impaired bone health. Here we used synchrotron based X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and fluorescent-probing approaches of candidate receptors P2X7R and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT-1), to better understand the entry, intra-cellular distribution and speciation of cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) in human osteoblasts and primary human osteoclasts. We found that both Co and Cr were most highly localized at nuclear and perinuclear sites in osteoblasts, suggesting uptake through cell membrane transporters, and supported by a finding that P2X7 receptor blockade reduced cellular entry of Co. In contrast, metal species were present at discrete sites corresponding to the basolateral membrane in osteoclasts, suggesting cell entry by endocytosis and trafficking through a functional secretory domain. An intracellular reduction of Cr(6+) to Cr(3+) was the only redox change observed in cells treated with Co(2+) , Cr(3+) , and Cr(6+) . Our data suggest that the cellular uptake and processing of Co and Cr differs between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 33:114-121, 2015. PMID:25251692

Shah, Karan M; Quinn, Paul D; Gartland, Alison; Wilkinson, J Mark

2015-01-01

349

Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2014-01-01

350

Human Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) Isoform ?: Recent Understanding of its Potential Implications in Physiology and Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

The human glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expresses two splicing isoforms ? and ? through alternative use of specific exons 9? and 9?. In contrast to the classic receptor GR?, which mediates most of the known actions of glucocorticoids, the functions of GR? have been largely unexplored. Owing to newly developed methods, such as microarrays and the jellyfish fluorescence proteins, we and others have recently revealed novel functions of GR?. Indeed, this enigmatic GR isoform influences positively and negatively the transcriptional activity of large subsets of genes, most of which are not responsive to glucocorticoids, in addition to its well-known dominant negative effect against GR?-mediated transcriptional activity. A recent report suggested that the “ligand-binding domain” of GR? is active, forming a functional ligand-binding pocket, associated with the synthetic compound RU 486. In this review, we discuss the functions of GR?, its mechanisms of action, and its pathologic implications. PMID:19633971

Kino, Tomoshige; Su, Yan A.; Chrousos, George P.

2009-01-01

351

Intoeing: a developmental norm.  

PubMed

Intoeing, often referred to as pigeon-toes, is a frequent reason for referral to the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon's practice. Parents and grandparents are concerned about the appearance of the legs and a history of frequent tripping and falling. Many of the "abnormalities" that these children present with are variations of normal development of the lower extremities and include flat footedness, and torsional or angular "deformity." The approach of the specialist team is to identify the source of the intoeing, to rule out neuromuscular dysfunction or other serious conditions, and to counsel the family on anticipatory guidance of the natural history of intoeing. The focus of this article is intoeing, associated examination techniques, and nursing considerations of education and treatment. An understanding of musculoskeletal developmental norms, the clinical examination for intoeing, and the current recommendations for treatment will enable the provider to educate and accurately inform families. PMID:12024629

Ryan, D J

2001-01-01

352

Metabolism as a tool for understanding human brain evolution: Lipid energy metabolism as an example.  

PubMed

Genes and the environment both influence the metabolic processes that determine fitness. To illustrate the importance of metabolism for human brain evolution and health, we use the example of lipid energy metabolism, i.e. the use of fat (lipid) to produce energy and the advantages that this metabolic pathway provides for the brain during environmental energy shortage. We briefly describe some features of metabolism in ancestral organisms, which provided a molecular toolkit for later development. In modern humans, lipid energy metabolism is a regulated multi-organ pathway that links triglycerides in fat tissue to the mitochondria of many tissues including the brain. Three important control points are each suppressed by insulin. (1) Lipid reserves in adipose tissue are released by lipolysis during fasting and stress, producing fatty acids (FAs) which circulate in the blood and are taken up by cells. (2) FA oxidation. Mitochondrial entry is controlled by carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1). Inside the mitochondria, FAs undergo beta oxidation and energy production in the Krebs cycle and respiratory chain. (3) In liver mitochondria, the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) pathway produces ketone bodies for the brain and other organs. Unlike most tissues, the brain does not capture and metabolize circulating FAs for energy production. However, the brain can use ketone bodies for energy. We discuss two examples of genetic metabolic traits that may be advantageous under most conditions but deleterious in others. (1) A CPT1A variant prevalent in Inuit people may allow increased FA oxidation under nonfasting conditions but also predispose to hypoglycemic episodes. (2) The thrifty genotype theory, which holds that energy expenditure is efficient so as to maximize energy stores, predicts that these adaptations may enhance survival in periods of famine but predispose to obesity in modern dietary environments. PMID:25488255

Wang, Shu Pei; Yang, Hao; Wu, Jiang Wei; Gauthier, Nicolas; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Mitchell, Grant A

2014-12-01

353

Long-term experiments to better understand soil-human interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions between soils and people may be transforming global conditions, but the interactions are poorly understood. Changes in soils have proven difficult to quantify, especially in complex ecosystems manifesting large spatiotemporal variability. Long-term ecosystem experiments that evaluate soil change and demonstrate alternative choices are important to understanding changes, discovering new controls and drivers, and influencing decisions. Inspired by agriculture studies, like Rothamsted, the US Forest Service established in 1990 a network of operational-scale experiments across the Pacific Northwest to evaluate long-term effects of different forest management and disturbance regimes. With a strong experimental design, these experiments are now helping to better understand the long-term effects of managing tree harvesting (clearcutting and thinning), woody debris, and tree and understory species composition, and-serendipitously-the effects of fire. Initial results from the Southern Oregon experimental site indicate surprisingly rapid soil changes in some regimes but not others. We've also learned that rapid change presents challenges to repeat sampling. We present our sample-archive and comparable-layer approaches that seek to accommodate changes in surface elevation, aggregation and disaggregation, and mineral-soil exports. Thinning mature forest stands (80-100 yrs old) did not significantly change soil C in 11-yrs. A small upper-layer C increase was observed after thinning, but it was similar to the control. Significant increases in upper-layer soil N were observed with most treatments, but all increases were similar to the control. Leaving woody debris had little effect. The most remarkable change occurred when mature stands were clearcut and Douglas-firs were planted and tended. Associated with rapid growth of Douglas-fir, an average of 8 Mg C ha-1 was lost from weathered soil 4-18 cm deep. This contrasts with clearcuts where early-seral hardwoods and knobcone pines were established, that trended positively with 2 Mg C ha-1. Soil changes resulting from wild and prescribed fire were substantial. About 50% of the soil C (3-21 Mg ha-1) and 36% of soil N (41-650 kg ha-1) were lost from the upper profile (0-6.2 cm) compared to pre-fire conditions. Intense wildfire that killed most forest trees had about double the losses of C and N than forests burned at lower temperature with fewer trees killed. Average wildfire C losses were more than twice prescribed-fire losses. A long-term perspective is needed to compare episodic influences on soils, like harvesting and wildfire, to day-in, day-out effects of different species mixtures. Especially important is the effect of shrubs, that can rapidly achieve full leaf area but that lack the woody stem structure to store captured C as well as conifers. In theory, therefore, extending shrub cover will increase soil C. The annual profile soil C loss in Douglas-fir (-0.8 Mg ha-1yr-1), if continued beyond 11 yrs, would be similar to the effects of a fire-return interval of less than a third of the historical interval of about 100 years. National and regional soil-C monitoring would benefit from being grounded in existing experimental studies to help integrate large-scale changes with an unfolding understanding of processes in ways useful to decisionmakers.

Bormann, B. T.; Homann, P. S.

2011-12-01

354

Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

2009-10-01

355

Genomic science in understanding cholera outbreaks and evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a human pathogen.  

PubMed

Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX? prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

Robins, William P; Mekalanos, John J

2014-01-01

356

Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

Lach, Denise

2014-01-01

357

Genomic Science in Understanding Cholera Outbreaks and Evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX–? prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core- and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

Mekalanos, John J.

2014-01-01

358

What Happened, and Why: Toward an Understanding of Human Error Based on Automated Analyses of Incident Reports. Volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) project of NASA s Aviation Safety and Security Program was to develop technologies that will enable proactive management of safety risk, which entails identifying the precursor events and conditions that foreshadow most accidents. This presents a particular challenge in the aviation system where people are key components and human error is frequently cited as a major contributing factor or cause of incidents and accidents. In the aviation "world", information about what happened can be extracted from quantitative data sources, but the experiential account of the incident reporter is the best available source of information about why an incident happened. This report describes a conceptual model and an approach to automated analyses of textual data sources for the subjective perspective of the reporter of the incident to aid in understanding why an incident occurred. It explores a first-generation process for routinely searching large databases of textual reports of aviation incident or accidents, and reliably analyzing them for causal factors of human behavior (the why of an incident). We have defined a generic structure of information that is postulated to be a sound basis for defining similarities between aviation incidents. Based on this structure, we have introduced the simplifying structure, which we call the Scenario as a pragmatic guide for identifying similarities of what happened based on the objective parameters that define the Context and the Outcome of a Scenario. We believe that it will be possible to design an automated analysis process guided by the structure of the Scenario that will aid aviation-safety experts to understand the systemic issues that are conducive to human error.

Maille, Nicolas P.; Statler, Irving C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.; Rosenthal, Loren; Shafto, Michael G.; Statler, Irving C.

2006-01-01

359

From classic to spontaneous and humanized models of multiple sclerosis: Impact on understanding pathogenesis and drug development.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), presents as a complex disease with variable clinical and pathological manifestations, involving different pathogenic pathways. Animal models, particularly experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been key to deciphering the pathophysiology of MS, although no single model can recapitulate the complexity and diversity of MS, or can, to date, integrate the diverse pathogenic pathways. Since the first EAE model was introduced decades ago, multiple classic (induced), spontaneous, and humanized EAE models have been developed, each recapitulating particular aspects of MS pathogenesis. The advances in technologies of genetic ablation and transgenesis in mice of C57BL/6J background and the development of myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in C57BL/6J mice yielded several spontaneous and humanized EAE models, and resulted in a plethora of EAE models in which the role of specific genes or cell populations could be precisely interrogated, towards modeling specific pathways of MS pathogenesis/regulation in MS. Collectively, the numerous studies on the different EAE models contributed immensely to our basic understanding of cellular and molecular pathways in MS pathogenesis as well as to the development of therapeutic agents: several drugs available today as disease modifying treatments were developed from direct studies on EAE models, and many others were tested or validated in EAE. In this review, we discuss the contribution of major classic, spontaneous, and humanized EAE models to our understanding of MS pathophysiology and to insights leading to devising current and future therapies for this disease. PMID:25175979

Ben-Nun, Avraham; Kaushansky, Nathali; Kawakami, Naoto; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Berer, Kerstin; Liblau, Roland; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Wekerle, Hartmut

2014-11-01

360

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOPATHOLOGY PSY 480 SUMMER TERM, 2012  

E-print Network

@uoregon.edu Overview This course is intended to provide a framework for understanding psychological disorders of childhood disorders; therapeutic approaches and their efficacy; and developmental resilience. As we to basic concepts in psychology. Upon successful completion of this course, students will: 1) Understand

Lockery, Shawn

361

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Contemporary developmental toxicity testing focuses on the evaluation of a variety of adverse developmental effects which include structural malformations, intrauterine death, growth retardation, and deficits in postnatal function. n the extrapolation of information from animal s...

362

The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

1984-01-01

363

Understanding the evolution of the windlass mechanism of the human foot from comparative anatomy: Insights, obstacles, and future directions.  

PubMed

Humans stand alone from other primates in that we propel our bodies forward on a relatively stiff and arched foot and do so by employing an anatomical arrangement of bones and ligaments in the foot that can operate like a "windlass." This is a significant evolutionary innovation, but it is currently unknown when during hominin evolution this mechanism developed and within what genera or species it originated. The presence of recently discovered fossils along with novel research in the past two decades have improved our understanding of foot mechanics in humans and other apes, making it possible to consider this question more fully. Here we review the main elements thought to be involved in the production of an effective, modern human-like windlass mechanism. These elements are the triceps surae, plantar aponeurosis, medial longitudinal arch, and metatarsophalangeal joints. We discuss what is presently known about the evolution of these features and the challenges associated with identifying each of these specific components and/or their function in living and extinct primates for the purpose of predicting the presence of the windlass mechanism in our ancestors. In some cases we recommend alternative pathways for inferring foot mechanics and for testing the hypothesis that the windlass mechanism evolved to increase the speed and energetic efficiency of bipedal gait in hominins. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:1-10, 2015 © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25303732

Griffin, Nicole L; Miller, Charlotte E; Schmitt, Daniel; D'Août, Kristiaan

2015-01-01

364

Ivey's Developmental Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ivey's Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) is an innovative and comprehensive approach to helping which views client functioning in terms of cognitive-developmental functioning. DCT approximates a metamodel of helping in which treatment strategies are logically derived from and integrated with the cognitive-developmental level of the…

Daniels, Thomas G.

1993-01-01

365

Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity  

E-print Network

Epigenetics and Developmental Plasticity Across Species ABSTRACT: Plasticity is a typical feature of development and can lead to diver- gent phenotypes. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic mechanisms in developmental plasticity. Thus, in the context of the concept of developmental homology, epigenetic mechanisms

Champagne, Frances A.

366

Understanding polyspecificity within the substrate-binding cavity of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) controls drugs bioavailability by pumping structurally unrelated drugs out of cells. The X-ray structure of the mouse P-gp ortholog has been solved, with two SSS enantiomers or one RRR enantiomer of the selenohexapeptide inhibitor QZ59, found within the putative drug-binding pocket (Aller SG, Yu J, Ward A, Weng Y, Chittaboina S, Zhuo R, Harrell PM, Trinh YT, Zhang Q, Urbatsch IL et al. (2009). Science 323, 1718-1722). This offered the first opportunity to localize the well-known H and R drug-binding sites with respect to the QZ59 inhibition mechanisms of Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin transports, characterized here in cellulo. We found that QZ59-SSS competes efficiently with both substrates, with K(I,app) values of 0.15 and 0.3 ?M, which are 13 and 2 times lower, respectively, than the corresponding K(m,app) values. In contrast, QZ59-RRR non-competitively inhibited daunorubicin transport with moderate efficacy (K(I,app) = 1.9 ?M); it also displayed a mixed-type inhibition of the Hoechst 33342 transport, resulting from a main non-competitive tendency (K(i2,app) = 1.6 ?M) and a limited competitive tendency (K(i1,app) = 5 ?M). These results suggest a positional overlap of QZ59 and drugs binding sites: full for the SSS enantiomer and partial for the RRR enantiomer. Crystal structure analysis suggests that the H site overlaps both QZ59-SSS locations while the R site overlaps the most embedded location. PMID:24219411

Martinez, Lorena; Arnaud, Ophélie; Henin, Emilie; Tao, Houchao; Chaptal, Vincent; Doshi, Rupak; Andrieu, Thibault; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Tod, Michel; Di Pietro, Attilio; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey; Falson, Pierre

2014-02-01

367

Confronting Analytical Dilemmas for Understanding Complex Human Interactions in Design-Based Research from a Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding human activity in real-world situations often involves complicated data collection, analysis, and presentation methods. This article discusses how Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) can inform design-based research practices that focus on understanding activity in real-world situations. I provide a sample data set with…

Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2007-01-01

368

Developmental and comparative perspectives of contagious yawning.  

PubMed

Contagious yawning (i.e. yawning triggered by perceiving others' yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about: (1) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing populations, and (2) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that contagious yawning may share a developmental basis with the capacity for theory of mind. Comparative studies have suggested that contagious yawning can be observed in non-primate species, such as domestic dogs. As dogs are known to have exceptional skills in communicating with humans, it has also been suggested that contagious yawning may be related to the capacity for social communication. These results from developmental and comparative studies are consistent with the claim that the mechanism underlying contagious yawning relates to the capacity for empathy. PMID:20357469

Senju, Atsushi

2010-01-01

369

Children's understanding of interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view in the study of children's developing theories of mind is that the 4-year-old's newfound understanding of false belief is the single developmental milestone marking entry into an adult “folk psychology.” We argue instead that there are at least two such watershed events. Children first develop a “copy theory” that equates the mind with a recording device capable

Christopher E. Lalonde; Michael J. Chandler

2002-01-01

370

Structural analysis on mutation residues and interfacial water molecules for human TIM disease understanding  

PubMed Central

Background Human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM) deficiency is a genetic disease caused often by the pathogenic mutation E104D. This mutation, located at the side of an abnormally large cluster of water in the inter-subunit interface, reduces the thermostability of the enzyme. Why and how these water molecules are directly related to the excessive thermolability of the mutant have not been investigated in structural biology. Results This work compares the structure of the E104D mutant with its wild type counterparts. It is found that the water topology in the dimer interface of HsTIM is atypical, having a "wet-core-dry-rim" distribution with 16 water molecules tightly packed in a small deep region surrounded by 22 residues including GLU104. These water molecules are co-conserved with their surrounding residues in non-archaeal TIMs (dimers) but not conserved across archaeal TIMs (tetramers), indicating their importance in preserving the overall quaternary structure. As the structural permutation induced by the mutation is not significant, we hypothesize that the excessive thermolability of the E104D mutant is attributed to the easy propagation of atoms' flexibility from the surface into the core via the large cluster of water. It is indeed found that the B factor increment in the wet region is higher than other regions, and, more importantly, the B factor increment in the wet region is maintained in the deeply buried core. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that for the mutant structure at normal temperature, a clear increase of the root-mean-square deviation is observed for the wet region contacting with the large cluster of interfacial water. Such increase is not observed for other interfacial regions or the whole protein. This clearly suggests that, in the E104D mutant, the large water cluster is responsible for the subunit interface flexibility and overall thermolability, and it ultimately leads to the deficiency of this enzyme. Conclusions Our study reveals that a large cluster of water buried in protein interfaces is fragile and high-maintenance, closely related to the structure, function and evolution of the whole protein. PMID:24564410

2013-01-01

371

Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

Wang, Jing-Ru

2004-01-01

372

Adipose Depots Possess Unique Developmental Gene Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously demonstrated that subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue show different patterns of expression for developmental genes (Shox2, En1, Tbx15 Hoxa5, Hoxc8, and Hoxc9), and that the expression level of Tbx15 and Hoxa5 in humans correlated with the level of obesity and fat distribution. To further explore the role of these developmental genes in adipose tissue, we have characterized

Yuji Yamamoto; Stephane Gesta; Kevin Y. Lee; Thien T. Tran; Parshin Saadatirad; C. Ronald Kahn

2010-01-01

373

Developmental and Comparative Perspectives of Contagious Yawning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contagious yawning (i.e. yawning triggered by perceiving others’ yawning) is a well-documented phenomenon, but the mechanism underlying it is still unclear. In this chapter, I review the current evidence about: (1) developmental studies with typically and atypically developing populations, and (2) comparative studies in non-human animals. Developmental studies have revealed that contagious yawning is disturbed in individuals with autism spectrum

Atsushi Senju

2010-01-01

374

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

2012-10-01

375

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

2014-10-01

376

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

2010-10-01

377

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304...HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.20 Child...

2011-10-01

378

The Need for Comparative Research in Developmental Textbooks: A Review and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that current animal research enables students to understand basic developmental principles. Presents results from a study that evaluated the content of 24 developmental textbooks published between 1995 and 2000, demonstrating that older studies are typically used. (CMK)

Eaton, Rebecca F.; Sleigh, Merry J.

2002-01-01

379

Developmental learning impairments in a rodent model of nodular heterotopia.  

PubMed

Developmental malformations of neocortex-including microgyria, ectopias, and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH)-have been associated with language learning impairments in humans. Studies also show that developmental language impairments are frequently associated with deficits in processing rapid acoustic stimuli, and rodent models have linked cortical developmental disruption (microgyria, ectopia) with rapid auditory processing deficits. We sought to extend this neurodevelopmental model to evaluate the effects of embryonic (E) day 15 exposure to the anti-mitotic teratogen methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) on auditory processing and maze learning in rats. Extensive cortical anomalies were confirmed in MAM-treated rats post mortem. These included evidence of laminar disruption, PNH, and hippocampal dysplasia. Juvenile auditory testing (P21-42) revealed comparable silent gap detection performance for MAM-treated and control subjects, indicating normal hearing and basic auditory temporal processing in MAM subjects. Juvenile testing on a more complex two-tone oddball task, however, revealed a significant impairment in MAM-treated as compared to control subjects. Post hoc analysis also revealed a significant effect of PNH severity for MAM subjects, with more severe disruption associated with greater processing impairments. In adulthood (P60-100), only MAM subjects with the most severe PNH condition showed deficits in oddball two-tone processing as compared to controls. However, when presented with a more complex and novel FM sweep detection task, all MAM subjects showed significant processing deficits as compared to controls. Moreover, post hoc analysis revealed a significant effect of PNH severity on FM sweep processing. Water Maze testing results also showed a significant impairment for spatial but not non-spatial learning in MAM rats as compared to controls. Results lend further support to the notions that: (1) generalized cortical developmental disruption (stemming from injury, genetic or teratogenic insults) leads to auditory processing deficits, which in turn have been suggested to play a causal role in language impairment; (2) severity of cortical disruption is related to the severity of processing impairments; (3) juvenile auditory processing deficits appear to ameliorate with maturation, but can still be elicited in adulthood using increasingly complex acoustic stimuli; and (4) malformations induced with MAM are also associated with generalized spatial learning deficits. These cumulative findings contribute to our understanding of the behavioral consequences of cortical developmental pathology, which may in turn elucidate mechanisms contributing to developmental language learning impairment in humans. PMID:21547717

Threlkeld, Steven W; Hill, Courtney A; Cleary, Caitlin E; Truong, Dongnhu T; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

2009-09-01

380

Developmental plasticity and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants and animals are capable of developing in a variety of ways, forming characteristics that are well adapted to the environments in which they are likely to live. In adverse circumstances, for example, small size and slow metabolism can facilitate survival, whereas larger size and more rapid metabolism have advantages for reproductive success when resources are more abundant. Often

Patrick Bateson; David Barker; Timothy Clutton-Brock; Debal Deb; Bruno D'Udine; Robert A. Foley; Peter Gluckman; Keith Godfrey; Tom Kirkwood; Marta Mirazón Lahr; John McNamara; Neil B. Metcalfe; Patricia Monaghan; Hamish G. Spencer; Sonia E. Sultan

2004-01-01

381

Understanding resilience  

PubMed Central

Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences. PMID:23422934

Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J.; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S.; Mathé, Aleksander A.

2013-01-01

382

Addressing childhood trauma in a developmental context  

PubMed Central

With the anticipated publication of the DSM-5 in May 2013, much reflection and work has been done on reviewing existing psychiatric nomenclature including, but not limited to the field of traumatic exposure. Traditionally, understanding of the psychiatric and psychological effects of trauma have been developed from studies with adults and then applied to trauma-exposed children with some modifications. While this is an important step to understanding the sequelae of trauma in children and adolescents, the adverse developmental effects of traumatic exposures on the rapidly evolving neurological, physical, social and psychological capacities of children calls for a developmentally sensitive framework for understanding, assessing and treating trauma-exposed children. The importance of early attachment relationships in infancy and childhood means that severely disrupted early caregiving relationships may have far-reaching and lifelong developmental consequences and can therefore be considered traumatic. Given the high rates of violence and trauma exposure of South African children and adolescents, the need for a developmentally based understanding of the effects of trauma on child and adolescent mental health becomes even more pronounced. In this paper, we draw on theoretical perspectives to provide a practical, clinically driven approach to the management of developmental trauma. PMID:25104963

Gregorowski, Claire; Seedat, Soraya

2013-01-01

383

Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity  

PubMed Central

What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology. PMID:25191292

Stotz, Karola

2014-01-01

384

Extended evolutionary psychology: the importance of transgenerational developmental plasticity.  

PubMed

What kind mechanisms one deems central for the evolutionary process deeply influences one's understanding of the nature of organisms, including cognition. Reversely, adopting a certain approach to the nature of life and cognition and the relationship between them or between the organism and its environment should affect one's view of evolutionary theory. This paper explores this reciprocal relationship in more detail. In particular it argues that the view of living and cognitive systems, especially humans, as deeply integrated beings embedded in and transformed by their genetic, epigenetic (molecular and cellular), behavioral, ecological, socio-cultural and cognitive-symbolic legacies calls for an extended evolutionary synthesis that goes beyond either a theory of genes juxtaposed against a theory of cultural evolution and or even more sophisticated theories of gene-culture coevolution and niche construction. Environments, particularly in the form of developmental environments, do not just select for variation, they also create new variation by influencing development through the reliable transmission of non-genetic but heritable information. This paper stresses particularly views of embodied, embedded, enacted and extended cognition, and their relationship to those aspects of extended inheritance that lie between genetic and cultural inheritance, the still gray area of epigenetic and behavioral inheritance systems that play a role in parental effect. These are the processes that can be regarded as transgenerational developmental plasticity and that I think can most fruitfully contribute to, and be investigated by, developmental psychology. PMID:25191292

Stotz, Karola

2014-01-01

385

Precolombian settlements in French Guiana : geoarchaeological approach toward a new understanding of the human impact on landscape.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent archaeological research in French Guiana conducted by INRAP (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives), specifically in the Couac Program (Cirad, Inra, Inrap) revealed precolombian settlements on different geomorphic contexts like coastal and fluvial areas, as is seen in Brazil, but also what seems to be quite a dense occupation on higher grounds (mounds). Most of the times, the excavation shows cultural remains like pottery, archaeological pits and ditches, as well as sediments that are described by the archaeologists as "thick and dark-coloured layers". In Brazil, dark layers found in archaeological sites are called Terra Preta do Indio or Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), and their study is thought necessary to explain and understand ancient human settlement. In Brazil, geoarchaeological methods as well as chemical analyses, pedology and micromorphology helped to describe ADE and understand their archaeological potential and characteristics. In order to better understand the French Guiana dark layers, we studied two sites from the estuarine zone of the lower Maroni River (Surinam border) (Chemin Saint Louis and Balaté at Saint Laurent du Maroni), and two ring-ditched hilltop sites, on ferralsols, in the interfluvial forest area ("Montagnes Couronnées" in French) (MC 87 et 88, near Regina). Regarding Brazilians research on ADE, we described for the first time the archaeological stratigraphy of French Guiana ancient settlement using a geoarchaeological approach combining biogeochemistry, pedology in correlation with micromorphological analyses. Our first results show that dark layers from archaeological sites studied are very different from natural soils underneath in the estuarine zone. Although, the pH is quite low, micromorphological analyses show clay coatings in the alluvial terrace before human settlement. These analyses also show more organic matter and charcoals in the archaeological layers than beneath, and very large amounts of phytolithes, that give to botanists a new way of research. Due to either the acid context and / or to the ancient lifestyle, very few bones were found. We also found geochemical and micromorphological differences between the sites in the estuarine zone or in forest area. First geoarchaeological results give information about the nature of the sites, and suggest that French Guiana dark layers have original properties. We therefore suggest, in accordance with the archaeologist team, to call them Guianan Dark Earth (GDE). If we compare the GDE of this study with data from bibliographic review on ADE, micromorphological analyses show that GDE presents less anthropogenic components than ADE. Chemical analyses also show differences between GDE and ADE, like pH and available nutrients, lower in estuarine GDE. These differences suggested that GDE can have different properties than those of ADE, but are nonetheless part of the archaeological soils of the Amazonian basin.

Brancier, J.; Cammas, C.; Todisco, D.; Fouache, E.

2012-04-01

386

The long sediment record of lake Challa: a unique equatorial archive, potentially crucial for understanding early human dispersal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro, Kenya/Tanzania) is located in a key site for reconstructing the climate and landscape history of equatorial East Africa and hence, climatic influences on the living environment of early modern humans, Homo sapiens. Seismic-reflection data from this crater lake reveal a ~210-m thick sedimentary infill containing distinct seismic-stratigraphic signatures of late-Quaternary lake-level fluctuations. Extrapolation of a well-constrained age model on the cored upper part of the sequence shows that the signatures of these lake-level fluctuations represent a detailed record of climatic moisture-balance variation in equatorial East Africa, continuous over at least the last 140 kyr and encompassing in total ~250 kyr. The most severe aridity occurred during peak Penultimate glaciation immediately before 130 kyr BP (coeval with Heinrich event 11) and during a Last Interglacial 'megadrought' period between ~115 and ~98 kyr BP; in comparison, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) aridity was modest. The LGM was preceded by ~75,000 years of relatively stable and moist climate conditions interrupted by eleven short-lived dry spells, five of which match the timing of Heinrich events 2 to 6. Also in the lower part of the sedimentary infill the seismic stratigraphy provides evidence for short-lived dry spells, but artefacts and changes in basin geometry complicate their detailed interpretation and dating, respectively. The ICDP deep-drilling project DeepCHALLA aims to core the entire sedimentary sequence, which will allow reconstructing regional climate and ecological dynamics for the past ~250 kyr, i.e., the entire documented existence of anatomically modern humans in East Africa. Knowledge of climate history in this equatorial region, where the northeasterly and southeasterly monsoons strongly interact, is crucial for documenting the severity and geographical distribution of prolonged drought episodes across tropical Africa, and thus for understanding the early dispersal of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia between ~100,000 and ~50,000 years ago.

Van Daele, Maarten; Moernaut, Jasper; De Batist, Marc; Verschuren, Dirk

2013-04-01

387

Developmental Expression of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Subunits in Human White and Gray Matter: Potential Mechanism of Increased Vulnerability in the Immature Brain.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury is multifactorial and involves hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and inflammation. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are present on neurons and glia in immature rodents, and NMDAR antagonists are protective in HI models. To enhance clinical translation of rodent data, we examined protein expression of 6 NMDAR subunits in postmortem human brains without injury from 20 postconceptional weeks through adulthood and in cases of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We hypothesized that the developing brain is intrinsically vulnerable to excitotoxicity via maturation-specific NMDAR levels and subunit composition. In normal white matter, NR1 and NR2B levels were highest in the preterm period compared with adult. In gray matter, NR2A and NR3A expression were highest near term. NR2A was significantly elevated in PVL white matter, with reduced NR1 and NR3A in gray matter compared with uninjured controls. These data suggest increased NMDAR-mediated vulnerability during early brain development due to an overall upregulation of individual receptors subunits, in particular, the presence of highly calcium permeable NR2B-containing and magnesium-insensitive NR3A NMDARs. These data improve understanding of molecular diversity and heterogeneity of NMDAR subunit expression in human brain development and supports an intrinsic prenatal vulnerability to glutamate-mediated injury; validating NMDAR subunit-specific targeted therapies for PVL. PMID:24046081

Jantzie, Lauren L; Talos, Delia M; Jackson, Michele C; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Graham, Dionne A; Lechpammer, Mirna; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Volpe, Joseph J; Jensen, Frances E

2015-02-01

388

Change in Gene Expression in Zebrafish as an Endpoint for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals that adversely affect the developing nervous system may have long-term consequences on human health. Little information exists on a large number of environmental chemicals to guide the risk assessments for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). As traditional developmental ...

389

Trisomy 21 and Facial Developmental Instability  

PubMed Central

The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the “amplified developmental instability” hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: 1) DS individuals (n=55); 2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n=55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n=55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. PMID:23505010

Starbuck, John M.; Cole, Theodore M.; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

2013-01-01

390

Is Hunting Still Healthy? Understanding the Interrelationships between Indigenous Participation in Land-Based Practices and Human-Environmental Health  

PubMed Central

Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

2014-01-01

391

Is hunting still healthy? Understanding the interrelationships between indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health.  

PubMed

Indigenous participation in land-based practices such as hunting, fishing, ceremony, and land care has a long history. In recent years, researchers and policy makers have advocated the benefits of these practices for both Indigenous people and the places they live. However, there have also been documented risks associated with participation in these activities. Environmental change brought about by shifts in land use, climate changes, and the accumulation of contaminants in the food chain sit alongside equally rapid shifts in social, economic and cultural circumstances, preferences and practices. To date, the literature has not offered a wide-ranging review of the available cross-disciplinary or cross-ecozone evidence for these intersecting benefits and risks, for both human and environmental health and wellbeing. By utilising hunting as a case study, this paper seeks to fill part of that gap through a transdisciplinary meta-analysis of the international literature exploring the ways in which Indigenous participation in land-based practices and human-environmental health have been studied, where the current gaps are, and how these findings could be used to inform research and policy. The result is an intriguing summary of disparate research that highlights the patchwork of contradictory understandings, and uneven regional emphasis, that have been documented. A new model was subsequently developed that facilitates a more in-depth consideration of these complex issues within local-global scale considerations. These findings challenge the bounded disciplinary and geographic spaces in which much of this work has occurred to date, and opens a dialogue to consider the importance of approaching these issues holistically. PMID:24879487

King, Ursula; Furgal, Christopher

2014-06-01

392

Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor

1988-01-01

393

The Need for Developmental Models in Supervising School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental models, like Stoltenberg, McNeil, and Delworth's integrated developmental model (IDM) for supervision (1998), provide supervisors with an important resource in understanding and managing the counseling student's development and experience. The current status of school counseling supervision is discussed as well as the…

Gallo, Laura L.

2013-01-01

394

Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Buzz Words or Best Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) concerns teaching techniques which identify and foster developmental needs of children individually and in groups from birth to age 8. In a DAP classroom, play is a central focus, as it enables children to make sense of their world, develops social and cultural understanding, and fosters flexible and…

Smrekar, Jocelynn; Hansen, Andrea

1998-01-01

395

Accelerating the Academic Achievement of Students Referred to Developmental Education  

E-print Network

strategy at community colleges for improving the outcomes of developmental education students. This paper of acceleration on student outcomes. After examining various definitions of acceleration to better understand whatAccelerating the Academic Achievement of Students Referred to Developmental Education Nikki

Su, Xiao

396

Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells Kristy Red-Horse1 , Hiroo Ueno2 , Irving L. Weissman2 & Mark A. Krasnow1 Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding

Krasnow, Mark A.

397

Animal models of intestinal fibrosis: new tools for the understanding of pathogenesis and therapy of human disease  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is a serious condition complicating chronic inflammatory processes affecting the intestinal tract. Advances in this field that rely on human studies have been slow and seriously restricted by practical and logistic reasons. As a consequence, well-characterized animal models of intestinal fibrosis have emerged as logical and essential systems to better define and understand the pathophysiology of fibrosis. In point of fact, animal models allow the execution of mechanistic studies as well as the implementation of clinical trials with novel, pathophysiology-based therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of the currently available animal models of intestinal fibrosis, taking into consideration the methods of induction, key characteristics of each model, and underlying mechanisms. Currently available models will be classified into seven categories: spontaneous, gene-targeted, chemical-, immune-, bacteria-, and radiation-induced as well as postoperative fibrosis. Each model will be discussed in regard to its potential to create research opportunities to gain insights into the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis and stricture formation and assist in the development of effective and specific antifibrotic therapies. PMID:22878121

Rieder, Florian; Kessler, Sean; Sans, Miquel

2012-01-01

398

Understanding the Structural Differences between Spherical and Rod-Shaped Human Insulin Nanoparticles Produced by Supercritical Fluids Precipitation.  

PubMed

In this study, the thermal denaturation mechanism and secondary structures of two types of human insulin nanoparticles produced by a process of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH) solutions of insulin are investigated using spectroscopic approaches and molecular dynamics calculations. First, the temperature-dependent IR spectra of spherical and rod-shaped insulin nanoparticles prepared from DMSO and EtOH solution, respectively, are analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and 2D correlation spectroscopy to obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular structures and thermal behavior of the two insulin particle shapes. All-atom molecular dynamics (AAMD) calculations are performed to investigate the influence of the solvent molecules on the production of the insulin nanoparticles and to elucidate the geometric differences between the two types of nanoparticles. The results of the PCA, the 2D correlation spectroscopic analysis, and the AAMD calculations clearly reveal that the thermal denaturation mechanisms and the degrees of hydrogen bonding in the spherical and rod-shaped insulin nanoparticles are different. The polarity of the solvent might not alter the structure or function of the insulin produced, but the solvent polarity does influence the synthesis of different shapes of insulin nanoparticles. PMID:25358869

Park, Yeonju; Seo, Yongil; Chae, Boknam; Pyo, Dongjin; Chung, Hoeil; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee

2015-02-01

399

Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

Nygren, Thomas E.

1992-01-01

400

What Happened, and Why: Toward an Understanding of Human Error Based on Automated Analyses of Incident Reports. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Aviation System Monitoring and Modeling project of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program was to develop technologies to enable proactive management of safety risk, which entails identifying the precursor events and conditions that foreshadow most accidents. Information about what happened can be extracted from quantitative data sources, but the experiential account of the incident reporter is the best available source of information about why an incident happened. In Volume I, the concept of the Scenario was introduced as a pragmatic guide for identifying similarities of what happened based on the objective parameters that define the Context and the Outcome of a Scenario. In this Volume II, that study continues into the analyses of the free narratives to gain understanding as to why the incident occurred from the reporter s perspective. While this is just the first experiment, the results of our approach are encouraging and indicate that it will be possible to design an automated analysis process guided by the structure of the Scenario that can achieve the level of consistency and reliability of human analysis of narrative reports.

Ferryman, Thomas A.; Posse, Christian; Rosenthal, Loren J.; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Statler, Irving C.

2006-01-01

401

Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 16 (2005) 385396 The developmental context of cell-cycle control in plants  

E-print Network

Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology 16 (2005) 385­396 Review The developmental context of cell. This necessitates a close relationship between cell cycle control, differentiation and development that can of cell cycle regulators in plants, creating a challenge to understand how these genes control plant

Murray, J.A.H.

402

The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade of advances in molecular genetic technology has heralded a new era for all evolutionary studies, but especially the science of human evolution. Data on various kinds of DNA variation in human populations have rapidly accumulated. There is increasing recognition of the importance of this variation for medicine and developmental biology and for understanding the history of our

L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza; Marcus W. Feldman

2003-01-01

403

Toward multi-scale computational modeling in developmental disability research.  

PubMed

The field of theoretical neuroscience is gaining increasing recognition. Virtually all areas of neuroscience offer potential linkage points for computational work. In developmental neuroscience, main areas of research are neural development and connectivity, and connectionist modeling of cognitive development. In this paper, we suggest that computational models can be helpful tools for understanding the pathogenesis and consequences of perinatal brain damage and subsequent developmental disability. In particular, designing multi-scale computational models should be considered by developmental neuroscientists interested in helping reduce the risk for developmental disabilities. PMID:21773955

Dammann, O; Follett, P

2011-06-01

404

Characterization of a Female-Specific cDNA Derived from a Developmentally Regulated mRNA in the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone that is derived from a developmentally regulated mRNA found only in mature female schistosomes. The mRNA is approximately 950 nucleotides in length and is not detectable in immature female schistosomes isolated from single-sex infections, in male worms, or in eggs. During normal bisexual infections, the mRNA species is first detected 28 days

Libuse Bobek; David M. Rekosh; Harry van Keulen; Philip T. Loverde

1986-01-01

405

Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: does a Bayesian approach outperform regression models to discriminate between juveniles and adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental age estimation methods based on the radiologically detected third molar developmental stages are implemented in forensic\\u000a age assessments to discriminate between juveniles and adults considering the judgment of young unaccompanied asylum seekers.\\u000a Accurate and unbiased age estimates combined with appropriate quantified uncertainties are the required properties for accurate\\u000a forensic reporting. In this study, a subset of 910 individuals uniformly

P. W. Thevissen; S. Fieuws; G. Willems

2010-01-01

406

Developmental Psychopathology Psychology 333  

E-print Network

is: Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (2007). Abnormal child psychology (3rd ed). Belmont, CA: ThomsonDevelopmental Psychopathology Psychology 333 Spring 2008 Instructor Name: V. Robin Weersing, Ph@sciences.sdsu.edu Prerequisites Please note that Introductory Psychology (PSY 101) and Developmental Psychology (PSY 230

Gallo, Linda C.

407

Developmental Psychopathology Psychology 333  

E-print Network

The required textbook for this class is: Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (2008). Abnormal child psychology (4th edDevelopmental Psychopathology Psychology 333 Spring 2009 Instructor Name: V. Robin Weersing, Ph@sciences.sdsu.edu Prerequisites Please note that Introductory Psychology (PSY 101) and Developmental Psychology (PSY 230

Gallo, Linda C.

408

Genetics and Developmental Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

409

Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: A Path Forward  

EPA Science Inventory

Great progress has been made over the past 40 years in understanding the hazards of exposure to a small number of developmental neurotoxicants. Lead, PCBs, and methylmercury are all good examples of science-based approaches to characterizing the hazard to the developing nervous s...

410

Developmental Dyslexia: A Review of Biological Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers cerebral dominance and brain asymmetry, the development of the cerebral cortex and examples of aberrancy, and diseases of the immune system, all of which relate to recent anatomical and epidemiological findings in developmental dyslexia. These discoveries have led to testable hypotheses which may enhance current understandings

Galaburda, Albert M.

1985-01-01

411

NCT and Developmental Psychology: A Welcome Rapprochement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over 50 years, developmental psychologists have conducted research around the world to understand the relation between culture and cognition. In fact, psychologists have been interested in this topic for over a century. In the late 1800s, Wundt introduced "Elements of Folk Psychology," the study of how culture becomes part of higher…

Gauvain, Mary

2013-01-01

412

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS  

PubMed Central

The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

2011-01-01

413

Issues in Sexuality for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: Myths, Misconceptions, and Mistreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The myths and misconceptions surrounding the topic of sexuality and people with developmental disabilities were examined to better understand the detrimental effects they were having on the sexual health of individuals with developmental disabilities. Persons with developmental disabilities are often infantilised and viewed as asexual. This…

Irvine, Angela

2005-01-01

414

Nursing Perspectives on Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Other Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health care disparities have been documented in cancer screenings of adults with intellectual and other developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities nurses were surveyed to better understand and improve this deficiency. Two thirds of respondents believed that adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities received fewer cancer…

Tyler, Carl V.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.; Panaite, Vanessa; Council, Linda

2010-01-01

415

A Developmental Sequence of Skills Leading to Conservation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the developmental sequence of skills involved in the understanding of relational concepts and in the development of conservation. Fifty kindergarten children participated in the study. (BD/BR)

Walker, Alice A.

1978-01-01

416

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.  

EPA Science Inventory

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

417

Insomnia and psychosocial crisis: Two studies of Erikson's developmental theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the relevance of E. H. Erikson's (1959) developmental theory to understanding insomnia. Study 1 investigated the relationship between sleep disturbances in the elderly and the resolution of the psychosocial crisis of \\

Karen D. Wagner; Raymond P. Lorion; Thomas E. Shipley

1983-01-01

418

Guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of chemicals in Japan  

SciTech Connect

With the definition of teratogenicity expanded in terms of the developmental stages when an agent acts and the types of developmental anomalies induced, the concept of developmental toxicity has been established. The examination of functional developmental disorders including behavior has become one of the most important items for the evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals, especially pharmaceutical drugs. The guidelines for developmental toxicity testing of drugs in Japan stress the need for examination of growth and development including behavior and fertility on the postweaning offspring. The outline of the Japanese guidelines is presented and it is emphasized that studies should be done as research and include self evaluation of the scientific truth of the experiment and extrapolation to humans. In addition, the activities of the Behavioral Teratology Meeting, a satellite meeting to the Japanese Teratology Society, are introduced and enquete surveys of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association and collaborative studies for the standardization of learning tests in Japan are briefly presented.

Tanimura, T.

1985-11-01

419

Pediatric HIV Infection and Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of the developmental disabilities associated with pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and examines efficacious practices for assessment and intervention programming. The focus population is early childhood into school age. The paper describes the complex array of challenges presented by these…

Seidel, John F.

420

Child health developmental plasticity, and epigenetic programming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to the organism under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology and long-term health. Developm...

421

DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOLOGY: RISK ASSESSMENT AND THE FUTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

This book is an outgrowth of the Guidelines for the Health' Assessment of Suspect Developmental Toxicants. n that document, several general areas of esearch were identified that were needed to fill data gaps or to reduce uncertainties associated with estimating risks for human de...

422

The developmental origins of adipose tissue  

PubMed Central

Adipose tissue is formed at stereotypic times and locations in a diverse array of organisms. Once formed, the tissue is dynamic, responding to homeostatic and external cues and capable of a 15-fold expansion. The formation and maintenance of adipose tissue is essential to many biological processes and when perturbed leads to significant diseases. Despite this basic and clinical significance, understanding of the developmental biology of adipose tissue has languished. In this Review, we highlight recent efforts to unveil adipose developmental cues, adipose stem cell biology and the regulators of adipose tissue homeostasis and dynamism. PMID:24046315

Berry, Daniel C.; Stenesen, Drew; Zeve, Daniel; Graff, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

423

Human Sex Differentiation: From Transcription Factors to Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, knowledge of the genetic control of human sex differentiation has greately expanded our understanding of the developmental processes needed to form a male or female. The purpose of this review is to discuss how transcription factors are relevant to such processes. Additionally, an attempt is made to relate current knowledge of these factors with gender development

Claude J. Migeon; Amy B. Wisniewski

2000-01-01

424

Use of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) in studies of mammalian development: production of beta-globin locus YAC mice carrying human globin developmental mutants.  

PubMed Central

To test whether yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) can be used in the investigation of mammalian development, we analyzed the phenotypes of transgenic mice carrying two types of beta-globin locus YAC developmental mutants: (i) mice carrying a G-->A transition at position -117 of the A gamma gene, which is responsible for the Greek A gamma form of hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH), and (ii) beta-globin locus YAC transgenic lines carrying delta- and beta-globin gene deletions with 5' breakpoints similar to those of deletional HPFH and delta beta-thalassemia syndromes. The mice carrying the -117 A gamma G-->A mutation displayed a delayed gamma- to beta-globin gene switch and continued to express A gamma-globin chains in the adult stage of development as expected for carriers of Greek HPFH, indicating that the YAC/transgenic mouse system allows the analysis of the developmental role of cis-acting motifs. The analysis of mice carrying 3' deletions first provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that imported enhancers are responsible for the phenotypes of deletional HPFH and second indicated that autonomous silencing is the primary mechanism for turning off the gamma-globin genes in the adult. Collectively, our results suggest that transgenic mice carrying YAC mutations provide a useful model for the analysis of the control of gene expression during development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7539923

Peterson, K R; Li, Q L; Clegg, C H; Furukawa, T; Navas, P A; Norton, E J; Kimbrough, T G; Stamatoyannopoulos, G

1995-01-01

425

Deletion of human GP1BB and SEPT5 is associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, platelet secretion defect, polymicrogyria, and developmental delay.  

PubMed

The bleeding disorder Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BSS) is caused by mutations in the genes coding for the platelet glycoprotein GPIb/IX receptor. The septin SEPT5 is important for active membrane movement such as vesicle trafficking and exocytosis in non-dividing cells (i.e. platelets, neurons). We report on a four-year-old boy with a homozygous deletion comprising not only glycoprotein Ib? (GP1BB) but also the SEPT5 gene, located 5' to GP1BB. He presented with BSS, cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. The homozygous deletion of GP1BB and SEPT5, which had been identified by PCR analyses, was confirmed by Southern analyses and denaturing HPLC (DHPLC). The parents were heterozygous for this deletion. Absence of GPIb? and SEPT5 proteins in the patient's platelets was illustrated using transmission electron microscopy. Besides decreased GPIb/IX expression, flow cytometry analyses revealed impaired platelet granule secretion. Because the bleeding disorder was extremely severe, the boy received bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a HLA-identical unrelated donor. After successful engraftment of BMT, he had no more bleeding episodes. Interestingly, also his mental development improved strikingly after BMT. This report describes for the first time a patient with SEPT5 deficiency presenting with cortical dysplasia (polymicrogyria), developmental delay, and platelet secretion defect. PMID:21800012

Bartsch, Ingrid; Sandrock, Kirstin; Lanza, Francois; Nurden, Paquita; Hainmann, Ina; Pavlova, Anna; Greinacher, Andreas; Tacke, Uta; Barth, Michael; Busse, Anja; Oldenburg, Johannes; Bommer, Martin; Strahm, Brigitte; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Zieger, Barbara

2011-09-01

426

45 CFR 1304.20 - Child health and developmental services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child health and developmental services. 1304.20 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...

2013-10-01

427

Management of Developmentally Disabled Children with Chronic Infections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of chronic infections in developmentally disabled children is reviewed, along with appropriate management strategies for care providers and implications for other children. Discussed are herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (Author/JDD)

Andersen, Richard D.

1988-01-01

428

Developmental establishment of epigenotype: a role for dietary fatty acids?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Human epidemiologic data indicate that nutrition during prenatal and early postnatal development can affect susceptibility to various chronic diseases in adulthood (the developmental origins hypothesis). Controlled studies in animal models corroborate that nutritional exposures during critical perio...

429

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown significant correlations between conditions during development and various diseases later in life. In humans, low birth weight has been used as a surrogate for adverse developmental conditions, but the specific conditions affecting...

430

RIKEN Brain Science Institute Laboratory for Developmental Gene Regulation  

E-print Network

Intelligence Laboratory for Human Systems Neuroscience Kuroda Research Unit Laboratory for Developmental Laboratory Research Resources Center Support Unit for Animal Resources Development Support Unit for Bio Information Processing Unit Intelligent Behavior Control Unit RIKEN BSI­Takeda Collaboration Center

Fukai, Tomoki

431

Integrating Diverse Datasets Improves Developmental Enhancer Prediction  

PubMed Central

Gene-regulatory enhancers have been identified using various approaches, including evolutionary conservation, regulatory protein binding, chromatin modifications, and DNA sequence motifs. To integrate these different approaches, we developed EnhancerFinder, a two-step method for distinguishing developmental enhancers from the genomic background and then predicting their tissue specificity. EnhancerFinder uses a multiple kernel learning approach to integrate DNA sequence motifs, evolutionary patterns, and diverse functional genomics datasets from a variety of cell types. In contrast with prediction approaches that define enhancers based on histone marks or p300 sites from a single cell line, we trained EnhancerFinder on hundreds of experimentally verified human developmental enhancers from the VISTA Enhancer Browser. We comprehensively evaluated EnhancerFinder using cross validation and found that our integrative method improves the identification of enhancers over approaches that consider a single type of data, such as sequence motifs, evolutionary conservation, or the binding of enhancer-associated proteins. We find that VISTA enhancers active in embryonic heart are easier to identify than enhancers active in several other embryonic tissues, likely due to their uniquely high GC content. We applied EnhancerFinder to the entire human genome and predicted 84,301 developmental enhancers and their tissue specificity. These predictions provide specific functional annotations for large amounts of human non-coding DNA, and are significantly enriched near genes with annotated roles in their predicted tissues and lead SNPs from genome-wide association studies. We demonstrate the utility of EnhancerFinder predictions through in vivo validation of novel embryonic gene regulatory enhancers from three developmental transcription factor loci. Our genome-wide developmental enhancer predictions are freely available as a UCSC Genome Browser track, which we hope will enable researchers to further investigate questions in developmental biology. PMID:24967590

Erwin, Genevieve D.; Oksenberg, Nir; Truty, Rebecca M.; Kostka, Dennis; Murphy, Karl K.; Ahituv, Nadav; Pollard, Katherine S.; Capra, John A.

2014-01-01

432

Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

Goldberg, Robert B.

1988-01-01

433

Developmental Biology Cinema  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Developmental Biology Cinema emerged after an inspired breakfast meeting at the 13th International Congress of Developmental Biology in Snowbird, Utah (July 1997). DBC's mission is "to get video sequences of developing embryos (organisms), and experimental techniques, from the developmental biologist's lab to the eyeballs of interested individuals in a user-friendly and inexpensive form." Current features include Thom Kaufman's Fly Morph-O-Genesis, Lionel Jaffe's Calcium Tsunami, and Jeff Miller's Dynamics of Thin Filopodia. The silent movies may be viewed in QuickTime or VivoActive formats, and are accompanied by brief thumbnail images and background summaries. Note that these digital video sequences are provided by the Society for Developmental Biology for educational purposes only.

1998-01-01

434

Developmental Mathematics Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Developmental Mathematics Collection (DMC) contains resources for the community college educator who teaches basic arithmetic through intermediate algebra. Educators will find student activities, topic teaching plans, innovative curricula and course sequences, as well as research syntheses on pedagogy and learning. The site hopes to create a Knowledge Exchange Network for Developmental Mathematics by creating linkages and collaborations across colleges within California's large urban regions.

2011-02-17

435

Conceptual issues in developmental screening and assessment.  

PubMed

Effective screening requires an understanding of underlying conceptual issues and their relationship to pragmatic concerns. Pragmatic concerns include the concepts that there are many underlying reasons for an "abnormal" screening result; that sensitivity and specificity should be combined with relative risk when considering developmental outcome; and that patterns of congruence among motor, language, cognitive, and adaptive/personal social areas of development should be considered. Important conceptual issues include the following: there is continuity of underlying processes or functions in development; canalized behaviors might give the appearance of discontinuity; integrated functions are more predictive of later developmental levels than are individual functions; the "window" of assessment and the developmental emergence of a specific function will affect screening results; one must consider biologic and environmental risks and their specific effects; and different types of neural structures and their relationship to environmental input help to explain why screening results vary over time. PMID:9349978

Aylward, G P

1997-10-01

436

Non-metric variation in recent humans as a model for understanding Neanderthal-early modern human differences: just how “unique” are Neanderthal unique traits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using living humans as an extant referent, this paper examines the probability that the frequency differences in Neanderthal\\u000a “unique” non-metric traits observed between Neanderthals and Upper Paleolithic modern humans could be sampled from two major\\u000a populations of the same species. Neanderthal-like features occur in very low frequencies in living humans, if present at all.\\u000a Rather, other features distinguish major human

J. C. M. AHERN

437

Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such as eye gaze. The emergence of powerful new methods and tools, such as neuroimaging, now allows questions about mentalizing to resolved more directly than before.

Itakura, Shoji

438

Identification of a Developmental Gene Expression Signature, Including HOX Genes, for the Normal Human Colonic Crypt Stem Cell Niche: Overexpression of the Signature Parallels Stem Cell Overpopulation During Colon Tumorigenesis  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to identify a unique gene expression signature for human colonic stem cells (SCs). Accordingly, we determined the gene expression pattern for a known SC-enriched region—the crypt bottom. Colonic crypts and isolated crypt subsections (top, middle, and bottom) were purified from fresh, normal, human, surgical specimens. We then used an innovative strategy that used two-color microarrays (?18,500 genes) to compare gene expression in the crypt bottom with expression in the other crypt subsections (middle or top). Array results were validated by PCR and immunostaining. About 25% of genes analyzed were expressed in crypts: 88 preferentially in the bottom, 68 in the middle, and 131 in the top. Among genes upregulated in the bottom, ?30% were classified as growth and/or developmental genes including several in the PI3 kinase pathway, a six-transmembrane protein STAMP1, and two homeobox (HOXA4, HOXD10) genes. qPCR and immunostaining validated that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are selectively expressed in the normal crypt bottom and are overexpressed in colon carcinomas (CRCs). Immunostaining showed that HOXA4 and HOXD10 are co-expressed with the SC markers CD166 and ALDH1 in cells at the normal crypt bottom, and the number of these co-expressing cells is increased in CRCs. Thus, our findings show that these two HOX genes are selectively expressed in colonic SCs and that HOX overexpression in CRCs parallels the SC overpopulation that occurs during CRC development. Our study suggests that developmental genes play key roles in the maintenance of normal SCs and crypt renewal, and contribute to the SC overpopulation that drives colon tumorigenesis. PMID:23980595

Bhatlekar, Seema; Addya, Sankar; Salunek, Moreh; Orr, Christopher R.; Surrey, Saul; McKenzie, Steven; Fields, Jeremy Z.

2014-01-01

439

Gene expression profiles in the cerebellum and hippocampus following exposure to a neurotoxicant, Aroclor 1254: Developmental effects  

SciTech Connect

The developmental consequences of exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been widely studied, making PCBs a unique model to understand issues related to environmental mixture of persistent chemicals. PCB exposure in humans adversely affects neurocognitive development, causes psychomotor difficulties, and contributes to attention deficits in children, all of which seem to be associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. In the present study, we examined gene expression profiles in the rat nervous system following PCB developmental exposure. Pregnant rats (Long-Evans) were dosed perinatally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of Aroclor 1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Gene expression in cerebellum and hippocampus from PND7 and PND14 animals was analyzed with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Changes in gene expression ({>=} 1.5 fold) in control animals identified normal developmental changes. These basal levels of expression were compared to data from Aroclor 1254-treated animals to determine the impact of gestational PCB exposure on developmental parameters. The results indicate that the expression of a number of developmental genes related to cell cycle, synaptic function, cell maintenance, and neurogenesis is significantly altered from PND7 to PND14. Aroclor 1254 treatment appears to dampen the overall growth-related gene expression levels in both regions with the effect being more pronounced in the cerebellum. Functional analysis suggests that Aroclor 1254 delays maturation of the developing nervous system, with the consequences dependent on the ontological state of the brain area and the functional role of the individual gene. Such changes may underlie learning and memory deficits observed in PCB exposed animals and humans.

Royland, Joyce E. [Neurotoxicology Divisions, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wu, Jinfang; Zawia, Nasser H. [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmaceutical, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Divisions, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)], E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov

2008-09-01

440

Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling to Quantitatively Predict the Developmental Toxicity of Halogenated Azole compounds  

EPA Science Inventory

Developmental toxicity is a relevant endpoint for the comprehensive assessment of human health risk from chemical exposure. However, animal developmental toxicity studies remain unavailable for many environmental contaminants due to the complexity and cost of these types of analy...

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Stress physiology and developmental psychopathology: Past, present and future  

PubMed Central

In the past 25 years research on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis has emerged as a vital area within the field of developmental psychopathology. Extensive animal research has provided knowledge of the substrates and physiological mechanisms that guide development of stress reactivity and regulation using methods that are not feasible in humans. Recent advances in understanding the anatomy and physiology of the HPA axis in humans and its interactions with other stress-mediating systems, including